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Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 108-113, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971281


OBJECTIVE@#To predict the learning curve of tooth preparation for all ceramic crowns of maxillary central incisors on phantom head simulators for graduate students participating in standardized dental resident training based on the modified Wright learning curve model, then to analyze and applicate the learning curve.@*METHODS@#Twelve graduate students participating in standardized dental resident training were selected to prepare the resin maxillary central incisors on phantom head simulators for all ceramic crowns 4 times. The results of preparation were evaluated by 3 prosthetic experts with at least 10 years' experience focusing on the reduction, contour, taper, shoulder, finish line, margin placement, adjacent tooth injury, and preparation time for tooth preparation. The learning rate of tooth preparation was calculated by scores of tooth preparation of 4 times. The learning curve of tooth preparation was predicted based on the modified Wright learning curve model. According to the criteria of standardized training skill examinations for dental residents in Beijing, 80 was taken as the qualified standard score. The minimum training times for tooth preparation to satisfy the qualified standard score (80) was calculated, to analyze the characteristics of learning curve and evaluate the effectiveness of tooth preparation.@*RESULTS@#The scores of 4 tooth preparation were 64.03±7.80, 71.40±6.13, 74.33±5.96, and 75.98±4.52, respectively. The learning rate was (106±4)%, which showed the learning curve an upward trend. There were no significant differences between the qualified standard score and the predicted scores of tooth preparation from the 5th preparation to the 13th preparation (P > 0.05). The predicted score of the 14th preparation was higher than the qualified standard score (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The trend of the learning curve of tooth preparation for all ceramic crowns of maxillary central incisors on phantom head simulators for graduate students participating in standardized dental resident training is upward, which predicts the minimum training times higher than the qualified standard score is 14 times.

Humans , Tooth Preparation, Prosthodontic/methods , Incisor , Learning Curve , Crowns , Tooth Preparation , Ceramics , Dental Porcelain , Dental Prosthesis Design
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 716-724, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982341


OBJECTIVES@#Da Vinci robot technology is widely used in clinic,with minimally invasive surgery development. This study aims to explore the possible influence of advanced surgical robotics on the surgery learning curve by comparing the initial clinical learning curves of 2 different surgical techniques: robotic-assisted gastrectomy (RAG) and laparoscopic-assisted gastrectomy (LAG).@*METHODS@#From September 2017 to December 2020, a chief surgeon completed a total of 108 cases of radical gastric cancer from the initial stage, including 27 cases of RAG of the Da Vinci Si robotic system (RAG group) and 81 cases of LAG (LAG group). The lymph node of gastric cancer implemented by the Japanese treatment guidelines of gastric cancer. The surgical results, postoperative complications, oncology results and learning curve were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#There was no significant difference in general data, tumor size, pathological grade and clinical stage between the 2 groups (P>0.05). The incidence of serious complications in the RAG group was lower than the LAG group (P=0.003). The intraoperative blood loss in the RAG group was lower than that in the LAG group (P=0.046). The number of lymph nodes cleaned in the RAG group was more (P=0.003), among which there was obvious advantage in lymph node cleaning in the No.9 group (P=0.038) and 11p group (P=0.015). The operation time of the RAG group was significantly longer than the LAG group (P=0.015). The analysis of learning curve found that the cumulative sum analysis (CUSUM) value of the RAG group decreased from the 10th case, while the CUSUM of the LAG group decreased from the 28th case. The learning curve of the RAG group had fewer closing cases than that of the LAG group. The unique design of the surgical robot might help to improve the surgical efficiency and shorten the surgical learning curve.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Advanced robotics helps experienced surgeons quickly learn to master RAG skills. With the help of robotics, RAG are superior to LAG in No.9 and 11p lymph node dissection and surgical trauma reduction. RAG can clear more lymph nodes than LAG, and has better perioperative effect.

Humans , Robotics , Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods , Learning Curve , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Laparoscopy/methods , Lymph Node Excision/methods , Gastrectomy/methods , Treatment Outcome
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 454-461, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936102


Objective: To investigate the safety and learning curve of Da Vinci robotic single-anastomosis duodenal-ileal bypass with sleeve gastrectomy (SADI-S) in the treatment of obesity patients. Methods: A descriptive case series study was performed. Clinical data of obesity patients who were treated with Da Vinci robotic SADI-S in China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University from March 2020 to May 2021 were analyzed retrospectively. Case inclusion criteria: (1) uncomplicated obese patients with body mass index (BMI)≥37.5 kg/m(2); (2) patients with BMI of 28 to <37.5 kg/m(2) complicated with type 2 diabetes or two metabolic syndrome components, or obesity comorbidities; (3) patients undergoing SADI-S by Da Vinci robotic surgery system. Those who received other bariatric procedures other than SADI-S or underwent Da Vince robotic SADI-S as revisional operation were excluded. A total of 77 patients were enrolled in the study, including 31 males and 46 females, with median age of 33 (18-59) years, preoperative body weight of (123.0±26.2) kg, BMI of (42.2±7.1) kg/m(2) and waistline of (127.6±16.3) cm. According to the order of operation date, the patients were numbered as 1-77. The textbook outcome (TO) and Clavien-Dindo grading standard were used to analyze the clinical outcome of each patient and to classify surgical complications, respectively. The standard of textbook outcome was as follows: the operative time less than or equal to the 75th percentile of the patient's operation time (210 min); the postoperative hospital stay less than or equal to the 75th percentile of the patient's postoperative hospital stay (7 d); complication grade lower than Clavien grade II; no readmission; no conversion to laparotomy or death. The patient undergoing robotic SADI-S was considered to meet the TO standard when meeting the above 5 criteria. The TO rate was calculated by cumulative sum analysis (CUSUM) method. The curve was drawn by case number as X-axis and CUSUM (TO rate) as Y-axis so as to understand the learning curve of robotic SADI-S. Results: The operative time of 77 robotic SADI-S was (182.9±37.5) minutes, and the length of postoperative hospital stay was 6 (4-55) days. There was no conversion to laparotomy or death. Seven patients suffered from complications (7/77, 9.1%). Four patients had grade II complications (5.2%), including one with duodeno-ileal anastomotic leakage, one with abdominal bleeding, one with peritoneal effusion and one with delayed gastric emptying; two patients were grade IIIb complications (2.6%) and both of them were diagnosed with gastric leakage; one patient was grade IV complication diagnosed with postoperative respiratory failure (1.3%), and all of them were cured successfully. A total of 51 patients met the textbook outcome standard, and the TO rate was positive and was steadily increasing after the number of surgical cases accumulated to the 46th case. Taking the 46th case as the boundary, all the patients were divided into learning stage group (n=46) and mastery stage group (n=31). There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of gender, age, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, ASA classification, standard liver volume, operative time and morbidity of postoperative complication (all P>0.05). The percent of abdominal drainage tube in learning stage group was higher than that in mastery stage group (54.3% versus 16.1%, P<0.05). The length of postoperative hospital stay in learning stage group was longer than that in mastery stage group [6 (4-22) d versus 6 (5-55) d, P<0.05)]. Conclusion: The Da Vinci robotic SADI-S is safe and feasible with a learning curve of 46 cases.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Anastomosis, Surgical , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/surgery , Gastrectomy/methods , Gastric Bypass/adverse effects , Learning Curve , Obesity/surgery , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Robotic Surgical Procedures
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(5): 648-655, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351641


Abstract Objective: Isolated aortic valve replacement is a safe and frequently performed cardiac surgical procedure. Although minimal access approaches including right anterior thoracotomy and partial sternotomy have been adopted by some surgeons in recent years, concerns about additional procedural morbidity and mortality during the early phase of the learning curve persist. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the learning curve on outcomes for a single surgeon implementing a new minimal access aortic valve replacement service. Methods: Ninety-three patients undergoing minimal access aortic valve replacement performed by a single surgeon in our institution between October 2014 and March 2019 were analysed. Patients were divided into tertiles according to procedure order. Endpoints included peri-operative mortality and post-operative complications, and these were compared across tertiles to assess the impact of the learning curve on procedural outcomes. Results: Overall in-hospital mortality was 2.15% (n=2). Despite significantly longer cardiopulmonary bypass and cross-clamp duration in the early tertile, there was no significant difference in the rate of post-operative complications, post-operative length of stay or in-hospital mortality between tertiles. Conclusions: Although our results have demonstrated a significant learning curve effect associated with the introduction of this minimally invasive approach to aortic valve replacement, as demonstrated by the significant reduction in cardiopulmonary bypass and cross-clamp duration over time, our findings suggest that a minimal access aortic valve replacement service can be safely commenced by an experienced surgeon without concerns about the learning curve significantly affecting post-operative morbidity and mortality.

Heart Valve Prosthesis , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation , Aortic Valve/surgery , Thoracotomy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Sternotomy , Learning Curve
urol. colomb. (Bogotá. En línea) ; 30(3): 155-155, 15/09/2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1369394


La práctica de la urología ya no es como previamente se concebía. Hace muchos años se pensaba que el modelo de aprendizaje quirúrgico era "lea, vea, ayude, haga y enseñe"; estrategia que permitió formar a grandes, talentosos y hábiles cirujanos,[1] sin embargo, ya no es de esta manera. La cirugía mínimamente invasiva y la robótica ha permitido reconocer que se requiere una curva de aprendizaje previo a operar un paciente real. De aquí que un número importante de "horas de vuelo" sean necesarias para adquirir un grupo de habilidades y destrezas para la competencia en un área.[2] De igual manera, la cirugía es una profesión que depende de la adquisición y aplicación de habilidades psicomotoras, cuya limitación de obtenerlas, se traducirá en consecuencias negativas para su entrenamiento y finalmente para el paciente.

The practice of urology is no longer as it was previously conceived. Many years ago it was thought that the surgical learning model was "read, see, help, do and teach"; a strategy that trained great, talented and skilled surgeons,[1] however, it is no longer this way. Minimally invasive surgery and robotics have made it possible to recognize that a learning curve is required prior to operating on a real patient. Hence, a significant number of "flight hours" are necessary to acquire a set of skills and abilities for competence in an area.[2] Similarly, surgery is a profession that depends on the acquisition and application of psychomotor skills, the limitation of which, if not obtained, will result in negative consequences for your training and ultimately for the patient.

Humans , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Simulation Exercise , Urology , Robotics , Mental Competency , Learning Curve , Learning
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): 270-273, agosto 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1280932


En pacientes con infección por SARS-CoV-2 la intubación endotraqueal es un procedimiento con riesgo elevado de contagio. La videolaringoscopia complementa la protección del profesional, pero los videolaringoscopios comerciales son caros y no siempre están disponibles en las terapias intensivas pediátricas argentinas. El objetivo fue describir la práctica de intubación en un modelo de cabeza de simulación de lactante con un videolaringoscopio artesanal de bajo costo.Quince pediatras sin experiencia previa con el dispositivo participaron de una práctica de intubación en una cabeza de simulación con un videolaringoscopio artesanal. El tiempo promedio del primer intento fue de 116,4 segundos (intervalo de confianza del 95 % [IC95 %]: 84,8-148,0) y, el del siguiente fue de 44,2 segundos (IC95 %: 27,7­60,6). El tiempo disminuyó de forma significativa en el segundo intento (p : 0,0001). El dispositivo permitió la intubación exitosa en todos los intentos acortando la duración del procedimiento en la segunda práctica

In patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, endotracheal intubation is a procedure with a high risk for transmission. A videolaryngoscopy is a supplementary level of health care provider protection, but commercial videolaryngoscopes are expensive and not always available in pediatric intensive care units in Argentina. Our objective was to describe intubation practice using an infant head mannequin with a low-cost, handcrafted videolaryngoscope.Fifteen pediatricians with no prior experience using the device participated in an intubation practice in a head mannequin with a handcrafted videolaryngoscope. The average time for the first attempt was 116.4 seconds (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 84.8-148.0) and, for the second one, 44.2 seconds (95 % CI: 27.7-60.6). Time decreased significantly for the second attempt (p: 0.0001).A successful intubation was achieved with the device in all attempts, and the procedure duration decreased with the second practice

Humans , Infant , Pediatrics/education , Laryngoscopes/economics , Simulation Training/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Intubation, Intratracheal/instrumentation , Laryngoscopy/economics , Pediatrics/economics , Time Factors , Video Recording , Health Care Costs , Clinical Competence/statistics & numerical data , Education, Medical, Continuing/methods , Learning Curve , COVID-19/transmission , Internship and Residency/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/economics , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Laryngoscopy/education , Laryngoscopy/instrumentation , Laryngoscopy/methods , Manikins
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(7): 1033-1037, July 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346941


Summary OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to compare the standard and robotic-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy in terms of perioperative course, short-term postoperative outcome, and to evaluate the effect of surgeon's learning curve on these parameters. METHODS: This was a prospective randomized study including 60 patients (mean age, 47 years; age, 21-72 years; 26 males, 34 females) who had been planned laparoscopic donor nephrectomies in our clinic. For comparison of standard and robot-assisted techniques and to evaluate the impact of learning curve, patients were randomized into three groups by a computer, each group containing 20 patients. Group 1: standard laparoscopic donor nephrectomies; Group 2: the first 20 patients who underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy; and Group 3: the next 20 patients who underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. RESULTS: Operative time was significantly higher in Group 2 (221.0±45.1 min) than both Group 1 (183.5±16.9 min, p=0.001) and Group 3 (186.5±20.6 min, p=0.002). Similarly, time for laparoscopic system setup was significantly higher in Group 2 (39.5±8.6 min), which contained the first cases of robot-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy where surgeon had least experience than Group 1 (19.3±3.7 min, p<0.001) and Group 3 (24.0±9.4 min, p<0.001). On the other hand, duration of operation and time for laparoscopic system setup was similar between Groups 1 and 3. CONCLUSIONS: Learning curve extends the operative time and laparoscopic system setup time in robotic-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy, however, after the learning process was completed, these parameters were similar between robotic-assisted and standard laparoscopic nephrectomy.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Laparoscopy , Robotic Surgical Procedures , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Living Donors , Learning Curve , Middle Aged , Nephrectomy
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(3): 259-264, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285152


ABSTRACT Background: The aim of this study was to address the first cases of TOETVA done in Brazil, by TOETVA-Bra study group, regarding safety and complications. Materials and Methods: Series of the first 93 TOETVAs cases in Brazil. All authors except LPK, AJG JOR and RPT received TOETVA training including cadaveric hands-on in Thailand or United States (Johns Hopkins Medicine) during 2017. After they came back to Brazil and started doing their first TOETVA cases in the cities of Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo and Chapecó they agreed to collaborate and gather data using an online spreadsheet. All patients were submitted to the technique described by Anuwong. Results: A total of 93 patients underwent TOETVA. Most patients (58.1%) were submitted to total thyroidectomy and 59.1% had benign disease. Two patients (2.2%) needed conversion to open surgery. Five patients (9.3%) developed transient hypoparathyroidism and there were 3 (2.0%) temporary recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. There was one (0.7%) permanent unilateral palsy. Twenty patients had some sort of complication, 16.1% were minor and 5.4% were major. A total of 73 patients (78.5%) had an uneventful recovery. Conclusion: The technique is reproducible with a low complication rate. While further studies are needed to confirm equivalency, early efforts suggest that TOETVA is not inferior to traditional open thyroidectomy in appropriately selected patients.

Humans , Thyroidectomy/adverse effects , Hypoparathyroidism , Brazil , Endoscopy , Learning Curve
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 86(2): 137-151, abr. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388643


OBJETIVO: Determinar el tiempo que requiere una curva de aprendizaje para diagnóstico ecográfico específico histopatológico en masas anexiales basándonos en cálculos estadísticos no influidos por la prevalencia según diferentes grados de experiencia. MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, transversal. Se estudiaron imágenes de 108 masas anexiales. La prueba estándar de oro fue el reporte histopatológico definitivo. Se comparó el rendimiento diagnóstico de 4 examinadores con la siguiente experiencia en diagnóstico ecográfico de patología anexial: A > 20 años, B ≤ 20 hasta > 10 años, C ≤ 10 hasta > 5 años y D ≤ 5 años, analizando solo imágenes y sin datos clínicos de las pacientes, para emitir un diagnóstico específico a libre escritura. RESULTADOS: Prevalencia de masas malignas 17,2 % (15/87). Nivel de confianza en los examinadores se consideró según falta de respuesta diagnóstica: alto (<6 %) con experiencia de más de 10 años y moderado a bajo ≤ 10 años. Examinadores con más de 5 años siempre mostraron likelihood ratio positivo mayor a 10, exactitud diagnóstica mayor a 90 % y Odds ratio diagnóstica mayor a 46, no así para examinador con menor tiempo de experiencia, quién presentó resultados con mala utilidad clínica. El cambio de probabilidad de acierto específico pre-test a post-test mejoró consistentemente con los años de experiencia. CONCLUSIÓN: Se necesitarían más de 10 años de experiencia con especial dedicación a ecografía ginecológica avanzada para un rendimiento diagnóstico específico deseado junto con alta confianza en ecografía de masas anexiales.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the time required for a learning curve of histopathological specific ultrasound diagnosis in adnexal masses based on statistical calculations not influenced by prevalence according to different degrees of experience. METHODS: Observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study. Images of 108 adnexal masses were studied. The gold standard test was the definitive histopathological report. The diagnostic performance of 4 examiners with the following experience in ultrasound diagnosis of adnexal pathology: A > 20 years, B ≤ 20 to > 10 years, C ≤ 10 to > 5 years and D ≤ 5 years was compared, analyzing only images and blinded of clinical data of the patients, to issue a specific diagnosis with free writing. RESULTS: Prevalence of malignant masses 17.2% (15/87). The level of confidence in the examiners was considered according to the lack of diagnostic response: high (<6%) with experience of more than 10 years and moderate to low ≤ 10 years. The examiners with more than 5 years always showed likelihood ratio positive greater than 10, diagnostic accuracy greater than 90% and diagnostic Odds ratio greater than 46, not so for the examiner with less experience time who presented results with little clinical utility. The change in specific probability from pre-test to post-test improved consistently with years of experience. CONCLUSION: More than 10 years of experience with special dedication to advanced gynecological ultrasound are probably needed for a desired specific diagnostic performance coupled with high confidence in adnexal mass ultrasound.

Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Ultrasonics/education , Adnexal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Ovarian Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Radiology/education , Time Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Probability , Adnexal Diseases/pathology , Clinical Competence , Learning Curve
Rev. bras. ortop ; 56(1): 78-82, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288653


Abstract Objective To evaluate the feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to obtain the critical shoulder angle (CSA) comparing the results obtained through radiography and MRI, and assess the learning curves. Methods In total, 15 patients were evaluated in a blinded and randomized way. The CSA was measured and compared among groups and subgroups. Results The mean angles measured through the radiographic images were of 34.61 ± 0.67 and the mean angles obtained through the MRI scans were of 33.85 ± 0.53 (p = 0.29). No significant differences have been found among the groups. The linear regression presented a progressive learning curve among the subgroups, from fellow in shoulder surgery to shoulder specialist and radiologist. Conclusion There was no statistically significant difference in the X-rays and MRI assessments. The MRI seems to have its efficacy associated with more experienced evaluators. Data dispersion was smaller for the MRI data regardless of the experience of the evaluator.

Resumo Objetivo Avaliar a confiabilidade da obtenção do ângulo crítico do ombro (ACO) na ressonância magnética (RM) comparada com esse mesmo ângulo obtido por meio de radiografias, e avaliar a curva de aprendizado do método. Métodos As imagens de radiografias e RMs de 15 pacientes foram avaliadas prospectivamente de forma cega e randômica. O ACO foi medido e comparado entre os grupos e subgrupos. Resultados A média dos ACOs nas imagens de radiografia foi de 34,61º ± 0,67, e, na RM, 33,85º ± 0,53 (p = 0,29). Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa. Houve curva de aprendizado progressiva na regressão linear entre os subgrupos, de especializando em ombro a especialista e radiologista. Conclusão Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre o ACO por imagens de radiografia e RM. O método da RM parece ter sua eficiência associada a avaliadores mais experientes. Independente da experiência do avaliador, a variabilidade dos dados foi menor nas avaliações por RM.

Humans , Shoulder Joint , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Radiography , Double-Blind Method , Reproducibility of Results , Rotator Cuff , Learning Curve
In. Estapé Viana, Gonzalo; Ramos Serena, Sergio Nicolás. Tratamiento laparoscópico de los defectos de la pared abdominal: relato oficial. [Montevideo], Grupo Elis, 2021. p.63-68, graf.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1435741
Rev. argent. cir ; 112(4): 498-507, dic. 2020. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1288162


RESUMEN Antecedentes: el uso de la colangiografía intraoperatoria dinámica (CIOd) durante la colecistectomía laparoscópica (Colelap) sigue siendo un tema en discusión. Objetivos: Este trabajo tiene como objetivo describir y evaluar la curva de aprendizaje y los hallazgos en la CIOd durante las colecistectomías laparoscópicas realizadas por residentes de Cirugía General, incluyéndola como herramienta para una colecistectomía segura, así como entrenamiento para el de sarrollo de habilidades y destrezas. Material y métodos: se incluyeron pacientes con indicación de colecistectomía laparoscópica pro gramada o de urgencia. En las cirugías se realizó tracción según Hunter, visión crítica de seguridad y CIOd sistemática, por un residente mayor y la CIOd por un residente inferior, tutorizado por cirujano de planta. Se evaluaron curva de aprendizaje, tiempos operatorios, relación del tiempo de CIOd con el tiempo de duración de la Colelap (CIO/CX), redisección del cístico y litiasis cística y coledociana. Resultados: se operaron 456 pacientes durante un año (2017-2018). Se observó que, independiente mente de quien realice la CIOd, los residentes pudieron mejorar su curva de aprendizaje, objetiván dose tiempos más cortos para la Colelap, CIOd y la relación CIO/CX. Los coeficientes de aprendizaje fueron mejores en cirugías más complejas en relación con el semestre. El 5,26% presentó litiasis cole dociana (n = 24); de estas, 66,7% tenían litiasis cística (n = 16) y 25% colecistitis (n = 6) asociadas. Todas se resolvieron por vía transcística. No hubo conversiones y se realizó CIOd en el 100%. Conclusión: la CIOd es un procedimiento ideal para ser practicado de manera sistemática durante la Residencia, porque da el entrenamiento necesario para el manejo de la vía transcística, permite evitar una lesión quirúrgica de vía biliar mayor y el diagnóstico de coledocolitiasis.

ABSTRACT Background: The use of dynamic intra-operative cholangiography (dIOC) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (Lap Chole) remains a topic under discussion. Objectives: This study aims to describe and evaluate the learning curve and findings in the dIOC during laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed by Residents of General Surgery, including it as a tool for a safe cholecystectomy, as well as training for the development of skills and abilities. Material and methods: Patients with indication of scheduled or emergency laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included. In the surgeries, traction was performed according to Hunter, critical safety vision and systematic dIOC, by a senior Resident and the dIOC by a less trained resident, tutored by a staff surgeon. Learning curve, operative times, dIOC time relationship with Lap Chole duration time (IOC/LC), repeated cystic dissection, cystic lithiasis and choledocholithiasis were evaluated. Results: 456 patients were operated for one year (2017-2018). It was observed that regardless of who performs the dIOC, they were able to improve their learning curve, objectifying shorter times for Lap Chole, dIOC and the IOC/LC relationship. The learning coefficients were better in complex surgeries in relation to the semester. 5.26 % had choledocholithiasis (n = 24), of these, 66.7% had cystic lithiasis (n = 16) and 25% associated cholecystitis (n = 6). All were resolved trancystically. There were no conversions and dIOC was performed in 100% of cases. Conclusion: The dIOC is an ideal procedure to be practiced systematically during residency. Because it gives the necessary training for the management of the transcystic pathway, allows avoiding an upper bile duct injury and the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cholangiography/psychology , Learning Curve , Medical Staff, Hospital/psychology , General Surgery/education , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic/psychology , Internship and Residency
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(4): 477-483, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142342


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) enables en bloc excision of superficial neoplasms. Although ESD is widely practiced in Eastern countries like Japan, South Korea and China, its use in the West is supposed to be still limited to few tertiary centers. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the clinical practice of ESD in Brazil by means of an electronic questionnaire elaborated by the Brazilian Society of Digestive Endoscopy (SOBED). METHODS: In October 2019, 3512 endoscopist members of SOBED were invited to respond to an electronic survey containing 40 questions divided into four topics: operator profile; clinical experience with ESD; adverse events and training. Informed consent was requested to all participants. The investigators reviewed all responses and considered valid if more than 50% of the questions were answered and additional information, when requested, was provided. RESULTS: A total of 155 (4.4%) qualified responses entered the study. ESD has been practiced in 22 of 26 Federation States and majority of respondents (32.2%) have 10 to 20 years of practice. ESD has been performed more frequently in private hospitals (101 individuals, 66.9%) and private ambulatory centers (41 individuals, 27.1%). ESD was performed mainly in the stomach (72%), followed by the rectum (57%) and 80% of the individuals reported less than 25 operations. Twenty-four (15.4 %) individuals reported perforation and 4 (2.5%) of them reported postoperative deaths. Approximately a quarter of responders denied hands-on training in models or visit to training centers. CONCLUSION: ESD appears to be practiced throughout the country, not only in tertiary or academic institutions and mainly in private practice. Most operators received limited training and still are at the beginning of their learning curve. The reported adverse events and mortality rates appear to be higher than Eastern reports.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: A dissecção endoscópica da submucosa (ESD) é uma técnica popular no Japão e em outros países asiáticos e, supostamente, ainda está limitada a centros terciários no Ocidente. OBJETIVO: Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a prática clínica da ESD no Brasil por meio de um questionário eletrônico elaborado pela Sociedade Brasileira de Endoscopia Digestiva (SOBED). MÉTODOS: Em outubro de 2019, 3512 endoscopistas membros da SOBED foram convidados a responder a uma pesquisa eletrônica contendo 40 questões divididas em quatro tópicos: perfil do operador; experiência clínica com ESD; eventos adversos e treinamento. O consentimento informado foi solicitado a todos os participantes. Os investigadores analisaram todas as respostas e consideraram válidas se mais de 50% das perguntas fossem respondidas e informações adicionais, quando solicitadas, fossem fornecidas. RESULTADOS: Um total de 155 (4,4%) respostas qualificadas foram incluídas no estudo. A ESD foi executada em 22 dos 26 estados da Federação e a maioria dos entrevistados (32,2%) possuía de 10 a 20 anos de prática endoscópica. A ESD foi realizada com maior frequência em hospitais privados (101 indivíduos; 66,9%) e clínicas ambulatoriais privadas (41 indivíduos; 27,1%). A ESD foi realizada principalmente no estômago (72%), seguido pelo reto (57%) e 80% dos indivíduos relataram menos de 25 operações. Vinte e quatro (15,4%) indivíduos relataram algum caso de perfuração no procedimento e 4 (2,5%) deles relataram óbito pós-operatório. Aproximadamente um quarto dos respondentes negou treinamento prático em modelos ou visita a centros de treinamento. CONCLUSÃO: A ESD parece ser praticada em todo o país, não apenas em instituições terciárias ou acadêmicas e principalmente na prática privada. A maioria dos respondedores recebeu treinamento limitado e ainda está no início da curva de aprendizado. Os eventos adversos relatados e as taxas de mortalidade parecem ser maiores do que os relatos orientais.

Humans , Endoscopic Mucosal Resection/adverse effects , Brazil , China , Surveys and Questionnaires , Learning Curve
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 72(2): 164-170, abr. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092910


Resumen La primera colectomía laparoscópica se realizó hace casi 30 años. La adopción como estándar de tratamiento ha sido lenta, a pesar de compartir los beneficios de la cirugía con invasión mínima, como el menor dolor, estadía hospitalaria y recuperación precoz. Esto se explica por el temor generado por reportes iniciales que señalaban la aparición de implantes en los sitios de inserción de los trocares y las dudas sobre la seguridad oncológica. Distintos ensayos clínicos aleatorizados finalmente confirmaron su seguridad y eficacia en el tratamiento del cáncer de colon con resultados comparables a la cirugía abierta. La curva de aprendizaje prolongada, dada por la complejidad técnica, ha incentivado el aprendizaje supervisado por un entrenador experto en el contexto de programas de formación de subespecialidad. Nuestro objetivo es realizar una revisión de los resultados a corto y largo plazo y algunas consideraciones generales y perspectivas futuras.

The first laparoscopic colectomy was performed almost 30 years ago, its expansion has been slow and it did not have the explosive development that laparoscopic cholecystectomy and appendectomy had, despite sharing its benefits such as lower pain, hospital stay and early recovery. This is explained, in part, by the initial fear of implants at trocar sites and the lack of oncological safety. Randomized clinical trials confirmed the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic surgery with short-term and oncological results, comparable to open surgery. The slow learning curve, given by technical complexity, has encouraged learning supervised by an expert coach in the context of subspecialty training programs. Our aim is to review the short-term and oncological results, some general considerations and future perspectives.

Humans , Laparoscopy/adverse effects , Laparoscopy/methods , Colonic Neoplasms/surgery , Laparoscopy/mortality , Learning Curve
J. vasc. bras ; 19: e20190144, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1135106


Resumo Contexto A redução das dificuldades no aprendizado da técnica cirúrgica levou ao surgimento de ferramentas complementares. Este trabalho descreve a curva de aprendizado dos alunos sujeitos da pesquisa, utilizando um modelo alternativo para a prática de anastomose vascular. Objetivos Avaliar a curva de aprendizado da técnica de anastomose vascular e do desenvolvimento de habilidades manuais a partir da utilização de um modelo experimental de baixo custo. Métodos Este trabalho é um estudo experimental e prospectivo, com a realização de anastomoses vasculares do tipo terminolateral em balões de látex durante cinco fases sucessivas, iniciadas após orientação teórico-prática de uma cirurgiã vascular experiente. Os sujeitos foram seis graduandos do curso de Medicina, do terceiro ao quinto ano, da Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB), João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil. A interpretação do material coletado acerca da qualidade das anastomoses e do tempo utilizado seguiu a análise de agrupamento. Resultados Houve redução do tempo de realização das anastomoses de todos os alunos, com diferença estatística da fase 1 quando comparada às fases 4 e 5, bem como tendência crescente no índice de qualidade ao longo das fases. Porém, não foi detectada diferença estatística a partir do teste de Friedman, apropriado para dados com nível de mensuração ordinal (escala de 1 a 5 na avaliação da qualidade). Conclusões O modelo de treinamento utilizado foi efetivo para incremento do aprendizado dessa técnica, acreditando-se que amostras de maior tamanho ou com maior número de fases em trabalhos futuros poderiam demonstrar redução do tempo associada a melhora da qualidade da anastomose realizada com significância estatística.

Abstract Background In order to reduce difficulties with learning surgical techniques, supplementary tools for training were developed. This paper describes the learning curve followed by student volunteer research subjects who used an alternative model for practicing vascular anastomosis. Objectives To evaluate the vascular anastomosis technique learning curve and development of manual skills using a low-cost experimental model. Methods Experimental and prospective study using end-to-side vascular anastomosis in latex balloons over five successive phases, initiated after theoretical and practical guidance given by experienced vascular surgeon. The study subjects were six undergraduate medical students from Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB), João Pessoa, PB, Brazil, in their third to fifth years of the course. Cluster analysis was used to interpret the data collected on the quality of anastomoses and the time taken. Results The time taken to perform anastomosis reduced for all students, with statistical differences from phase 1 compared to phases 4 and 5. There was also a trend to increasing scores on the quality index as the phases progressed. However, no statistical differences were detected using the Friedman test, which is appropriate for data measured with ordinal levels (quality was assessed on a scale of 1 to 5). Conclusions It was found that the training model used was effective for increasing learning of this technique. It is believed that future studies with larger samples or a higher number of phases could demonstrate both reduced time and improved quality of the anastomoses performed with statistical significance.

Anastomosis, Surgical/education , Learning Curve , Simulation Training/methods , Anastomosis, Surgical/instrumentation , Anastomosis, Surgical/methods , Prospective Studies , Education, Medical
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 35(1): 8-17, 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115596


Resumen Objetivos: presentar el desarrollo de modelos educativos para el aprendizaje de dos técnicas endoscópicas vigentes, ampliamente difundidas y de gran implicación clínica, con la única intención de permitir la adquisición de destrezas básicas y avanzadas a residentes y gastroenterólogos. Materiales y métodos: se idearon dos modelos sencillos, de muy bajo costo, fácilmente reproducibles y reutilizables, con los cuales se logra ejecutar la totalidad de los procedimientos descritos. Además, permiten al operador integrar el desarrollo de habilidades y la adquisición de los conceptos teóricos mínimos requeridos, sin las presiones generadas por el riesgo existente de complicaciones. Resultados: la tendencia actual a nivel mundial se conduce hacia el desarrollo de modelos de enseñanza que aceleren la curva de aprendizaje, así como de procedimientos altamente exigentes y asociados a complicaciones potencialmente graves. Con estos modelos es posible poner a prueba al endoscopista, mediante una evaluación continua y supervisada. Su implementación en unidades de gastroenterología es sencilla, sin la necesidad de una inversión superlativa o el desplazamiento a otros países. Conclusiones: se trata de un gran aporte al desarrollo científico y educativo de nuestro país, ya que la creación y la implementación de nuevas técnicas endoscópicas y su aprendizaje no deben ser asumidos por los pacientes. En este punto, estamos de acuerdo con los conceptos emitidos por diferentes asociaciones médicas respecto a que los cursos teórico-prácticos de corta duración -y en algunas ocasiones virtuales- no constituyen una formación mínima, requerida para lograr la acreditación.

Abstract Objectives: This article presents the development of educational models for learning two widespread recent endoscopic techniques which have great clinical implications. Its sole intention is to allow acquisition of basic and advanced skills by residents and gastroenterologists. Materials and methods: Two simple, very low cost, easily reproducible and reusable models were devised. Procedures are fully described in ways that allow the operator to integrate the development of skills and acquisition of the minimum theoretical concepts required without the pressures generated by risks of complications. Results: The current global trend is to develop teaching models that accelerate the learning curve for highly demanding procedures that are associated with potentially serious complications. With these models it is possible to test endoscopists through continuous supervised evaluations. Implementation by gastroenterology units can be done easily without the need for large investments or travel to other countries. Conclusions: This is a great contribution to the scientific and educational development of Colombia since neither development of new endoscopic techniques nor the process of learning how to perform them should put patients at risk. We agree with the ideas of numerous medical associations regarding theoretical-practical courses of short duration even though some virtual sessions, "do not constitute the minimum training required needed for accreditation".

Humans , Models, Educational , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Myotomy , Teaching , Ultrasonics , Low Cost Technology , Learning Curve
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(6): 753-759, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055514


Abstract Introduction: The endoscopic methods are progressing and becoming more common in routine clinical diagnosis in the field of otorhinolaryngology. Relatively large amount of researches have proved high accuracy of narrow band imaging endoscopy in differentiating benign and malignant lesions within vocal folds. However, little is known about learning curve in narrow band imaging evaluation of laryngeal lesions. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the learning curve for the narrow band imaging evaluation of vocal folds pathologies depending on the duration of the procedure. Methods: Records of 134 narrow band imaging that were analyzed in terms of the duration of the procedure and the accuracy of diagnosis confirmed by histopathological diagnosis were enrolled in the study. The narrow band imaging examinations were performed sequentially by one investigator over a period of 18 months. Results: The average duration of narrow band imaging recordings was 127.82 s. All 134 studies were divided into subsequent series of several elements. An evident decrease in time of investigation was noticed between 13th and 14th series, when the examinations were divided into 5 elements series, which corresponds to the difference between 65th and 70th subsequent narrow band imaging examination. Parallel groups of 67 examinations were created. Group 1 included 1st to 67th subsequent narrow band imaging examination; Group 2 - 68th to 134th narrow band imaging examinations. The non-parametric U Mann-Whitney test confirmed statistically significant difference between the mean duration of narrow band imaging examination in both groups 160.5 s and 95.1 s, respectively (p < 10−7). Sensitivity and specificity of narrow band imaging examination in the first group were respectively: 83.7% and 76.7%. In the second group, these indicators amounted 98.1% and 80% respectively. Conclusions: A minimum of 65th-70th narrow band imaging examinations are required to reach a plateau phase of the learning process in assessment of glottis lesions. Analysis of learning curves is useful for the development of training programs and determination of a mastery level.

Resumo Introdução: Os métodos endoscópicos estão progredindo e se tornando comuns no diagnóstico clínico de rotina também na otorrinolaringologia. Um número relativamente grande de pesquisas demonstrou alta precisão na endoscopia com imagem de banda estreita na diferenciação de lesões benignas e malignas nas pregas vocais. Entretanto, pouco se sabe sobre a curva de aprendizado na avaliação da de banda estreita de lesões laríngeas. Objetivo: Determinar a curva de aprendizado para a avaliação por imagem de banda estreita das afecções das pregas vocais, de acordo com a duração do procedimento. Método: Foram incluídos no estudo 134 registros de imagens de banda estreita analisadas em termos da duração do procedimento e da acurácia do diagnóstico confirmado pelo diagnóstico histopatológico. Os exames com imagem de banda estreita foram feitos sequencialmente por um investigador por 18 meses. Resultados: A duração média dos registros de imagem de banda estreita foi de 127,82s. Todos os 134 estudos foram divididos em séries subsequentes de vários elementos. Uma evidente diminuição no tempo de investigação foi observada entre as séries 13 e 14, quando os exames foram divididos em séries de cinco elementos, o que corresponde à diferença entre o 65° e 70° exames de imagem de banda estreita subsequentes. Foram criados grupos paralelos de 67 exames. O grupo 1 incluiu o 1° ao 67° exame de imagem de banda estreita subsequente; Grupo 2 - o 68° ao 134° exame de imagem de banda estreita. O teste não paramétrico U de Mann-Whitney confirmou uma diferença estatisticamente significante entre a duração média do exame de imagem de banda estreita em ambos os grupos de 160,5s e 95,1s, respectivamente (p < 10-7). A sensibilidade e especificidade do exame de imagem de banda estreita no primeiro grupo foram, respectivamente: 83,7% e 76,7%. No segundo grupo, esses indicadores foram 98,1% e 80%, respectivamente. Conclusões: Um mínimo de 65 a 70 exames de imagem de banda estreita é necessário para se atingir a fase de estabilização (plateau) do processo de aprendizado na avaliação de lesões de glote. A análise das curvas de aprendizado é útil para o desenvolvimento de programas de treinamento e determinar o n.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Vocal Cords/diagnostic imaging , Laryngeal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Narrow Band Imaging , Vocal Cords/pathology , Laryngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Statistics, Nonparametric , Endoscopy , Learning Curve , Glottis/pathology , Glottis/diagnostic imaging