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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248828, 2023. tab
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339354

ABSTRACT

Abstract Serum toxic metals have been implicated in development of many diseases. This study investigated the association between blood levels of lead and cadmium with abnormal bone mineral density (BMD) and incidence of osteoporosis. Sixty Saudi male adults age matching were assigned into two groups: A healthy control group (n = 30) and osteoporosis patients diagnosed according to T-score (n = 30). Serum calcium, vitamin D, osteocalcin, lead, cadmium were measured. Osteoporotic group showed a highly significant elevation of blood lead and cadmium levels compared to the control group (p <0.001). BMD was negatively correlated with serum osteocalcin level compared with control. There was a significant negative correlation between the cadmium and lead levels (r=-0.465 and p-value = 0.01) and calcium (p < 0.004). Our findings suggested that high cadmium and lead were negative correlated to BMD and increased the risk factor for osteoporosis.


Resumo Os metais tóxicos do soro têm sido implicados no desenvolvimento de muitas doenças. Este estudo investigou a associação entre os níveis sanguíneos de chumbo e cádmio com densidade mineral óssea anormal (DMO) e incidência de osteoporose. Sessenta adultos sauditas do sexo masculino com idades iguais foram divididos em dois grupos: um grupo de controle saudável (n = 30) e pacientes com osteoporose diagnosticados de acordo com o T-score (n = 30). Cálcio sérico, vitamina D, osteocalcina, chumbo, cádmio foram medidos. O grupo osteoporótico apresentou elevação altamente significativa dos níveis de chumbo e cádmio no sangue em comparação ao grupo controle (p < 0,001). A DMO foi negativamente correlacionada com o nível de osteocalcina sérica em comparação com o controle. Houve correlação negativa significativa entre os níveis de cádmio e chumbo (r = -0,465 ep = 0,01) e cálcio (p < 0,004). Nossos achados sugeriram que cádmio e chumbo elevados foram correlacionados negativamente à DMO e aumentaram o fator de risco para osteoporose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Osteoporosis/epidemiology , Lead , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Absorptiometry, Photon , Osteocalcin , Incidence
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(3): 174-179, junio 2022. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1368143

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La exposición ambiental a plomo (Pb) aún constituye un problema de salud pública, particularmente para los niños. El estrés oxidativo podría representar un mecanismo primario asociado a su toxicidad. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar los niveles de Pb en sangre (Pb-S) en niños de 1 a 6 años de La Plata y alrededores con exposición ambiental, y su relación con biomarcadores de estrés oxidativo. Población y métodos. Estudio analítico de corte transversal. Se evaluaron niños clínicamente sanos de 1 a 6 años. Se determinaron los niveles de Pb-S, las actividades de enzimas antioxidantes y el grado de peroxidación lipídica. Se utilizó el paquete estadístico R versión 3.5.1. Resultados. Participaron 131 niños, mediana de edad 2,33 años. La media geométrica de los niveles de Pb-S fue 1,90 µg/dL; el 32 % presentó plombemias cuantificables y el 3 %, niveles ≥5 µg/dL (referencia internacional). Al comparar los biomarcadores de estrés oxidativo según los niveles de Pb-S, solo se observó diferencia significativa entre las medianas de las sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS): 12,0 versus 10,0 nmol MDA/mL plasma; p = 0,02. Asimismo, la correlación entre las plombemias y las TBARS fue positiva (r = 0,24; p = 0,012). Conclusiones. La mayoría de los niños mostraron niveles de Pb-S menores a los límites recomendados por agencias internacionales, que si bien, no producen alteraciones en la actividad de enzimas antioxidantes, sí inducen peroxidación lipídica. Estos resultados reflejan la utilidad de este biomarcador como una herramienta diagnóstica temprana para evaluar los efectos subtóxicos del Pb.


Introduction. Environmental exposure to lead is still a major public health problem, especially in children. Oxidative stress may be a primary mechanism associated with toxicity. Theobjective of this study was to measure blood lead levels (BLLs) in children aged 1 to 6 years expos to lead in La Plata and suburban areas and their relation to oxidative stress biomarkers. Population and methods. Cross-sectional,analytical study. Clinically healthy children aged1 to 6 years were analyzed. BLLs, antioxidant enzyme activity, and extent of lipid peroxidation were measured. The statistical softwarepackage R, version 3.5.1, was used. Results. A total of 131 children participated; their median age was 2.33 years. The geometric mean of BLLs was 1.90 µg/dL; 32% showed a measurable BLL and 3%, BLLs ≥ 5 µg/dL (international reference). The comparison ofoxidative stress biomarkers based on BLshowed a significant difference in median thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS):12.0 versus 10.0 nmol MDA/mL of plasma;p = 0.02. In addition, the correlation between BLLs and TBARS was positive (r = 0.24; p = 0.012 Conclusions. Most children had a BLL below the limit recommended by international agencies; although such BLLs do not affantioxidant enzyme activity, they can induce lipid peroxidation. These results demonstrate theusefulness of this biomarker as an early diagnosistool to assess subtoxic lead effects.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Lead/analysis , Lead Poisoning/diagnosis , Argentina , Biomarkers , Cross-Sectional Studies , Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances , Oxidative Stress , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Antioxidants
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e237604, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285586

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study goal to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of lead (Pb) and silver (Ag) on germination, initial growth and anatomical alterations of Lactuca sativa L. Plants use various mechanisms to reduce the impacts caused by anthropic action, such as xenobiotic elements of soils and water contaminated by heavy metals. These metals were supplied as lead nitrate and silver nitrate and the following treatments were established: control for both metals, maximum dose of heavy metals, for arable soils, allowed by the National Council of the Environment (Ag = 25 mg. Kg-1, Pb = 180 mg. Kg-1), double (Ag = 50 mg. Kg-1, Pb = 360 mg. Kg-1) and triple (Ag = 75 mg. Kg-1, Pb = 540 mg. Kg -1) of this dosage. Vigor and germination tests of the seeds and possible anatomical changes in the leaves and roots of lettuce plants were performed. The species showed a high capacity to germinate under Pb and Ag stress, and the germination was never completely inhibited; however, the germination decreased with increasing Pb concentrations, but not under Ag stress. The use of increasing doses of metals reduced seed vigor and increased chlorophyll content. An increase in biomass was also observed in plants from treatments submitted to Pb. The phytotoxic effects of metals were more pronounced at 15 days after sowing. Anatomically, L. sativa was influenced by metal concentrations, and had a reduction of up to 79.9% in root epidermis thickness at the highest Pb concentration, although some structures did not suffer significant changes. The results suggest that L. sativa presents tolerance to high concentrations of heavy metals, showing possible mechanisms to overcome the stress caused by these metals. In this research lettuce possibly used the mechanism of exclusion of metals retaining Pb and Ag in the roots preserving the photosynthetic apparatus in the aerial part of the plants. In general, the chemical element Pb was more toxic than Ag, in these experimental conditions.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de diferentes concentrações de chumbo (Pb) e prata (Ag) na germinação, crescimento inicial e alterações anatômicas de Lactuca sativa L. As plantas utilizam vários mecanismos para reduzir os impactos causados pela ação antrópica, como elementos xenobióticos de solos e água contaminada por metais pesados. Esses metais foram fornecidos como nitrato de chumbo e nitrato de prata e foram estabelecidos os seguintes tratamentos: controle para ambos os metais, dose máxima de metais pesados, para solos cultiváveis, permitida pelo Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente (Ag = 25 mg.Kg-1, Pb = 180 mg.Kg-1), dobro (Ag = 50 mg.Kg-1, Pb = 360 mg.Kg-1) e triplo (Ag = 75 mg.Kg-1, Pb = 540 mg.Kg -1) desta dosagem. Foram realizados testes de vigor e germinação das sementes e possíveis alterações anatômicas nas folhas e raízes das plantas de alface. A espécie apresentou alta capacidade de germinar sob estresse de Ag e Pb, e a germinação nunca foi completamente inibida; entretanto, a germinação diminuiu com o aumento das concentrações de Pb, mas não sob estresse de Ag. O uso de doses crescentes dos metais, reduziu o vigor das sementes e aumentou o teor de clorofila. Também foi observado aumento da biomassa nas plantas a partir dos tratamentos submetidos ao Pb. Os efeitos fitotóxicos dos metais foram mais acentuados aos 15 dias após a semeadura. Anatomicamente, L. sativa foi influenciada pelas concentrações de metais, e teve uma redução de até 79,9% na espessura da epiderme radicular na maior concentração de Pb, embora algumas estruturas não tenham sofrido alterações significativas. Os resultados sugerem que L. sativa apresenta tolerância a altas concentrações de metais pesados, mostrando possíveis mecanismos para superar o estresse causado por esses metais. Nesta pesquisa a alface possivelmente utilizou o mecanismo de exclusão de metais retendo Pb e Ag nas raízes preservando o aparato fotossintético na parte aérea das plantas. De forma geral o elemento químico Pb se mostrou mais tóxico que Ag, nestas condições experimentais.


Subject(s)
Soil Pollutants/toxicity , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Metals, Heavy/toxicity , Silver Nitrate , Soil , Lettuce , Lead/toxicity , Nitrates/toxicity
4.
São Paulo; s.n; 2022. 99 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1371392

ABSTRACT

Introdução. O material particulado (MP) emitido pela queima de combustíveis fósseis de origem veicular é a principal fonte de exposição ambiental à elementos potencialmente tóxicos (EPTs) presentes no ar atmosférico dos centros urbanos, entre eles arsênio, níquel e chumbo. Objetivos. Este estudo avaliou os riscos à saúde humana de efeitos não carcinogênicos e efeitos carcinogênicos associados a exposição inalatória de arsênio, níquel e chumbo no MP10 de origem veicular, coletado em uma das estações de monitoramento da qualidade do ar, na cidade de São Paulo, ao longo dos anos 2002, 2006, 2009 e 2012. Métodos. Os dados de concentração dos EPTs foram obtidos pela Companhia Ambiental do Estado de São Paulo (CETESB) e estão disponíveis no website da agência. As amostras semanais foram coletadas em todas as estações do ano, durante 2002, 2006, 2009 e 2012 na estação de monitoramento Cerqueira César, localizada próximo a uma via de intenso tráfego veicular. A análise estatística foi realizada utilizando o Software R (versão 4.0.5) e RStudio (versão 1.2). O software ProUCL foi usado para estimar os valores UCL95%. A avaliação de risco à saúde humana foi realizada de acordo com os métodos da United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Resultados. As concentrações de arsênio e chumbo no ar apresentaram médias mais elevadas durante o inverno do que nas outras estações (p <0,05). O chumbo apresentou o maior risco de efeitos não carcinogênicos (HQ> 1,0). Arsênio e níquel apresentaram o maior risco de efeitos carcinogênicos, inclusive acima de 1E-06. O risco para ambos os efeitos foi maior no inverno. Conclusão. Esses achados destacam a importância da poluição do ar como fator de risco para a saúde da população, principalmente em centros urbanos com intenso tráfego veicular. Ações para reduzir a exposição à poluição do ar ambiente devem ser priorizadas nas agendas de políticas ambientais e de saúde.


Background. Particulate matter (PM) emitted from the burning of fuels by vehicles is the main source of environmental exposure to potentially toxic elements (PTEs) present in atmospheric air in urban centers, between them arsenic, nickel and lead. Objective. This study evaluated the risk to human health from non-carcinogenic effects and carcinogenic effects associated with airborne arsenic, nickel and lead in PM10 exposure of the vehicular source collected at one of the air quality monitoring stations in the city of Sao Paulo over the years 2002, 2006, 2009 and 2012. Methods. The concentration data of the PTEs were obtained by the Sao Paulo State Environmental Protection Agency (CETESB) and are available on the agency's website. The statistical analysis was performed using the Software R (version 4.0.5) and RStudio (version 1.2). ProUCL software was used to estimate UCL95% values. The risk assessment for human health was carried out according to the methods of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Results. Airborne arsenic and lead concentrations showed higher means during the winter than in other seasons (p<0.05). Lead had the greatest risk of non-carcinogenic effects (HQ>1.0). Arsenic and nickel had the highest risk of carcinogenic effects, including above 1E-06. The risk for both effects was greatest in winter. Conclusion. These findings highlight the importance of air pollution as a risk factor for population health, especially in urban centers with high vehicular traffic. Actions to reduce air pollution exposure should be prioritized in environmental and health policies agendas.


Subject(s)
Vehicle Emissions , Toxic Substances , Inhalation Exposure , Health Risk , Air Pollution , Particulate Matter , Arsenic , Lead , Nickel
5.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(3): 329-336, July-Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345281

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: There is limited research examining reasons causing refractory chronic constipation (RCC) in children. The effects of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) exposures on this condition have been even less clear. However, some related factors may contribute to evaluation of blood lead levels (BLLs) and blood cadmium levels (BCLs). OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to examine the relationship between Pb and Cd exposures and RCC in children living in the city of Ahvaz, Khuzestan Province, in Southwestern Iran. METHODS: This study was performed on a total number of 48 children aged 2-13 years, including 36 medically-diagnosed RCC cases and 12 controls referring to a pediatric clinic in the city of Ahvaz. Their BLLs and BCLs were then determined using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The data from the researcher-designed questionnaire were also recoded and the related risk factors were analyzed through Spearman's correlation and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The findings revealed that the geometric means of Pb and Cd in blood samples in the control group were 58.95 µg/dL and 0.45 µg/dL; respectively. These values in the case group were equally 45.26 µg/dL and 0.26 µg/dL; respectively. A significant difference was additionally observed between BCLs in the case and control groups (P<0.01). All children in both groups also had BLLs greater than the permissible limit endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO) (≤10 µg/dL). On the other hand, 8.3% of the individuals in the case group and 33.3% of those in the control group had BCLs higher than the acceptable range mentioned by WHO (≤0.5 µg/dL). CONCLUSION: Pb and Cd exposures due to environmental pollution and susceptibility to heavy metals may not be associated with RCC in children living in the city of Ahvaz. Although this research was the first one providing data on BLLs and BCLs in children with RCC, the findings could be useful for designing future epidemiologic studies.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Há limitadas pesquisas que procuram razões que causem constipação crônica refratária (CCR) em crianças. Os efeitos das exposições de chumbo (Pb) e cádmio (Cd) nesta condição têm sido ainda menos claros. No entanto, alguns fatores relacionados podem contribuir para a avaliação dos níveis de Pb no sangue (NPbSs) e dos níveis de Cd no sangue (NCdSs). OBJETIVO: O presente estudo teve como objetivo examinar a relação entre as exposições de Pb e Cd e a CCR em crianças residentes na cidade de Ahvaz, província de Khuzestan, no Sudoeste do Irã. MÉTODOS: Este estudo foi realizado em um número total de 48 crianças de 2 a 13 anos, incluindo 36 casos de CCR diagnosticados clinicamente, e 12 controles encaminhados a uma clínica pediátrica na cidade de Ahvaz. Seus NPbSs e NCdSs foram então determinados usando um espectrógrafo de absorção atômica do forno de grafite. Os dados do questionário projetado pelo pesquisador também foram recodificados, e os fatores de risco relacionados foram analisados por meio da análise de correlação e regressão logística de Spearman. RESULTADOS: Os achados revelaram que as médias geométricas de Pb e Cd em amostras de sangue no grupo controle foram de 58,95 μg/dL e 0,45 μg/dL; respectivamente. Esses valores no grupo constipação foram igualmente 45,26 μg/dL e 0,26 μg/dL; respectivamente. Observou-se diferença significativa entre os NCdSs nos grupos de caso e controle (P<0,01). Todas as crianças de ambos os grupos também apresentaram NPbSs maiores do que o limite permitido endossado pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) (≤10 μg/dL). Por outro lado, 8,3% dos indivíduos no grupo de casos e 33,3% dos do grupo controle apresentaram NCdSs superiores à faixa aceitável mencionada pela OMS (≤0,5 μg/dL). CONCLUSÃO: As exposições de Pb e Cd por poluição ambiental e suscetibilidade a metais pesados podem não estar associadas à CCR em crianças residentes na cidade de Ahvaz. Embora esta pesquisa tenha sido a primeira a fornecer dados sobre NPbSs e NCdSs em crianças com CCR, os achados poderiam ser úteis para a concepção de futuros estudos epidemiológicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Cadmium/analysis , Lead/analysis , Risk Factors , Constipation/chemically induced , Iran/epidemiology
6.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(6): 2253-2270, jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278691

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo objetivou revisar os estudos de biomonitoramento humano (BMH) que avaliaram a exposição a chumbo (Pb), cádmio (Cd), mercúrio (Hg), níquel (Ni), arsênio (As) e manganês (Mn) em adultos residentes próximo a áreas industriais. Realizou-se uma revisão sistemática, sem limite de data inicial até dezembro de 2017, utilizando a base de dados da MEDLINE e a BVS. Foram incluídos estudos originais em inglês, português ou espanhol, com uso de sangue e/ou urina como biomarcador. Os artigos foram avaliados pelos critérios metodológicos, incluindo-se estudos com grupo de comparação e/ou amostragem probabilística. Dos 28 estudos incluídos, 54% foram realizados na Europa, 36% na Ásia, 7% na América do Norte e 4% na África. Fundições, metalúrgicas e siderúrgicas foram as indústrias mais estudadas. Urina e sangue foram usados em 82% e 50% dos estudos, respectivamente. Os elementos mais investigados foram Cd, Pb e As. Embora com metodologias heterogêneas, em geral, os estudos observaram maiores concentrações de metais em expostos, especialmente As e Hg, do que nos grupos de comparação. Esta revisão evidencia a necessidade de estudos de BMH com maior rigor metodológico, reforçando a importância da vigilância em saúde de populações expostas a metais tóxicos, sobretudo nos países em desenvolvimento.


Abstract This study aimed to review studies of human biomonitoring (HBM) that evaluated exposure to lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), arsenic (As) and manganese (Mn) in adults living close to industrial areas. A systematic review of studies was selected, without initial date limit through to December 2017, from the MEDLINE and BVS databases. Original studies in English, Portuguese or Spanish conducted among the adult population using blood and/or urine as biomarkers were included. The articles were evaluated according to methodological criteria, including studies with comparison groups and/or probabilistic sampling. Of the 28 studies selected, 54% were conducted in Europe, 36% in Asia, 7% in North America and 4% in Africa. Foundries, metal works and steel mills were the most frequently studied. Urine and blood were used in 82% and 50% of studies, respectively. The elements most investigated were Cd, Pb and As. Despite using heterogeneous methodologies, the results revealed higher metal concentrations, especially from As and Hg in general, than in the comparison group. This review highlights the need for more rigorous methodological studies of HBM, stressing the importance of public health vigilance among populations exposed to toxic metals, especially in developing countries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Arsenic/analysis , Mercury/analysis , Cadmium/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Europe , Lead/analysis
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922202

ABSTRACT

The USA has a high burden of childhood asthma. Previous studies have observed associations between higher blood lead levels and greater hypersensitivity in children. The objective of the present study was to estimate the association between blood lead concentrations during early childhood and an asthma diagnosis between 48 and 72 months of age amongst a cohort with well-characterized blood lead concentrations. Blood lead concentrations were measured at 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48 months of age in 222 children. The presence of an asthma diagnosis between 48 and 72 months was assessed using a questionnaire which asked parents or guardians whether they had been told by a physician, in the past 12 months, that their child had asthma. Crude and adjusted risk ratios (RR) of an asthma diagnosis were estimated for several parameterizations of blood lead exposure including lifetime average (6 to 48 months) and infancy average (6 to 24 months) concentrations. After adjustment for child sex, birthweight, daycare attendance, maternal race, education, parity, breastfeeding, income, and household smoking, age-specific or composite measures of blood lead were not associated with asthma diagnosis by 72 months of age in this cohort.


Subject(s)
Asthma/etiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Environmental Pollutants/blood , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Lead/blood , Male , New York/epidemiology
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Previous studies have suggested that exposures to heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and selenium) may be associated with differences in blood pressure. However, the findings of these studies have been inconsistent. This study was performed to examine the associations between urinary heavy metal concentrations and blood pressure among residents of four Asian countries (Bangladesh, Indonesia, Nepal, and Vietnam).@*METHODS@#This cross-sectional study examined 1899 adults in four Asian countries. Urinary concentrations of heavy metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A questionnaire survey was administered regarding individual characteristics. Anthropometric measurements (height and weight) were performed. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured after a short rest. Multiple linear regression models were applied to investigate associations between urinary heavy metal concentrations and blood pressure after adjustments for age, sex, and body mass index.@*RESULTS@#The geometric means of the urinary concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and selenium were 84.6, 0.885, 2.09, and 16.5 μg/g creatinine, respectively. The urinary arsenic concentrations were slightly higher than those typically reported in non-polluted populations, while urinary cadmium, lead, and selenium concentrations were equivalent or slightly lower. The urinary lead concentrations were positively associated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, but urinary selenium concentrations were negatively associated with them.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Variations in the urinary concentrations of lead and selenium were associated with blood pressure at low levels of exposure/intake.


Subject(s)
Adult , Arsenic/urine , Bangladesh , Blood Pressure , Cadmium/urine , Cross-Sectional Studies , Environmental Exposure , Female , Humans , Indonesia , Lead/urine , Linear Models , Male , Metals, Heavy/urine , Middle Aged , Nepal , Selenium/urine , Vietnam
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888063

ABSTRACT

Reverse prediction and molecular docking techniques were employed to evaluate the feasibility of reniformin A(RA) as an anti-tumor leading compound. Based on the reverse prediction, network pharmacology was used to construct a "disease-compound-target-pathway" network. Thirty-nine tumor-related targets of RA were predicted, which participated in the regulation of multiple cellular activities such as apoptosis, cell cycle, and tumor metastasis, and regulated estrogen signal transduction and inflammatory response. Discovery Studio 2020 was adopted for molecular docking and toxicity prediction(TOPKAT). As revealed by the results, the binding affinity of RA with the tumor-related targets ABL1, ESR1, SRC and BCL-XL was stronger than that of oridonin(OD), while its mutagenicity, rodent carcinogenesis, and oral LD_(50) in rats were all inferior to that of OD. Furthermore, in vitro experiments were performed to confirm the anti-tumor activity of RA, and the mechanism was preliminarily discussed. The results demonstrated that RA was superior to OD in cytotoxicity, inhibition of cell colony formation, and induction of apoptosis. RA, possessing potent anti-tumor activity, is expected to be a new anti-tumor leading compound.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Lead , Molecular Docking Simulation , Neoplasms/genetics , Rats , Signal Transduction
10.
São Paulo; s.n; 2021. 124 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291350

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Arroz pode ser a principal fonte de exposição a arsênio inorgânico (iAs), que é carcinogênico e está associado a diversos efeitos não-carcinogênicos. Produtos feitos de arroz, como cereais infantis, e água para consumo podem ser importantes fontes de exposição a iAs. Embora o arroz seja um componente básico da dieta da população brasileira, há poucos estudos avaliando os riscos à saúde decorrentes da exposição ao iAs. Objetivo: Avaliar o risco da exposição a iAs e/ou outros elementos tóxicos e essenciais em arroz integral, arroz branco, cereais infantis, e água potável no Brasil, e identificar possíveis medidas para mitigar o risco. Método: O incremento de risco de câncer no tempo de vida (ILCR), o risco não-carcinogênico (HQ) e o hazard Index (HI) foram estimados através de análise probabilística com simulações de Monte Carlo. A concentração de elementos em arroz e cereais infantis foi obtida de pesquisas realizadas no Brasil, e a concentração de arsênio em água provém do monitoramento nacional de vigilância da qualidade da água. Resultados e discussão: O ILCR médio para exposição a iAs em arroz branco foi 1.3 × 10-04, arroz integral 5.4 × 10-06, e para exposição a chumbo (Pb) em arroz integral foi 2.5 x 10-8. O HQ para arroz foi estimado abaixo de 1 para todos os elementos, assim como o HI, sugerindo que efeitos não carcinogênicos não são esperados. O ILCR médio decorrente da exposição a iAs em água foi 6.5 × 10-05, acima do limite de 1 × 10-5, e o HQ foi inferior a 1. Cereais infantis feitos de arroz foram o tipo de cereal com maior ILCR (4.0 x 10-5) e com mais elementos com HQ acima de 1. Todos os cereais infantis apresentaram HQ acima de 1 para ao menos um elemento. Cadmio foi o elemento tóxico mais significativo, e zinco o elemento essencial mais relevante. Estimou-se que através de ações de mitigação o risco carcinogênico devido ao consumo de arroz poderia ser reduzido em até 68%, e para cereais infantis em 24%. O ILCR para arroz foi considerado elevado, ainda que as concentrações de iAs estejam dentro dos limites permitidos. O risco para arroz integral foi menor que para arroz branco, devido à baixa concentração de iAs nas amostras avaliadas, e as possíveis razões para isto foram exploradas, como o local do cultivo, práticas agrícolas e o tipo de cultivar de arroz. O risco carcinogênico e não-carcinogênico referente a exposição a Pb foi considerado baixo, entretanto nenhum nível de exposição a este elemento é considerado seguro. Conclusões: O ILCR para consumo de arroz, cereal infantil e água foi considerado elevado. O risco não-carcinogênico foi considerado elevado apenas para cereais infantis, incluindo elementos tóxicos e essenciais, e cereais infantis feitos de arroz apresentaram risco mais significativo. O consumo de água representou um menor risco carcinogênico, entretanto considerado não tolerável. Com o suporte de políticas públicas, medidas para reduzir os riscos relativos ao consumo de arroz e cereais infantis poderiam ter um impacto positivo para a saúde pública no Brasil.


Introduction: Rice can be the main source of exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs), which is classified as carcinogenic and is also associated with non-cancer effects. Rice products, such as infant cereals, and drinking water are also important sources of exposure to iAs. Although rice is a staple food in Brazil, there have been few studies about the health risks for the Brazilian population. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the risks of exposure to iAs and other toxic and essential elements from brown rice, white rice (only iAs), infant cereal (made of rice and different raw materials), and drinking water (only iAs) in Brazil, and to identify possible measures to mitigate those risks. Method: The incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) and the non-cancer risk, or hazard quotient (HQ), and hazard index (HI) were calculated. A probabilistic analysis was performed with Monte Carlo simulation. Results and discussion: The mean ILCR was 1.3 × 10-04 for exposure to iAs in white rice and 5.4 × 10-06 for brown rice, and for exposure to Pb it was 2.5 x 10-8 for brown rice. The HQ was under 1 for all elements in brown rice, as the HI, suggesting that health effects are unlikely. The mean ILCR for exposure to iAs from drinking water was 6.5 × 10-05, above the tolerable value of 1 × 10-5 recommended by the World Health Organization, and the HQ was below 1. Rice cereal was the kind of infant cereal with highest ILCR (4.0 x 10-5) and with more elements with HQ above 1. All the infant cereals had an HQ above 1 for at least one element. Cd was the non-essential element more significative in this scenario, and Zn was the essential element more relevant. Various mitigation measures discussed in this dissertation are estimated to reduce the risk from rice consumption by 68%, and from infant cereal by 24%. The ILCR for white and brown rice was high, even though the iAs concentration in rice is below the maximum contaminant level. The risk for brown rice consumption was lower because the iAs concentrations were low in the brown rice samples evaluated, which possible reasons were explored, such as the location of cultivation, agricultural practices and the kind of rice cultivar. The estimated cancer and non-cancer risk from exposure to Pb is low, however no exposure to this element from diet is considered safe. Conclusions: The ILCR for rice, infant cereal and water consumption was considered high. The non-cancer risk was not tolerable only for infant cereal, including essential and non-essential elements, and rice cereal showed to be more concerning. Water consumption represents a small part of the risk for adults, although it was estimated to be not tolerable. With the support of public policies, measures to reduce these risks from rice and infant cereal would have a positive impact on public health in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Drinking Water , Monte Carlo Method , Staple Food , Risk Evaluation and Mitigation , Infant Food , Lead , Arsenic , Public Policy , Oryza
11.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 26(2): 166-171, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1150026

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Sodium fluoroacetate, known as compound 1080, was discovered in Germany during the Second World War. It is usually used as a rodenticide, it is an odorless and tasteless substance, with a lethal dose in humans of 2 mg / kg that is why it was withdrawn from the market in some countries, including Colombia; however, it is obtained illegally. This substance has biochemical and physiological effects at the cellular level that alter the transport of citrate at the mitochondrial level, generating accumulation of lactic acid and alteration of the glucose use. The clinical manifestations are nonspecific since there is no any cardinal symptom. Therefore, its diagnosis is made due to high clinical suspicion associated with establishment of exposure to the compound in view of the difficulty to obtain paraclinical confirmation in a timely manner. Methods: We present a case report of intentional ingestion of sodium fluoroacetate in an adolescent that is associated with an infection added to the bloodstream by methicillin- sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). The patient developed multiple complications that lead to support in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with a satisfactory outcome. In view of the lack of a specific antidote, she was treated with ethanol in order to increase the level of acetate; thus, offering an alternative substrate to the Krebs cycle. It is suggested that the ethanol offers benefits in the acute treatment of these patients. Results: The patient with sodium fluoroacetate poisoning and kidney failure received renal replacement therapy with a favorable evolution and survival at discharge from the intensive care unit of a third-level hospital in the city of Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia. Conclusions: Sodium fluoroacetate poisoning is relatively rare and can cause acute kidney injury and multi-organ failure with a high rate of complications and death. A case of self-inflicted poisoning that received a timely manner continuous renal replacement therapy with a favorable outcome in terms of ICU survival was presented.


Resumen Introducción: El fluoroacetato de sodio ⎯conocido como compuesto 1080⎯, fue descubierto en Alemania durante la segunda guerra mundial, suele ser utilizado como raticida y se caracteriza por ser una sustancia inodora e insabora. En humanos, una dosis de 2 a mg/kg es letal; debido a su toxicidad fue retirado del mercado en algunos países, incluyendo Colombia, no obstante, se consigue de forma ilegal. Esta sustancia tiene efectos bioquímicos y fisiológicos a nivel celular que altera el transporte del citrato a nivel mitocondrial, generando acumulación de ácido láctico y alteración en la utilización de la glucosa. Las manifestaciones clínicas son inespecíficas y no existe un síntoma cardinal. Por ende, su diagnóstico se realiza por alta sospecha clínica, asociado al establecimiento de la exposición al compuesto, ya que la confirmación paraclínica es difícil de realizar oportunamente. Métodos: Se presenta un reporte de caso de ingestión intencional en un adolescente, asociado con infección agregada al torrente sanguíneo por Estafilococos Aureos Meticilino Sensible (EAMS). El paciente desarrolló múltiples complicaciones y requirió asistencia en Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) con desenlace satisfactorio. Ya que no se cuenta con antídoto específico , se le dio tratamiento con etanol para aumentar el nivel de acetato, ofreciendo así un sustrato alterno al ciclo de Krebm. Se estima que el etanol puede ofrecer beneficios en el tratamiento agudo de estos pacientes. Resultados: Paciente con intoxicación por fluoroacetato de sodio e insuficiencia renal, recibe terapia de reemplazo renal con un evolución favorable y supervivencia al alta de la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos de un hospital de tercer nivel en la ciudad de Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia. Conclusiones: La intoxicación por fluoroacetato de sodio es relativamente poco frecuente y puede causar injuria renal aguda y falla multiorgánica con alta tasa de complicaciones y muerte. Se presentó un caso de intoxicación autoinfligida que recibió terapia de reemplazo renal continua temprana con un desenlace favorable en términos de supervivencia en la UCI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Staphylococcus aureus , Toxicity , Fluoroacetates , Methicillin , Acetates , Rodenticides , Citric Acid Cycle , Citric Acid , Lactic Acid , Diagnosis , Ethanol , Eating , Acute Kidney Injury , Hoarding , Survivorship , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy , Glucose , Hospitals , Intensive Care Units , Lead
12.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(6): 746-754, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139367

ABSTRACT

Background: The presence of toxic metals in human populations is strongly associated with chronic diseases. Aim: To determine levels of lead, chromium, cadmium, mercury and inorganic arsenic (AsIn) in the general population aged over 5 years in Antofagasta, Chile. Material and Methods: People living in Urban Antofagasta for at least five years were considered eligible. Biological samples were obtained to measure heavy metals. Results: One thousand two hundred three participants with a median age of 43 years (656 women) were studied. Their mean time of residence in the city was 30 years, and 52% smoked. Eight percent of the adult population and 12% of children had AsIn values above 35 µg/L, while 75% of the population had levels below 21.9 µg/L. The other metals were below the risk levels defined by the health authority (10 µg/L for chromium, 10 µg/L for mercury, 2 µg/L for cadmium, 5 and 10 μg/dL for blood lead for children and adults, respectively). The factors associated with high levels of AsIn in adults were male sex, living more than 200 meters from monitoring points, and low schooling. In children, the associated variables were high intake of seafood products and having a caregiver with less than 8 years of schooling. Contrary to expectations, the greatest risk of presenting altered levels of the metals occurred in the population living more than 500 meters from the identified risk sources (90% of the population). Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that all potential sources of exposure to AsIn should be evaluated, and surveillance actions should be established to reduce involuntary exposure to this metalloid.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Metals, Heavy/urine , Lead/blood , Chile/epidemiology , Environmental Monitoring
13.
Ciênc. cuid. saúde ; 19: e46780, 20200000.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1118766

ABSTRACT

Introdução: ouso da radiação ionizante na prática médica pode ocasionar eventos nocivos à saúde do indivíduo exposto. Diante disso, o emprego ético da radiação ionizante deve contemplar o que preconiza a legislação nacional e internacional, assim como os princípios de proteção radiológica e da bioética. O sofrimento moral relaciona-se à dimensão ética na prática da saúde,podendo afetar os profissionais das técnicas radiológicas. Objetivo: identificar as situações desencadeadoras de sofrimento moral nos profissionais das técnicas radiológicas em um serviço de radiologia convencional. Metodologia: trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa, descritiva e exploratória. Usou-se como técnicas de coleta de dados a observação participante, a entrevista semiestruturada e a validação consensual. Os dados foram analisados por meio da análise temática. Resultados e discussão: observou-se situações de sofrimento moral quando o profissional da técnica radiológica se deparava com pacientes em condições clínicas de se dirigir a unidade de diagnóstico e imagem, diante da não indicação clínica do exame radiológico, ante ao desrespeito dos princípios de proteção radiológica e perante a falta de autonomia para fazer cumprir os preceitos éticos do emprego da radiação ionizante. Conclusão: o desrespeito dos princípios legais, assim como dos princípios de proteção radiológica e bioéticos levamo profissional das técnicas radiológicas ao sofrimento moral.


Introduction: The use of ionizing radiation in medical practice may cause harm to the health of the exposed individual. Thus, the ethical use of ionizing radiation must contemplate what is required by national and international legislation, as well as the principles of radiological protection and bioethics. Moral distress is related to the ethical dimension in healthpractice, and may affect radiological technologists. Objective:To identify the situations that trigger moral distress among radiological technologistsin a conventional radiology service.Methodology:This is a qualitative, descriptive and exploratory research. Data collection techniques were participant observation, semi-structured interview and consensus validation. Data were analyzed through thematic analysis. Results and discussion:Situations of moral distress were observed when the radiological technologist was faced with patients in clinical conditions to go to the diagnostic and imaging unit, due to the non-clinical indication of the radiological exam, due to the disrespect of the protection principles and lack of autonomy to enforce the ethical precepts of the use of ionizing radiation. Conclusion:Failure to respect the legal principles as well as the principles of radiological and bioethical protection lead the professional of radiological techniques to moral distress.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Radiation , Radiation Protection , Radiology , Health Personnel , Morale , Patients , Radiation, Ionizing , Radiology Department, Hospital , X-Rays , Bioethics , Health , Occupational Health , Personal Autonomy , Education, Continuing , Ethics , Respect , Intensive Care Units , Lead
14.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 37: 56-60, Jan. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1051261

ABSTRACT

Heavy metals are natural elements in the Earth's crust that can enter human food through industrial or agricultural processing, in the form of fertilizers and pesticides. These elements are not biodegradable. Some heavy metals are known as pollutants and are toxic, and their bioaccumulation in plant and animal tissues can cause undesirable effects for humans; therefore, their amount in water and food should always be under control. The aim of this study is to investigate the conditions for the bioremediation of heavy metals in foods. Various physical, chemical, and biological methods have been used to reduce the heavy metal content in the environment. During the last decades, bioremediation methods using plants and microorganisms have created interest to researchers for their advantages such as being more specific and environmentally friendly. The main pollutant elements in foods and beverages are lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury, which have their own permissible limits. Among the microorganisms that are capable of bioremediation of heavy metals, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an interesting choice for its special characteristics and being safe for humans, which make it quite common and useful in the food industry. Its mass production as the byproduct of the fermentation industry and the low cost of culture media are the other advantages. The ability of this yeast to remove an individual separated element has also been widely investigated. In countries with high heavy metal pollution in wheat, the use of S. cerevisiae is a native solution for overcoming the problem of solution. This article summarizes the main conditions for heavy metal absorption by S. cerevisiae.


Subject(s)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental , Food Industry , Metals, Heavy/metabolism , Arsenic , Yeasts , Cadmium , Contaminant Removal , Absorption , Bioaccumulation , Lead , Mercury
15.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(6): 787-797, nov.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252167

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Estimar la prevalencia de niveles elevados (≥5.0μg/dL) de plomo en sangre (PbS) y su asociación con el uso de loza de barro vidriado con plomo (LBVPb). Material y métodos: En 2018 se midió PbS capilar en una muestra representativa de niños de 1 a 4 años de edad residentes en localidades de México menores de 100 000 habitantes (Ensanut 100k). Se indagó sobre uso de LBVPb para consumo de alimentos. Para estimar su asociación con PbS, se generaron modelos logit multinomial estratificados por región. Resultados: La prevalencia de niveles elevados de PbS fue de 21.8%. En las regiones Norte, Centro y Sur las prevalencias fueron 9.8, 20.7 y 25.8%, respectivamente. La asociación con uso y frecuencia de LBVPb fue altamente significativa y diferencial por región. Conclusiones: La exposición a plomo permanece como un problema de salud pública en México, particularmente en el Centro y Sur, y está fuertemente asociada con el uso de LBVPb.


Abstract: Objective: To estimate the prevalence of elevated (≥5.0μg / dL) blood lead levels (BLL) and its association with the use of lead glazed ceramics (LGC). Materials and methods: In 2018, we measured capillary BLL in a representative sample of children 1 to 4 years old residing in Mexican localities under 100 000 inhabitants (Ensanut 100k). We inquired about use of LGC for food preparation and consumption. To estimate its association with BLL, multinomial logit models stratified by region were generated. Results: The prevalence of elevated BLL levels was 21.8%. For the North, Central and South regions, the prevalence were 9.8, 20.7 and 25.8%, respectively. The association with use and frequency of LGC was highly significant and differential by region. Conclusions: Lead exposure remains a public health problem in Mexico, particularly in the Central and South regions, and is strongly associated with the use of LGC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Ceramics/chemistry , Cooking and Eating Utensils/statistics & numerical data , Lead/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Vulnerable Populations , Lead/analysis , Mexico
17.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 23(2): 107-112, maio-ago. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-996708

ABSTRACT

Este trabalho teve como objetivo quantificar os metais Cobre e Chumbo presentes na água e no sedimento do lago Aratimbó, localizado na cidade de Umuarama-PR e analisar os indicadores abióticos de temperatura e pH da água. As coletas foram feitas em triplicatas, em três pontos distintos, em dois diferentes dias, sendo o primeiro em tempo seco, anterior a chuva e outro logo após a primeira chuva. As amostras tiveram sua temperatura e pH verificado in loco e a determinação dos metais ocorreu por meio de Espectrofotometria de Absorção Atômica por chama. Os resultados de pH obtiveram valores satisfatórios em todos os pontos. Em relação à concentração de metais, na água, houve maior concentração de chumbo antes da chuva e uma concentração abaixo do limite apenas para o cobre no ponto 1. No sedimento, a concentração de ambos metais foi maior antes da chuva, exceto no ponto três, onde a concentração foi maior após a chuva. É possível que os maiores valores de concentração para os metais tenham sido superiores no período de seca em virtude do volume aumentado de água após a chuva, com maior diluição. Assim, podendo atribuir a contaminação às atividades antropogênicas, uma vez que o lago se localiza em região urbana central.


The purpose of this paper was to quantify the copper and lead present in the water and sediments of the Aratimbó lake, located in the city of Umuarama, in the state of Paraná, and to analyze the abiotic indicators of temperature and pH of the water. The samples were taken in triplicate at three different points, on two different days - the first during dry weather, before the rain, and the other after the first rain. The temperature and pH of the samples were verified in locu and the metals were determined through Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry by flame. The pH results obtained satisfactory values ​​at all points. Regarding the concentration of metals in the water, a higher concentration of lead was observed before the rain and a concentration below the limit was observed only for copper in point 1. In the sediment, the concentration of both metals was higher before the rain, except in point three, where the concentration was also higher after the rain. It is possible that the highest concentration values ​​for the metals were higher in the dry period due to the increased volume of water after rainfall, with higher dilution of the metals, as well as the attribution of contamination to the anthropogenic activities, since the lake is located in a central urban region.


Subject(s)
Water Pollution/analysis , Copper/toxicity , Lead/toxicity , Rain , Temperature , Sediments/analysis , Rivers , Metals/toxicity
18.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4266, 01 Fevereiro 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-998047

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify the exposure of lead through saliva and the presence of gingival pigmentation in the risk group. Material and Methods: The type of this research is analytic observational with cross-sectional study design. The sample consisted of 40 subjects, who were divided into two groups of 20 each: G1: Gasoline Fuel Station and G2: Officer in Dental Hospital. To determine the level of leads in saliva is measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and assessment of the severity of lead-gingival lead line in this study based on the area of the gingival surface based on the number of dental areas. The data were analyzed with the t-test and Chi-square test. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: The average lead content in saliva group exposed was 6.66 µg / ml and control group 4.72 µg / ml (p≤0.05). There is a correlation between gingival lead line incidence with exposure to lead (OR = 3.33; p = 0.001). Conclusion: The identification of exposure to lead poisoning can be determined by examination in saliva and ginggiva state, it is proven that the risk of gingival lead (Ginggival Lead Line) in the worker group at the gas station station is 3.3 times more risk than the control group. Occupational safety factors are important for workers at high risk of exposure to the element of lead for additional education on the importance of using masks to prevent the severity of the occurrence of lead effects on overall health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Saliva , Pigmentation , Diagnosis, Oral/methods , Filling Station/analysis , Indonesia , Lead/analysis , Spectrophotometry, Atomic/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Risk Factors
19.
Rev. salud pública ; 21(1): 1-8, ene.-feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058858

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivos Este estudio buscó comprender la problemática sanitaria asociada con la presencia de plomo y mercurio en el agua del río Bogotá. Materiales y Métodos Se realizó un estudio mixto con entrevistas, encuesta y mediciones de zinc protoporfirina (ZPP) y mercurio en sangre a 172 individuos. Se identificaron variables asociadas con las mayores concentraciones, y mediante análisis comparativo cualitativo los atributos de los casos con mayor exposición. Resultados Las entrevistas reportaron que la contaminación del río se asocia con enfermedades, pese a que la exposición directa al agua no es frecuente. El agua del río es usada ampliamente para riego de cultivos que se venden en otros municipios. Las comunidades con mayor exposición al agua del río son de Tocaima y Girardot. Los mayores niveles de ZPP se observaron entre quienes vivían en estos municipios, con ocupación hogar y que realizaban actividades extralaborales con metales. Los niveles elevados de ZPP se asociaron con depresión, sangrado nasal y pérdida del apetito. Las mayores concentraciones de mercurio se presentaron entre habitantes de Girardot. Estas se asociaron con sudoración, desorientación, náuseas y diarrea. Conclusión Se presentaron bajos niveles de plomo y mercurio en la población estudiada, aunque hay casos específicos con alta vulnerabilidad social que requieren atención especial.(AU)


ABSTRACT Objectives This study sought to understand the health problems associated with the presence of lead and mercury in the water of the Bogotá River. Materials and Methods A mixed methods study was conducted using interviews, surveys and measurements of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) and mercury in blood from 172 individuals. Variables associated with the highest concentrations were identified, as well as the attributes of the cases with increased exposure by means of a qualitative comparative analysis. Results Interviews reported that river pollution is associated with diseases, although direct exposure to water is rare. River water is widely used for irrigation of crops that are sold in other municipalities. Communities with greater exposure to river water are Tocaima and Girardot. The highest levels of ZPP were observed among those living in these municipalities, did activities at home and performed non-work activities using metals. Increased ZPP levels were associated with depression, nasal bleeding and loss of appetite. The highest concentrations of mercury were found in the inhabitants of Girardot, and were associated with sweating, disorientation, nausea and diarrhea. Conclusion Low levels of lead and mercury were observed in the study population, although there are specific cases with high social vulnerability that require special attention.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Water Pollution/analysis , Environmental Health/standards , Lead/adverse effects , Mercury/adverse effects , Surveys and Questionnaires , Qualitative Research
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777611

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Although lead neurotoxicity is a known phenomenon, it can often be missed at a primary or secondary care level especially if detailed environmental exposure history is missed.@*METHODS@#This is an outbreak investigation where we observed 15 pediatric cases with neurologic signs and symptoms clustered in a slum area known for an unorganized artificial jewelry industry. Their clinical, biochemical, and epidemiological features were compared with 14 other children from the same region reporting with non-neurological symptoms who were considered as unmatched controls.@*RESULTS@#Cases with neurological manifestations had a higher in-house lead smelting activity [OR 7.2 (95% CI 1.4-38.3)] as compared to controls. Toddlers below 3 years of age were more vulnerable to the effects of lead.@*CONCLUSION@#This study emphasizes that many focal sources of lead poisoning still remain especially in the unorganized sector. In cases presenting with unexplained neurotoxicity, specific occupational and environmental inquiry for chemical poisoning, with special consideration for lead, should be actively pursued.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Air Pollution, Indoor , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , India , Epidemiology , Infant , Inhalation Exposure , Jewelry , Poisoning , Lead , Blood , Reference Standards , Lead Poisoning , Epidemiology , Pathology , Male , Metallurgy , Neurotoxicity Syndromes , Epidemiology , Pathology , Poverty Areas , Risk Factors
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