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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251219, 2023. graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345535

ABSTRACT

Abstract The most common form of psycho-social dysfunction is anxiety with depression being related closely without any age bar. They are present with combined state of sadness, confusion, stress, fear etc. Glyoxalase system contains enzyme named glyoxalase 1 (GLO1).It is a metabolic pathway which detoxifies alpha-oxo-aldehydes, particularly methylglyoxal (MG). Methylglyoxal is mainly made by the breakdown of the glycolytic intermediates, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphates and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Glyoxylase-1 expression is also related with anxiety behavior. A casual role or GLO-1 in anxiety behavior by using viral vectors for over expression in the anterior cingulate cortex was found and it was found that local GLO-1 over expression increased anxiety behavior. The present study deals with the molecular mechanism of protective activity of eugenol against anxiolytic disorder. A pre-clinical animal study was performed on 42 BALB/c mice. Animals were given stress through conventional restrain model. The mRNA expression of GLO-1 was analyzed by real time RT-PCR. Moreover, the GLO-1 protein expression was also examined by immunohistochemistry in whole brain and mean density was calculated. The mRNA and protein expressions were found to be increased in animals given anxiety as compared to the normal control. Whereas, the expressions were decreased in the animals treated with eugenol and its liposome-based nanocarriers in a dose dependent manner. However, the results were better in animals treated with nanocarriers as compared to the compound alone. It is concluded that the eugenol and its liposome-based nanocarriers exert anxiolytic activity by down-regulating GLO-1 protein expression in mice.


Resumo A forma mais comum de disfunção psicossocial é a ansiedade intimamente relacionada com a depressão, sem qualquer barreira de idade. Elas estão presentes em um estado combinado de tristeza, confusão, estresse, medo etc. O sistema de glioxalase contém uma enzima chamada glioxalase 1 (GLO1). É uma via metabólica que desintoxica alfa-oxo-aldeídos, particularmente metilglioxal (MG). O metilglioxal é produzido principalmente pela quebra dos intermediários glicolíticos, gliceraldeído-3-fosfatos e fosfato de diidroxiacetona. A expressão da glioxalase 1 também está relacionada ao comportamento de ansiedade. Um papel casual ou GLO1 no comportamento de ansiedade usando vetores virais para superexpressão no córtex cingulado anterior foi encontrado e descobriu-se que a superexpressão local de GLO1 aumentava o comportamento de ansiedade. O presente estudo trata do mecanismo molecular da atividade protetora do eugenol contra o transtorno ansiolítico. Um estudo pré-clínico em animais foi realizado em 42 camundongos BALB / c. Os animais foram submetidos ao estresse por meio do modelo de contenção convencional. A expressão de mRNA de GLO1 foi analisada por RT-PCR em tempo real. Além disso, a expressão da proteína GLO1 também foi examinada por imuno-histoquímica em todo o cérebro e a densidade média foi calculada. Verificou-se que as expressões de mRNA e proteínas estavam aumentadas em animais que receberam ansiedade em comparação com o controle normal. Considerando que as expressões foram diminuídas nos animais tratados com eugenol e seus nanocarreadores baseados em lipossomas de forma dependente da dose. No entanto, os resultados foram melhores em animais tratados com nanocarreadores em comparação com o composto sozinho. Conclui-se que o eugenol e seus nanocarreadores baseados em lipossomas exercem atividade ansiolítica por regulação negativa da expressão da proteína GLO1 em camundongos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Eugenol/therapeutic use , Eugenol/pharmacology , Lactoylglutathione Lyase/antagonists & inhibitors , Anxiety/drug therapy , Liposomes , Mice, Inbred BALB C
2.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 52: 30-34, July. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283487

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to develop an amplification method of urea detection based on pHsensitive liposomes. RESULTS: The urease covalently immobilized on the magnetic particles and the pH-sensitive liposomes encapsulating ferricyanide were added to the cyclic-voltammeter cell solution where urea was distributed. The conversion of urea into carbonic acid seemed to induce a pH decrease that caused a reduction in the electrostatic repulsion between the headgroups of weakly acidic 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero3-succinate. The reduction induced the liposomes to release potassium ferricyanide that was encapsulated inside. The effects of urea concentration and pH value were investigated. A specific concentration (0.5 mg/mL) of the urea solution was set to observe the response. The activity of urease was reversible with respect to the pH change between 7 and 5. The sensitivity of this detection was almost identical to the comparable techniques such as an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a field-effect transistor. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, the methodology developed in this study was feasible as a portable, rapid, and sensitive method.


Subject(s)
Urea/analysis , Liposomes/chemistry , Urease/chemistry , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Enzymes, Immobilized , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
3.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1136-1140, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888529

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the efficacy and safety of CHOP regimen based on doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome in the initial treatment of elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL).@*METHODS@#Thirty-one patients with DLBCL treated from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2019 were analyzed retrospectively, their median age was 83 (71-95) years old, and all of them were in Ⅲ-Ⅳ stage, including 17 cases who had international prognostic index (IPI) ≥ 3. The patients were treated with R-CHOP and CHOP regimens based on doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome. The efficacy and safety were evaluated during and after treatment.@*RESULTS@#A total of 219 chemotherapy cycles and 7 median cycles were performed in 31 patients. The overall response (OR) rate and complete remission (CR) rate was 80.7% (25/31) and 61.3% (19/31), respectively, as well as 2 cases (6.5%) stable, 4 cases (12.9%) progressive. The main toxicities were as follows: the incidence of grade Ⅲ -Ⅳ neutropenia was 29% (9/31); two patients (6.5%) developed degree Ⅰ-Ⅱ cardiac events, which were characterized by new degree Ⅰ atrioventricular block; there were no cardiac events requiring emergency treatment and discontinuation of chemotherapy. The 1-year, 2-year and 3-year overall survival rate was 83.9%, 77.4% and 61.3%, respectively. The 1-year, 2-year and 3-year progression-free survival rate was 77.4%, 64.5% and 61.3%, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#The chemotherapy regimen based on doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome has better efficacy and higher cardiac safety for elderly patients with DLBCL.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Doxorubicin/therapeutic use , Humans , Liposomes/therapeutic use , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/drug therapy , Prednisolone , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Vincristine/therapeutic use
4.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e20200032, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135160

ABSTRACT

Liposomes are highly useful carriers for delivering drugs or antigens. The association of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins to liposomes potentially enhances the immunogenic effect of vaccine antigens by increasing their surface concentration. Furthermore, the introduction of a universal immunoglobulin-binding domain can make liposomes targetable to virtually any desired receptor for which antibodies exist. Methods: We developed a system for the production of recombinant proteins with GPI anchors and histidine tags and Strep-tags for simplified purification from cells. This system was applied to i) the green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter, ii) the promising Plasmodium falciparum vaccine antigen PfRH5 and iii) a doubled immunoglobulin Fc-binding domain termed ZZ from protein A of Staphylococcus aureus. As the GPI-attachment domain, the C-terminus of murine CD14 was used. After the recovery of these three recombinant proteins from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and association with liposomes, their vaccine potential and ability to target the CD4 receptor on lymphocytes in ex vivo conditions were tested. Results: Upon immunization in mice, the PfRH5-GPI-loaded liposomes generated antibody titers of 103 to 104, and showed a 45% inhibitory effect on in vitro growth at an IgG concentration of 600 µg/mL in P. falciparum cultures. Using GPI-anchored ZZ to couple anti-CD4 antibodies to liposomes, we created immunoliposomes with a binding efficiency of 75% to CD4+ cells in splenocytes and minimal off-target binding. Conclusions: Proteins are very effectively associated with liposomes via a GPI-anchor to form proteoliposome particles and these are useful for a variety of applications including vaccines and antibody-mediated targeting of liposomes. Importantly, the CHO-cell and GPI-tagged produced PfRH5 elicited invasion-blocking antibodies qualitatively comparable to other approaches.(AU)


Subject(s)
Plasmodium falciparum , Vaccines , Glycosylphosphatidylinositols , Liposomes , Antigens
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828886

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To prepare warangalone-loaded thermosensitive liposomes (WLTSL) and evaluate its inhibitory effect on breast cancer cells .@*METHODS@#MTT assay was used to assess the changes in proliferation of 3 breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, MCF7, and SKBR3) following treatment with warangalone, soy isoflavone and genistein. Colony-forming assay and wound healing assay was used to assess colony forming activity and migration of MDA-MB-231 cells treated with warangalone. The effect of warangalone on the expression of MMP2 and MMP9 in MDA-MB-231 cells was examined with Western blotting. The thermosensitive liposomes (TSL) and WLTSL were prepared using a thin film hydration method, and the morphology, size, encapsulation efficiency and stability of the prepared liposomes were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering scanning and UV spectrophotometry. MTT assay was used to examine the inhibitory effect of WLTSL on mouse breast cancer cells (4T1) .@*RESULTS@#Warangalone showed stronger anti-proliferation effects than soy isoflavones and genistein in the 3 human breast cancer cell lines and significantly inhibited colony formation by MDA-MB-231 cells. Treatment with warangalone significantly inhibited migration of the breast cancer cells and down-regulated the cellular expressions of MMP2 and MMP9. The prepared TSL and WLTSL presented with a homogeneous, irregular spherical morphology, with a mean particle size of 56.23±0.61 nm, a polymer dispersity index of 0.241±0.014, a Zeta potential of -40.40±0.46 mV, and an encapsulation efficiency was 87.68±2.41%. WLTSL showed a good stability at 4 ℃ and 37 ℃ and a stronger inhibitory effect than warangalone in 4T1 cells.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Warangalone inhibits the proliferation, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells, and the prepared WLTSL possesses good physical properties and strong anti-breast cancer activity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Breast Neoplasms , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Humans , Isoflavones , Liposomes , Mice
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774596

ABSTRACT

Hypertrophic scar( HS) is a very common skin fibrosis disorder after human skin injury and wound healing. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of cell penetrating peptide TAT-modified liposomes loaded with salvianolic acid B( SAB-TAT-LIP) on proliferation,migration and cell cycle of human skin fibroblasts( HSF),and preliminarily evaluate its effect on prevention and treatment of HS. HSF were cultured in vitro,and MTT assay was used to detect the inhibitory effect of SAB-TAT-LIP on cell proliferation. Cell migration was assessed by Transwell chamber method and scratch method; and cell cycle change was detected by flow cytometry. In vitro cell studies showed that blank liposome basically had no toxic effect on HSF. Different concentrations of SABTAT-LIP inhibited proliferation on HSF in varying degrees after intervention for different periods in a dose and time dependent manner;meanwhile,SAB-TAT-LIP significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of HSF. At the same time,SAB-TAT-LIP could block the cell cycle at G0/G1 phase after intervention for 48 h,P<0.01 as compared with the blank control group. Conclusively,our experimental data quantitatively demonstrate that SAB-TAT-LIP has significant inhibitory effect on cells proliferation,invasion and migration,with blocking effect on G0/G1 phase. This may offer a promising therapeutic strategy for transdermal delivery in prevention and treatment of HS.


Subject(s)
Benzofurans , Pharmacology , Cell Cycle , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Cell-Penetrating Peptides , Cells, Cultured , Drug Carriers , Fibroblasts , Cell Biology , Humans , Liposomes , Skin , Cell Biology
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774547

ABSTRACT

In order to increase the stability and solubility of essential oil in Jieyu Anshen Formula, this study was to prepare the essential oil into liposomes. In this experiment, the method for the determination of encapsulation efficiency of liposomes was established by ultraviolet spectrophotometer and dextran gel column. The encapsulation efficiency and particle size of liposomes were used as evaluation indexes for single factor investigation and Box-Behnken design-response surface method was used to optimize the design. Then the optimal formulation of volatile oil liposome was characterized using methyleugenol, elemin, β-asarone and α-asarone as index components. Finally, the in vitro transdermal properties of liposomes were studied by modified Franz diffusion cell. The results showed that the concentration of lecithin, the mass ratio of lecithin to volatile oil, and the stirring speed were the three most significant factors affecting the liposome preparation. The optimum formulation of volatile oil liposome was as follows: the concentration of lecithin was 7 g·L~(-1); mass ratio of lecithin to volatile oil was 5∶1; and the stirring speed was 330 r·min~(-1). Under such conditions, the prepared liposomes had blue emulsion light, good fluidity, half translucent, with particle size of(102.6±0.35) nm, Zeta potential of(-17.8±0.306) mV, permeability of(1.67±1.01)%, and stable property if liposome was stored at 4 ℃. 24 h after percutaneous administration, the cumulative osmotic capacity per unit time was(30.485 2±1.238 9),(34.794 8±0.928 3),(26.677 1±1.171 7),(3.066 2±0.175 3) μg·cm~(-2)respectively for methyleugenol, elemin, β-asarone and α-asarone. In vitro transdermal behaviors of methyleugenol, elemin, β-asarone and α-asarone in liposomes were all consistent with Higuchi equation. The prepared volatile oil liposomes met the relevant quality requirements, providing a reference for further research on preparation of multi-component Chinese medicine essential oil liposomes.


Subject(s)
Administration, Cutaneous , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Liposomes , Oils, Volatile , Particle Size , Solubility
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742313

ABSTRACT

There is no effective treatment modality available against different forms of leishmaniasis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to improve the penetration and efficacy of selenium and glucantime coupled with niosomes and compared them with their simple forms alone on in vitro susceptibility assays. In this study, the niosomal formulations of selenium and in combination with glucantime were prepared. The size and morphology of the niosomal formulations were characterized and the effectivity of the new formulation was also evaluated using in vitro MTT assay, intra-macrophage model, and gene expression profile. From the results obtained, no cytotoxicity effect was observed for niosomal and simple forms of drugs, as alone or in combination. Niosomal formulations of the drugs significantly showed more inhibitory effects (P≤0.001) than the simple drugs when the selectivity index was considered. The gene expression levels of Interleukin (IL-10) significantly decreased, while the level of IL-12 and metacaspase significantly increased (P≤0.001). The results of the present study showed that selenium plus glucantime niosome possess a potent anti-leishmanial effect and enhanced their lethal activity as evidenced by the in vitro experiments.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression , In Vitro Techniques , Interleukin-12 , Interleukins , Leishmania tropica , Leishmania , Leishmaniasis , Liposomes , Selenium , Transcriptome
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786671

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Macrophages have been known to have diverse roles either after tissue damage or during the wound healing process; however, their roles in flap wound healing are poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to evaluate how macrophages contribute to the flap wound regeneration.METHODS: A murine model of a pedicled flap was generated, and the time-course of the wound healing process was determined. Especially, the interface between the flap and the residual tissue was histopathologically evaluated. Using clodronate liposome, a macrophage-depleting agent, the functional role of macrophages in flap wound healing was investigated. Coculture of human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT and monocytic cell line THP-1 was performed to unveil relationship between the two cell types.RESULTS: Macrophage depletion significantly impaired flap wound healing process showing increased necrotic area after clodronate liposome administration. Interestingly, microscopic evaluation revealed that epithelial remodeling between the flap tissue and residual normal tissue did not occurred under the lack of macrophage infiltration. Coculture and scratch wound healing assays indicated that macrophages significantly affected the migration of keratinocytes.CONCLUSION: Macrophages play a critical role in the flap wound regeneration. Especially, epithelial remodeling at the flap margin is dependent on proper macrophage infiltration. These results implicate to support the cellular mechanisms of impaired flap wound healing.


Subject(s)
Cell Line , Clodronic Acid , Coculture Techniques , Humans , Keratinocytes , Liposomes , Macrophages , Regeneration , Surgical Flaps , Wound Healing , Wounds and Injuries
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786485

ABSTRACT

Liposome is one of the oldest yet most successful nanomedicine platforms. Doxil®, PEGylated liposome loaded with doxorubicin (DOX), was approved by the FDA in 1995 for the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma, and it was the first approval for nanomedicine. Since then, liposome-based therapeutics were approved for the treatment of various diseases and many clinical trials are underway. The success of the liposome-based therapeutics was due to following factors: (1) ease of synthesis, (2) biocompatibility, (3) the ability to load both hydrophilic and hydrophobic agents, and (4) long circulation property after application of polyethylene glycol (PEG). Recently, more functionalities are introduced to liposome platform, which are (1) in vivo imaging probes for optical, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), (2) pH and temperature-sensitive lipid moiety, and (3) novel agents for photodynamic and photothermal therapies (PDT, PTT). These conventional and newly tested advantages make the liposome to be one of the most promising nanoplatforms for theranostics.


Subject(s)
Doxorubicin , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Liposomes , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Nanomedicine , Polyethylene Glycols , Positron-Emission Tomography , Sarcoma, Kaposi , Theranostic Nanomedicine , Tomography, Emission-Computed
11.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e18204, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039079

ABSTRACT

The development and clinical application of 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME) as a new type of antitumor drug are limited due to its poor solubility, rapid metabolism in vivo, and large oral dosage. 2-ME-loaded pH-sensitive liposomes (2-ME-PSLs) was prepared containing the lipids, Lipoid E-80 (E-80), cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHEMS), and cholesterol (CHOL) via thin-film ultrasonic dispersion. First, preparation conditions of 2-ME-PSLs were optimized by orthogonal test. Then 2-ME-PSL was characterized, and the release behavior and stability of 2-ME-PSL in vitro were evaluated. The optimal preparation conditions for 2-ME-PSLs were as follows: 2-ME : E-80+CHEMS 1:15; CHOL : E-80+CHEMS 1:5; ultrasonication time 20 minutes. The mean particle size, PDI, zeta potential, and entrapment efficiency (EE) of 2-ME-PSLs were 116 ± 9 nm, 0.161 ± 0.025, −22.4 ± 1.7 mV, and 98.6 ± 0.5%, respectively. As viewed under a transmission electron microscope, 2-ME-PSLs were well dispersed and almost spherical. They exhibited significant pH-sensitive properties and were fairly stable when diluted with a physiological solution. In conclusion, 2-ME-PSLs were successfully prepared and possessed a favorable pH sensitivity and good dissolution stability with a normal solution


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , /pharmacokinetics , Liposomes/analysis , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor/classification , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration/drug effects
12.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e17870, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039075

ABSTRACT

Mefenamic acid (MFA) is a hydrophobic drug with low dissolution rate. This study aimed to develop stable and reproducible aqueous formulations of MFA using liposomes as drug carriers. The drug entrapment, particles size and drug release profiles, and stability and reproducibility of the liposomes were determined. In addition, the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was determined in rats via the oral and intraperitoneal routes of administration. Also, the anti-inflammatory efficacy of these liposomes was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw edema model in rats. MFA-DDC based liposomes demonstrated a drug entrapment efficacy of 93.6%, particles size of 170.9 nm, and polydispersity index of 0.24 which were not statistically affected when stored in room and refrigerated temperatures for at least 4 weeks. The MTD of the intraperitoneally administrated MFA-loaded liposomes was 20 mg MFA/kg, whereas for those of oral administrations, it was up to 80 mg MFA/kg. Intraperitoneal dose (80 mg MFA/kg) of MFA-DDC liposomes induced extrapyramidal symptoms associated with significant elevation in serum potassium and muscle enzymes. Moreover, significant inhibition of paw edema was demonstrated by the oral and intraperitoneal routes. These findings suggest that MFA-DDC based liposomes are an effective formulation of MFA and recommend the use of bioequivalence assessments with commercial formulations.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Mefenamic Acid/analysis , Ditiocarb/analysis , Liposomes/agonists , In Vitro Techniques , Carrageenan
13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(3): e8281, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989461

ABSTRACT

It has been hypothesized that the therapeutic effects of artepillin C, a natural compound derived from Brazilian green propolis, are likely related to its partition in the lipid bilayer component of biological membranes. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of the major compound of green propolis, artepillin C, on model membranes (small and giant unilamelar vesicles) composed of ternary lipid mixtures containing cholesterol, which display liquid-ordered (lo) and liquid-disordered (ld) phase coexistence. Specifically, we explored potential changes in relevant membrane parameters upon addition of artepillin C presenting both neutral and deprotonated states by means of small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and confocal and multiphoton excitation fluorescence microscopy. Thermotropic analysis obtained from DSC experiments indicated a loss in the lipid cooperativity of lo phase at equilibrium conditions, while at similar conditions spontaneous formation of unilamellar vesicles from SAXS experiments showed that deprotonated artepillin C preferentially located at the surface of the membrane. Time-resolved experiments using fluorescence microscopy showed that at doses above 100 µM, artepillin C in its neutral state interacted with both liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases, inducing curvature stress and promoting dehydration at the membrane interface.


Subject(s)
Phenylpropionates/chemistry , Lipid Bilayers/chemistry , Liposomes/chemistry , Reference Values , Temperature , Time Factors , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning , Cholesterol/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Microscopy, Confocal , Scattering, Small Angle , Laurates , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Models, Chemical , 2-Naphthylamine/analogs & derivatives
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761763

ABSTRACT

In this study, we carried out extensive in vitro studies on various concentrations of tioxolone along with benzoxonium chloride and their niosomal forms against Leishmania tropica. Niosomes were prepared by the hydration method and were evaluated for morphology, size, release study, and encapsulation efficiency. This study measured leishmanicidal activity against promastigote and amastigote, apoptosis and gene expression levels of free solution and niosomal-encapsulated tioxolone along with benzoxonium chloride. Span/Tween 60 niosome had good physical stability and high encapsulation efficiency (more than 97%). The release profile of the entrapped compound showed that a gradual release rate. The combination of niosomal forms on promastigote and amastigote were more effective than glucantime. Also, the niosomal form of this compound was significantly less toxic than glucantime (P≤0.05). The flowcytometric analysis on niosomal form of drugs showed that higher number of early apoptotic event as the principal mode of action (89.13% in 200 μg/ml). Also, the niosomal compound increased the expression level of IL-12 and metacaspase genes and decreased the expression level of the IL-10 gene, which further confirming the immunomodulatory role as the mechanism of action. We observed the synergistic effects of these 2 drugs that induced the apoptotic pathways and also up regulation of an immunomodulatory role against as the main mode of action. Also, niosomal form of this combination was safe and demonstrated strong anti-leishmaniasis effects highlights further therapeutic approaches against anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in future planning.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Gene Expression , In Vitro Techniques , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-12 , Leishmania tropica , Leishmania , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous , Liposomes , Methods , Up-Regulation
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765123

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nanoparticle-mediated photothermal therapy (PTT) has been well studied as a treatment for cancer. However, the therapeutic outcome of PTT is often hindered by the penetration depth of laser light. In the tumor margin beyond the laser penetration limit, tumor recurrence often occurs, bypassing the immune response of the host. Accumulating evidence suggests the prominent role of tumor microenvironment (TME) and its interactions with the immune components contribute to an immunosuppressive milieu during the post-therapy period. Here, we explored the immunosuppressive cascade generated after PTT, which is responsible for tumor recurrence, and identified the potential targets to achieve an effective PTT period. METHODS: Here, we investigated the immunosuppressive cascade generated after PTT in a CT26 tumor bearing mouse. The liposomal system loaded with the indocyanine green (ICG) was utilized for the generation of PTT with high efficiency. Immunological factors such as cytokines and protein expressions post-therapy were investigated through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, flow cytometry and western blot analysis. RESULTS: Our results suggested that PTT with ICG-loaded liposomes (Lipo-ICG) was effective for the first 5 days after treatment, resulting in tumor suppression. However, an immunosuppressive and pro-inflammatory environment developed thereafter, causing the recruitment and upregulation of the immune evasion factors of heat shock protein 70, programmed death ligand 1, indoleamine-dioxygenase, interleukin-6, transforming growth factor-β, regulatory T-cells, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells, to develop immunotolerance. CONCLUSION: Collectively, these findings have determined potential therapeutic targets to modulate the TME during PTT and achieve tumor ablation without remission.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Cytokines , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flow Cytometry , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins , Immune Evasion , Immunologic Factors , Immunosuppression , Indocyanine Green , Interleukin-6 , Liposomes , Mice , Recurrence , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Tumor Microenvironment , Up-Regulation
16.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(12): 1052-1060, Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973489

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To establish a method for the preparation of zoledronate liposome and to observe its effect on inducing the apoptosis of rat liver Kupffer cells. Methods: Zoledronate was encapsulated in liposomes, and then the entrapment rate was detected on a spectrophotometer. The prepared Zoledronate liposome (0.01 mg/mL) was injected into the tail vein of SD rats. Three days later, the number of Kupffer cells (CD68 positive) in rat liver tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry. Flow cytometry was used to detect the apoptosis rate of the isolated liver Kupffer cell cultured in vitro. Results: The entrapment rate of Zoledronate was 43.4±7.8%. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the number of Kupffer cells was 19.3±2.1 in PBS group and 5.5±1.7 in Zoledronate liposome group, with a significant difference (P<0.05). The apoptosis rate of Kupffer cells was 4.1±0.8% in PBS group, while it was 9±2.2% and 23.3±5.9% in Zoledronate liposomes groups with different concentrations of Zoledronate liposome (P<0.05). Conclusions: Zoledronate liposomes can effectively induce the apoptosis of Kupffer cells in vivo and in vitro, and the apoptosis rate is related to the concentration of Zoledronate liposome. To establish a rat liver Kupffer cell apoptosis model can provide a new means for further study on Kupffer cell function.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Apoptosis/drug effects , Zoledronic Acid/pharmacology , Kupffer Cells/drug effects , Liver/cytology , Immunohistochemistry , Random Allocation , Cell Count , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Drug Compounding/methods , Flow Cytometry , Zoledronic Acid/administration & dosage , Zoledronic Acid/chemical synthesis , Liposomes/chemical synthesis
17.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 81(6): 510-513, Nov.-Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973857

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To determine the release profile of moxifloxacin encapsulated in liposomes in the aqueous humor as a controlled release system for intracameral application. Methods: Liposomes containing moxifloxacin were obtained using the lipid film hydration method and were characterized by particle size and encapsulation efficiency. Female rabbits were used for the in vivo profile release study. Liposomes containing moxifloxacin was injected into the anterior chamber of the right eye of each animal. The rabbits were divided into five groups, and a sample of aqueous humor was collected 2, 4, 8, 24, and 48 h after administration of liposomes containing moxifloxacin administration. Moxifloxacin concentrations in the aqueous humor were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: The average size of the liposomes containing moxifloxacin was 60.5 ± 0.72 nm with a particle size distribution of 0.307. The encapsulation efficiency of moxifloxacin in liposomes was 92.24 ± 0.24%. The results of an in vivo release study of liposomes containing moxifloxacin, showed that the maximum moxifloxacin concentration was achieved within the first 2 h after administration (5.27 ± 1.09 mg/mL) and was followed by a decrease in intracameral concentration (0.35 ± 0.05 mg/mL) until the 24 h mark. Conclusions: The in vivo experiments resulted in liposomes containing moxifloxacin that were homogenous in size and exhibited high drug encapsulation efficiency. The results indicate that liposomes containing moxifloxacin offers a satisfactory aqueous humor release profile after intracameral application.


RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar o perfil de liberação, no humor aquoso, de moxifloxacino encapsulado em lipossomas como um sistema de liberação controlada para aplicação intracameral. Métodos: Lipossomas contendo moxifloxacino foram obtidos através do método de hidratação do filme lipídico e caracterizados por tamanho da partícula e eficiência de encapsulação. Utilizaram-se coelhos fêmeas foram para o estudo do perfil de liberação in vivo. Lipossomas contendo moxifloxacino foram injetados na câmara anterior do olho direito de cada animal. Os coelhos foram divididos em cinco grupos, e uma amostra de humor aquoso foi coletada 2, 4, 8, 24 e 48 h após a administração de lipossomas contendo moxifloxacino. As concentrações de moxifloxacino no humor aquoso foram analisadas usando cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Resultados: O tamanho médio dos lipossomas contendo moxifloxacino foi de 60,5 ± 0,72 nm com uma distribuição de tamanho de partícula de 0,307. A eficiência de encapsulação de moxifloxacino nos lipossomas foi de 92,24 ± 0,24. Os resultados de um estudo de liberação in vivo de lipossomas contendo moxifloxacino, mostraram que a concentração máxima de moxifloxacino foi atingida dentro das primeiras 2 h após sua administração (5,27 ± 1,09 mg/mL) e foi seguida de um decréscimo na concentração intracameral (0,35 ± 0,05 mg/mL) até a marca de 24 h. Conclusão: Os experimentos in vivo resultaram em lipossomas contendo moxifloxacino que eram homogêneos em tamanho e exibiam alta eficiência de encapsulação do fármaco. Os resultados indicam que lipossomas contendo moxifloxacino oferecem um perfil de liberação de humor aquoso satisfatório após a aplicação intracameral.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Aqueous Humor , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Moxifloxacin/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Biological Availability , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Models, Animal , Injections, Intraocular , Moxifloxacin/analysis , Moxifloxacin/pharmacokinetics , Liposomes , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacokinetics
18.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 663-669, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772383

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Afatinib, a second-generation irreversible epidermal growth factor inhibitor receptor for the development of non-small cell lung cancer and secondary drug resistance, has low bioavailability and adverse reactions due to current oral administration. The aim of this study was to prepare a novel drug delivery system, afatinib liposome, and to establish a method for the determination of encapsulation efficiency.@*METHODS@#Four different preparation methods were used to prepare afatinib liposomes, and the optimal preparation process was determined by comparing the encapsulation efficiency and particle size.@*RESULTS@#It has been verified that sephadex microcolumn centrifugation can be used to purify afatinib liposomes, and UV spectrophotometry can be employed to determine the entrapment efficiency of liposomes. Among different preparation methods, the encapsulation efficiency of afatinib liposomes prepared by ammonium sulfate gradient method was 90.73% and the average particle size was 108.6 nm.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Ammonium sulfate gradient method can be successfully applied to prepare afatinib liposomes that performed higher encapsulation efficiency and smaller particle size. The UV spectrophotometry employed to determine the liposome encapsulation efficiency was easy operation and with high accuracy.


Subject(s)
Afatinib , Capsules , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Drug Therapy , Drug Compounding , Methods , Liposomes , Lung Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Quinazolines , Chemistry , Therapeutic Uses
19.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(2): e00203, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951944

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The treatment of infections caused by resistant microorganisms is limited, and vancomycin (VAN) treatment failures for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia are not uncommon, even when MRSA clinical isolates are susceptible to VAN. Thus, this study proposed the association of VAN with usnic acid and ß-lapachone encapsulated into liposomes as a novel therapeutic option for infections caused by MRSA. Liposomes containing ß-lap (ß-lap-lipo) or usnic acid (UA-lipo) were prepared by the thin lipid film hydration method followed by sonication. Antimicrobial activity against MRSA clinical isolates was investigated by the microdilution method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The interaction studies were carried out using the checkerboard method and epsilometer test (Etest). The interaction between VAN and ß-lap or ß-lap-lipo was synergistic (FICI = 0.453 and FICI = 0.358, respectively). An additive interaction between VAN and UA (FICI = 0.515) was found. UA-lipo resulted in synergism with VAN (FICI = 0.276). The Etest reproduced the results obtained by the checkerboard method for approximately 82% of the analysis. Thus, the present study demonstrated that VAN in combination with UA-lipo, ß-lap or ß-lap-lipo synergistically enhanced antibacterial activity against MRSA


Subject(s)
Vancomycin/adverse effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/classification , Methicillin/adverse effects , Infection Control , Liposomes
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772130

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To test the acute and chronic toxicity of topical application of 0.5% podophyllotoxin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (POD-NLC) to the vaginal mucosa.@*METHODS@#Twelve New Zealand rabbits were randomized into 3 groups and subjected to daily topical applications of normal saline (control group), 0.5% podophyllotoxin tincture (POD-T) or 0.5% POD-NLC on the vaginal mucosa for 10 consecutive days, and the pathological changes in the mucosa were graded using the Eckstein scoring system.The acute toxicity of POD-NLC was tested in 20 SD female rats, which received intravaginal administration of POD-NLC or vehicle for 3 times within 24 h; After 14 days of continuous observation, the rats were dissected for calculating the viscera coefficient.For testing the chronic toxicity of POD-NLC, 80 SD female rats were randomized into 4 groups and subjected to daily intravaginal administration of the vehicle or POD-NLC at low, moderate or high doses for 13 consecutive weeks.The rats were weighed once a week and at the end of the experiment, 2/3 of the rats from each group were sacrificed to collect blood samples, calculate the viscera coefficient, and examine the pathological changes in the liver.The remaining 1/3 rats were observed for another 2 weeks without further drug treatment and the same examinations were performed.@*RESULTS@#In the rabbits, 0.5% POD-NLC elicited only mild irritation while POD-T caused moderate irritation of the vaginal mucosa.In the acute toxicity test, the organ coefficients were comparable between the rats treated with the vehicle and POD-NLC (>0.05).Long-term intravaginal administration of POD-NLC did not produce significant changes in the behavior, activity, body weight, blood biochemical profiles or organ coefficient as compared with the vehicle control group (>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Intravaginal administration of 0.5% POD-NLC causes very mild irritation without obvious acute or chronic toxicity to the vaginal mucosa in rabbits and rats.


Subject(s)
Administration, Intravaginal , Animals , Female , Liposomes , Mucous Membrane , Nanostructures , Toxicity , Podophyllotoxin , Toxicity , Rabbits , Random Allocation , Rats , Vagina
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