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1.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 274-279, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971136

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the distribution and drug resistance of pathogens in oral mucositis associated with chemotherapy in hospitalized patients with malignant hematopathy, so as to provide scientific evidences for rational selection of antibiotics and infection prevention and control.@*METHODS@#From July 2020 to June 2022, 167 patients with malignant hematopathy were treated with chemical drugs in the Department of Hematology, Hainan Hospital, and secretions from oral mucosal infected wounds were collected. VITEK2 COMPECT automatic microbial identification system (BioMerieux, France) and bacterial susceptibility card (BioMerieux) were used for bacterial identification and drug susceptibility tests.@*RESULTS@#A total of 352 strains of pathogens were isolated from 167 patients, among which 220 strains of Gram-positive bacteria, 118 strains of Gram-negative bacteria and 14 strains of fungi, accounted for 62.50%, 33.52% and 3.98%, respectively. The Gram-positive bacteria was mainly Staphylococcus and Streptococcus, while Gram-negative bacteria was mainly Klebsiella and Proteus. The resistance of main Gram-positive bacteria to vancomycin, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin was low, and the resistance to penicillin, cefuroxime, ampicillin, cefotaxime, erythromycin and levofloxacin was high. The main Gram-negative bacteria had low resistance to gentamicin, imipenem and penicillin, but high resistance to levofloxacin, cefotaxime, cefuroxime, ampicillin and vancomycin. The clinical data of oral mucositis patients with oral ulcer (severe) and without oral ulcer (mild) were compared, and it was found that there were statistically significant differences in poor oral hygiene, diabetes, sleep duration less than 8 hours per night between two groups (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Gram-positive bacteria is the main pathogen of oral mucositis in patients with malignant hematopathy after chemotherapy. It is sensitive to glycopeptide antibiotics and aminoglycosides antibiotics. Poor oral hygiene, diabetes and sleep duration less than 8 hours per night are risk factors for oral mucositis with oral ulcer (severe).


Subject(s)
Humans , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Cefuroxime , Levofloxacin , Oral Ulcer/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Ampicillin , Penicillins , Cefotaxime , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gentamicins , Stomatitis/drug therapy
2.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 1024-1030, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013217

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics, common pathogens in children with vulvovaginitis. Methods: This was a retrospective cases study. A total of 3 268 children with vulvovaginitis were enrolled, who visited the Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine from January 2009 to December 2019. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the age of <7, 7-<10 and 10-18 years. Patients were also divided in to 4 groups according to the season of first visit. The pathogen distribution characteristics of infective vulvovaginitis were compared between the groups. Their clinical data were collected and then analyzed by χ2 test. Results: The were 3 268 girls aged (6.2±2.5) years. There were 1 728 cases (52.9%) aged <7 years, 875 cases (26.8%) aged 7-<10 years, and 665 cases (20.3%) aged 10-18 years. Of these cases, 2 253 cases (68.9%) were bacterial vulvovaginitis, 715 cases (21.9%) were fungal vulvovaginitis and 300 cases (9.2%) were vulvovaginitis infected with other pathogens. Bacterial culture of vaginal secretions was performed in 2 287 cases, and 2 287 strains (70.0%) of pathogens were detected, of which the top 5 pathogens were Streptococcus pyogenes (745 strains, 32.6%), Haemophilus influenzae (717 strains, 31.4%), Escherichia coli (292 strains, 12.8%), Staphylococcus aureus (222 strains, 9.7%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (67 strains, 2.9%). Regarding different age groups, H.influenzae was the most common in children under 7 years of age (40.3%, 509/1 263), S.pyogenes (41.9%, 356/849) was predominantly in children aged 7 to 10 years, and E.coli was predominant in children aged 10 to 18 years (26.3%, 46/175). Susceptibility results showed that S.pyogenes was susceptible to penicillin G (610/610, 100.0%), ceftriaxone (525/525, 100.0%), and vancomycin (610/610, 100.0%); the resistance rates to erythromycin and clindamycin were 91.9% (501/545)and 90.7% (495/546), respectively. For H.influenzae, 32.5% (161/496) produced β-elactamase, and all strains were sensitive to meropenem (489/489, 100.0%) and levofloxacin (388/388, 100.0%), while 40.5% (202/499) were resistant to ampicillin. Among E.coli, all strains were sensitive to imipenem(100%, 175/175). The resistance rates of E.coli to levofloxacin and ceftriaxone were 29.1% (43/148) and 35.1% (59/168), respectively. A total of 48 strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were isolated with a proportion of 28.3% (45/159) in 3 268 patients. The results of drug susceptibility test showed that all MRSA strains were sensitive to linezolid 100.0% (40/40), vancomycin (45/45, 100.0%), and tigecycline (36/36, 100.0%); the resistance rates of MRSA to penicillin G, erythromycin and clindamycin were 100% (45/45), 95.6% (43/45) and 88.9% (40/45), respectively. All methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) strains were sensitive to oxacillin (114/114, 100.0%), linezolid (94/94, 100.0%), vancomycin (114/114, 100.0%), and tigecycline (84/84, 100.0%); it's resistance rates to penicillin G, erythromycin and clindamycin were 78.1% (89/114), 59.7% (68/114) and 46.5% (53/114), respectively. The drug resistance rate of MSSA to penicillin G, erythromycin and clindamycin were lower than those of MRSA (χ²=11.71,19.74,23.95, respectively, all P<0.001). Conclusions: The age of consultation for pediatric infectious vulvovaginitis is mainly around 6 years. The most common pathogens are S.pyogenes, H.influenzae and Escherichia coli. Third generation cephalosporins can be used as the first choice of empirical anti-infection drugs. However, the results of drug susceptibility should be considered for targeted treatment.


Subject(s)
Female , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Clindamycin/therapeutic use , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Tigecycline/therapeutic use , Linezolid/therapeutic use , Levofloxacin/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Erythromycin/therapeutic use , Methicillin , Penicillin G/therapeutic use , Escherichia coli , Drug Resistance, Bacterial
3.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 257-264, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971523

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the inhibitory effects of levofloxacin (LEV) combined with cellulase against bacille CalmetteGuerin (BCG) biofilms in vitro.@*METHODS@#The mature growth cycle of BCG biofilms was determined using the XTT method and crystal violet staining. BCG planktonic bacteria and BCG biofilms were treated with different concentrations of LEV and cellulose alone or jointly, and the changes in biofilm biomass were quantified with crystal violet staining. The mature BCG biofilm was then treated with cellulase alone for 24 h, and after staining with SYTO 9 and Calcofluor White Stain, the number of viable bacteria and the change in cellulose content in the biofilm were observed with confocal laser scanning microscopy. The structural changes of the treated biofilm were observed under scanning electron microscopy.@*RESULTS@#The MIC, MBC and MBEC values of LEV determined by broth microdilution method were 4 μg/mL, 8 μg/mL and 1024 μg/mL, respectively. The combined treatment with 1/4×MIC LEV and 2.56, 5.12 or 10.24 U/mL cellulase resulted in a significant reduction in biofilm biomass (P < 0.001). Cellulase treatments at the concentrations of 10.24, 5.12 and 2.56 U/mL all produced significant dispersion effects on mature BCG biofilms (P < 0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#LEV combined with cellulose can effectively eradicate BCG biofilm infections, suggesting the potential of glycoside hydrolase therapy for improving the efficacy of antibiotics against biofilmassociated infections caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Levofloxacin/pharmacology , Gentian Violet/pharmacology , BCG Vaccine/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Biofilms , Cellulases/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
4.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 952023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1515283

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los neumatoceles y las bulas pulmonares son lesiones que se observan en los niños casi siempre asociadas a neumonías infecciosas, aunque sus causas pueden ser diversas. La importancia clínica de estos procesos radica en el peligro de crecimiento progresivo, que puede comprometer las funciones respiratoria y cardiovascular. Objetivo: Describir las experiencias derivadas del proceso de diagnóstico por imágenes y del tratamiento invasivo de casos atendidos. Presentación de los casos: Desde finales de 2021 y durante un período de un año, se atendieron, en la unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos del Hospital Pediátrico Universitario de Cienfuegos, cinco niños con neumonías extensas, que desarrollaron bulas de gran tamaño varios días después del tratamiento antimicrobiano adecuado. Estas necesitaron drenaje y aspiración percutáneos debido a su magnitud y a la presencia de síntomas cardiovasculares. Conclusiones: Las bulas que aparecieron como complicación de la neumonía en el niño pueden presentarse con una frecuencia no despreciable, y hay que mantenerse atentos a su evolución, porque, a diferencia de los neumatoceles, pueden crecer progresivamente y comprometer las funciones respiratoria y cardiovascular. El drenaje percutáneo y aspiración continua por cinco días resultó un método seguro y eficaz para tratar estos procesos(AU)


Introduction: Pneumoatoceles and pulmonary bullae are lesions that are observed in children almost always associated with infectious pneumonia, although their causes may be diverse. The clinical importance of these processes lies in the danger of progressive growth, which can compromise respiratory and cardiovascular functions. Objective: To describe the experiences derived from the imaging process and the invasive treatment of treated cases. Presentation of the cases: Since the end of 2021 and for a period of one year, five children with extensive pneumonia were treated in the pediatric intensive care unit of the University Pediatric Hospital of Cienfuegos, who developed large bullae several days after appropriate antimicrobial treatment. The bullae required percutaneous drainage and aspiration due to their magnitude and the presence of cardiovascular symptoms. Conclusions: The bulla that appeared as a complication of pneumonia in the child can occur with a not negligible frequency, and it is necessary to be attentive to their evolution, because, unlike pneumoatoceles, can grow progressively and compromise respiratory and cardiovascular functions. Percutaneous drainage and continuous aspiration for five days was a safe and effective method to treat these processes(AU)


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Pleural Effusion/drug therapy , Pneumonia/complications , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Asthenia/etiology , Tachycardia/complications , Residence Characteristics , Blister/etiology , Back Pain , Cough , Thoracentesis/methods , COVID-19 , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Drainage/instrumentation , Levofloxacin/therapeutic use , Anemia
5.
Rev. med. Chile ; 150(8): 1000-1009, ago. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431862

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The over prescription of antibiotics for acute respiratory infections is a major public health problem worldwide. Aim: To evaluate the frequency of prescription of antibiotics for non-pneumonia acute respiratory infections in private outpatient clinics in individuals without chronic diseases or immunosuppression. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All medical records of adult consultants in a national network of private ambulatory medical centers during May 2018 whose primary diagnosis corresponded to acute respiratory infections not pneumonia (ICD10) were identified and retrospectively analyzed, excluding those with chronic respiratory conditions or states of immunosuppression. RESULTS: Of the 38,072 consultants (aged 36 years, 63% women) who met this criterion, 54% (n = 20,499) received a prescription for at least one antibiotic. The diagnoses that most frequently received this prescription were acute bronchitis (28.7%), acute sinusitis (16.5%) and acute tonsillitis (16.2%). The most frequently prescribed antibiotic globally was azithromycin (37.4%), followed by amoxicillin (20.1%) and amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid (17.7%). Levofloxacin prescription reached 12.5% of total prescriptions. CONCLUSIONS: An antibiotic was prescribed in more than half of the non-pneumonia outpatient acute respiratory infections. Azithromycin was the most prescribed antibiotic, while levofloxacin exceeded 10% of prescriptions. These results reinforce the need to implement an antibiotic prescription surveillance system at the outpatient level.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Outpatients , Drug Prescriptions , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Acute Disease , Retrospective Studies , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Levofloxacin/therapeutic use , Amoxicillin/therapeutic use
6.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18630, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364418

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of the present investigation was to design, optimize and characterize the gastro retentive floating levofloxacin tablets and perform in-vivo evaluation using radiographic imaging. The floating tablets were prepared by using polymers i.e hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC-K4M) and carbopol-940 individually and in combination by nonaquous granulation method. All the Formulations were evaluated for swelling index (S.I), floating behavior and in-vitro drug release kinetics. The compatibility study of levofloxacin with other polymers was investigated by FTIR, DSC, TGA and XRD. Results from FTIR and DSC revealed no chemical interaction amongst the formulation components. The optimized formulation (F11) showed floating lag time (FLT), total floating time (TFT) swelling index (S.I) of 60 sec, >16h and approximately 75 %, respectively. Moreover, F11 showed zero order levofloxacin release in simulated gastric fluid over the period of 6 h. X-ray studies showed that total buoyancy time was able to delay the gastric emptying of levofloxacin floating tablets in rabbits for more than 4 hours. In conclusion the optimized formulation (F11) can be used for the sustained delivery of levofloxacin for the treatment of peptic ulcer.


Subject(s)
Drug Liberation , Peptic Ulcer/classification , Tablets/pharmacology , X-Rays/adverse effects , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Drug Compounding/instrumentation , Process Optimization/analysis , Levofloxacin/analysis , Gastric Emptying/drug effects
7.
Philippine Journal of Ophthalmology ; : 15-22, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-978901

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study compared the safety outcomes of two intracameral fluoroquinolone antibiotics, moxifloxacin and levofloxacin, as prophylaxis treatment in eyes that underwent uncomplicated cataract surgery. @*Methods@#This is a prospective, double-masked, randomized, interventional, single-center clinical trial. Eyes with visually-significant cataracts underwent phacoemulsification and received preservative-free intracameral 0.5% moxifloxacin [58 eyes (M group)] or 0.5% levofloxacin [56 eyes (L group)] at the end of the surgery as antibiotic prophylaxis. The following safety parameters were evaluated postoperatively at Day 1, Week 1 and Month 1: central retinal thickness (CRT), macular volume (MV), central corneal thickness (CCT), and endothelial cell density (ECD). In-between group comparison was made at each of the 4 study visits using Student’s t-test. @*Results@#Both M and L groups had similar baseline characteristics. There were no significant differences in CRT, MV, CCT and ECD between the 2 groups at each time point in the study. There were no significant differences in the mean changes in CRT, MV, CCT and ECD from baseline to final visit between the 2 groups. No study-related adverse events were observed during the study period. @*Conclusion@#Intracameral application of preservative-free 0.5% moxifloxacin and 0.5% levofloxacin appear to have similar safety outcomes when used as antibacterial prophylaxis among eyes undergoing cataract surgery. Based on the results, both fluoroquinolone agents are potentially suitable options for endophthalmitis chemoprophylaxis.


Subject(s)
Levofloxacin , Moxifloxacin , Fluoroquinolones
8.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 89(1): 10-16, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282992

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: Las recomendaciones de esquemas para erradicar Helicobacter pylori se encuentran ampliamente dis- ponibles. Este es un patógeno de alta prioridad para búsqueda y desarrollo de nuevos y efectivos tratamientos. Objetivo: Descri- bir la respuesta terapéutica con terapia de rescate para infección por H. pylori, Hospital Escuela, Tegucigalpa, diciembre 2016-abril 2017. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo longitudinal retrospectivo en pacientes consecutivos con sintomatología gastrointestinal e in- fección conirmada por H. pylori. Mediante el registro del Servi- cio de Gastroenterología, Departamento de Medicina Interna, se identiicaron pacientes positivos por H. pylori. Se registraron datos sociodemográicos, clínicos y diagnósticos. El tratamiento de res- cate brindado fue, vía oral por 10 días: levoloxacina 500 mg/día, esomeprazol 40 mg dos veces/día, amoxicilina 1 gr dos veces/ día. La conirmación de la erradicación fue realizada 4-8 semanas postratamiento. Se registró información sobre la adherencia al tra- tamiento y los efectos secundarios. Resultados: Se analizaron 30 casos; 56.7% (17) pacientes nuevos y 43.3% (13) pacientes con al menos un fracaso. En el 16.0% (5) no hubo conirmación de erra- dicación; se obtuvo una tasa de erradicación del 72.0% (18/25), IC95% 50.6-87.9; siendo 78.5% (11/14) en pacientes nuevos ver- sus 63.6% (7/11) en fracasos previos, IC95% -9.6-54.0, p=0.318. Discusión: La tasa de erradicación en este grupo de pacientes no fue satisfactoria. Actualmente el tratamiento con levoloxacina es recomendado como terapia de segunda línea o de rescate en regiones con baja o alta resistencia a la claritromicina, aunque la resistencia a quinolonas ha aumentado en los últimos años en va- rios países...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Helicobacter pylori/pathogenicity , Gastrointestinal Diseases/complications , Levofloxacin/therapeutic use , Amoxicillin/therapeutic use
9.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 35(3): 351-361, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138793

ABSTRACT

Resumen Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) es un bacilo gramnegativo microaerófilo, capaz de colonizar la mucosa gástrica. Este microorganismo infecta a más de la mitad de la población mundial, por lo que se ha convertido en la infección bacteriana más común. La prevalencia de la infección y de las enfermedades asociadas a ella es alta, sobre todo en países en vías de desarrollo. El tratamiento recomendado para la erradicación es la triple terapia; sin embargo, su eficacia ha disminuido por el desconocimiento del patrón de susceptibilidad bacteriano por parte del personal médico y dada la aparición de cepas resistentes. La resistencia en H. pylori se asocia con la capacidad de adaptación de la bacteria a ambientes hostiles y al uso de los antibióticos. En Colombia, existen reportes acerca de que H. pylori presenta resistencia a amoxicilina, metronidazol, claritromicina, furazolidona, levofloxacina y tetraciclina. Los estudios del patrón de susceptibilidad determinaron que la frecuencia de resistencia de H. pylori es variable y demuestran la falta de datos en la mayoría del territorio del país. Sobre la base de lo anterior, el objetivo de esta revisión es describir los porcentajes de resistencia de H. pylori a los antibióticos amoxicilina, metronidazol, claritromicina, furazolidona, levofloxacina y tetraciclina, usados en el tratamiento de la infección en los estudios realizados en Colombia.


Abstract Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a microaerophilic gram-negative bacillus that colonizes the gastric mucosa. It infects more than half the world's population, making it the most common bacterial infection. The prevalence of infection and associated diseases is high in developing countries. The recommended treatment for its eradication is triple therapy; however, its efficacy has decreased due to the lack of knowledge of the bacterial susceptibility pattern among the medical staff and the emergence of resistant strains. H. pylori susceptibility is associated with the bacteria's ability to adapt to hostile environments and the use of antibiotics. In Colombia, it has been reported that H. pylori is resistant to amoxicillin, metronidazole, clarithromycin, furazolidone, levofloxacin, and tetracycline. Studies on the susceptibility pattern have determined that the frequency of H. pylori susceptibility is variable and demonstrate the lack of data in most of the Colombian territory. With this in mind, the objective of this review is to describe the percentage of resistance to amoxicillin, metronidazole, clarithromycin, furazolidone, levofloxacin and tetracycline, which are used for the treatment of H. pylori infection, according to studies conducted in Colombia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tetracycline , Efficacy , Helicobacter pylori , Clarithromycin , Levofloxacin , Furazolidone , Amoxicillin , Metronidazole , Prevalence , Disease Susceptibility , Disease Eradication
10.
Brasília; s.n; 20 maio 2020. 23 p.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, BRISA, PIE | ID: biblio-1097388

ABSTRACT

O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referente ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática. Foram encontrados 16 artigos e 7 protocolos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Disease Progression , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Prednisolone/therapeutic use , Sulbactam/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Clarithromycin/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Levofloxacin/therapeutic use , Ampicillin/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use
11.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(2): 111-116, abr. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125050

ABSTRACT

La resistencia bacteriana a ciertos antibióticos condiciona el éxito del tratamiento erradicador de la infección gástrica por Helicobacter pylori y es motivo de creciente preocupación a nivel mundial. Dada la escasa evidencia publicada en Argentina sobre este tema, nuestro objetivo fue investigar factores asociados a la persistencia de H. pylori post-tratamiento antibiótico. Se determinó la frecuencia de fracaso terapéutico en 81 pacientes con gastritis por H. pylori tratados en nuestro Servicio y sometidos al estudio de urea en aire espirado para confirmar la erradicación de la infección. La edad promedio fue 58±12 y 43.2% eran hombres. La frecuencia de fracaso terapéutico fue 17.3%. De los dos esquemas más utilizados, la frecuencia de fracaso fue mayor con claritromicina + amoxicilina que con levofloxacina + amoxicilina (25% vs. 6.6%, p=0.04). Como factores de riesgo investigamos las siguientes variables: edad, género, síntomas, tabaquismo, consumo de anti-inflamatorios, diabetes, obesidad, tipo y duración de tratamiento. En el análisis univariado, el uso de esquemas con claritromicina y el género masculino se asociaron significativamente a persistencia de la infección [OR 4.2 (1.1-15.6) y 5.2 (1.1-26.4)]. En el análisis multivariado, el uso de esquema con claritromicina permaneció asociado al fracaso terapéutico [OR 5.38 (1.1-29.5)]. Concluimos que la inclusión de claritromicina en el esquema terapéutico para la gastritis por H. pylori se asoció a mayor fracaso terapéutico. Este fracaso es atribuible a alta prevalencia de resistencia de H. pylori a ese antibiótico en la población atendida en nuestro hospital y cuestiona las prácticas habituales de tratamiento en nuestro medio.


Antibiotic resistance may hinder the efficacy of eradication therapy against Helicobacter pylori infection and it has become a major concern worldwide. Due to the relatively scarce evidence published in Argentina on this topic, our aim was to describe factors associated with H. pylori persistence after antibiotic treatment. The therapeutic failure rate was described among 81 patients with H. pylori gastritis treated in our Hospital with a post-treatment urea breath test to determine successful eradication. Mean age was 58 ± 12 and 43.2% were male subjects. H. pylori persistence was observed in 17.3% of subjects. Therapeutic failure was more common among patients receiving clarithromycin + amoxicillin therapy that among those receiving levofloxacin + amoxicillin (25% vs. 6.6%, p = 0.04). The following variables were assessed: age, gender, referral symptoms, smoking, anti-inflammatory use, diabetes, obesity, treatment type and duration. Clarithromycin-based therapy and male gender were associated with infection persistence on univariate analysis [OR 4.2 (1.1-15.6) and 5.2 (1.1-26.4)]. On multivariate analysis, clarithromycin-based was associated with infection persistence [5.38 (1.1-29.5)]. We conclude that clarithromycin-based therapy is significantly associated with treatment failure. This failure may be due to an elevated prevalence of H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin in the population under study and raises the question on the utility of such therapeutic alternative.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Helicobacter Infections/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Gastritis/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Argentina , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter Infections/microbiology , Treatment Failure , Clarithromycin/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination , Levofloxacin/therapeutic use , Gastritis/microbiology , Amoxicillin/therapeutic use
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 896-898, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008516

ABSTRACT

A new isobenzoisofuran(1) has been isolated from the whole plant of Cassia pumila using various chromatographic techniques, including silica gel, Sephadex, MCI-gel resin, and RP-HPLC, and its structure was determined as 9-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2,2-dimethyl-2H-furo[3,4-g]chromen-6(8H)-one. This compound was also evaluated for its antibacterial activity. The results showed that it had prominent antibacterial activity with MIC_(90) value of(45.2±4.2) μg·mL~(-1) for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) strain. This value was closed to that of levofloxacin [with MIC_(90) value(48.5±4.3) μg·mL~(-1)].


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Benzofurans/pharmacology , Cassia/chemistry , Levofloxacin , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry
13.
Infectio ; 23(4): 405-408, Dec. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1040011

ABSTRACT

Mujer quien inició tratamiento de rescate de segunda línea para Helicobacter pylori con levofloxacina un gramo cada 12 horas, amoxicilina 500 mg cada 8 horas y lansoprazol 40 mg cada 24 horas. Al quinto día de tratamiento manifestó mialgias generalizadas seguido por artralgias y limitación del movimiento en rodillas y codos. Al séptimo día, sin mejora, la paciente suspende la medicación y presenta resolución completa de los síntomas una semana después. No hubo secuelas, ni complicaciones, ni re-exposición al medicamento. El caso fue clasificado como probable, con un puntaje de siete en la escala de Naranjo. Este caso nos recuerda que la administración de fluoroquinolonas puede asociarse con artralgias y artropatía reversible aguda, y debería ser la primera sospecha diagnóstica en pacientes sin comorbilidad.


Woman who initiated second-line rescue therapy for Helicobacter pylori with levofloxacin one gram every 12 hours, amoxicillin 500 mg every 8 hours and lansoprazole 40 mg every 24 hours. On the fifth day of treatment, she manifested generalized myalgia followed by bilateral knee and elbow arthralgia with limitation of movements. On the seventh day, without improvement, the patient discontinues the medication and achieve complete resolution of the symptoms one week later. There were no sequelae, no complications, no re-exposure to the drug. The case was classified as probable attaining a score of seven under the Naranjo's scale. This case reminds us that administration of fluoroquinolones may be associated with arthralgia and acute reversible arthropathy and should be the first diagnostic suspicion in patients without comorbidity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Helicobacter pylori , Arthralgia , Levofloxacin , Fluoroquinolones , Myalgia , Gastritis , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects
14.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(4): 361-366, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055160

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection in Chile remains as a public and private health-care system's challenge, with a prevalence of the infection over 70%. Nowadays, antibiotic treatment of the infection is mandatory to prevent the arising of severe associated diseases but failures in the eradication therapy mainly due to clarithromycin resistance has been observed worldwide and first line eradication therapy seems to be not effective anymore in several geographical areas. Thus, health-care systems are committed to maintain an epidemiological surveillance upon the evolution of the antibiotic resistance of this priority 2 pathogen. OBJECTIVE: This work reports a 10 years surveillance of the primary antibiotic resistance of H. pylori clinical isolates at the Biobío region-Chile, and the evolution of resistance toward amoxicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, metronidazole, and tetracycline among the species. METHODS: H. pylori strains were investigated during the periods 2005-2007 (1435 patients analysed) and 2015-2017 (220 patients analysed) by inoculating a saline homogenate biopsy onto the surface of Columbia agar (Oxoid, Basingstoke, UK) - supplemented with 7% horse red blood cells plus DENT inhibitor (Oxoid, Basingstoke, UK) - following by incubation at 37ºC under 10% CO2 atmosphere for five days. Antibiotic resistance pattern of the isolates was assessed using the disk diffusion test in Müeller-Hinton agar supplemented with 7% horse red blood cells followed by incubation for further three days under 10% CO2 atmosphere. Statistical analysis was done using the SPSS v22 software and P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 41% of 1435 patients were detected to be infected with H. pylori by bacteriological culture in 2005-2007 period, meanwhile 32.7% from 220 patients were also infected in 2015-2017 period. The clinical isolates of H. pylori are mostly susceptible to amoxicillin and tetracycline (both over 98% of strains), but less susceptible to levofloxacin in both periods analysed (over 79% of the strains). On the other hand, metronidazole continuous showing the highest score of resistant isolates (over 40% of resistant strains), although an 18% fewer resistant strains were observed in 2015-2017 period. Clarithromycin, the key antibiotic in eradication therapies, has an increased frequency of resistant strain isolated in the decade (22.5% in 2005-2007 and 29.2% in 2015-2017). Multidrug resistant strains (two, three and four antibiotics) were also detected in both periods with the highest scores for simultaneous resistance to clarithromycin-metronidazole (18%) and clarithromycin-metronidazole-levofloxacin (12.5%) resistant strains. According to gender, the isolates resistant to amoxicillin, clarithromycin and metronidazole were more frequent in female, with a specific increment in amoxicillin and clarithromycin resistance. CONCLUSION: The frequency of clarithromycin resistance (29.2%) detected in 2015-2017 suggests that conventional triple therapy is no longer effective in this region.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A infecção por Helicobacter pylori no Chile permanece como um desafio do sistema de saúde público e privado, com prevalência da infecção acima de 70%. Hoje em dia, o tratamento antibiótico da infecção é obrigatório para prevenir o surgimento de graves doenças associadas, mas falhas na terapia de erradicação, principalmente devido à resistência à claritromicina, têm sido observadas em todo o mundo, e a terapia de erradicação de primeira linha parece não ser mais eficaz em várias áreas geográficas. Assim, os sistemas de saúde estão comprometidos em manter uma vigilância epidemiológica sobre a evolução da resistência aos antibióticos deste patógeno prioritário tipo 2. OBJETIVO: Este trabalho relata uma vigilância de 10 anos da resistência antibiótica primária de isolados clínicos de H. pylori na região do Biobío-Chile, e a evolução da resistência em relação à amoxicilina, claritromicina, levofloxacina, metronidazol e tetraciclina entre as espécies. MÉTODOS: As cepas de H. pylori foram investigadas durante os períodos 2005-2007 (1435 pacientes analisados) e 2015-2017 (220 pacientes analisados) inoculando uma biópsia de homogeneizado fisiológico na superfície do agar Columbia (Oxoid, Basingstoke, Reino Unido) - suplementado com 7% de glóbulos vermelhos do cavalo mais o inibidor de DENTE (Oxoid, Basingstoke, Reino Unido) - seguindo pela incubação em 37ºC a atmosfera de 10% de CO2 por cinco dias. O padrão de resistência aos antibióticos dos isolados foi avaliado utilizando-se o teste de difusão em disco em agar Müeller-Hinton suplementado com 7% de glóbulos vermelhos de cavalo seguidos de incubação por mais três dias a atmosfera de 10% de CO2. A análise estatística foi realizada utilizando-se o software SPSS V22 e os valores de P<0,5 foram considerados estatisticamente significantes. RESULTADOS: Um total de 41% dos 1435 pacientes foram detectados como contaminados por H. pylori pela cultura bacteriológica no período 2005-2007, ao mesmo tempo 32,7% de 220 pacientes foram contaminados igualmente no período 2015-2017. Os isolados clínicos de H. pylori são principalmente suscetíveis à amoxicilina e tetraciclina (tanto mais de 98% das cepas), mas menos suscetíveis à levofloxacina em ambos os períodos analisados (mais de 79% das cepas). Por outro lado, o metronidazol permaneceu mostrando a maior pontuação de resistentes isolados (mais de 40% de cepas resistentes), embora tenham sido observados 18% menos cepas resistentes no período de 2015-2017. A claritromicina, o antibiótico-chave em terapias de erradicação, tem uma frequência aumentada de cepa resistente isolada na década (22,5% em 2005-2007 e 29,2% em 2015-2017). Cepas multirresistentes (dois, três e quatro antibióticos) também foram detectadas em ambos os períodos com os maiores escores de resistência simultânea à claritromicina-metronidazol (18%) e claritromicina-metronidazol-levofloxacina (12,5%) cepas resistentes. De acordo com o sexo, os isolados resistentes à amoxicilina, claritromicina e metronidazol foram mais frequentes no sexo feminino, com incremento específico em amoxicilina e resistência à claritromicina. CONCLUSÃO: A frequência de resistência à claritromicina (29,2%) detectada em 2015-2017 sugere que a terapia tripla convencional não é mais efetiva nesta região.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Helicobacter pylori/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Tetracycline/pharmacology , Population Surveillance , Helicobacter Infections/microbiology , Clarithromycin/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Levofloxacin , Amoxicillin/pharmacology , Metronidazole/pharmacology , Middle Aged
15.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(supl.1): 125-134, mayo 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011461

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. La resistencia a los antibióticos es la principal causa del fracaso del tratamiento contra Helicobacter pylori; la claritromicina y el metronidazol son los antibióticos que generan mayor resistencia. En Colombia, la resistencia primaria a estos dos antibióticos y el uso excesivo de levofloxacina han alcanzado los límites aceptados (13,6, 83 y 16 %, respectivamente). A pesar de ello, se usa el tratamiento empírico combinando estos antibióticos en pacientes en los que ha fallado anteriormente. Objetivo. Determinar la resistencia a los antibióticos en pacientes previamente tratados para H. pylori en Bogotá, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo en el que se evaluó mediante dilución en agar la resistencia a la amoxicilina, la claritromicina, la levofloxacina y el metronidazol en 10 aislamientos provenientes de 5 pacientes con tres o cuatro tratamientos fallidos para H. pylori. La resistencia a los antibióticos se confirmó mediante secuenciación de ADN (Magrogen, Korea). Resultados. Ocho de los aislamientos presentaron resistencia a dos o más antibióticos y todos fueron resistentes a la levofloxacina. Los patrones de sensibilidad de los aislamientos provenientes del antro pilórico y del cuerpo del estómago, fueron diferentes en tres de los pacientes. Conclusión. Hasta donde se sabe, esta es la primera evidencia de resistencia múltiple de H. pylori en Colombia en pacientes previamente tratados. Los resultados evidenciaron las consecuencias del uso de un esquema ineficaz de tratamiento antibiótico y la necesidad de evaluar la sensibilidad a los antibióticos en diferentes sitios anatómicos del estómago. La resistencia múltiple limita el número de antibióticos útiles para erradicar H. pylori.


Abstract Introduction: The main cause for Helicobacter pylori infection treatment failure is antibiotic resistance, where clarithromycin and metronidazole play the main role. In Colombia, primary resistance as a consequence of the use of these two antibiotics and excessive levofloxacin use is above the accepted limit (13.6%, 83%, and 16%, respectively). Despite this fact, empirical therapies that include the combination of these antibiotics are used in patients with previous therapeutic failure. Objective: To determine antibiotic resistance in patients previously treated for H. pylori in Bogotá, Colombia. Materials and methods: We conducted a descriptive study that included ten isolates obtained from five patients with three or four previous failed treatments for H. pylori. Antibiotic resistance to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, and metronidazole was investigated by agar dilution and confirmed by DNA sequencing (Magrogen, Korea). Results: Eight isolates were resistant to two or more antibiotics. All isolates were resistant to levofloxacin. Susceptibility patterns in isolates from the gastric antrum and the body of the stomach were different in three patients. Conclusion: As far as we know, this is the first evidence of multiple H. pylori resistance in Colombia in previously treated patients. Results demonstrated the consequences of using an ineffective antibiotic scheme and the need to assess antibiotic susceptibility in different anatomical sites of the stomach. The consequences of multiple resistance decrease possible antibiotic effectiveness to eradicate H. pylori in the future.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Helicobacter pylori/drug effects , Helicobacter Infections/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Gastritis/microbiology , Biopsy , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Helicobacter pylori/isolation & purification , Helicobacter pylori/genetics , Helicobacter Infections/epidemiology , Gastroscopy , Clarithromycin/therapeutic use , Clarithromycin/pharmacology , Colombia/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Levofloxacin/therapeutic use , Levofloxacin/pharmacology , Gastritis/epidemiology , Genes, Bacterial , Amoxicillin/pharmacology , Metronidazole/therapeutic use , Metronidazole/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
17.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 30(supl.1): S18-S25, 2019. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116305

ABSTRACT

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram negative bacteria that survives in the gastric acid environment. The infection is acquired mainly during childhood. Fifty to 70% of adult population has the infection. However, in the last 10 year, a decrease in the prevalence of this infection has been observed in all age groups, in particular in pediatric population and elderly patients over 60 years old. The evolution of the infection depends on bacterial factors (virulence and toxins) and host immune response. People infected mainly develop gastrointestinal diseases such as gastritis, peptic ulcer and MALT lymphoma. H. pylori infection is the main risk factor of gastric cancer and for that reason, the eradication is recommended if H. pylori has been detected through invasive or non-invasive tests. Among children, eradication is not recommended unless there is a clinical manifestation that merits. H. pylori eradication is recommended in symptomatic adults and there is a controversy about massive eradication in asymptomatic population due to the risk of development of antibiotic resistance. Treatment is based on the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) associated to antibiotics, that should be chosen taking into account the increasing antibiotic resistance, and local availability. Clarithromycin (CLA) and levofloxacin resistance is increasingly high, and CLA-free quadruple therapy schemes are currently recommended for first-line therapy. H. pylori eradication must be confirmed with invasive or non-invasive tests. Second-line therapy based on antibiotics not previously used, PPI high doses and bismuth is recommended.


Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) es una bacteria gramnegativa que sobrevive en el medio ácido gástrico. La infección se adquiere principalmente en la niñez. Un 50 a 70% de la población adulta es portadora, pero en los últimos 10 años, se ha observado una disminución en la prevalencia de infección en todos los grupos etarios, en particular en población pediátrica y mayores de 60 años. La evolución de la infección depende de factores propios de la bacteria (virulencia, toxinas) y de la respuesta inmune del huésped. Los individuos infectados desarrollan principalmente patologías gastrointestinales como gastritis, úlcera péptica y linfoma MALT. La infección por H. pylori es el principal factor de riesgo del cáncer gástrico por lo que se recomienda su erradicación en caso de haberse detectado mediante test invasivo o no invasivo. En niños, no es recomendable la erradicación a menos que exista una manifestación clínica que lo amerite. Se recomienda su erradicación en adultos sintomáticos y existe controversia respecto a la erradicación masiva en población asintomática debido al riesgo de desarrollar resistencia antibiótica. El tratamiento se basa en el uso de inhibidores de la bomba de protones asociado a antibióticos, los cuales deben ser escogidos teniendo en cuenta la tasa de resistencia antimicrobiana y disponibilidad local. La resistencia a claritromicina (CLA) y levofloxacino es creciente, por lo que se recomienda el uso de esquemas de cuadriterapia libre de CLA en esquemas de primera línea. Se recomienda confirmar su erradicación con test no invasivos y retratar con esquema de segunda línea con antibióticos no utilizados previamente, asociado a dosis altas de inhibidores de bomba de protones y sales de bismuto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Helicobacter Infections/drug therapy , Remission Induction , Helicobacter pylori/drug effects , Helicobacter pylori/pathogenicity , Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis , Helicobacter Infections/physiopathology , Age Factors , Clarithromycin/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Drug Therapy, Combination , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Levofloxacin/therapeutic use
18.
Gut and Liver ; : 483-497, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763878

ABSTRACT

Antibiotic resistance is the most important factor leading to the failure of eradication regimens. This review focuses on the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori primary and secondary resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole, amoxicillin, levofloxacin, tetracycline, and multidrug in Vietnam. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Vietnamese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Vietnamese Biomedical databases from January 2000 to December 2016. The search terms included the following: H. pylori infection, antibiotic (including clarithromycin, metronidazole, amoxicillin, levofloxacin, tetracycline, and multidrug) resistance in Vietnam. The data were summarized in an extraction table and analyzed manually. Finally, Excel 2007 software was used to create charts. Ten studies (three studies in English and seven in Vietnamese) were included in this review. A total of 308, 412, 523, 408, 399, and 268 H. pylori strains were included in this review to evaluate the prevalence of H. pylori primary resistance to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, levofloxacin, tetracycline, and multidrug resistance, respectively. Overall, the primary resistance rates of amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, levofloxacin, tetracycline, and multidrug resistance were 15.0%, 34.1%, 69.4%, 27.9%, 17.9% and 48.8%, respectively. Secondary resistance rates of amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, levofloxacin, tetracycline, and multidrug resistance were 9.5%, 74.9%, 61.5%, 45.7%, 23.5% and 62.3%, respectively. In Vietnam, primary and secondary resistance to H. pylori is increasing over time and affects the effectiveness of H. pylori eradication.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amoxicillin , Asian People , Bismuth , Clarithromycin , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Levofloxacin , Metronidazole , Prevalence , Tetracycline , Vietnam
19.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; : 537-544, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762441

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several factors contribute to differences in Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype distribution. We investigated the serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of S. pneumoniae isolated between 2014 and 2016 in Korea. METHODS: We collected a total of 1,855 S. pneumoniae isolates from 44 hospitals between May 2014 and May 2016, and analyzed the serotypes by sequential multiplex PCR. We investigated the distribution of each serotype by patient age, source of the clinical specimen, and antimicrobial resistance pattern. RESULTS: The most common serotypes were 11A (10.1%), followed by 19A (8.8%), 3 (8.5%), 34 (8.1%), 23A (7.3%), and 35B (6.2%). The major invasive serotypes were 3 (12.6%), 19A (7.8%), 34 (7.8%), 10A (6.8%), and 11A (6.8%). Serotypes 10A, 15B, 19A, and 12F were more common in patients ≤5 years old, while serotype 3 was more common in patients ≥65 years old compared with the other age groups. The coverage rates of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV)7, PCV10, PCV13, and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine 23 were 11.8%, 12.12%, 33.3%, and 53.6%, respectively. Of the 1,855 isolates, 857 (46.2%) were multi-drug resistant (MDR), with serotypes 11A and 19A predominant among the MDR strains. The resistance rates against penicillin, cefotaxime, and levofloxacin were 22.8%, 12.5%, and 9.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There were significant changes in the major S. pneumoniae serotypes in the community. Non-PCV13 serotypes increased in patients ≤5 years old following the introduction of national immunization programs with the 10- and 13-polyvalent vaccines.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cefotaxime , Immunization Programs , Korea , Levofloxacin , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Penicillins , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Pneumonia , Serogroup , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Streptococcus , Vaccines
20.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 572-574, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764356

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Levofloxacin , Plasma
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