Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 890
Filter
1.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 82(3): 311-323, sept. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1409939

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El trastorno del procesamiento auditivo en niños está relacionado con trastornos de lenguaje, bajo rendimiento académico, trastornos de aprendizaje y dificultades psicosociales. Existe consenso internacional sobre la utilidad de las pruebas conductuales para su evaluación y diagnóstico. Objetivo: Establecer valores normativos para pruebas conductuales de procesamiento auditivo en población pediátrica chilena con neurodesarrollo y audición normal. Material y Método: Se realizó un estudio observacional de corte transversal. Participaron 153 sujetos entre 7 y 12 años de la Región Metropolitana. Se estudiaron las pruebas de patrones de frecuencia, habla filtrada y dígitos dicóticos. Se construyeron modelos de regresión fraccional para estimar los valores normativos y además se calcularon los puntajes de corte en los percentiles 2.5, 5 y 10. Resultados: No se evidenciaron diferencias significativas entre oídos para las pruebas estudiadas a excepción de la prueba de dígitos dicóticos. Se construyeron modelos únicos para las pruebas patrones de frecuencia y habla filtrada, y modelos independientes para cada oído para la prueba dígitos dicóticos. Todas las estimaciones resultaron significativas y tuvieron niveles aceptables de precisión. Conclusión: Se obtuvieron los valores normativos y puntajes de corte para las tres pruebas estudiadas. Los valores obtenidos fueron similares a los reportados en otras poblaciones considerando los efectos de oído, de edad, sexo y escolaridad.


Abstract Introduction: Auditory processing disorder in children is related to language disorders, poor academic performance, learning disorders, and psychosocial difficulties. There is international consensus on the usefulness of behavioral tests for their evaluation and diagnosis. Aim: To establish normative values for auditory processing behavioral tests in Chilean pediatric population with normal neurodevelopment and hearing thresholds. Material and Method: An observational cross-sectional study was carried out. One hundred fifty-three subjects between 7 and 12 years old from the Metropolitan Region participated. Frequency pattern tests, filtered speech, and dichotic digits were studied. Fractional regression models were built to estimate the normative values, and cut-off scores were also calculated at the 2.5, 5, and 10 percentiles. Results: There were no significant differences between ears for the tests studied except for the dichotic digits test. Single models were built for the frequency and filtered speech patterns tests and independent models for each ear for the dichotic digit test. All estimates were significant and had acceptable levels of precision. Conclusion: The normative values and cut-off scores were obtained for the three tests studied. The values obtained were similar to those reported in other populations considering the effects of ear, age, sex, and education.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Auditory Perception , Hearing Tests/methods , Hearing Tests/statistics & numerical data , Speech Perception , Task Performance and Analysis , Chile/epidemiology , Learning Disabilities
2.
Distúrb. comun ; 34(1): e52385, mar. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396516

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Há influência positiva no desenvolvimento da linguagem, quando ocorre a exposição a um novo idioma. No entanto, quando se considera esse contexto em crianças com dificuldade de aprendizagem, o deficit apresentado na primeira língua pode ser transferido para o aprendizado da segunda. Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo é caracterizar o desempenho em processamento fonológico e leitura em três crianças com dificuldade de aprendizagem em escolas bilíngues português-inglês. Método: Os dados gerais sobre o desenvolvimento e desempenho nas habilidades de consciência fonológica, memória de trabalho fonológica, acesso ao léxico mental e leitura em três crianças de 8 a 9 anos de idade, cursando 2º e 3º ano do ensino fundamental foram descritos; todos com, ao menos, dois anos de exposição à escola bilíngue, especialmente na alfabetização. Na avaliação, foram aplicados os protocolos CONFIAS, Memória de Trabalho Fonológica, TENA, RAN e Protocolo de Avaliação da Compreensão Leitora de Textos Expositivos. Resultado: as crianças apresentaram desempenho aquém do esperado nas habilidades do processamento fonológico, na fluência da leitura oral, bem como na compreensão leitora. Conclusão: esses resultados podem contribuir tanto para a compreensão de aspectos da linguagem escrita na atuação do fonoaudiólogo com crianças bilíngues, quanto para as implicações clínicas e educacionais, haja vista a escassez de estudos nessa área, no Brasil.


Introduction: There is a positive influence on language development when there is exposure to a new language. However, when considering this context in children with learning difficulties, the deficits presented in the first language can be transferred to the learning of the second. Objective: The aim of the present study was to characterize the performance in phonological processing and reading in three children with learning difficulties from Brazilian-English bilingual schools. Method: General data on the development and performance in phonological awareness skills, phonological working memory, access to mental lexicon and reading in three children aged 8 to 9 years, attending the 2nd and 3rd year of elementary school were described; all with at least two years of exposure to bilingual school, especially in literacy. In the evaluation, the protocols CONFIAS, Phonological Working Memory, TENA, RAN and Protocol for Assessment of Reading Comprehension of Expository Texts were applied. Results: The children performed below expectations in terms of phonological processing skills, difficulties in oral reading fluency, as well as in reading comprehension. Conclusion: These results can contribute to the understanding of aspects of written language in the performance of speech therapists with bilingual children, regarding clinical and educational implications, given the scarcity of studies in this area in Brazil.;Introducción: Existe una influencia positiva en el desarrollo del lenguaje cuando hay exposición a un nuevo idioma. Sin embargo, al considerar este contexto en niños con dificultades de aprendizaje, los déficits presentados en el primer idioma se pueden trasladar al aprendizaje del segundo. Objetivo: El objetivo del presente estudio fue caracterizar el desempeño en procesamiento fonológico y lectura en tres niños con dificultades de aprendizaje de escuelas bilingües brasileño-inglés. Método: Se describieron datos generales sobre el desarrollo y desempeño en las habilidades de conciencia fonológica, memoria de trabajo fonológica, acceso al léxico mental y lectura en tres niños de 8 a 9 años de 2º y 3º de primaria; todos con al menos dos años de exposición a la escuela bilingüe, especialmente en alfabetización. En la evaluación se aplicaron los protocolos CONFIAS, Memoria Fonológica de Trabajo, TENA, RAN y Protocolo de Evaluación de la Comprensión Lectora de Textos Expositivos. Resultados: Los niños se desempeñaron por debajo de las expectativas en términos de habilidades de procesamiento fonológico, dificultades en la fluidez de la lectura oral, así como en la comprensión lectora. Conclusión: Estos resultados pueden contribuir a la comprensión de aspectos del lenguaje escrito en el desempeño de logopedas con niños bilingües, en cuanto a implicaciones clínicas y educativas, dada la escasez de estudios en esta área en Brasil.


Introduction: There is a positive influence on language development when there is exposure to a new language. However, when considering this context in children with learning difficulties, the deficits presented in the first language can be transferred to the learning of the second. Objective: The aim of the present study was to characterize the performance in phonological processing and reading in three children with learning difficulties from Brazilian-English bilingual schools. Method: General data on the development and performance in phonological awareness skills, phonological working memory, access to mental lexicon and reading in three children aged 8 to 9 years, attending the 2nd and 3rd year of elementary school were described; all with at least two years of exposure to bilingual school, especially in literacy. In the evaluation, the protocols CONFIAS, Phonological Working Memory, TENA, RAN and Protocol for Assessment of Reading Comprehension of Expository Texts were applied. Results: The children performed below expectations in terms of phonological processing skills, difficulties in oral reading fluency, as well as in reading comprehension. Conclusion: These results can contribute to the understanding of aspects of written language in the performance of speech therapists with bilingual children, regarding clinical and educational implications, given the scarcity of studies in this area in Brazil.;Introducción: Existe una influencia positiva en el desarrollo del lenguaje cuando hay exposición a un nuevo idioma. Sin embargo, al considerar este contexto en niños con dificultades de aprendizaje, los déficits presentados en el primer idioma se pueden trasladar al aprendizaje del segundo. Objetivo: El objetivo del presente estudio fue caracterizar el desempeño en procesamiento fonológico y lectura en tres niños con dificultades de aprendizaje de escuelas bilingües brasileño-inglés. Método: Se describieron datos generales sobre el desarrollo y desempeño en las habilidades de conciencia fonológica, memoria de trabajo fonológica, acceso al léxico mental y lectura en tres niños de 8 a 9 años de 2º y 3º de primaria; todos con al menos dos años de exposición a la escuela bilingüe, especialmente en alfabetización. En la evaluación se aplicaron los protocolos CONFIAS, Memoria Fonológica de Trabajo, TENA, RAN y Protocolo de Evaluación de la Comprensión Lectora de Textos Expositivos. Resultados: Los niños se desempeñaron por debajo de las expectativas en términos de habilidades de procesamiento fonológico, dificultades en la fluidez de la lectura oral, así como en la comprensión lectora. Conclusión: Estos resultados pueden contribuir a la comprensión de aspectos del lenguaje escrito en el desempeño de logopedas con niños bilingües, en cuanto a implicaciones clínicas y educativas, dada la escasez de estudios en esta área en Brasil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Reading , Phonetics , Multilingualism , Learning Disabilities/etiology , Underachievement , Education, Primary and Secondary , Language Disorders/etiology
3.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 42(spe): e263525, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1386991

ABSTRACT

Este estudo tem como objetivo realizar algumas reflexões sobre as contribuições da(o) psicóloga(o) escolar na educação inclusiva, bem como discutir brevemente acerca das perspectivas futuras da profissão no Brasil. Para tanto, foi realizado um estudo teórico documental de natureza crítico-reflexiva. Foram utilizadas fontes de dados nacionais e internacionais, tais como: livros, artigos de periódicos, páginas eletrônicas, legislações e documentos oficiais. Apresentam-se, neste texto, quatro seções: a) Conhecendo o contexto da educação inclusiva no Brasil: breve percurso histórico e marcos legais; b) Breves reflexões sobre a psicologia escolar e sua interlocução com a educação inclusiva no Brasil; c) Contribuições da(o) psicóloga(o) escolar na educação inclusiva brasileira: dos caminhos trilhados aos desafios; e d) Reflexões finais em torno da atuação da(o) psicóloga(o) escolar na educação inclusiva brasileira: conquistas, desafios e perspectivas futuras. Diante do exposto nessas seções, para que haja escolas inclusivas no país, é necessário confrontar as práticas discriminatórias e criar alternativas que as modifiquem, para que assim a educação inclusiva assuma lugar central nas discussões da comunidade escolar. Para tanto, se reconhece o papel de importância da(o) psicóloga(o) e da escola na superação e modificação da lógica da exclusão. Nessa direção, defende-se que a(o) psicóloga(o) escolar, em sua futura prática profissional, utilize métodos de avaliação para identificar pontos fortes e necessidades das(os) estudantes com deficiência, de maneira que seja possível o desenvolvimento de intervenções, serviços e programas eficazes na promoção de inclusão escolar.(AU)


This study reflects on the contributions brought by the school psychologist to inclusive education, and discuss, albeit briefly, the future prospects of the profession in Brazil. For this purpose, a theoretical-documentary, reflexive-critical study was carried out. Data were collected from national and international sources, such as: books, journal articles, websites, legislation and official documents. This text is divided into four sections: a) The context of inclusive education in Brazil: a brief historical overview and legal milestones; b) Brief reflections on school psychology and its intersection with inclusive education in Brazil; c) Contributions of the school psychologist in Brazilian inclusive education: from the paths taken to the challenges; and d) Final reflections on the performance of the school psychologist in Brazilian inclusive education: achievements, challenges and future prospects. Based on this discussion, inclusive schools can only thrive in the country if we confront discriminatory practices and create alternatives to them, thus placing inclusive education in the center of school community debates. In such a process, the psychologist and the school play an important role in overcoming and changing this logic of exclusion. In this regard, the school psychologist in their future professional practice must use assessment methods to identify the strengths and needs of students with disabilities, so that they can develop effective interventions, services and programs to promote school inclusion.(AU)


Este estudio pretende hacer algunas reflexiones sobre las contribuciones del(la) psicólogo(a) escolar en la educación inclusiva, así como discutir brevemente sobre las perspectivas futuras de la profesión en Brasil. Para ello, se realizó un estudio teórico-documental, de carácter reflexivo-crítico. Se utilizaron fuentes de datos nacionales e internacionales, como libros, artículos de revistas, páginas electrónicas, legislación y documentos oficiales. Este texto está dividido en cuatro secciones: a) Conocer el contexto de la educación inclusiva en Brasil: breve recorrido histórico e hitos legales; b) Breves reflexiones sobre la psicología escolar y su interlocución con la educación inclusiva en Brasil; c) Contribuciones del(la) psicólogo(a) escolar en la educación inclusiva brasileña: de los caminos recorridos a los desafíos; y d) Reflexiones finales en torno a la actuación del(la) psicólogo(a) escolar en la educación inclusiva brasileña: logros, desafíos y perspectivas de futuro. Teniendo en cuenta estos apartados, la existencia de escuelas inclusivas en el país está condicionada al enfrentamiento de las prácticas discriminatorias y la creación de alternativas que las cambien, para que la educación inclusiva ocupe un lugar central en las discusiones de la comunidad escolar. Por ello, se reconoce el importante papel del(la) psicólogo(a) y de la escuela en la superación y cambio de la lógica de la exclusión. En esta dirección, se defiende que del(la) psicólogo(a) escolar en su futura práctica profesional utilice métodos de evaluación para identificar los puntos fuertes y las necesidades de los(las) alumnos(as) con discapacidad, de manera que sea posible el desarrollo de intervenciones.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Psychological Theory , Psychology , Psychology, Educational , Acting Out , Mainstreaming, Education , Play and Playthings , Professional Practice , Research , Social Isolation , Social Problems , Child , Child Welfare , Public Health , Adolescent , Early Intervention, Educational , Education, Primary and Secondary , Discrimination, Psychological , Education , Empathy , Social Discrimination , Technology Addiction , Human Rights , Learning Disabilities
4.
Audiol., Commun. res ; 27: e2584, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355714

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo verificar a associação entre o desempenho em leitura de crianças e adolescentes e a presença de queixas escolares, habilidade auditiva de ordenação temporal e motivação escolar. Métodos estudo observacional analítico transversal, com amostra de conveniência composta por 36 participantes. Os instrumentos de coleta foram questionário de caracterização, Critério de Classificação Econômica do Brasil, avaliação auditiva, testes de Memória para Sons Verbais, Não Verbais em Sequência, Padrão de Frequência e de Duração, Desempenho Escolar, as Provas de Avaliação dos Processos de Leitura e a Escala para Avaliação da Motivação Escolar Infantojuvenil. A variável resposta deste estudo foi "processos de leitura". Os testes Qui-quadrado de Pearson e Exato de Fisher foram utilizados para as análises de associação. Resultados as análises de associação revelaram que a maioria dos participantes com alteração nas tarefas de leitura apresentou, também, adequação da ordenação temporal simples e inadequação da ordenação temporal complexa. Não houve associação com significância estatística entre o desempenho em leitura e a presença de queixas escolares, habilidade auditiva de ordenação temporal e motivação escolar. Contudo, observou-se que a maioria dos participantes com alteração na leitura apresentou queixa de dificuldades escolares, baixo desempenho acadêmico e motivação escolar média. Conclusão embora não tenha indicado significância estatística na maioria das associações realizadas, o presente estudo evidenciou que há relação entre o desempenho em leitura de crianças e adolescentes e a presença de queixas escolares, habilidade auditiva de ordenação temporal e motivação escolar.


ABSTRACT Purpose To verify the association between reading performance of children and adolescents and the presence of school complaints, hearing ordering ability and school motivation. Methods Cross-sectional observational study with a convenience sample composed of 36 participants. The instruments used were the Sociodemographic and School Characterization Questionnaire, the Economic Classification Criterion of Brazil, the auditory evaluation, the Memory Tests for Verbal and Non-verbal Sounds in Sequence, the Frequency and Duration Pattern Tests, the School Performance Test, the Assessment of Reading Processes and the Scale for Assessing Children's School Motivation. The response variable in this study was the reading process. Pearson's Chi-square and Fisher's Exact tests were used for association analyzes. Results The association analysis revealed that most participants who presented changes in reading tasks also presented adequacy of simple temporal ordering and inadequacy in complex temporal ordering. There was no statistically significant association between reading performance and the presence of school complaints, temporal ordering auditory ability and school motivation. However, it was observed that most participants with reading disorders complained of school difficulties, poor academic performance, average school motivation, adequacy of simple temporal ordering and inadequacy of complex temporal ordering. Conclusion Although it did not show statistical significance in most of the associations performed, the present study showed that there is an relationship between the reading performance of children and adolescents and the presence of school complaints, temporal ordering auditory ability and school motivation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Reading , Auditory Perception/physiology , Speech Perception/physiology , Underachievement , Hearing Tests/methods , Learning Disabilities/diagnosis , Motivation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Study
5.
Rev. cienc. cuidad ; 19(3): 21-31, 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1397139

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Identificar las actitudes hacia la discapacidad en universitarios de Popayán, Co-lombia. Material y método: Estudio descriptivo correlacional de cohorte transversal, con un muestreo por conveniencia aplicado a 276 estudiantes. Se utilizó un instrumento validado por Novo et al. (1), con un alfa de Cronbach superior a ,75 donde se diferencian tres compo-nentes relacionados con las actitudes de estudiantes. En el manejo estadístico se identificó la normalidad de la muestra y se aplicaron estadísticas descriptivas de tendencia central y dispersión; la relación entre las variables se realizó con la estadística de Pearson (p<,05). Resultados: Se encontró una actitud positiva frente a la discapacidad, estadísticamente sig-nificativa (p=,052); esta se relacionó con las intenciones de los estudiantes de vincularse con los procesos de discapacidad. También se evidenció que las mujeres tienen una mayor actitud hacia las personas con discapacidad. Sin embargo, se encontró que desde la percepción de los universitarios, en la institución faltan programas con los que se les prepare hacia la inclusión educativa. Conclusión: La actitud positiva se manifestó en mayor medida en las mujeres. Por otra parte, aunque la intención de ayuda a las personas con discapacidad está presente, se puede observar que los estudiantes no se visualizan con una discapacidad. Con respecto a la norma social es notoria una carencia de acciones por parte de las instituciones universitarias, así como de programas orientados a la población con discapacidad


Objective: Identify the attitudes towards disability in university students in Popayan-Colom-bia. Material and method: Descriptive correlational and cross-sectional study, with conven-ience samplings applied on 276 students. The instrument validated by Novo-Corti et al. was used, with a Cronbach's alpha over 0,75 differentiating three components related with student attitudes. In the statistical analysis the normality of the sample was identified and descriptive statistics of central tendency and dispersion were applied; the relationship between the vari-ables was measured with the Pearson correlation coefficient (p<,05). Results: A statistically significant positive attitude towards disability was found (p=,052); this was related to the intentions of students to engage in disability processes. It was also evidenced that women have a better attitude towards people with disabilities. However, it was found that, from the perspective of students, the university needs programs for educational inclusion. Conclusion: A positive attitude was shown to a greater extent in women. On the other hand, although the intention of helping people with disabilities is present, students do not visualize themselves with a disability. Regarding the social norm, it is notorious that there is a lack of action from university institutions, as well as programs orientated to people with disabilities.Keywords: Education; Disabilities; Inclusion; Attitude; Students.Rev. cienc. cuidad. 2022;19(3):21-31decreto 1421 del 29 de agosto de 2017, en el cual se re-glamenta la educación inclusiva y la atención educativa a la población con discapacidad. Estos dos marcos normativos permiten establecer los lineamientos y parámetros para el acceso de las per-sonas con discapacidad a la educación, repercutiendo directamente en la comunidad que los alberga en las di-námicas institucionales, que para este caso se relaciona con la educación superior. Además, se ha logrado establecer que la discapacidad no es una limitación para participar activamente en la sociedad. La restricción corresponde a las barreras que la sociedad implanta al promover la estigmatización y la exclusión, actitudes negativas que propician barreras que obstaculizan el acceso a la atención médica, la edu-cación, el empleo, los derechos cívicos y las oportuni-dades de socialización (3).


Objetivo: Identificar atitudes em relação à deficiência em estudantes universitários em Popayán, Colômbia. Material e método: Estudo de coorte transversal correlacional descri-tivo, com amostragem de conveniência aplicada a 276 alunos. Utilizou-se um instrumento validado pelo Novo-Corti et al. com um alfa de Cronbach maior que 0,75, onde três compo-nentes relacionados às atitudes dos alunos são diferenciados. No manejo estatístico, foram identificadas as normalidades dos dados e foram aplicadas estatísticas descritivas de tendên-cia central e dispersão; a relação entre as variáveis foi feita com a estatística de Pearson (p<0,05). Resultados: Verificou-se uma atitude positiva em relação à deficiência, estatistica-mente significante (p=0,052); isso foi relacionado às intenções dos alunos de se relacionarem com os processos de deficiência. Também ficou evidente que as mulheres têm uma atitude maior em relação às pessoas com deficiência. No entanto, verificou-se que, a partir da per-cepção dos universitários, a instituição carece de programas com os quais estão preparados para a inclusão educacional. Conclusão: A atitude positiva se manifestou em maior medida nas mulheres. Por outro lado, embora a intenção de ajudar pessoas com deficiência esteja pre-sente, pode-se observar que os alunos não se visualizam com deficiência. No que diz respeito à norma social, há notória falta de ações por parte das instituições universitárias, bem como programas voltados à população com deficiência


Subject(s)
Attitude , Disabled Persons , Students , Education , Learning Disabilities
6.
J. Phys. Educ. (Maringá) ; 33: e3329, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385990

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Nas últimas décadas o uso da Teoria de Resposta ao Item (TRI) tem sido implementada devido à complexidade dos cálculos estatísticos que permite analisar com profundidade testes educacionais, questionários e listas de itens aplicados em diferentes áreas como a psicometria, ranking esportivo e pedagogia. A partir dessa premissa este estudo teve como objetivo verificar a adequabilidade das tarefas motoras do KTK analisando o grau de dificuldade e parâmetro de discriminação de cada tarefa motora. Participaram do estudo 385 crianças de 5 a 14 anos. O instrumento avaliado foi o KTK (Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder), composto por quatro tarefas motoras: trave de equilíbrio, saltos monopedais, saltos laterais e transposição de plataformas. As análises foram conduzidas a partir dos dados brutos adquiridos em cada tarefa motora. A fim de verificar a estrutura fatorial da matriz teórica subjacente ao teste, foi realizada uma análise fatorial exploratória seguida da análise fatorial confirmatória. Os parâmetros de dificuldade e discriminação de cada tarefa motora foram analisados a partir do modelo de resposta gradual, fundamentado na teoria de resposta ao item (TRI). Os resultados corroboram com a estrutura fatorial sugerida na versão original do KTK, apresentando apenas um fator, chamado de coordenação motora. Os indicadores da Análise Fatorial Confirmatória (AFC) foram aceitáveis, indicando boa qualidade do modelo ajustado para a amostra. Conclui-se que a análise de TRI evidenciou diferenças nos parâmetros de dificuldade e de discriminação entre as tarefas motoras do KTK, demonstrando a importância de considerar uma ponderação na criação de tabelas normativas de avaliações motoras.


ABSTRACT In the last decades, the use of Item Response Theory (IRT) has been implemented due to the complexity of statistical calculations that allows for in-depth analysis of educational tests, questionnaires and lists of items applied in different areas such as psychometry, sports ranking and pedagogy. Based on this premise, this study aimed to verify the suitability of the KTK motor tasks analyzing the degree of difficulty and discrimination parameters of each motor task. A total of 385 children aged 5 to 14 years participated in the study. The instrument evaluated was the KTK (Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder), consisting of four motor tasks: balance beam, single-pedal jumps, side jumps and platform transposition. Analyzes were conducted from the raw data acquired in each motor task. In order to verify the factor structure of the theoretical matrix underlying the test, an exploratory factor analysis was performed, followed by a confirmatory factor analysis. The difficulty and discrimination parameters of each motor task were analyzed using the gradual response model, based on the Item Response Theory (IRT). The results corroborate the factor structure suggested in the original version of the KTK, presenting only one factor, called motor coordination. The AFC indicators were acceptable, indicating good quality of the model adjusted for the sample. It is concluded that the IRT analysis evidenced differences in the parameters of difficulty and discrimination between the KTK motor tasks, demonstrating the importance of considering a weighting in the creation of normative tables of motor assessments.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Physical Education and Training/methods , Task Performance and Analysis , Motor Activity , Motor Skills , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Evaluation Study , Postural Balance , Speed Meters , Social Discrimination/psychology , Learning Disabilities/diagnosis
7.
Afr. j. disabil. (Online) ; 11(NA): 1-9, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1373724

ABSTRACT

Background: Despite objective arguments for inclusive education, there is a dearth of mechanisms to reduce dropouts amongst disabled learners in the extant literature. Thus, this article is one of the outputs of a study, which was conducted after a consistent observation of dwindling numbers of disabled learners who succeed in basic education in South Africa. Of late, the dropout rate increased because of adherence to lock down regulations amidst the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This triggered the need for research on co-creating interventions to mitigate the rate of dropouts amongst disabled learners. Objective: The article explores underlying obstacles that induce school dropouts for disabled learners amidst and post-COVID-19 and postulates interventions accordingly. Methods: Descriptive-narrative research upheld reality as emerging from empirical experiences of parents and guardians of disabled children, heads of primary and secondary schools, social workers, the Department of Social Development and Basic Education, and provincial associations for disabled persons that focus on children. Lived experience-based opinions were obtained from provinces with different economic growth, namely, Limpopo and Gauteng. Forty-one in-depth one-on-one interviews and two focus group discussions used Google Meet. The collected data were analysed using Creswell's qualitative data analysis framework (steps) and Atlas.ti.8. Results: The findings show a consistent pattern that the COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated the parents and guardians' fear of exposing and risking their learners to the health crisis. Based on the parents and guardians' narrative, mainstream school administrations discriminate and are unwilling to enrol disabled learners. Furthermore, the narrative from the school leadership shows that teachers use exclusive teaching and learning methods for the enrolled disabled learners because of ignorance, misconception, misunderstanding, misinterpretation of disability, disability inclusion, and reasonable accommodation. Conclusion: Based on the finding, it is clear that dropouts amongst disabled learners can be alleviated by using a systematic multi-stakeholder local community-based intervention approach. This, therefore, implies that government authorities and agencies should incorporate disability into mainstream policies that guide planning, budgeting, staffing, and mobilisation of other resources. This would ideally enhance the provision of learning opportunities to disabled learners whilst supporting their diverse educational needs without dichotomies set by 'ability and disability', or normal and abnormal. In this manner, inclusive education can contribute to the educational success of disabled learners through developing sustainability and resilience amongst disabled learners.


Subject(s)
Student Dropouts , Disabled Persons , Early Intervention, Educational , Psychosocial Intervention , COVID-19 , Learning Disabilities
8.
African Journal of Disability ; 11: 1-11, 2022. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1397039

ABSTRACT

It is estimated that over 75.0% of households in sub-Saharan Africa are involved in agriculture, and the majority of the poor in rural areas rely on agriculture for their livelihoods. One billion people living with disabilities in low- and middle-income countries are argued to make up the poorest of the poor, yet to our knowledge, no literature has captured the livelihood of people living with disabilities in the context of farming in Nigeria, specifically northern Nigeria where most of the households are involved in agriculture and related activities. Objectives: This article reports on findings from a study that sought to understand disability in the context of northern Nigerian farming, with a particular focus on the role and lived experiences of people living with disabilities working in the agricultural sector. Method: A survey questionnaire was developed and captured the experiences of 1067 people living with disabilities working in the agricultural sector across five states (Adamawa, Bauchi, Jigawa, Kaduna and Yobe) in northern Nigeria. Results: Findings indicate that people with disabilities are actively participating in agricultural activities for several reasons, which specifically included 'forced to and for survival'. When participants reported needing care, this was predominantly provided by family members. Findings also showed that participants with disabilities experienced several economic and sociocultural challenges because of their impairments. Conclusion: This study adds to the very limited literature on farmers living with disabilities in sub-Saharan Africa and so highlights the need for more research to be conducted with farmers living with disabilities in Nigeria, particularly female farmers living with disabilities. These will provide more evidence pertaining to the experiences of farmers living with disabilities in order to provide effective disability- and gender-inclusive agricultural and entrepreneurship programs in Nigeria. Contribution: The results of this research reveal important insights relating to the experiences of farmers living with disabilities in northern Nigeria, which can contribute to informing future developmental projects to achieve effective inclusion and actively benefit people living with disabilities.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Social Discrimination , Farmers , Learning Disabilities , Nigeria
9.
African Journal of Disability ; 11: 1-13, 2022. Figures, Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1397038

ABSTRACT

Physical rehabilitation interventions address functional deficits caused by impairments that affect someone's performance. Whilst rehabilitation is important, it is assumed that these services are either minimal or nonexistent in low-resource settings. Our data expand on the data from the Situation Assessment of Rehabilitation in the Republic of Rwanda report to describe rehabilitation services and who access them at public and semiprivate facilities (primarily funded by the private sector).Objectives: This article describes the use of the outpatient physical rehabilitation services across nine health facilities, the characteristics of adults attending these health facilities and some of the facilitators and barriers they encounter when attending rehabilitation. Method: Data were collected between September and December 2018 from the heads of departments and adult patients attending outpatient rehabilitation services funded by the government, international nongovernmental organizations or faith-based organizations. Results: Two hundred and thirteen adults were recruited from nine facilities. There is a sixfold difference in the number of rehabilitation personnel between public and semiprivate hospitals in these facilities' catchment areas. However, most participants were recruited at public facilities (186 [87%]), primarily with physical disorders. Patients reported that family support (94%) was the most crucial facilitator for attending rehabilitation, whilst transportation cost (96%) was a significant barrier. Conclusion: Rehabilitation service availability for Rwandan adults with disabilities is limited. Whilst family support helps patients attend rehabilitation, transportation costs remain a significant barrier to people attending rehabilitation. Strategies to address these issues include developing triage protocols, training community health workers and families. Contribution: Data on rehabilitation service provision in Rwanda and most African countries are either non-existent or very limited. These data contain important information regarding the services provided and the people who used them across different health facilities (public versus private) and urban versus rural settings). To improve rehabilitation service provision, we first need to understand the current situation. These data are an important step to better understanding rehabilitation in Rwanda


Subject(s)
Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine , Adult , Health Facilities , Learning Disabilities , Rwanda , Ambulatory Care
10.
African Journal of Disability ; 11: 1-8, 2022. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1397040

ABSTRACT

Society places people with physical disabilities acquired during adulthood in disadvantaged positions, especially when they cannot participate in activities like their non-disabled counterparts. The situation can be worse for individuals who acquire disabilities during adulthood, where they have to learn to cope with the adulthood-acquired physical disabilities. Objectives: This study aimed to identify the types of physical disabilities acquired during adulthood and their causes and explore how participants defined their disabilities and the coping strategies they used. Methods: The study used a phenomenological research design. Five adults (three women, two men) with adulthood-acquired disabilities were purposefully selected from a rural area in Limpopo, South Africa. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis was used to generate themes about coping strategies study participants used. Results: The results show four types of adulthood-acquired disabilities amongst the participants: visual impairment, paraplegia, weakened muscles which led to bilateral amputation, loss of function on both hands and legs. Participants' meanings of their physical adulthood-acquired disabilities ranged from a punishment, pain, not a bother, black magic, to results of doing wrong things to someone. In coming to terms with their adulthood-acquired disabilities, participants used problem- and emotion-focused strategies. Four themes from the participants' responses were spiritual support, social support, substance dependency, access to health and rehabilitation services. Conclusion: The study contributes to understanding the experiences of individuals who acquired disabilities in adulthood, how they define their disabilities and the divergent coping strategies they use. This study established that participants used problem-focused, positive emotion-focused and negative emotion-focused coping strategies.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Flatfoot , Adult , Community Support , Learning Disabilities , Rural Population , Life Change Events
11.
African Journal of Disability ; 11(1): 1-7, 28/10/2022. Figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1399088

ABSTRACT

Transport is a known national barrier for people with disabilities in South Africa. It is similarly identified as a barrier in learnerships and economic opportunity programmes. This article discusses the extent to which transport is a barrier during learnerships for students with disabilities. The Department of Transport administered an online evaluation questionnaire to a random sample of students with disabilities. Results were coded in terms of 'barriers to access' and 'barriers to participation'. The data were organised into themes. The collated evidence is discussed in this article. The findings demonstrated that transport barriers were present in different modes of transport and different parts of the travel chain. However, the findings also demonstrated the negative impact of transport on the learnership experience and economic opportunities. The findings indicated that inaccessible transport is an integral cause of learnership incompletion for students with disabilities, where the universal accessibility of both transport and the built environment are a prerequisite need. Most students with disabilities reported that transport was not a barrier to learnership participation or that problems with transport could be resolved. Nevertheless, it was one of the identified barriers that negatively affected learnership participation experiences. It was a significant barrier to learnership completion for students with the most severe experience of disability. The sample consisted of only 32 students and a high number of unspecified responses. Evidence from other studies indicates that transport for all persons with disabilities remains a barrier warranting further examination, because public transport has remained inaccessible for over 23 years. Further research is required to verify this study and to investigate learnership cost­benefit for all students


Subject(s)
Axonal Transport , Dams , Students, Public Health , Health of the Disabled , Learning Disabilities , United States Office of Economic Opportunity , Sensilla
12.
Ciênc. cogn ; 26(2): 370-386, 31 dez. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353867

ABSTRACT

As Funções Executivas (FE) podem ser definidas como um grupo complexo e integrado de recursos cognitivos que permitem ao sujeito efetuar comportamentos voltados a fins previamente decididos. Alterações nessas habilidades, preditoras de uma boa prática acadêmica, podem desencadear dificuldades no processo de aprendizagem de crianças. Logo, objetivou-se apurar a relação entre FE e dificuldades de aprendizagem em crianças com idades entre 7 e 11 anos de ambos os sexos, atendidas em um centro especializado nessa demanda para o público infantil. Foram utilizadas as ferramentas Five Digit Test(FDT) e um questionário sociodemográfico para a coleta de dados. Foram feitos estudos estatísticos descritivos e correlacionais por meio do software SPSS para Windows, a partir dos quais descrevemos correlações significativas entre os componentes executivos 'Controle Inibitório' e 'Flexibilidade Cognitiva' e as dificuldades de aprendizagem, o que nos indica a importância destes para a execução acadêmica, bem como a relevância de métodos de avaliação das FE na primeira fase escolar, para assim prevenir/minimizar o impacto dessas dificuldades no curso do aprendizado. Pontua-se que foram descobertos impasses normativos para correção de erros no teste aplicado, criando limitações na pesquisa, assim, propõe-se uma ampliação de normatizações.


Executive Functions (FE) can be defined as a complex and integrated group of cognitive resources that allow the subject to perform behaviors aimed at previously decided ends. Changes in these skills, predictors of good academic practice, can trigger difficulties inthe learning process of children. Thus, the objective was to investigate the relationship between EF and learning difficulties in children aged between 7 to 11 years of both sexes, attended at a specialized center in this demand for children. Five Digit Test (FDT) tools and a sociodemographic questionnaire were used for data collection. Descriptive and correlational statistical studies were carried out using PSS for Windows software, from which we describe significant correlations between the executive components 'Inhibitory Control' and 'Cognitive Flexibility' and the learning disabilities, which indicates the importance of these for academic performance, as well as the relevance of EF assessment methods in the first school phase, in order to prevent/minimize the impact of these difficulties on the learning course. It is pointed out that normative impasses were found to correct errors in the applied test, creating limitations in the research, thus, an expansion of norms is proposed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Executive Function/physiology , Learning Disabilities/physiopathology , Socioeconomic Factors
13.
Rev. ABENO ; 21(1): 1574, dez. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1370778

ABSTRACT

Trezentos é um método de ensino e aprendizagem que procura despertar o olhar do estudante para o colega com dificuldades de aprendizagem, promovendo a colaboração entre os estudantes. O objetivo desse estudoé relatar a aplicação do método trezentos na disciplina de Fisiologia e comparar o desempenho dos estudantes, antes e depois do método. Participaram 13estudantes que foram divididos, mediantesorteio, em 3 grupos. Os grupos eram compostos de um estudanteque possuía notas acima da média, em uma avaliação prévia, e 3 ou 4 estudantes que apresentaram notas abaixo da média. Esses grupos se encontraram em horários extraclasse duas vezes por semana durante três semanas. Nesses encontros os estudantes com maiores médias auxiliavam os demais em atividades que eram direcionadas pelo professor da disciplina. Ao final dos encontros uma nova avaliação foi realizada. Os dados foram tabulados e analisados por meio do teste t pareado. Foi verificado que todos os estudantes conseguiram aumentar suas médias em comparação com as notas da primeira avaliação. Dessa forma, conclui-se que o método pode apresentar benefícios no desempenho dos estudantes, bem como estimular a aprendizagem colaborativa (AU).


Three Hundred is a teaching and learning method that seeks to awaken the eyes of the student towards the colleague with learning difficulties, promoting collaboration between students. The objective of this work is to report the application of the Three Hundred method in the discipline of physiology and to compare the performance of students before and after the method. Thirteen students participated in the study and were divided, by lot, into 3 groups. The groups were composed of one student who had above-average grades in a previous assessment and 3 or 4 students who had below-average grades. These groups met in extra classes twice a week for three weeks. In these meetings, students with higher averages helped others in activities that were directed by the discipline's teacher. At the end of the meetings, a new evaluation was carried out. The data were tabulated and analyzed using SPSS version 16. It was found that all students were able to increase their averages compared to the grades of the first assessment. Thus, it is concluded that the method can have benefits in the performance of students, as well as stimulate collaborative learning (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Students, Dental/psychology , Education, Dental/methods , Academic Performance/psychology , Interdisciplinary Placement/methods , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Learning Disabilities
14.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 21(4): 1665-1682, dez. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359952

ABSTRACT

As estratégias de intervenção no âmbito das dificuldades na aprendizagem da leitura constituem o foco deste trabalho. No panorama nacional, a escassez desses recursos educativos, associada ao fraco investimento na sua validação empírica, orientaram o nosso interesse para a análise desta temática. O recente programa Ainda Estou a Aprender (AEA) é uma ferramenta que tem como objetivo avaliar e intervir na aprendizagem da leitura, mas não se conhecem estudos que atestem a sua eficácia. Neste contexto, desenvolvemos um estudo com 44 alunos do 2º ano de escolaridade com dificuldades na aprendizagem da leitura, que distribuímos aleatoriamente por dois grupos, experimental e controle, no sentido de medir o impacto do programa AEA na fluência leitora. Ao grupo experimental foi aplicado o AEA, individualmente ou em pequeno grupo, em 18 sessões de 30 minutos durante seis semanas. O grupo de controle não seguiu o programa. O desempenho dos dois grupos foi monitorizado em três momentos (pré-teste, pós-teste e follow-up). Os resultados demonstram que os alunos do grupo experimental registaram um desempenho manifestamente superior na fluência (h2= .30), assumindo-se como uma prova da eficácia da intervenção. (AU)


Intervention strategies in the context of difficulties in learning to read are the focus of this work. In the national panorama, the scarcity of these educational resources, associated with the low investment in their empirical validation, guided our interest in analyzing this theme. The recent program "I'm Still Learning" is a tool that aims to assess and intervene in learning to read, but there are no known studies attesting to its effectiveness. In this context, we developed a study with 44 2nd grade students with difficulties in learning to read, which we randomly distributed into two groups, experimental and control, as to measure the impact of the program on reading fluency. The "I'm Still Learning" was applied to the experimental group, individually or in a small group, in 18 sessions of 30 minutes during six weeks. The control group did not follow the program. The performance of both groups was monitored at three times (pre-test, post-test and follow-up). The results demonstrate that the students in the experimental group registered a manifestly superior performance in fluency (h2 = .30), assuming this as a proof of the effectiveness of the intervention. (AU)


Las estrategias de intervención en el contexto de las dificultades para aprender a leer son el foco de este trabajo. En el panorama nacional, la escasez de estos recursos educativos, asociada a la baja inversión en su validación empírica, orientó nuestro interés por analizar este tema. El reciente programa "Todavía estoy aprendiendo" es una herramienta que tiene como objetivo evaluar e intervenir en el aprendizaje de la lectura, pero no se conocen estudios que atesten su eficacia. En este contexto, desarrollamos un estudio con 44 alumnos de segundo año con dificultades para aprender a leer, que distribuimos aleatoriamente en dos grupos, experimental y control, para medir el impacto del programa en la fluidez lectora. El "Todavía estoy aprendiendo" se aplicó al grupo experimental, individualmente o en grupo reducido, en 18 sesiones de 30 minutos, durante seis semanas. El grupo de control no siguió el programa. El desempeño de ambos grupos se controló en tres momentos (preprueba, posprueba y seguimiento). Los resultados demuestran que los estudiantes del grupo experimental registraron un desempeño manifiestamente superior en fluidez (h2 = .30), asumiendo esto como prueba de la efectividad de la intervención. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Reading , Learning Disabilities , Case-Control Studies , Education, Primary and Secondary , Evaluation of the Efficacy-Effectiveness of Interventions
15.
Aval. psicol ; 20(2): 241-252, abr.-jun. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1285441

ABSTRACT

Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo principal investigar evidências de validade discriminante para o Desenho da Família Cinética. Pretendeu também analisar a influência de variáveis sociodemográficas, bem como a frequência e capacidade de discriminação de cada item de análise dessa técnica projetiva. Participaram 112 crianças de 9 a 12 anos pertencentes a dois grupos critério, sendo 80 da amostra normativa e 32 da amostra clínica (com problemas de aprendizagem). Os instrumentos utilizados foram o Desenho da Família Cinética, sua folha de correção e as Matrizes Progressivas e Coloridas de Raven. Os dados foram analisados por meio de estatísticas descritivas e inferenciais com o auxílio do software SPSS. Os principais resultados mostraram que a variável sociodemográfica Idade gerou efeito nos resultados obtidos; houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos-critério, corroborando para as evidências de validade discriminante; e apenas 38,46% dos itens de análise obtiveram diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos critério. (AU)


This study aimed to investigate evidence of discriminant validity for the Kinetic Family Drawing test. It also intended to analyze the influence of sociodemographic variables, to evaluate the frequency and discriminatory capacity of each analysis item of this projective technique. Participants were 112 children from 9 to 12 years of age, belonging to two criterion groups, 80 from the normative sample and 32 from the clinical sample (with learning problems). The instruments used were the Kinetic Family Drawing test, its correction sheet and Raven's Progressive and Colored Matrices. Data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics using the SPSS software. The main results showed that the sociodemographic variable age influenced the results obtained; there was a statistically significant difference between the criterion groups, corroborating the evidence of discriminant validity; while only 38.46% of the analysis items obtained statistically significant difference between the criterion groups. (AU)


Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo principal investigar las evidencias de validez discriminatorias para el Dibujo de la Familia Kinética. También se pretendía analizar la influencia de las variables sociodemográficas, así como evaluar la frecuencia y la capacidad discriminatoria de cada ítem de análisis de esta técnica proyectiva. Participaron un total de 112 niños de 9 a 12 años, pertenecientes a dos grupos de criterios, 80 de la muestra normativa y 32 de la muestra clínica (con problemas de aprendizaje). Los instrumentos utilizados fueron el Dibujo de la Familia Kinética, su hoja de corrección y las Matrices Progresivas Coloreadas de Raven. Los datos se analizaron mediante estadística descriptiva e inferencial con la ayuda del software SPSS. Los principales resultados mostraron que la variable sociodemográfica edad tuvo un efecto sobre los resultados obtenidos; hubo una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre los grupos de criterios, corroborando la evidencia de validez discriminante; y solo el 38.46% de los ítems de análisis obtuvieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los grupos de criterios. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Projective Techniques , Learning Disabilities/psychology , Psychometrics , Socioeconomic Factors , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Age Factors
16.
Suma psicol ; 28(1): 1-9, Jan.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280689

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Current cognitive theories suggest that mathematical learning disabilities may be caused by a dysfunction in the ability to represent non-symbolic numerosity (non-symbolic skills), by impairments in the ability to associate symbolic numerical representations with the underlying analogic non-numerical magnitude representation (symbolic and numerical mapping skills), or by a combination of both deficits. The aim of this study was to contrast the number sense hypothesis and the access deficit hypothesis, to identify the possible origin of the varying degrees of arithmetical difficulties. Method: We compared the performance of children with very low arithmetic achievement (VLA), children with low arithmetical achievement (LA), and typically achieving peers (TA), in non-symbolic, symbolic and numerical mapping tasks. Intellectual capacity and working memory were also evaluated as control variables. The sample comprised 85 Chilean children (3rd to 6th grades) from the Public General Education System. Data were included in several covariance analyses to identify potentially different behavioural profiles between groups. Results: The results showed deficits in both non-symbolic numerosity processing and number-magnitude mapping skills in children with VLA, whereas children with LA exhibited deficits in numerical mapping tasks only. Conclusions: These findings support the hypothesis of impaired non-symbolic numerical representations as the cognitive foundation of severe arithmetical difficulties. Low arithmetical achievement, in contrast, seems to be better explained by defective numerical mapping skills, which fits the access deficit hypothesis. The results presented here provide new evidence regarding the cognitive mechanisms underlying the different behavioural profiles identified in children with varying degrees of arithmetical difficulties.


Resumen Introducción: Teorías cognitivas actuales sugieren que las dificultades en el aprendizaje de las matemáticas pueden ser causadas por una disfunción en la habilidad de representar las numerosidades no-simbólicas (habilidades no-simbólicas), por dificultades en la habilidad de asociar los números con representaciones analógicas, no-simbólicas, subyacentes a la magnitud (habilidades simbólicas y de mapeo) o por una combinación de ambos déficits. El objetivo de este estudio fue contrastar la hipótesis de un déficit en el sentido del número y la hipótesis del déficit en el acceso, para identificar el posible origen de los diferentes grados de dificultades en aritmética. Método: Se comparó el desempeño de niños con muy bajo rendimiento en aritmética (VLA), niños con bajo rendimiento en aritmética (LA) y pares con rendimiento típico (TA), en tareas numéricas no-simbólicas, simbólicas y de mapeo. También se evaluaron la capacidad intelectual y la memoria de trabajo como variables de control. La muestra estuvo conformada por 85 niños chilenos (de 3ero a 6to grado) del Sistema de General de Educación Pública. Los datos fueron incluidos en varios análisis de covarianza para identificar posibles perfiles conductuales diferentes entre grupos. Resultados: Los resultados mostraron que los niños con VLA tienen déficits tanto en el procesamiento no-simbólico de la numerosidad como en las habilidades de mapeo entre los símbolos numéricos y la magnitud analógica que estos representan. Los niños con LA solo mostraron déficits en las habilidades de mapeo. Conclusiones: Estos hallazgos sustentan la hipótesis de que un daño en las representaciones numéricas no-simbólicas subyace a las dificultades severas en aritmética. Por el contrario, el bajo rendimiento en aritmética parece explicarse por deficientes habilidades de mapeo, lo cual se ajusta mejor a la hipótesis del déficit en el acceso. Los anteriores resultados, ofrecen nuevas evidencias respecto a los mecanismos cognitivos que subyacen a los perfiles conductuales identificados en los niños con diferentes grados de dificultades en aritmética.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Learning Disabilities , Child , Dyscalculia
17.
Psicol. Educ. (Online) ; (52): 54-63, jan.-jun. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1340391

ABSTRACT

Este artigo é resultado de uma pesquisa bibliográfica sobre a produção nacional a respeito do encaminhamento de crianças em processo de escolarização a profissionais de saúde, como expressão do processo de medicalização da educação. Realizou-se levantamento bibliográfico na base de dados Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde-Psicologia Brasil/BVS-Psi com os termos: “medicalização”, “medicalização da educação”, “professores e encaminhamentos”, “queixa escolar”, “medicalização na rede pública”, “queixa escolar e medicalização” e “medicalização da queixa escolar”. Selecionaram-se os textos que apresentavam uma perspectiva crítica a respeito dos processos de medicalização da/na educação. Os resultados desta pesquisa indicam que os encaminhamentos são realizados partindo-se de uma concepção de que as dificuldades apresentadas pelas crianças no processo de escolarização são de caráter individual e, dessa forma, passíveis de resolução no campo da saúde. Entretanto, há uma marcante falta de comunicação entre esses serviços e a escola, o que contribui para o recurso ao uso de drogas psicotrópicas como uma das principais medidas para intervir junto às queixas escolares, em detrimento do recurso a novas práticas institucionais da escola.


This article is the result of a bibliographical research on the Brazilian bibliographical production regarding the referral of children in schooling process to health professionals, as an expression of the medicalization process of education. A bibliographical survey was carried out in the database of the Virtual Library of Health/ Psychology Brazil/BVS-Psi under the terms: “medicalization”, “medicalization of education”, “teachers and referrals”, “School complaint and medicalization” and “medicalization of the school complaint”. The researchers selected the texts that presented a critical perspective regarding the medicalization processes of the education. The results indicate that the production of referrals rely on a conception that the difficulties presented by the children in the schooling process, as the school identifies them, are individual in nature and, therefore, can be resolved in the health field. However, there is a lack of communication between these services and the school, which contributes to the use of psychotropic drugs as one of the main measures to intervene with school complaints, rather than making new school practices in order to enhance the schooling process.


Este artículo es el resultado de una investigación bibliográfica sobre la producción brasileña acerca de la derivación de niños en proceso de escolarización a profesionales de salud, como expresión del proceso de medicalización de la educación. Se realizó una revisión de la literatura en la base de datos Biblioteca Virtual en Salud-Psicología Brasil / BVS-Psi con los términos: “medicalización”, “medicalización de la educación”, “profesores y derivaciones”, “queja escolar”, “medicalización en la red pública”, “Queja escolar y medicalización” y “medicalización de la queja escolar “. Se seleccionaron los textos que presentaban una perspectiva crítica acerca de los procesos de medicalización de la educación. Los resultados de esta investigación indican que las derivaciones se realizan partiendo de una concepción de que las dificultades presentadas por los niños en el proceso de escolarización son de carácter individual y de esa forma susceptibles de resolución en el campo de la salud. Sin embargo, hay una marcada falta de comunicación entre estos servicios y la escuela, lo que contribuye al uso de drogas psicotrópicas como una de las principales medidas para intervenir junto a las quejas escolares, en detrimento del recurso a nuevas prácticas institucionales de la escuela.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Child Health , Education, Primary and Secondary , Medicalization , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Child , Learning Disabilities/psychology , Learning Disabilities/drug therapy
18.
Psicol. Educ. (Online) ; (52): 44-53, jan.-jun. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1340390

ABSTRACT

Fundamentada na perspectiva da psicologia escolar e educacional crítica, a presente pesquisa, realizada em um município baiano, objetivou conhecer as concepções de educadores e psicólogos sobre o encaminhamento das crianças com queixa escolar para serviços de saúde e investigar as modalidades de atendimento a esse fenômeno. De caráter qualitativo e exploratório, foi realizada uma entrevista semiestruturada, aplicada de forma individual, totalizando 12 participantes, cujas respostas foram organizadas em categorias temáticas relacionadas aos objetivos da pesquisa. Nas entrevistas, prevaleceu a concepção de que questões de ordem educacional e também familiares/sociais justificam os problemas de escolarização das crianças, cujo encaminhamento aos serviços de saúde tem sido a alternativa possível, mas não a ideal para avaliação e intervenção. Espera-se que os referidos achados suscitem novos estudos sobre o tema investigado, especialmente no município em questão, que favoreça o fortalecimento dos pressupostos da psicologia escolar/educacional crítica no meio acadêmico. Ressalta-se ainda a necessidade de fomentar essa discussão de forma intersetorial na rede municipal de educação e saúde, problematizando a compreensão e atendimento às queixas escolares, e que se possam produzir práticas psicológicas e educativas críticas e emancipadoras.


Deemed on the Psychology Schooling and Education perspective, this study was carried out in a city located in Bahia. The Study aimed to understand the conceptions of the Psycologists and Educators about the routing of children with scholar complain to health services and this study also purposed to assess the treatment models related to this phenomenon. From a qualitative and exploratory nature, semi structered interviews were conceded individually with 12 subjects, whose responses were organized into thematical categories related to the objectives of the present research. The data from interviews showed that a comprehension concept about educational and social/family issues justifies the children scholarization problems and the routing to health devices is seen as a possible alternative although this isn't the best evaluation nor intervention. It is expected that the data found here might entail other studies about the problem that was investigated on this paper and it's also expected that this study strenghs the Psychology Schooling and Education assumptions at academic level. It is necessary to emphasize the need to promote this discussion intersectorally in the municipal network, problematizing the understanding and attendance to scholar complain in order to promote, critical and emancipatory pschological practices.


Fundada en la perspectiva de la psicología educativa/escolar crítica, la presente investigación, realizada en una ciudad de Bahia, objetivó conocer las concepciones de educadores y psicólogos sobre el encaminamiento de los niños con queja escolar para servicios de salud e investigar las modalidades de atención a ese fenómeno. De carácter cualitativo y exploratorio, se realizaron encuestas con educadoras y psicólogas, totalizando 12 participantes cuyas respuestas fueron organizadas en categorías temáticas relacionadas a los objetivos de la investigación. En las entrevistas, prevaleció la concepción de que cuestiones de orden educacional y también familiares/sociales justifican los problemas de escolarización de los niños, cuyo encaminamiento a los servicios de salud ha sido la alternativa posible, pero no la ideal para evaluación e intervención. Se espera que estos hallazgos susciten nuevos estudios sobre el tema investigado, especialmente en el municipio en cuestión, que favorezca el fortalecimiento de los presupuestos de la psicología escolar / educativa crítica en el medio académico. Se resalta la necesidad de fomentar esa discusión de forma intersectorial en las escuelas públicas municipales, problematizando la comprensión y atención a las quejas escolares, y que se puedan producir prácticas psicológicas y educativas críticas y emancipadoras.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adult , Middle Aged , School Health Services , Students/psychology , Problem Behavior/psychology , Learning Disabilities/psychology , Child Health , Adolescent Health , Qualitative Research
19.
aSEPHallus ; 16(31): 1-13, nov.2021-abr.2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254887

ABSTRACT

O presente artigo descreve os resultados de uma pesquisa-intervenção de orientação psicanalítica por meio do relato de um estudo de caso de um aluno do ensino fundamental de uma escola pública da rede estadual de ensino da cidade de Itabira-MG. O estudante enfrenta vários entraves na aprendizagem que dificultam sua alfabetização e seu processo de letramento. O caso visa demonstrar a contribuição de um dos instrumentos utilizados nessa pesquisa que é o diagnóstico clínico-pedagógico (DCP), cuja intervenção realiza a leitura daquilo que o menino ensinaao educador sobre sua subjetividade e a forma como suas particularidades podem interferir na relação com o saber. Os resultados obtidos na pesquisa permitiram perceber como a angústia de castração, os temores infantis e as fobias podem se constituir no fenômeno da inibição intelectual e comprometer toda a trajetória escolar do aluno.


Impasses dans l'apprentissage et inhibition intellectuelle: Cet article décrit les résultats d'une recherche-intervention psychanalytique à travers le rapport d'une étude de cas d'un élève dans la primaire d'une école publique de la ville d'Itabira-MG. L'élève fait face à plusieurs obstacles dans l'apprentissage qui entravent son processus d'alphabétisation. L'étude de cas vise à démontrer l'apport d'un méthode d'investigation utilisé dans cette recherche, qui est le diagnostic clinico-pédagogique (DCP), dont l'idée est d'apprendre avec le garçon ce qu'il enseigne à l'éducateur sur sadifficulté et compris les éléments de subjectivité que sont en tant d' interférer dans sa relation avec l'apprentissage. Les résultats obtenus dans la recherche ont permis de percevoir comment l'angoisse de castration, les peurs infantiles et les phobies peuvent être à l'origine de l'inhibition intellectuelle, en compromettant toute la trajectoire scolaire de l'élève.


mpasses in learning and intellectual inhibition: This article describes the results of a psychoanalytic-oriented research-intervention through the report of a case study of an elementary school student at a public school in the state school in the city of Itabira-MG. The student faces several obstacles in learning, which hinder his literacy and his literacy process. The aim is to demonstrate the contribution of one of the instruments used in this research, which is the clinical-pedagogical diagnosis (CDP). It's intervention reads what the boy teaches the educator about his subjectivity and how his particularities can interfere in the relationship with knowledge. The results obtained by the research allowed us to perceive how castration anxiety, infantile fears and phobias can constitute the phenomenon of intellectual inhibition and compromise the student's entire school journey.


Subject(s)
Psychoanalysis , Shyness , Education, Primary and Secondary , Learning , Learning Disabilities
20.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 15(2): 267-274, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286189

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT. Brazilian students' mathematical achievement was repeatedly observed to fall below average levels of mathematical attainment in international studies such as PISA. Objective: In this article, we argue that this general low level of mathematical attainment may interfere with the diagnosis of developmental dyscalculia when a psychometric criterion is used establishing an arbitrary cut-off (e.g., performance<percentile 10) may result in misleading diagnoses. Methods: Therefore, the present study evaluated the performance of 706 Brazilian school children from 3rd to 5th grades on basic arithmetic operations addition, subtraction, and multiplication. Results: In line with PISA results, children presented difficulties in all arithmetic operations investigated. Even after five years of formal schooling, less than half of 5th graders performed perfectly on simple addition, subtraction, or multiplication problems. Conclusions: As such, these data substantiate the argument that the sole use of a psychometric criterion might not be sensible to diagnose dyscalculia in the context of a generally low performing population, such as Brazilian children of our sample. When the majority of children perform poorly on the task at hand, it is hard to distinguish atypical from typical numerical development. As such, other diagnostic approaches, such as Response to Intervention, might be more suitable in such a context.


RESUMO. O desempenho em matemática dos estudantes brasileiros mostra-se consistentemente abaixo da média mundial em estudos internacionais como o PISA. Objetivo: No presente artigo, argumenta-se que um baixo desempenho geral na matemática, a exemplo dos estudantes brasileiros, pode interferir no diagnóstico de discalculia do desenvolvimento quando um critério puramente psicométrico é usado para estabelecer um ponto de corte arbitrário (por exemplo, desempenho<percentil 10), o que pode resultar em falsos diagnósticos. Métodos: Para tanto, investigou-se o desempenho de 706 estudantes brasileiros do 3º ao 5º ano escolar em operações aritméticas básicas de adição, subtração e multiplicação. Resultados: De forma consistente com os resultados do PISA, as crianças apresentaram dificuldades em todas as operações aritméticas investigadas. Mesmo após cinco anos de escolarização formal, menos da metade dos estudantes do 5º ano foi capaz de completar a tarefa envolvendo cálculos simples de adição, subtração ou multiplicação. Conclusões: Dessa forma, os resultados reforçam o argumento de que o uso exclusivo de um critério psicométrico pode não ser apropriado para o diagnóstico de discalculia no contexto de uma população com desempenho geral baixo, como no caso crianças brasileiras da presente amostra. Quando a maioria das crianças tem um desempenho aquém do esperado, torna-se difícil distinguir o desenvolvimento numérico atípico do típico. Portanto, outras abordagens diagnósticas, como Resposta à Intervenção, podem ser mais adequadas em tal contexto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diagnosis , Dyscalculia , Learning Disabilities , Mathematics
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL