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1.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e248295, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1431129

ABSTRACT

Este ensaio propõe que a Covid-19 pode operar como um analisador, dentro da perspectiva da análise institucional, iluminando um determinado modo de organização social que promove profundas desigualdades e ameaça a vida em diversos níveis e revelando as condições sociais, institucionais e políticas de produção de sofrimento no corpo profissional de Enfermagem. A pandemia desvelou um conjunto de marcas relacionadas à profissão, agravadas pela crise sanitária, reforçando a naturalização das relações de cuidado atribuídas ao feminino, bem como um conjunto de clivagens e hierarquias internas à profissão a partir da sinergia de marcadores da diferença, como gênero, cor/raça, classe e geração. Além disso, este trabalho mostra a presença de uma necropolítica nas respostas à pandemia que banaliza a vida e permite morrer determinados grupos sociais. A ideia de "profissionais de linha de frente" é criticada em suas metáforas bélicas, mas tomada como figura de linguagem em sua potência para afirmar que existem corpos que, pelas marcas sociais e históricas e pela interdependência do cuidado, são mais presentes e exigidos e, portanto, mais vulneráveis à doença e ao sofrimento dela decorrente.(AU)


The essay proposes that Covid-19 can operate as an analyzer, within the perspective of institutional analysis, illuminating a certain mode of social organization that promotes profound inequalities and threatens life at various levels, revealing the social, institutional and political conditions for the production of suffering in the professional nursing body. The pandemic would unveil a set of marks related to the profession, aggravated by the sanitary crisis, reinforcing the naturalization of the care relations attributed to the feminine, as well as a set of cleavages and internal hierarchies to the profession from the synergy of markers of difference as gender, color/race, class and generation. The work shows the presence of necropolitics in responses to the pandemic, which trivializes life and allows certain social groups to die. The idea of "front-line professionals" is criticized in its war metaphors, but taken as a figure of speech in its potency to affirm that there are bodies that by social and historical marks, and by the interdependence of care, are more present and demanded, and therefore more vulnerable to disease and the resulting suffering.(AU)


El ensayo propone que el Covid-19 puede funcionar como analizador, desde la perspectiva del análisis institucional, revelando las condiciones sociales, institucionales y políticas de producción de sufrimiento de enfermeras. La pandemia revela algunas marcas relacionadas con la profesión, agravadas por la crisis de salud, reforzando la naturalización de la atribución del cuidado a lo femenino y un conjunto de jerarquías internas de la profesión. El trabajo también muestra la presencia de una necropolítica en las respuestas a la pandemia. La idea de "profesionales de primera línea" es criticada, pero tomada como una figura del lenguaje en su potencia para afirmar que hay cuerpos que, por las marcas sociales e históricas y por la interdependencia del cuidado, están más presentes y demandados, y por lo tanto más vulnerables a la enfermedad.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Nursing , Psychological Distress , Gender Identity , Self-Testing , COVID-19 , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pain , Patient Care Team , Patient Discharge , Patients , Politics , Primary Health Care , Psychology , Quality Assurance, Health Care , Quality of Life , Race Relations , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Social Change , Social Isolation , Social Sciences , Socioeconomic Factors , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Women, Working , Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms , Population Characteristics , Nursing Theory , Occupational Risks , Burnout, Professional , Virus Diseases , Vaccines , Nursing Research , Accidents, Occupational , Carrier State , Mental Health , Mortality , Models, Nursing , Occupational Health , Workload , Professional Autonomy , Long-Term Care , Health Care Quality, Access, and Evaluation , Immunization Programs , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Continuity of Patient Care , Feminism , Critical Care , Disaster Vulnerability , Health Risk , Access to Information , Delivery of Health Care , Air Pollution , Health Care Economics and Organizations , Emergencies , Employment , Environment and Public Health , Essential Public Health Functions , Health Status Disparities , Ethics, Professional , Surveillance of the Workers Health , Program of Risk Prevention on Working Environment , Air Contamination Effects , Evidence-Based Nursing , Fear , Remuneration , Early Medical Intervention , Medicalization , Ambulatory Care , Personal Protective Equipment , Psychosocial Support Systems , Occupational Stress , Burnout, Psychological , Patient Care , Caregiver Burden , Models, Biopsychosocial , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Gender Equity , Vaccine Development , Community Resources , Intersectional Framework , Systemic Racism , Social Vulnerability , Humanitarian Crisis , Working Conditions , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Accident Prevention , Health Occupations , Health Services , Health Services Accessibility , Helping Behavior , Hierarchy, Social , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humanism , Life Support Care , Masks , Muscle Tonus , Night Care , Nursing Care , Nursing, Practical , Nursing, Team , Occupational Diseases
2.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e244244, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448957

ABSTRACT

Com os avanços tecnológicos e o aprimoramento da prática médica via ultrassonografia, já é possível detectar possíveis problemas no feto desde a gestação. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a prática do psicólogo no contexto de gestações que envolvem riscos fetais. Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo sob formato de relato de experiência como psicólogo residente no Serviço de Medicina Fetal da Maternidade Escola da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). Os registros, feitos por observação participante e diário de campo, foram analisados em dois eixos temáticos: 1) intervenções psicológicas no trabalho em equipe em consulta de pré-natal, exame de ultrassonografia e procedimento de amniocentese; e 2) intervenções psicológicas em casos de bebês incompatíveis com a vida. Os resultados indicaram que o psicólogo nesse serviço é essencial para atuar de forma multiprofissional na assistência pré-natal para gravidezes de alto risco fetal. Ademais, a preceptoria do residente é relevante para sua formação e treinamento para atuação profissional no campo da psicologia perinatal.(AU)


Face to the technological advances and the improvement of medical practice via ultrasound, it is already possible to detect possible problems in the fetus since pregnancy. The objective of this study was to analyze the psychologist's practice in the context of pregnancies which involve fetal risks. It is a qualitative study based on an experience report as a psychologist trainee at the Fetal Medicine Service of the Maternity School of UFRJ. The records, based on the participant observation and field diary, were analyzed in two thematic axes: 1) psychological interventions in the teamwork in the prenatal attendance, ultrasound examination and amniocentesis procedure; and 2) psychological interventions in cases of babies incompatible to the life. The results indicated that the psychologist in this service is essential to work in a multidisciplinary way at the prenatal care for high fetal risk pregnancies. Furthermore, the resident's preceptorship is relevant to their education and training for professional performance in the field of Perinatal Psychology.(AU)


Con los avances tecnológicos y la mejora de la práctica médica a través de la ecografía, ya se puede detectar posibles problemas en el feto desde el embarazo. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la práctica del psicólogo en el contexto de embarazos de riesgos fetal. Es un estudio cualitativo basado en un relato de experiencia como residente de psicología en el Servicio de Medicina Fetal de la Escuela de Maternidad de la Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). Los registros, realizados en la observación participante y el diario de campo, se analizaron en dos ejes temáticos: 1) intervenciones psicológicas en el trabajo en equipo, en la consulta prenatal, ecografía y los procedimientos de amniocentesis; y 2) intervenciones psicológicas en casos de bebés incompatibles con la vida. Los resultados señalaron como fundamental la presencia del psicólogo en este servicio trabajando de forma multidisciplinar en la atención prenatal en el contexto de embarazos de alto riesgo fetal. Además, la tutela del residente es relevante para su educación y formación para el desempeño profesional en el campo de la Psicología Perinatal.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Psychosocial Intervention , Heart Defects, Congenital , Anxiety , Orientation , Pain , Parent-Child Relations , Parents , Paternity , Patient Care Team , Patients , Pediatrics , Placenta , Placentation , Pregnancy Complications , Pregnancy Maintenance , Prognosis , Psychoanalytic Theory , Psychology , Puerperal Disorders , Quality of Life , Radiation , Religion , Reproduction , Reproductive and Urinary Physiological Phenomena , General Surgery , Syndrome , Congenital Abnormalities , Temperance , Therapeutics , Urogenital System , Bioethics , Physicians' Offices , Infant, Premature , Labor, Obstetric , Pregnancy , Pregnancy, Animal , Pregnancy Outcome , Adaptation, Psychological , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Echocardiography , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Family , Abortion, Spontaneous , Child Rearing , Child Welfare , Mental Health , Family Health , Survival Rate , Life Expectancy , Cause of Death , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Chromosome Mapping , Parental Leave , Mental Competency , Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Recessive , Down Syndrome , Perinatal Care , Comprehensive Health Care , Chemical Compounds , Depression, Postpartum , Neurobehavioral Manifestations , Disabled Children , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Gravidity , Crisis Intervention , Affect , Cytogenetic Analysis , Spirituality , Complicity , Value of Life , Humanizing Delivery , Death , Decision Making , Defense Mechanisms , Abortion, Threatened , Delivery of Health Care , Dementia , Uncertainty , Organogenesis , Qualitative Research , Pregnant Women , Early Diagnosis , Premature Birth , Nuchal Translucency Measurement , Child Mortality , Depression , Depressive Disorder , Postpartum Period , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Techniques, Obstetrical and Gynecological , Ethanol , Ego , Emotions , Empathy , Environment , Humanization of Assistance , User Embracement , Ethics, Professional , Cell Nucleus Shape , Prenatal Nutrition , Cervical Length Measurement , Family Conflict , Family Therapy , Resilience, Psychological , Reproductive Physiological Phenomena , Female Urogenital Diseases and Pregnancy Complications , Gestational Sac , Brief, Resolved, Unexplained Event , Fetal Death , Embryonic and Fetal Development , Multimodal Imaging , Mortality, Premature , Clinical Decision-Making , Pediatric Emergency Medicine , Child, Foster , Freedom , Burnout, Psychological , Birth Setting , Frustration , Sadness , Respect , Psychological Distress , Genetics , Psychological Well-Being , Obstetricians , Guilt , Happiness , Health Occupations , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Maternity , Hospitals, University , Human Development , Human Rights , Imagination , Infections , Infertility , Anencephaly , Jurisprudence , Obstetric Labor Complications , Licensure , Life Change Events , Life Support Care , Loneliness , Love , Medical Staff, Hospital , Intellectual Disability , Morals , Mothers , Narcissism , Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities , Neonatology , Nervous System Malformations , Object Attachment
3.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 35: eAPE01886, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1393741

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Analisar tendência e os impactos causados pela regionalização nos atendimentos de emergência por causas externas efetuados pelo Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência (SAMU), antes, durante e depois do processo de regionalização. Métodos Estudo ecológico de tendência dos atendimentos do SAMU. Os períodos foram separados em 2010 a 2012 (pré-regionalização), 2013 a 2015 (transição) e 2016 a 2018 (consolidação). Foram coletadas as variáveis causas do atendimento, dia da semana, horário, local da ocorrência, recurso encaminhado e caracterização da vítima (sexo, idade, uso de álcool e desfecho do atendimento) totalizando 17.533 ocorrências. Foram excluídos os atendimentos que não se classificaram como causas externas. Foram realizadas estatística descritiva, tendência e teste de associação do qui-quadrado. Adotou-se nível de significância de 5% (p-valor ≤0,001). Resultados A maioria das vítimas era do sexo masculino, com maior prevalência na faixa etária de 30 a 59 anos. Houve diminuição do óbito no local de 41,7% após a regionalização. Observou-se aumento de atendimento de causas externas nas ambulâncias de Suporte Básico de Vida no ano de 2015 em relação a 2010 (47%), além de diminuição de aproximadamente 50% do número de atendimentos do Suporte Avançado de Vida. O número de atendimento conjunto das duas ambulâncias aumentou aproximadamente 390%. Conclusão A regionalização apresentou impacto importante na qualidade dos atendimentos prestados à população, resultando na diminuição da mortalidade no local da ocorrência.


Resumen Objetivo Analizar la tendencia y los impactos causados por la regionalización de los auxilios de emergencia por causas externas efectuados por el Servicio de Atención Móvil de Urgencia (SAMU) antes, durante y después del proceso de regionalización. Métodos Estudio ecológico de tendencia de los auxilios del SAMU. Los períodos fueron separados de la siguiente forma: 2010 a 2012 (preregionalización), 2013 a 2015 (transición) y 2016 a 2018 (consolidación). Fueron recopiladas las variables: causas del auxilio, día de la semana, horario, lugar del incidente, recurso enviado y caracterización de la víctima (sexo, edad, uso de alcohol y desenlace del auxilio), con un total de 17.533 incidentes. Se excluyeron los auxilios que no se clasificaron como causas externas. Se realizó estadística descriptiva, tendencia y prueba de asociación de ji cuadrado. Fue adoptado un nivel de significación de 5 % (p-valor ≤0,001). Resultados La mayoría de las víctimas era de sexo masculino, con mayor prevalencia del grupo de edad de 30 a 59 años. Hubo una reducción de fallecimiento en el lugar del 41,7 % después de la regionalización. Se observó un aumento de auxilios de causas externas en las ambulancias de Soporte Vital Básico en el año 2015 con relación a 2010 (47 %), además de una reducción aproximada del 50 % del número de auxilios de Soporte Vital Avanzado. El número de asistencia conjunta de las dos ambulancias aumentó un 390 % aproximadamente. Conclusión La regionalización presentó un impacto importante en la calidad de la atención brindada a la población, lo que redujo la mortalidad en el lugar del incidente.


Abstract Objective To analyze the trend and impacts caused by regionalization in emergency care for external causes performed by the Mobile Emergency Care Service (SAMU), before, during and after the regionalization process. Method This is an ecological study of SAMU care trend. The periods were separated in 2010 to 2012 (pre-regionalization), 2013 to 2015 (transition) and 2016 to 2018 (consolidation). The variables cause of care, day of the week, time, occurrence site, resource forwarded and victim characterization (gender, age, alcohol use and outcome of care) were collected, totaling 17,533 occurrences. Care that did not qualify as external causes was excluded. Descriptive statistics, trends and chi-square association test were performed. A significance level of 5% (p-value≤0.001) was adopted. Results Most victims were male, with a higher prevalence in the age group of 30 to 59 years. There was a decrease in death at the site of 41.7% after regionalization. There was an increase in care of external causes in Basic Life Support ambulances in 2015 compared to 2010 (47%), in addition to a decrease of approximately 50% in the number of Advanced Life Support services. The number of joint care of the two ambulances increased approximately 390%. Conclusion Regionalization had an important impact on the quality of care provided to the population, resulting in a decrease in mortality at the occurrence site.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Regional Health Planning , Ambulances , Emergency Medical Services , External Causes , Ambulatory Care , Ecological Studies , Life Support Care
4.
Saúde Soc ; 31(1): e201078, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352212

ABSTRACT

Resumo Embora políticas públicas de cuidados prolongados estejam começando a ser implementadas na América Latina, poucos estudos analisam a situação dos países que compõem a região. Este estudo tem por objetivo examinar programas públicos de cuidados prolongados na Costa Rica e estimar a demanda do país por cuidados formais. Os dados foram obtidos por meio de revisão das Contas Nacionais de Saúde, cinco entrevistas com representantes de instituições governamentais, revisão da literatura científica e relatórios oficiais, e análise dos dados extraídos de uma pesquisa nacional de cuidados. Os resultados indicam a existência de programas fragmentados e focados no enfrentamento à pobreza que não foram projetados para atender às necessidades de cuidados prolongados. Estima-se que, atualmente, 13,4% dos idosos da região necessitam de ajuda na execução de atividades básicas da vida diária, e que o trabalho informal de cuidados é intensivo, oferecido principalmente por um membro da família, e não remunerado.


Abstract Latin America is beginning to implement long-term care public policies. But only a few studies look at the situation of the countries in the region. This study aims to examine long-term care public programs in Costa Rica and to estimate the country's demand for formal care. For this purpose, we have revised its National Health Accounts, conducted five interviews with representatives of governmental institutions, reviewed the scientific literature and official reports, and analyzed the data drawn from a national care survey. The results show the existence of fragmented, poverty-focused programs that were not designed for long-term care needs. The estimated percentage of older adults in the region that currently require help to perform activities of daily living is 13.4%. The informal care work is intensive, mostly provided by a family member, and unpaid.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Poverty , Public Policy , Aging , Adaptation, Psychological , Functional Status , Life Support Care
5.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(4): e303, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | COLNAL, LILACS | ID: biblio-1341242

ABSTRACT

Abstract Life support withdrawal can be a challenging decision, but it should be considered as an option when death is inevitable or recovery to an acceptable quality of life is not possible. The process is beset by obstacles that must be overcome to finally offer patients comfort and a peaceful death. In this article, we offer a series of tools that seek to solve the challenges of palliative extubation, as well as a protocol that could facilitate the decision to withdraw life support, making palliative extubation an alternative to consider instead of artificially prolonging life at the expense of unacceptable human and economic costs.


Resumen La interrupción de la asistencia vital puede ser una decisión complicada, aun cuando se debe considerar como una opción cuando la muerte es inevitable o la recuperación a una calidad de vida aceptable no es posible. A lo largo del proceso se encuentran obstáculos que se deben sortear para finalmente ofrecer a los pacientes una muerte tranquila y confortable. En este artículo ofrecemos una serie de herramientas que buscan solucionar los desafíos de la extubación paliativa y presentamos una guía de extubación que podría facilitar la decisión de retiro del soporte vital, haciendo de la extubación paliativa una alternativa por considerar en lugar de prolongar la vida de manera artificial a expensas de un costo humano y económico inaceptable.


Subject(s)
Humans , Palliative Care , Right to Die , Airway Extubation , Life Support Care , Quality of Life , Critical Care , /prevention & control
6.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(5): 525-530, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340168

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence of life support limitation (LSL) in patients who died after at least 24 h of a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) stay, parent participation and to describe how this type of care is delivered. Methods: Retrospective cohort study in a tertiary PICU at a university hospital in Brazil. All patients aged 1 month to 18 years who died were eligible for inclusion. The exclusion criteria were those brain death and death within 24 h of admission. Results: 53 patients were included in the study. The prevalence of a LSL report was 45.3%. Out of 24 patients with a report of LSL on their medical records only 1 did not have a donot-resuscitate order. Half of the patients with a report of LSL had life support withdrawn. The length of their PICU stay, age, presence of parents at the time of death, and severity on admission, calculated by the Pediatric Index of Mortality 2, were higher in patients with a report of LSL. Compared with other historical cohorts, there was a clear increase in the prevalence of LSL and, most importantly, a change in how limitations are carried out, with a high prevalence of parental participation and an increase in withdrawal of life support. Conclusions: LSLs were associated with older and more severely ill patients, with a high prevalence of family participation in this process. The historical comparison showed an increase in LSL and in the withdrawal of life support.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child , Terminal Care , Life Support Care , Brazil/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Retrospective Studies , Death , Length of Stay
7.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20180229, Jan.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | BDENF, LILACS | ID: biblio-1059135

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to compare the levels of general critical thinking and the skills or cognitive attributes involved, individually measured during the training of undergraduate nursing students, through a teaching intervention using Concept Maps. Method: an experimental, randomized, double-blind study with before and after design, conducted with 77 undergraduate nursing students. The research subjects were randomized to the control (38) and experiment (39) groups and both participated in a course on Advanced Life Support in Cardiology for a period of five weeks, when the intervention was the construction of four concept maps. Data collection took place through a sociodemographic questionnaire and the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) before and after the course and after in order to measure critical thinking. Results: sociodemographic data confirmed that the groups had similar characteristics. After the intervention using the concept maps, the mean pre-and post-test general critical thinking averages were classified as moderate and showed no statistically significant difference. The t-test for paired samples showed a significantly increased Evaluation skill score (p-value of 0.022) in the posttest for the experiment group. Conclusion: the use of the teaching strategy with construction of the concept maps performed well in the promotion of General Critical Thinking and its abilities. Teaching strategies based on constructivist theories should be encouraged as they play a significant role in improving student learning and critical thinking.


RESUMEN Objetivo: comparar los niveles de pensamiento crítico general y las habilidades o características cognitivas que lo constituyen, medidos individualmente durante la formación de estudiantes de grado en Enfermería, a través de una intervención docente utilizando Mapas Conceptuales. Método: estudio experimental, aleatorizado, doble-ciego con investigación anterior y posterior, realizado con 77 estudiantes de grado en enfermería. Los sujetos de investigación fueron aleatorizados a los grupos de control (38) y de experimento (39) y ambos participaron en un curso de extensión sobre Soporte vital avanzado en cardiología durante un período de cinco semanas, cuando la intervención consistió en la construcción de cuatro mapas conceptuales. La recopilación de datos se realizó a través de un cuestionario sociodemográfico y la resolución del California Critical Thinking skills (CCTST) antes del comienzo del curso y después de la finalización para medición del pensamiento crítico. Resultados: los datos sociodemográficos confirmaron que los grupos tenían características equivalentes. Luego de la intervención a través de los mapas conceptuales, los promedios de pensamiento crítico general antes y después de la prueba se clasificaron como moderados y no presentaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas. La prueba-t para muestras emparejadas mostró un puntaje de habilidad de evaluación significativamente mayor (valor p de 0.022) en la prueba posterior para el grupo de experimento. Conclusión: el uso de la estrategia de enseñanza con la construcción de los mapas conceptuales tuvo un buen desempeño en la promoción del pensamiento crítico general y sus habilidades. Deben fomentarse las estrategias de enseñanza basadas en teorías constructivistas, ya que desempeñan un papel importante en la mejora del aprendizaje y el pensamiento crítico de los estudiantes


RESUMO Objetivo: comparar os níveis de pensamento crítico geral e as habilidades ou atributos cognitivos que o constituem, mensurados individualmente durante a formação de estudantes de graduação em Enfermagem, mediante uma intervenção de ensino com uso de Mapas Conceituais. Método: estudo experimental, randomizado, duplo-cego com delineamento antes e depois, realizado com 77 estudantes de graduação em enfermagem. Os sujeitos da pesquisa foram randomizados para os grupos controle (38) e experimento (39) e ambos participaram de um curso de extensão sobre Suporte Avançado de Vida em Cardiologia por um período de cinco semanas, quando a intervenção foi a construção de quatro mapas conceituais. A coleta de dados aconteceu por meio de um questionário sociodemográfico e a resolução do California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) antes do início do curso e após o encerramento, para mensuração do pensamento crítico. Resultados: os dados sociodemográficos confirmaram que os grupos possuíam características similares. Após a intervenção por meio dos mapas conceituais, as médias de pensamento crítico geral no pré e pós-teste foram classificadas como moderadas e não apresentaram diferença estatisticamente significativa. O Teste-t para amostras emparelhadas evidenciou a pontuação da habilidade Avaliação aumentada significativamente (p-valor de 0,022) no pós-teste para o grupo experimento. Conclusão: a utilização da estratégia de ensino com construção dos mapas conceituais apresentou bom desempenho na promoção do Pensamento Crítico Geral e de suas habilidades. Estratégias de ensino baseadas em teorias construtivistas devem ser incentivadas, pois desempenham um papel significativo na melhoria da aprendizagem e do Pensamento Crítico dos estudantes.


Subject(s)
Thinking , Nursing , Educational Technology , Life Support Care , Students, Nursing , Cardiology , Double-Blind Method , Education, Nursing , Learning
8.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(3): 225-232, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137189

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: Advances in medicine, including anesthesiology and resuscitation, have made natural death increasingly rare. As a consequence, dysthanasia has become usual in a scenario for which there is not rationale. The present study aimed to assess the level of knowledge of Brazilian anesthesiologists on the principles of dysthanasia and orthothanasia. Thence, we studied the management preferences of these professionals, vis-à-vis those practices, as well as how medical school contributed to addressing death-related issues. Method: Quantitative approach, prospective and descriptive cohort that included 150 anesthesiologists, members of the Brazilian Society of Anesthesiology, and who were invited to participate by email. An online questionnaire containing 38 questions was prepared by the authors. The study was approved by the Instructional Research Ethics Committee. Results: Anesthesiologists, although claiming to know dysthanasia and orthothanasia, mostly acquired knowledge outside medical school. If faced with their own end of care, or of a patient or a loved one, they prefer orthothanasia, to die at home, prioritizing dignity. However, the specialists claimed to have already practiced dysthanasia, even when orthothanasia was the choice management, which caused them negative feelings. Almost all respondents stated that they did not have practical training in undergraduate school on how to face end-of-life issues, although they felt capable of identifying it. Most were not aware of the Brazilian Federal Council of Medicine Resolution 1.805/06 that makes practicing orthothanasia feasible. Anesthesiologists' religion or the political-administrative region of residence had no effect on their preferences. Conclusions: Anesthesiologists claim to have knowledge on dysthanasia and orthothanasia, but prefer, in the face of a terminally ill patient, to practice orthothanasia, although dysthanasia is usual, and results in frustration and indignation. The medical school curriculum is unsatisfactory in addressing death-related issues.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Os avanços da medicina, incluindo a anestesiologia e reanimação, têm tornado cada vez mais rara a ocorrência da morte natural. Como consequência, as práticas de distanásia se tornaram habituais em uma realidade que não mais se justifica. Este estudo objetiva avaliar o conhecimento de anestesiologistas brasileiros dos institutos da distanásia e ortotanásia. Para tal, investigamos as preferências de condutas desses profissionais, dentre aquelas práticas, bem como a contribuição da graduação médica na abordagem das questões relacionadas à morte. Método: Coorte prospectivo, descritivo, com abordagem quantitativa, com a inclusão de 150 anestesiologistas inscritos na Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia e que foram convidados a participar por mensagem de e-mail. Aplicou-se questionário online, contendo 38 questões, elaborado pelos pesquisadores. A pesquisa foi aprovada pela Comissão de Ética em Pesquisa instrucional. Resultados: Os anestesiologistas, embora afirmem conhecer a distanásia e a ortotanásia, em sua maioria adquiriram esse conhecimento fora da graduação. Diante da terminalidade do próprio entrevistado, do seu paciente ou de um ente querido, prefere a ortotanásia, a morte em casa, priorizando a dignidade. Entretanto, esses especialistas afirmam já terem praticado, contrariados, a distanásia, mesmo quando a ortotanásia era a melhor conduta, o que lhes gerou sentimentos negativos. Quase a integralidade dos entrevistados afirmou não ter tido, na graduação, treinamento prático de conduta frente à terminalidade, embora se sinta capaz de identificá-la. A maioria não conhece a Resolução do Conselho Federal de Medicina 1.805/06 que viabiliza a prática da ortotanásia. Não há influência da religião e da região político-administrativa de residência do anestesiologista sobre as suas preferências. Conclusões: Os anestesiologistas afirmam ter conhecimento sobre distanásia e ortotanásia e preferem, diante da terminalidade, praticar a ortotanásia, embora a distanásia seja habitual, o que resulta em frustração e indignação. O ensino da graduação médica é deficitário em questões relacionadas à morte.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Attitude of Health Personnel , Thanatology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Anesthesiologists/psychology , Anesthesiology , Terminally Ill , Death , Self Report , Life Support Care , Middle Aged
9.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(1): 48-53, feb. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125037

ABSTRACT

Es frecuente que familiares directos soliciten la suspensión de soporte vital, en particular de la hidratación y nutrición asistidas, en pacientes con estado vegetativo o de mínima conciencia permanente, y que recurran a la justicia en caso de desacuerdo. Dos casos recientes de suspensión, uno del exterior y otro argentino, autorizados por los tribunales respectivos, han sido motivo de controversia. Si bien puede parecer inhumano dejar de alimentar e hidratar, continuar haciéndolo solo prolonga un estado de supervivencia biológica irreversible. Las familias tienden a aceptar la suspensión si el paciente se mantiene sin cambios. Sin embargo, persiste preocupación por el posible sufrimiento desde la suspensión hasta la muerte, aunque el mismo es poco concebible en ausencia de función cortical y de conciencia. Si bien médicos y profanos consideran ético suspender el soporte vital, una cierta proporción de médicos considera que en el estado vegetativo, o más aún, en mínima conciencia, efectivamente se experimenta hambre, sed y dolor. En países como el Reino Unido, se han propuesto criterios de suspensión de soporte vital, y esquemas de tratamiento para el malestar durante el período de suspensión, aunque su beneficio efectivo es controvertido. La Argentina cuenta con recomendaciones de dos sociedades científicas, pero no con criterios reglamentados. Pero tanto la Ley 26.742 de "muerte digna" como el Código Civil consienten la suspensión del soporte vital en el estado vegetativo o de mínima conciencia, si se acompaña de medidas de alivio de los síntomas clínicos que puedan significar sufrimiento.


Patient relatives often request withdrawal of life support, especially artificial nutrition and hydration, in cases of permanent vegetative or minimally conscious state, and resort to court in case of disagreement. Two recent cases of withdrawal authorized by the courts concerned, one from abroad and one from Argentina, have been controversial. Although it may appear inhuman to stop feeding and hydrating such patients, to continue it only prolongs a state of irreversible biological subsistence. Families tend to increasingly accept withdrawal if the patient status remains unchanged. However, concern persists regarding the suffering that patients may undergo from onset of withdrawal till death, even though such suffering is little conceivable in the absence of cortical function and conscience content. While doctors and the layman consider ethical to withdraw life support, a nonnegligible proportion of doctors consider that vegetative state patients, even more minimally conscious state patients, do experience hunger, thirst and pain. In some countries, like the United Kingdom, strict withdrawal criteria were proposed, together with pharmacological treatment schemes for the distress arising during the withdrawal period, even though its benefit is controversial. In Argentina, two scientific societies have publicly advocated withdrawal, but not issued formal guidelines. In any case, both "dignified death" Law 26.742 and the Civil Code consent withdrawal of life support, if accompanied by appropriate relief of clinical symptoms indicating suffering.


Subject(s)
Humans , Right to Die/legislation & jurisprudence , Persistent Vegetative State , Withholding Treatment/legislation & jurisprudence , Life Support Care/legislation & jurisprudence , Argentina
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 18(1): 43-54, marco 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361345

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi apresentar uma revisão narrativa do atendimento à parada cardiorrespiratória, baseada nas diretrizes mais atuais e, também, uma análise crítica de informações de literatura recente, que vão além das recomendações gerais das diretrizes vigentes. A parada cardiorrespiratória, quando ocorre de forma inesperada, abrupta, em indivíduo que se encontrava estável horas antes do evento, é chamada de morte súbita. Essa condição é a principal causa de óbito extra-hospitalar não traumático e, dentre suas diversas causas, a síndrome coronariana aguda é a mais comum em adultos. Uma vez que a frequência de síndrome coronariana aguda tende a aumentar com o aumento da expectativa de vida e de prevalência de outros fatores de risco na população, a ocorrência de morte súbita também tende a aumentar nesse cenário. No intuito de orientar o atendimento de pacientes em parada cardiorrespiratória, há mais de quatro décadas foram criadas diretrizes internacionais, que evoluíram com o surgimento de novas evidências, especialmente nos últimos 20 anos. Todo médico deve estar preparado para atender uma situação de parada cardiorrespiratória, pois ele pode ser chamado para atender tais casos em diferentes cenários (emergência, unidade de internação ou em ambiente extra-hospitalar). Entretanto, apesar da importância da incorporação de novas evidências nessas diretrizes, mudanças frequentes nas recomendações representam grande desafio para os clínicos se manterem atualizados. Além da dificuldade na atualização permanente, há recomendações feitas pelas diretrizes de sociedades médicas que divergem entre si e são questionadas por especialistas, o que gera dúvida na tomada de decisão do clínico. Conforme pormenorizado neste artigo de atualização, as etapas do algoritmo de Suportes Básico e Avançado de Vida são apresentadas como uma sequência, para facilitar para o socorrista que atua sozinho a oferecer intervenções com impacto na sobrevivência do paciente, devendo priorizar a reanimação cardiopulmonar de qualidade e a desfibrilação precoce, se indicada.


The objective of this study was to present a narrative review of cardiac arrest care based on the most current guidelines, and also a critical analysis of recent literature information that goes beyond the general recommendations of the current guidelines. Cardiac arrest, when occurring unexpectedly, abruptly, in an individual who was stable hours before the event, is called sudden death. This condition is the leading cause of non-traumatic out-of-hospital death and, among its many causes, acute coronary syndrome is the most common in adults. Since the frequency of acute coronary syndrome tends to increase with increasing life expectancy and the prevalence of other risk factors in the population, sudden death also tends to increase in this scenario. In order to guide the care of patients with cardiopulmonary arrest, for over 4 decades, international guidelines have been created and have evolved with the emergence of new evidence, especially in the last 20 years. Every physician should be prepared to deal with a cardiac arrest situation as he or she may be called upon to treat such cases in different scenarios (emergency, inpatient unit or out-of-hospital setting). However, despite the importance of incorporating new evidence into these guidelines, frequent changes to the recommendations pose a major challenge for clinicians to update their knowledge. In addition to the difficulty of constantly updating, there are recommendations made by the guidelines of medical societies that differ from each other and are questioned by specialists, which creates doubt in the process of decision making among clinicians. As detailed in this update article, the stages of the algorithm of Basic and Advanced Life Support are presented in a sequence to help the rescuer who works alone to provide interventions that impact the patient's survival, and prioritize quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation and early defibrillation, if required.


Subject(s)
Humans , Medical Care/standards , General Practitioners/education , Heart Arrest/therapy , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/standards , Emergency Responders , First Aid/methods , Heart Arrest/diagnosis , Life Support Care/standards
11.
Cambios rev. méd ; 18(2): 106-115, 2019/12/27. graf., tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099814

ABSTRACT

La ventilación mecánica es la alternativa terapéutica que sustituye la función ven-tilatoria total o parcial mientras se man-tienen niveles apropiados de PO2 y PCO2 en sangre arterial, con el fin de disminuir el trabajo respiratorio en los pacientes crí-ticos; principalmente los que presentan insuficiencia respiratoria aguda, por lo que se debe conocer cuándo está indicado este medio de soporte vital avanzado; así como los diferentes modos disponibles, los parámetros y alarmas ventilatorios ge-nerales acoplados a una estrategia de ven-tilación protectora para reducir las com-plicaciones que se puedan producir. De esta manera favorecemos la recuperación del paciente. La Gestión de Enfermería es la disciplina de la ciencia del cuidado que aplica el juicio profesional, la planificación, orga-nización, motivación y control de la pro-visión de procesos oportunos, seguros, humanos e integrales que aseguran la continuidad de la atención. El cuidado enfermero en la UAACI, se realiza de manera autónoma y en colaboración con el equipo de salud, se ajusta a las necesi-dades del paciente crítico, brindando ca-lidad y seguridad, en base a instrumentos que nos permiten monitorizar y evaluar la atención.Según la base de datos de la Unidad de Adultos Área de Cuidados Intensivos año 2018 el 51,4% de los pacientes in-gresados necesitaron apoyo ventilatorio invasivo, de los cuales el 72,0% co-rresponden a insuficiencia respiratoria aguda, el porcentaje restante a procedi-mientos programados. El objetivo de esta ruta es la estandari-zación de los Cuidados de Enfermería al inicio de la ventilación mecánica así como describir las fases de interven-ción de la enfermera y las actividades que debe cumplir en cada una de ellas, estableciendo un plan de cuidados para constatar que los objetivos planteados se consigan.


Mechanical ventilation is the thera-peutic alternative that replaces total or partial ventilatory function while maintaining appropriate levels of PO2 and PCO2 in arterial blood, in order to reduce respiratory work in critical pa-tients; mainly those with acute respi-ratory failure, so it should be known when this means of advanced life su-pport is indicated; as well as the diffe-rent modes available, general venti-lation parameters and alarms coupled to a protective ventilation strategy to reduce the complications that may occur. In this way we favor patient re-covery. Nursing Management is the disci-pline of care science that applies pro-fessional judgment, planning, organi-zation, motivation and control of the provision of timely, safe, human and comprehensive processes that ensure continuity of care. The nursing care in the UAACI is carried out autono-mously and in collaboration with the health team, adjusts to the needs of the critical patient, providing quality and safety, based on instruments that allow us to monitor and evaluate the care.According to the database of the Adult Unit Intensive Care Area year 2018, 51.4% of the admitted patients needed invasive ventilatory support, of which 72.0% correspond to acute respiratory failure, the remaining percentage to scheduled procedures.The objective of this route is the stan-dardization of Nursing Care at the be-ginning of mechanical ventilation as well as describing the phases of in-tervention of the nurse and the acti-vities that must be carried out in each of them, establishing a plan of care to verify that the set goals are achieved.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Respiration, Artificial , Ventilators, Mechanical , Critical Care , Environmental Monitoring , Nursing Care , Respiratory Insufficiency , Pulmonary Gas Exchange , Patient Care Bundles , Intubation, Intratracheal , Life Support Care , Monitoring, Physiologic
12.
Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 27(4): 699-710, out.-dez. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057430

ABSTRACT

Resumo A limitação de suporte de vida tem sido aplicada na terapia intensiva em quadros de doença irreversível e tratamento improdutivo. Nessas situações, cuidados paliativos visam prevenir e aliviar o sofrimento e tornam-se essenciais para propiciar atenção específica e contínua para o paciente e sua família, possibilitando morte digna. Este estudo envolveu pesquisa qualitativa realizada com 37 profissionais da equipe multidisciplinar em unidade de terapia intensiva clínico-cirúrgica de hospital público em Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil. A análise temática dos dados estabeleceu quatro temas, que permitiram investigar o conhecimento da equipe sobre eles e elaborar ações de cuidados paliativos a pacientes com limitação de suporte de vida em terapia intensiva. Os profissionais reconheceram a importância dos cuidados paliativos à população em apreço naquela unidade.


Abstract The Limitation of Life Support has been applied in intensive care in cases of irreversible disease and futile treatment. In these situations, palliative care aims at preventing and alleviating suffering. It becomes essential to provide specific and ongoing care to patients and their families, enabling death with dignity. This study involved qualitative research carried out with 37 health professionals working within the multidisciplinary team in a Clinical Surgical Intensive Care Unit of a public hospital located in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. Through the thematic analysis of the data, four themes were formed, which made it possible to investigate the knowledge of the team regarding the subject and develop palliative care actions for patients with limitation of life support in intensive care. The professionals recognized the importance of Palliative Care for these patients in the Intensive Care Unit.


Resumen La limitación del soporte de vida se ha aplicado en terapia intensiva en cuadros de enfermedad irreversible y ante tratamientos improductivos. En estas situaciones, los cuidados paliativos surgen con el objetivo de prevenir y aliviar el sufrimiento y se tornan esenciales para propiciar una atención específica y continua para el paciente y su familia, posibilitando una muerte digna. Este estudio implicó una investigación cualitativa realizada con 37 profesionales del equipo multidisciplinario de una unidad de cuidados intensivos clínico-quirúrgica de un hospital público situado en Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil. El análisis temático de los datos estableció cuatro temas, que permitieron investigar el conocimiento del equipo sobre estos y elaborar acciones de cuidados paliativos para pacientes con limitación del soporte de vida en cuidados intensivos. Los profesionales reconocieron la importancia de los cuidados paliativos para la población en cuestión en dicha unidad.


Subject(s)
Palliative Care , Patient Care Team , Intensive Care Units , Life Support Care
13.
Cambios rev. méd ; 18(1): 6-10, 28/06/2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015019

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. El cáncer de mama resulta una de las neoplasias malignas más frecuente en las mujeres y se asocia con una alta morbilidad y mortalidad a nivel mundial. OBJETIVO. Caracterizar el manejo quirúrgico del cáncer de mama. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Se desarrolló un estudio con enfoque mixto, descriptivo transversal, con una muestra de 80 pacientes. Criterios de inclusión; intervenidas quirúrgicamente mediante mastectomía lateral debido a un diagnóstico de cáncer de mamas. En la Unidad Oncológica de la Sociedad Oncológica de Lucha Contra el Cáncer, Chimborazo, durante el período 2015-2017. Se realizó la revisión de Historias Clínicas Únicas que permitió recopilar los datos mediante la respectiva ficha. Se analizó los datos en el programa Microsoft Excel. RESULTADOS. El 63,75 % (51;80) fue de etnia mestiza y aquellas con edades superiores a 50 años 56,23% (45;80). No existió diferencias importantes entre las prácticas conservadoras con respecto a radicales. La mayoría de los diagnósticos se realizaron en el estadío III, de lateralidad izquierda 63,75% (51;80) y con receptores hormonales luminal A. CONCLUSIÓN. El tratamiento adyuvante resultó el que más se aplicó a las afectadas, no reportándose casos de recurrencia o de progresión de la enfermedad.


INTRODUCTION. Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women and is associated with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. OBJECTIVE. Characterize the surgical management of breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A study with a mixed, descriptive, cross-sectional approach was developed with a sample of 80 patients. Inclusion criteria; underwent surgery by lateral mastectomy due to a diagnosis of breast cancer. In the Oncology Unit of the Oncology Society for the Fight Against Cancer, Chimborazo, during the period 2015-2017. The review of Unique Clinical Histories was carried out, which allowed data to be collected through the respective file. The data was analyzed in the Microsoft Excel program. RESULTS 63,75% (51; 80) were of mixed race ethnicity and those with ages over 50 years old 56,23% (45; 80). There were no significant differences between conservative practices with respect to radicals. The majority of diagnoses were made in stage III, with 63,75% left laterality (51; 80) and with luminal hormone receptors A. CONCLUSION. The adjuvant treatment was the one that was most applied to those affected, with no reports of recurrence or disease progression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Women , Breast Neoplasms , Disease Prevention , Conservative Treatment , Life Support Care , Mastectomy , Morbidity , Mortality , Neoplasm Metastasis
14.
Femina ; 47(3): 181-188, 31 mar. 2019. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1046508

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar a literatura científica internacional sobre o suporte somático materno com prognóstico fetal favorável a partir de relatos de casos. Métodos: Revisão sistemática de relatos de casos, que contempla situações em que há inviabilidade de reprodutibilidade de condições clínicas para efeito de comparação entre grupos, caso da morte encefálica. Nesse contexto, o relato de caso passa a ser fonte de evidência. Resultados: Foram incluídos 16 relatos de casos sobre o suporte somático em gestantes em morte encefálica. O período de suporte somático variou entre 3 e 123 dias. A média de idade gestacional no momento do parto foi de 28 semanas. Não foi evidenciado limite mínimo de idade gestacional para o início do suporte. Alguns casos citaram, ainda, a doação de órgãos após o parto. Conclusão: Além das particularidades inerentes à gestação que devem ser contempladas, o suporte às funções vitais na gestante em morte encefálica assemelha-se à manutenção do potencial doador de órgãos.(AU)


Objective: To analyze the international scientific literature on maternal somatic support with favorable fetal outcome from case reports. Methods: Systematic review of case reports, which contemplates situations in which there is no reproducibility of clinical conditions for comparison between groups, in case of brain death. In this context, the case report becomes a source of evidence. Results: 16 case reports on somatic support were included in pregnant women in brain death. The somatic support period ranged from 3 to 123 days. The mean gestational age at delivery was 28 weeks. No minimum gestational age threshold was evidenced for onset of support. Some cases also mentioned the donation of organs after childbirth. Conclusion: In addition to the peculiarities inherent to pregnancy that should be contemplated, the support to the vital functions in the pregnant woman in brain death resembles the maintenance of the organ donor potential.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Brain Death , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Critical Care , Life Support Care , Databases, Bibliographic , Systematic Reviews as Topic
15.
Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing ; : 329-339, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764670

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency, patterns, and factors of reversals in decisions about life-sustaining treatment (LST) among older patients with terminal-stage chronic cardiopulmonary disease. METHODS: This was a retrospective correlational descriptive study based on medical chart review. De-identified patient electronic medical record data were collected from 124 deceased older patients with terminal-stage cardiopulmonary disease who had made reversals of LST decisions in an academic tertiary hospital in 2015. Data were extracted about the reversed LST decisions, LST treatments applied before death, and patients' demographic and clinical factors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with the reversal to higher intensity of LST treatment. RESULTS: The use of inotropic agents was the most frequently reversed LST treatment, followed by cardiopulmonary resuscitation, intubation, ventilator therapy, and hemodialysis. Inconsistency between the last LST decisions and actual treatments occurred most often in hemodialysis. One-third of the reversals in LST decisions were made toward higher intensity of LST treatment. Patients who had lung diseases (vs. heart diseases); were single, divorced, or bereaved (vs. married); and had an acquaintance as a primary decision maker (vs. the patients themselves) were significantly more likely to reverse the LST decisions to higher intensity of LST treatment. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the complex and turmoil situation of the LST decision-making process among older patients with terminal-stage cardiopulmonary disease and suggests the importance of support for patients and families in their LST decision-making process.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Decision Making , Divorce , Electronic Health Records , Heart , Intubation , Life Support Care , Logistic Models , Lung Diseases , Renal Dialysis , Retrospective Studies , Terminal Care , Tertiary Care Centers , Ventilators, Mechanical
16.
Arch. med ; 18(2): 299-312, 2018/11/19.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-980608

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: el objetivo de la presente investigación es describir el nivel de conocimiento acerca de soporte vital básico, del personal asistencial no médico del servicio de urgencias de una institución de salud, en la ciudad de Pasto-Colombia,en el año 2017. La parada cardiorrespiratoria corresponde a la interrupción brusca, inesperada y potencialmente reversible de la respiración y la actividad mecánica cardíaca; que requiere de la implementación de medidas de reanimación,cuyo éxito depende del nivel conocimiento y habilidades del personal que la lleva a cabo Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal. El nivel de conocimiento se determinó mediante un cuestionario diseñado para tal fin. Resultados: se reclutaron en total 58 participantes. En 39,65% de los casos el nivel de conocimiento fue aceptable, mientas que se consideró adecuado en un 41,37% de los casos. Los puntajes fueron más altos en el grupo con capacitación en soporte vital básico o avanzado en los dos años previos. Conclusiones: la capacitación continua en soporte vital, representa una estrategia que conlleva a la obtención de mejores niveles de conocimiento en reanimación cardiopulmonar que, posiblemente impacten, en los desenlaces del paro cardíaco intrahospitalario..(AU)


Objective: the aim of the present investigation is to describe the level of knowledge of non-medical workers of the emergency service of a health institution at city of Pasto-Colombia in 2017. Cardiorespiratory arrest is the abrupt, unexpected and potentially reversible interruption of respiration and the mechanical activity of the heart; which requires the implementation of resuscitation measures, whose success depends on the level of knowledge and skill level of the staff that carries it out. Materials and methods: a cross-sectional study was permormed. The level of knowledge was determined through a questionnaire designed for that purpose. Results: a total of 58 participants were recruited. In 39.65% of cases, the level of knowledge was acceptable, while it was considered adequate in 41.37% of the cases. Scores were higher in the group with basic or advanced life support training in the previous two years. Conclusions: continuous training in life support represents a strategy that leads to obtaining better levels of knowledge in cardiopulmonary resuscitation that, possibly, impacts the outcomes of in-hospital cardiac arrest..(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Life Support Care
17.
Health Communication ; (2): 53-61, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788072

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Purpose of this study is to look into the signification and challenges of the Act on life prolongation determination of a patient who is going under hospice palliative medical care and a deathbed process (hereinafter referred to as “the Well-Dying Act”) from a position of a patient.METHODS: To improve the problems exposed in the process of enforcement of the Well-Dying Act, it's important to find a solution point after looking into improvements from a position of a patient through communication in line with the intent of law enactment. Hereupon, this study intended to look into improvements through the interviews with family members of a patient, and doctors.RESULTS: it was found that improvements include reduction in the domain of family for consent to an interruption of life prolongation medical care, necessity of establishment of a medical institution ethics committee for implementing the Well-Dying Act, simplification of the relevant form, abolition of a criminal penalty clause, and introduction of an authorized agent, etc.CONCLUSION: This study thinks that it stands to reason to limit the domain of family for consent to an interruption of life prolongation medical care to a patient's spouse, parents and children in principle; nevertheless, when all these persons are not existent, reasonable is the way to impose a duty of getting unanimous consent to a patient's well-dying from all direct lineal ascendants and descendants of the patient on a relevant medical institution.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Criminals , Ethics Committees , Hospices , Jurisprudence , Life Support Care , Parents , Spouses
18.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 71(supl.6): 2698-2705, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-977676

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to describe the content construction and validation process of the Distance Education Basic Life Support Course. Method: methodological study, developed through literature review, outlined in the light of the Bloom's Taxonomy and Ausubel's Meaningful Learning Theory. For validation, the analysis was performed with judges, using a structured tool. Results: the construction of the distance course was complex and challenging, since it was tried to develop it with logical-methodological coherence, considering the constructivist perspective, representing an advance in the process of dissemination of the Urgency and Emergency teaching culture. As for the content validation process, it was verified that of the 16 suggestions made by the judges, 14 were accepted and two rejected. Conclusion: the course had its contents validated by experts.


RESUMEN Objetivo: describir el proceso de construcción y validación de contenido de un curso de Soporte Básico a la Vida en la modalidad de educación a distancia. Método: estudio metodológico, desarrollado mediante revisión de la literatura, delineado a la luz de la Taxonomía de Bloom y la Teoría del Aprendizaje Significativo de Ausubel. Para validación, fue realizado un análisis con jueces mediante la utilización de instrumento estructurado. Resultados: la construcción de un curso a distancia se mostró compleja y desafiante una vez que se intentó desarrollarlo con coherencia lógico-metodológica, considerando la perspectiva constructivista, representando un avance en el proceso de diseminación de la cultura de la enseñanza de urgencia y emergencia. En cuanto al proceso de validación de contenido, se verificó que de las 16 sugerencias realizadas por los jueces, 14 fueron acatadas y 2, rechazadas. Conclusión: el curso obtuvo su contenido validado por expertos.


RESUMO Objetivo: descrever o processo de construção e validação de conteúdo do curso de Suporte Básico de Vida na modalidade Educação a Distância. Método: estudo metodológico, desenvolvido mediante revisão da literatura, delineado à luz da Taxonomia de Bloom e Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa de Ausubel. Para validação, foi realizada a análise com juízes, mediante utilização de instrumento estruturado. Resultados: a construção do curso a distância se mostrou complexa e desafiadora, uma vez que se procurou desenvolvê-lo com coerência lógico-metodológica, considerando a perspectiva construtivista, representando um avanço no processo de disseminação da cultura do ensino de Urgência e Emergência. Quanto ao processo de validação de conteúdo, verificou-se que das 16 sugestões realizadas pelos juízes, 14 foram acatadas e duas rejeitadas. Conclusão: o curso obteve o seu conteúdo validado por especialistas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Education, Distance/standards , Curriculum/standards , Life Support Care/standards , United States , Software Validation , Education, Distance/methods , Needs Assessment , American Heart Association/organization & administration , Life Support Care/methods
19.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 75-79, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713916
20.
Korean Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care ; : 1-8, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713510

ABSTRACT

Nearly 20 years after the Boramea Hospital case, the act on decisions on life-sustaining treatment for patients in hospice and palliative care or at the end of life has taken effect on February 4, 2018 as recommended by the National Bioethics Committee. However, during the legislation process, some parts of the bill that stakeholders and concerned parties did not see eye to eye were either revised or removed. Moreover, the hospice and palliative care part was added in the last minute before the enactment. As a result, the law includes parts that are not in line with the recommendations from the National Bioethics Committee, thereby causing various problems. Therefore, it is crucial to monitor how the decisions on life-sustaining treatments are made in the field and gather various opinions of concerned parties to identify and address problems in the early stage of the implementation of the law. Based on the data, the legislation must be amended to fulfill its purpose that is “to protect the dignity and value of human beings by assuring the best interests of the patients and by respecting their self-determination”.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bioethics , Decision Making , Hospices , Jurisprudence , Life Support Care , Palliative Care
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