Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 30
Filter
1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 260-269, may. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342820

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to undertake a screening experiment on essential oils (EO) of Myrcia lundiana, Ocimum basilicum and Lippia alba against six food-spoiling pathogenic bacteria. Seventy-two (72) samples were initially analyzed fo antimicrobial activity based on the agar diffusion test. The minimum inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal (MBC) concentrations were determined for the 12 samples which showed greatest antimicrobial potential in this stage. Two samples of L. alba, three samples of M. lundiana and seven samples of O. basilicum showed a MIC of 0.12-125 µL/mL for the six tested bacteria. Of these, the EO of O. basilicum cultivar Maria Bonita stood out with the lowest MIC and MBC. Thus, a mixture simulating this essential oil was prepared from commercial standards of the compounds (±)-linalool, geraniol and 1,8-cineole. Significantly higher MIC and MBC were detected in the simulation compared to the respective EO, suggesting a synergistic effect between compounds.


El objetivo de este estudio fue realizar un experimento de detección en aceites esenciales (AE) de Myrcia lundiana, Ocimum basilicum y Lippia alba contra seis bacterias patógenas que estropean los alimentos. Setenta y dos (72) muestras fueron analizadas inicialmente para la actividad antimicrobiana basada en la prueba de difusión en agar. Se determinaron las concentraciones mínimas inhibitoria (CMI) y bactericida (CMB) para las 12 muestras que mostraron el mayor potencial antimicrobiano en esta etapa. Dos muestras de L. alba, tres muestras de M. lundiana y siete muestras de O. basilicum mostraron un CMI de 0.12-125 µL/mL para las seis bacterias analizadas. De estos, el AE de O. basilicum cultivar Maria Bonita se destacó con el CMI y CMB más bajos. Por lo tanto, se preparó una mezcla que simula este aceite esencial a partir de los estándares comerciales de los compuestos de (±)-linalol, geraniol y 1,8-cineol. Se detectaron CMI y CMB significativamente más altos en la simulación en comparación con el AE respectivo, lo que sugiere un efecto sinérgico entre los compuestos.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Ocimum basilicum/chemistry , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Lippia/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Food , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(2): 162-176, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-1145966

ABSTRACT

Lippia pedunculosa Hayek (EOLp) presenta efectos tripanocidas y amebicidas. En este trabajo se estudia su aceite esencial en modelos experimentales de analgesia e inflamación una vez que la prevalencia del dolor en la población genera un gran sufrimiento y discapacidad, y los medicamentos que se usan con mayor frecuencia tienen efectos secundarios indeseables. También se evalúa si la formulación del complejo de inclusión EOLp/ß-ciclodextrina (ß-CD) fue capaz de mejorar la actividad antinociceptiva de la EOLp sola. Los datos se evaluaron mediante análisis de varianza (ANOVA), seguido de la prueba de Tukey. Las diferencias se consideraron significativas si p<0,05. EOLp presentó un mejor efecto antinociceptivo en comparación con el complejo de inclusión EOLp/ß-CD. De esta manera, las ciclodextrinas parecen no ser eficientes para aceites esenciales con sustancias de peróxido. Sin embargo, en peritonitis, EOLp redujo la migración total de leucocitos y los niveles de IL-1ß en el líquido peritoneal, lo que confirma su efecto antiinflamatorio. Los efectos observados sugieren que EOLp es una buena y prometedora opción para el tratamiento de la inflamación y los trastornos relacionados con el dolor.


Lippia pedunculosa Hayek (EOLp) presents tripanocid and amebicid effects. However essential oil needs to be further studied in experimental models of analgesia and inflammation once the prevalence of pain in the population generates great suffering and disability and the drugs most often used have undesirable side effects. We also evaluated whether the inclusion complex formulation EOLp/ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) was able to improve the antinociceptive activity of the EOLp alone. Data were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey's test. Differences were considered significant if p<0.05. EOLp presented better antinociceptive effect when compared to the EOLp/ß-CD inclusion complex. Thus, cyclodextrins appear not to be efficient for essential oils with peroxide substances. However, in peritonitis, EOLp reduced total leucocyte migration and IL-1ß levels in the peritoneal fluid, which confirmed its anti-inflammatory effect. The observed effects suggest that EOLp is the best promising option for the treatment of inflammation and pain-related disorders.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Lippia/chemistry , Analgesics , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Plants, Medicinal , Brazil , Cyclodextrins , Medicine, Traditional
3.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(4)jul. 2018. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-915429

ABSTRACT

Lippia graveolens Kunth (Verbenaceae) is an economically important shrub known in Mexico as Oregano. In this work, the biocidal effect of the hexane extract of L. graveolens leaves was evaluated on two crop pests. Thus, larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda were fed with mixtures of extract and artificial diet. The nematicidal activity was evaluated on juveniles of Meloydogine javanica. Regarding S. frugiperda, quantitative differences between treatments and control were observed in dead pupae, surviving adults, and deformed adults (P < 0.05). All the surviving adults from the extract treatments were deformed. Nematicidal effect was registered, the LC50 and LC90 were 0.672 (0.654-0.690) and 0.965 (0.937-0.998) mg/mL respectively. The extract was characterized by NMR and GC-MS, being thymol the most abundant component (70.6%) in addition to carvacrol (22.8%). The results suggest the consideration of the hexane extract of L. graveolens leaves within the alternatives for the biological control of pests.


Lippia graveolens Kunth (Verbenaceae) es un arbusto con importancia económica conocido en México como Orégano. En éste trabajo se evaluó el efecto biocida del extracto hexánico de hojas L. graveolens sobre dos plagas agrícolas. Así, larvas de S. frugiperda fueron alimentadas con mezclas de dieta artificial y extracto. La actividad nematicida fue evaluada en juveniles de Meloydogine javanica, Respecto a S. frugiperda, se observaron diferencias cuantitativas entre tratamiento y control en cuanto a pupas muertas, adultos sobrevivientes y adultos deformes (P < 0.05). Todos los adultos provenientes de tratamientos con extracto estuvieron malformados. Hubo efecto nematicida, calculándose CL50 y CL90 de 0.672 (0.654-0.690) y 0.965 (0.937-0.998) mg/mL respectivamente. El extracto se caracterizó por RMN y CG-EM. Los compuestos más abundantes fueron timol (70.6%), ademas del carvacrol (22.8%). Los resultados sugieren considerar al extracto hexánico de hojas de L. graveolens dentro de las alternativas para el control biológico de plagas.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Spodoptera/drug effects , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Lippia/chemistry , Antinematodal Agents/pharmacology , Phenols/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Pest Control, Biological , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Verbenaceae , Monoterpenes/analysis , Larva , Antinematodal Agents/chemistry
4.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(5): 431-438, May 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949342

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effects of this thymol-rich oil in the proliferation of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells. Methods: Stem cells were isolated from human adipose tissue by liposuction. After the first passage, cells were cultivated in triplicate for three days in control medium and medium supplemented with three oil samples (1.0 μg/mL, 5.0 μg/mL, and 25.0 μg/mL). Cells were analyzed by the MTT assay at passage 1 (P1), and cell proliferation of control and 1 μg/mL groups was determined with a hemocytometer at P2 and P3. Results: Viability of the essential oil-treated cells was significantly higher than the control group at P1 (p = 0.0008). The treatment with the oil, at a concentration of 1 µg/mL, led to increases of 24.8% at P1 and 43.0% at P3 in the rate of cell proliferation compared with control cells. Conclusion: Supplementing culture medium with essential oil of Lippia origanoides increased cell proliferation, especially at later passages.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Thymol/pharmacology , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Lippia/chemistry , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Stem Cells/drug effects , Plant Oils/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Lipectomy , Adipose Tissue/cytology , Culture Media
5.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 55(1): 1-12, 2 abr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-912753

ABSTRACT

The present study evaluated the dietary supplementation with essential oil of Lippia alba on the hemato-immunological parameters of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) submitted to acute inflammation induced by carrageenin injection in the swim bladder. For a period of 45 days, 96 fish were divided in four treatments in triplicate, as follows: fish fed supplemented diet with essential oil of L. alba (4 mL kg-1 dry ration) injected with carrageenin; fish fed supplemented diet with cereal alcohol injected with carrageenin; fish fed unsupplemented diet with essential oil injected with carrageenin; fish fed unsupplemented diet and noninjected. Cortisol levels, erythrogram, leukogram and the inflammatory infiltrate were analyzed 6 h after inflammatory stimulus. Carrageenin-injected fish showed acute inflammatory reaction in the swim bladder characterized by higher infiltrate of neutrophils and monocytes. The circulating neutrophils number was significantly higher in fish fed L. alba when compared to other treatments. No difference in cortisol levels was found. For dose, time and administration form tested, supplementation with essential oil of L. alba did not present anti-inflammatory activity. On the other hand, influence of dietary supplementation was observed on the neutrophils number after induced aerocystitis highlighting its immunomodulatory characteristic.(AU)


O presente estudo avaliou a suplementação dietária com óleo essencial de Lippia alba sobre os parâmetros hemato-imunológicos em tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) submetidas à inflamação aguda induzida por carragenina na bexiga natatória. Pelo período de 45 dias, 96 peixes foram divididos em quarto tratamentos em triplicata: a) peixes suplementados com óleo esencial de L. alba (4 mL kg-1 de ração) injetados com carragenina; b) peixes suplementados com álcool de cereais injetados com carragenina; peixes não suplementados com óleo essencial injetados com carragenina; c) peixes não suplementados não injetados. Os níveis de cortisol, eritrograma, leucograma e o infiltrado inflamatório foram analisados seis horas após o estímulo inflamatório. Peixes injetados com carragenina apresentaram reação inflamatória aguda na bexiga natatória caracterizada por maior infiltrado de neutrófilos e monócitos. O número de neutrófilos circulantes foi significativamente maior nos peixes suplementados com L. alba quando comparado aos outros tratamentos. Não houve diferença nos níveis de cortisol. Para a dose, o tempo e a forma de administração testada, a suplementação com óleo essencil de L. alba não apresentou atividade anti-inflamatória. Por outro lado, foi constatada influência da suplementação dietária no número de neutrófilos após a aerocistite enfatizando a sua característica imunomoduladora.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Cichlids/blood , Cichlids/immunology , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Lippia/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Air Sacs , Carrageenan/administration & dosage , Inflammation/therapy , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage
6.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(1): 30-35, ene. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-914997

ABSTRACT

Chemical characterization of the essential oils of two Lippia species by GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy revealed that limonene (84.3%) and ß-caryophyllene (6.1%) were the most abundant components in Lippia turbinata while (6S,7S,10S)-trans-davanone (99.1%) predominated in Lippia integrifolia. Antifungal activity of the essential oils was determined by headspace volatile exposure assay against the fungal phytopathogenic Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Sclerotium rolfsii and Rhizoctonia solani. The essential oil of L. turbinata showed potent antifungal activity against the panel of fungi tested while that the oil of L. integrifolia significantly inhibited the mycelial growth of S. rolfsii and R. solani.


La caracterización química de los aceites esenciales de dos especies de Lippia por cromatografía gaseosa-espectrometría de masas (CG-EM) y espectroscopia de RMN reveló que limoneno (84,3%) y ß-cariofileno (6,1%) fueron los componentes más abundantes de Lippia turbinata mientras que (6S,7S,10S)-trans-davanona (99,1%) predominó en Lippia integrifolia. La actividad antifúngica de los aceites esenciales se determinó por el ensayo de exposición a los vapores frente a los hongos fitopatógenos Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Sclerotium rolfsii y Rhizoctonia solani. El aceite esencial de L. turbinata mostró una potente actividad antifúngica frente al panel de hongos ensayados, mientras que el aceite de L. integrifolia inhibió significativamente el crecimiento micelial de S. rolfsii y R. solani.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Lippia/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Rhizoctonia/drug effects , Terpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Antifungal Agents/chemistry
7.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(1): 68-83, ene. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-915131

ABSTRACT

Los aceites esenciales (AEs), pertenecientes al género Lippia, son candidatos interesantes de formulaciones tópicas en el tratamiento de la leishmaniasis cutánea (LC). El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el perfil toxicológico y la actividad anti-Leishmania de AEs obtenidos de plantas colombianas del género Lippia. Ratones BALB/c fueron tratados tópica u oralmente con AEs obtenidos de L. alba quimiotipo citral (AE1) y de L. origanoides quimiotipos timol (AE2), carvacrol (AE3) y felandreno (AE4). El efecto del tratamiento en la irritación de la piel, la toxicidad aguda oral, la genotoxicidad (prueba cometa y micronúcleos), los cambios en la función hepática y renal, la inducción de reacción de hipersensibilidad de contacto y en la actividad contra L. (V) panamensis y L. (V.) braziliensis fueron determinados. Todos los AEs presentaron un perfil toxicológico similar a los parámetros normales, exceptuando los aceites AE2 y AE3 los cuales fueron irritantes y presentaron algunos signos de toxicidad aguda oral al ser utilizados en altas concentraciones (concentraciones bajas no fueron tóxicas). El AE2 mostró actividad antiparasitaria en las formas parasitarias evaluadas. Concentraciones bajas de los AEs podrían utilizarse de forma segura como componentes de formulaciones farmacológicas en LC.


Essential oils (EOs) belonging to the genus Lippia are interesting candidates in pharmaceutical systems for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). The aim of this work was to determine both toxicological and antileishmanial activities of EOs obtained from different species of Lippia, a widely distributed Colombian plants. BALB/c mice were treated topically or orally with EOs obtained from L. alba citral chemotype (EO1) and L. origanoides thymol (EO2), carvacrol (EO3) and phellandrene (EO4) chemotypes. The skin irritation, oral acute toxicity, genotoxicity (comet assay and micronucleus test), liver and renal adverse effects, All the EOs showed a toxicological profile similar to the normal parameters, except for oils EO2 and EO3 which were irritant and showed some signs of acute oral toxicity at high concentrations (low concentration were safe). The EO2 showed antiparasitic activity. Low concentrations of the EO could be used safely as components of pharmacological formulations in CL.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Lippia/chemistry , Leishmania/drug effects , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/adverse effects , Colombia , Comet Assay , Dermatitis, Contact/etiology , Genotoxicity , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Antiprotozoal Agents/adverse effects
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(4): 696-702, Nov. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888807

ABSTRACT

Abstract The transport of live fish is a routine practice in aquaculture and constitutes a considerable source of stress to the animals. The addition of anesthetic to the water used for fish transport can prevent or mitigate the deleterious effects of transport stress. This study investigated the effects of the addition of eugenol (EUG) (1.5 or 3.0 µL L-1) and essential oil of Lippia alba (EOL) (10 or 20 µL L-1) on metabolic parameters (glycogen, lactate and total protein levels) in liver and muscle, acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) in muscle and brain, and the levels of protein carbonyl (PC), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and nonprotein thiol groups (NPSH) and activity of glutathione-S-transferase in the liver of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen; Quoy and Gaimard, 1824) transported for four hours in plastic bags (loading density of 169.2 g L-1). The addition of various concentrations of EUG (1.5 or 3.0 µL L-1) and EOL (10 or 20 µL L-1) to the transport water is advisable for the transportation of silver catfish, since both concentrations of these substances increased the levels of NPSH antioxidant and decreased the TBARS levels in the liver. In addition, the lower liver levels of glycogen and lactate in these groups and lower AChE activity in the brain (EOL 10 or 20 µL L-1) compared to the control group indicate that the energetic metabolism and neurotransmission were lower after administration of anesthetics, contributing to the maintenance of homeostasis and sedation status.


Resumo O transporte de peixes vivos é uma prática rotineira na aquicultura e constitui uma fonte considerável de estresse para os animais. A adição de anestésicos na água utilizada para o transporte de peixes pode prevenir ou mitigar os efeitos nocivos do estresse de transporte. Este estudo investigou os efeitos da adição de eugenol (EUG) (1,5 ou 3,0 mL L-1) e óleo essencial de Lippia alba (OEL) (10 ou 20 mL L-1) em parâmetros metabólicos (níveis de glicogênio, lactato e proteína total) no fígado e músculos, a atividade da acetilcolinesterase (AChE) no músculo e no cérebro, e os níveis de proteína carbonil (PC), ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS) e grupos tióis não proteicos (NPSH) e atividade da glutationa-S-transferase no fígado de jundiás (Rhamdia quelen; Quoy e Gaimard, 1824) transportados por quatro horas em sacos plásticos (densidade de carga de 169,2 g L-1). A adição de várias concentrações de EUG (1,5 ou 3,0 mL L-1) e OEL (10 ou 20 mL L-1) na água de transporte é aconselhável para o transporte do jundiá, uma vez que ambas concentrações destas substâncias aumentaram os níveis do antioxidante NPSH e diminuíram os níveis de TBARS no fígado. Além disso, os níveis mais baixos de glicogénio e lactato no fígado destes grupos e menor atividade de AChE no cérebro (EOL 10 ou 20 mL L-1) em comparação com o grupo controle indicam que o metabolismo energético e neurotransmissão foram menores após a administração dos anestésicos, contribuindo para a manutenção do estado de homeostase e sedação.


Subject(s)
Animals , Catfishes/physiology , Eugenol/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Aquaculture , Lippia/chemistry , Anesthetics/pharmacology , Transportation
9.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1): 203-212, Jan,-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886624

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Linalool is the main compound of many essential oils and occurs in two isomeric forms: S-(+)- and R-(-)-linalool. This study aimed to determine if linalool isomers have different antimicrobial and anesthetic properties in fish. For this purpose, these compounds were previously isolated from Lippia alba (Mill.)N. E. Brown and Ocimum americanum L. essential oils. Antimicrobial effects were evaluated through the microdilution test against Aeromonas hydrophila, an important fish disease etiologic agent. Induction time until sedation, anesthesia and recovery time were determined in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) through bath exposure (60, 180, 300 or 500 μL L-1). The results showed different biological properties for the isomers being S-(+)-linalool the only active against A. hydrophila at 3.2 mg mL-1. The sedation was induced without differences between the compounds, however R-(-)-linalool promoted faster anesthesia. There were no differences regarding the recovery time of the animals exposed to the linalool isomers. Although both S-(+)- and R-(-)-linalool can be used for sedative purposes, their use in A. hydrophila infection is inadvisable due to the high effective concentration. Considering anesthesia as the main objective, the R-(-)-linalool demonstrated clear advantages at lower concentration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Catfishes , Aeromonas hydrophila/drug effects , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Hypnotics and Sedatives/pharmacology , Anesthetics/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Reference Values , Stereoisomerism , Time Factors , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Ocimum/chemistry , Lippia/chemistry , Monoterpenes/isolation & purification , Monoterpenes/chemistry , Acyclic Monoterpenes
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(12): e6351, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888959

ABSTRACT

Lippia sidoides Cham is a typical herb species of Northeast Brazil with widespread use in folk medicine. The major constituents of the essential oil of L. sidoides (EOLs) are thymol, p-cymene, myrcene, and caryophyllene. Several studies have shown that the EOLs and its constituents have pharmacological effects, including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and neuroprotective activity. Therefore, this work aimed to investigate the effects of the EOLs and their main constituents on rat sciatic nerve excitability. The sciatic nerves of adult Wistar rats were dissected and mounted in a moist chamber. Nerves were stimulated by square wave pulses, with an amplitude of 40 V, duration of 100 μs to 0.2 Hz. Both EOLs and thymol inhibited compound action potential (CAP) in a concentration-dependent manner. Half maximal inhibitory concentration for CAP peak-to-peak amplitude blockade were 67.85 and 40 µg/mL for EOLs and thymol, respectively. CAP peak-to-peak amplitude was significantly reduced by concentrations ≥60 µg/mL for EOLs and ≥30 µg/mL for thymol. EOLs and thymol in the concentration of 60 µg/mL significantly increased chronaxie and rheobase. The conduction velocities of 1st and 2nd CAP components were also concentration-dependently reduced by EOLs and thymol in the range of 30-100 µg/mL. Differently from EOLs and thymol, p-cymene, myrcene and caryophyllene did not reduce CAP in the higher concentrations of 10 mM. These data demonstrated that EOLs and thymol inhibited neuronal excitability and were promising agents for the development of new drugs for therapeutic use.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Alkenes/pharmacology , Lippia/chemistry , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Sciatic Nerve/drug effects , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Thymol/pharmacology , Action Potentials/drug effects , Action Potentials/physiology , Nerve Block/methods , Neural Conduction/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Sciatic Nerve/physiology , Time Factors
11.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 25(4): 401-406, Sept.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-830054

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to select different genotypes of Lippia sidoides with the highest activity against larvae and engorged females of the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The germplasms studied were LSID006, LSID102, LSID103 and LSID104. The LSID104 genotype, that presented carvacrol as a major constituent, was the germplasm with the worst larvicide effect (LC50 2.99 mg/mL). The LSID006 genotype was the least effective against engorged females (LC50 12.46 mg/mL), and it was chemically similar to the LSID102 genotype, which presented the highest acaricide activity (LC50 2.81 mg/mL). We conclude that chemical similarity of the germplasms was not correlated with acaricide activity against R. (B.) microplus. The essential oil of L. sidoides is a potent natural agent. However, the findings of this work provide a better understanding for product development based on this natural product, which must consider synergic effects or the action of minor compounds.


Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar genótipos de Lippia sidoides que apresentem maiores atividades em larvas e fêmeas ingurgitadas do carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Os genótipos estudados foram LSID006, LSID102, LSID103 e LSID104. O genótipo LSID104, o único a conter o monoterpeno carvacrol como um dos principais constituintes, foi o que apresentou o menor efeito larvicida (CL50 2,99 mg/mL). O genótipo LSID006 apresentou menor efeito sobre fêmeas ingurgitadas (CL50 12,46 mg/mL), entretanto foi quimicamente similar ao genótipo LSID102, que apresentou a maior atividade carrapaticida (CL50 2,81 mg/mL). Conclui-se que a semelhança química dos genótipos não se correlaciona com a atividade carrapaticida contra R. (B.) microplus. O óleo essencial de L. sidoides é um agente natural potente e os resultados deste trabalho proporcionam um melhor entendimento para o desenvolvimento de produtos com base neste produto natural, devendo ser considerado os efeitos sinérgicos ou a ação de compostos presentes em menores concentrações.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Lippia/chemistry , Rhipicephalus/drug effects , Acaricides/pharmacology , Lippia/genetics , Genotype , Larva/drug effects
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(8): 697-702, 08/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753054

ABSTRACT

Lippia alba is empirically used for infusions, teas, macerates, and hydroalcoholic extracts because of its antispasmodic, analgesic, sedative, and anxiolytic effects. Citral is a mixture of trans-geranial and cis-neral and is the main constituent of L. alba essential oil and possesses analgesic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and sedative effects. The present study evaluated the effects of the essential oil of L. alba (EOLa) and citral on compound action potentials (CAPs) in Wistar rat sciatic nerves. Both drugs inhibited CAP in a concentration-dependent manner. The calculated half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of peak-to-peak amplitude were 53.2 µg/mL and 35.00 µg/mL (or 230 µM) for EOLa and citral, respectively. Peak-to-peak amplitude of the CAP was significantly reduced by 30 µg/mL EOLa and 10 µg/mL citral. EOLa and citral (at 60 and 30 µg/mL, values close to their respective IC50 for CAP blockade) significantly increased chronaxy and rheobase. The conduction velocity of the first and second CAP components was statistically reduced to ∼86% of control with 10 µg/mL EOLa and ∼90% of control with 3 µg/mL citral. This study showed that EOLa inhibited nerve excitability and this effect can be explained by the presence of citral in its composition. Both EOLa and citral showed inhibitory actions at lower concentrations compared with other essential oils and constituents with local anesthetic activity. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that EOLa and citral are promising agents in the development of new drugs with local anesthetic activity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Action Potentials/drug effects , Lippia/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Sciatic Nerve/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors
13.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 34(12): 1153-1161, dez. 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-736044

ABSTRACT

Currently, there is a growing interest in medicinal plants, because of an increased demand for alternate therapies. In this study, the antimicrobial activity and toxicity of the essential oil of Lippia origanoides (L. origanoides) were investigated. The essential oil of L. origanoides was extracted by steam-dragging distillation and its constituents were identified by chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Among the 15 compounds identified, the most abundant were carvacrol (29.00%), o-cymene (25.57%), and thymol methyl ether (11.50%). The essential oil was studied in antimicrobial assays to determine the MIC and MBC. The results indicated that a concentration of 120μL/mL of oil was sufficient to inhibit the growth of the following microorganisms: Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Salmonella cholerasuis (ATCC 10708). Acute and chronic toxic effects of orally administered oil were investigated in Wistar rats by using standard methods. Doses of 30, 60 and 120mg/kg of the essential oil did not induce significant changes in weight, behavior or hematological and biochemical parameters in the animals. There were no signs of any histopathological changes to the liver, kidneys or heart of the treated rats, suggesting that Lippia origanoides oil is non-toxic after oral administration in acute or chronic toxicity studies. The results obtained in this study show that the essential oil of L. origanoides has a high safety margin, with no detectable toxic effects in rats treated with doses to 120mg/kg. In addition, L. origanoides oil demonstrated potent antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, E. coli and S. cholerasuis. Based on these findings, this essential oil may have practical application as a veterinary antimicrobial.


Atualmente nota-se um aumento do interesse pelas plantas medicinais, fruto da grande procura por terapias alternativas. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a atividade antimicrobiana e a toxicidade do óleo essencial da Lippia origanoides (alecrim-pimenta). O óleo essencial de alecrim-pimenta foi obtido por arraste com vapor d’água e seus constituintes foram identificados por cromatografia acoplada a espectrofotômetro de massa (GC/MS). Entre os 15 compostos identificados os mais abundantes foram o carvacrol (29%), o-cimeno (25,57%) e metil timol éter (11,50%). Os óleos foram submetidos a ensaios antimicrobianos para determinação da CIM e da CBM. Os resultados mostraram que a dose de 120μl/mL de qualquer um dos óleos testados foi eficiente em inibir o crescimento dos micro-organismos Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) e Salmonella cholerasuis (ATTCC 10708). Os efeitos tóxicos agudos e crônicos foram verificados em animais segundo método de classes - Toxicidade aguda oral (dose fixas) - OECD 420. As concentrações de 30, 60 e 120 mg/kg de óleo essencial não induziram alterações significativas no peso, no comportamento dos animais e nem nos parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos. Também não houve presença de alterações histopatológicas no fígado, rins e coração sugerindo que o óleo de alecrim-pimenta é atóxico após administração oral em condições agudas ou crônicas. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho levam a concluir que o óleo essencial de alecrim-pimenta possui uma margem elevada de segurança, com efeitos tóxicos inexistentes além de apresentar atividade antimicrobiana eficaz contra os micro-organimos S. aureus, E. coli e S. cholerasuis. Sua utilização na medicina veterinária deve ser considerada como uma grande viabilidade econômica e sustentável.


Subject(s)
Animals , Lippia/adverse effects , Lippia/microbiology , Lippia/chemistry
14.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(3): 759-767, July-Sept. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727000

ABSTRACT

Many Gram-negative pathogens have the ability to produce N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) as signal molecules for quorum sensing (QS). This cell-cell communication system allows them to coordinate gene expression and regulate virulence. Strategies to inhibit QS are promising for the control of infectious diseases or antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) and antibacterial potential of five essential oils isolated from Lippia alba on the Tn-5 mutant of Chromobacterium violaceum CV026, and on the growth of the gram-positive bacteria S. aureus ATCC 25923. The anti-QS activity was detected through the inhibition of the QS-controlled violacein pigment production by the sensor bacteria. Results showed that two essential oils from L. alba, one containing the greatest geranial:neral and the other the highest limonene:carvone concentrations, were the most effective QS inhibitors. Both oils also had small effects on cell growth. Moreover, the geranial/neral chemotype oil also produced the maximum zone of growth inhibition against S. aureus ATCC 25923. These data suggest essential oils from L. alba have promising properties as QS modulators, and present antibacterial activity on S. aureus.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Chromobacterium/drug effects , Lippia/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Quorum Sensing/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification , Chromobacterium/metabolism , Chromobacterium/physiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Pigments, Biological/analysis , Staphylococcus aureus/growth & development
15.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(2): 699-705, Apr.-June 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723136

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of Lippia alba essential oil (EOLa) and to investigate the effect of food ingredients on its efficacy. The antimicrobial potential of the oil was determined by the presence or absence of inhibition zones, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. The effect of food ingredients and the pH on the antimicrobial efficacy of oil was assessed by monitoring the maximum growth rate of Listeria monocytogenes in model media. The model media included potato starch (0, 1, 5 or 10%), beef extract (1, 5, 3, 6 or 12%), sunflower oil (0, 5 or 10%) and TSB broth at pH levels of 4, 5, 6 or 7. The EOLa showed efficacy at all concentrations (50%, 25%, 6.25%, 3%, 1.5%, 0.8%, 0.4% and 0.2%) evaluated, against all bacterial species, Gram-positive and Gram-negative. The antimicrobial efficacy of EO was found to be a function of ingredient manipulation. Proteins and lipids had a negative impact on the oil effectiveness, indicating the protective action of both on the microbial specie tested. On the contrary, at the highest concentration of starch (10%), the lower rate growth of L. monocytogenes was detected, therefore indicating a positive effect of carbohydrates on the oil effectivenes. Regarding the pH, the studies showed that the rate of microbial growth increased with increasing pH. It was concluded that the use of EOLa is more effective control pathogenic and spoilage bacteria when applied to starchy foods under an acidic pH.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Interactions , Food Analysis , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Lippia/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Culture Media/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Listeria monocytogenes/growth & development , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 30(3): 937-944, Sept. 2012. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-665506

ABSTRACT

Desde tiempos antiguos la medicina tradicional ha usado extensamente las especies del género Lippia como analgésicos, antiinflamatorios, antipiréticos, antifúngicos, etc. Numerosos estudios describen diversos compuestos presentes en extractos acuosos, metanólicos, o aceites esenciales de estas plantas, siendo los flavonoides los compuestos más abundantes. Sin embargo, la composición y cantidad de los metabolitos secundarios dependen de la zona geográfica, factores climáticos, altitud, época de cosecha y estado de crecimiento de estas plantas. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la actividad antioxidante del extracto acuoso de orégano (Lippia graveolens HBK) del Norte de México y su efecto tóxico in vitro e in vivo. La capacidad antioxidante del extracto acuoso se midió por el método de DPPH en seis diluciones del extracto (5-160 mg/mL) y se utilizó Trolox como referencia; para el efecto tóxico in vitro se usó el ensayo de citotoxicidad con larvas de Artemia salina. Para el efecto in vivo se emplearon 24 ratones árabes machos divididos en 6 grupos de animales (n=4): 4 grupos experimentales con 10, 100, 1000 y 5000 mg del extracto/ kg de peso administrados vía oral respectivamente, además de un grupo control positivo (5 mg de colchicina/kg de peso vía i.p) y un grupo control negativo (solo agua destilada). Después del tratamiento los ratones se sacrificaron y se colectaron muestras de hígado y riñón que se sometieron a estudios histológicos e histoquímicos, además se realizó un análisis cuantitativo. La actividad antioxidante del extracto acuoso de orégano se presentó a 160 mg/mL. La CL50 fue mayor a 1,000 ug/mL por lo que el extracto se considera no tóxico. En el análisis morfológico in vivo con distintas dosis del extracto acuoso de orégano no se observó un efecto tóxico. Los resultados obtenidos validan el uso del orégano en la medicina tradicional...


Since ancient times, traditional medicine has widely used species of the genus Lippia as analgesics, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antifungal, etc. Numerous studies describe several compounds present in aqueous extracts, methanol, or essential oils of these plants, being flavonoids the most abundant compounds. However, the composition and quantity of secondary metabolites depend on the geographical area, climatic factors, altitude, time of harvest and growth status of these plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of oregano (Lippia graveolens HBK) from the North of Mexico and its toxic effect in vitro and in vivo. The antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract was measured by DPPH method in six dilutions of the extract (5-160 mg / mL), Trolox was used as a reference. For the in vitro toxic effect, cytotoxicity assay with larvae of Artemia salina was used. For the in vivo effect, 24 males mice were used and divided into 6 groups (n = 4): 4 experimental groups with 10, 100, 1000 and 5000 mg extract / kg body weight administered orally respectively, also we used a group positive control (5 mg of colchicine / kg body weight administered via ip) and a negative control group (distilled water only). After treatment all mice were sacrificed, and samples from liver and kidney were collected and analyzed by histological and histochemical studies. Also a quantitative analysis was done. The antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of oregano was presented at 160 mg/mL. The LC50 was greater than 1.000 mg/mL, so the extract is considered nontoxic. In the morphological analysis in vivo with different doses of aqueous extract of oregano, no toxic effect was observed. The results validate the use of oregano in traditional medicine...


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Mice , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Origanum/chemistry , Liver , Larva , Lippia/chemistry , Kidney , Toxicity Tests
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(5): 436-443, May 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-622768

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to identify the possible involvement of the GABAergic system in the anesthetic effect of Lippia alba essential oil (EO). We propose a new animal model using silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) exposed to an anesthetic bath to study the mechanism of action of EO. To observe the induction and potentiation of the anesthetic effect of EO, juvenile silver catfish (9.30 ± 1.85 g; 10.15 ± 0.95 cm; N = 6) were exposed to various concentrations of L. alba EO in the presence or absence of diazepam [an agonist of high-affinity binding sites for benzodiazepinic (BDZ) sites coupled to the GABA A receptor complex]. In another experiment, fish (N = 6) were initially anesthetized with the EO and then transferred to an anesthetic-free aquarium containing flumazenil (a selective antagonist of binding sites for BDZ coupled to the GABA A receptor complex) or water to assess recovery time from the anesthesia. In this case, flumazenil was used to observe the involvement of the GABA-BDZ receptor in the EO mechanism of action. The results showed that diazepam potentiates the anesthetic effect of EO at all concentrations tested. Fish exposed to diazepam and EO showed faster recovery from anesthesia when flumazenil was added to the recovery bath (12.0 ± 0.3 and 7.2 ± 0.7, respectively) than those exposed to water (9.2 ± 0.2 and 3.5 ± 0.3, respectively). In conclusion, the results demonstrated the involvement of the GABAergic system in the anesthetic effect of L. alba EO on silver catfish.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anesthetics/pharmacology , Catfishes/physiology , Lippia/chemistry , Models, Animal , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Receptors, GABA-A/drug effects , Diazepam/pharmacology , Flumazenil/pharmacology , GABA-A Receptor Agonists/pharmacology , GABA-A Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(3): 238-243, Mar. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-618055

ABSTRACT

Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown (Verbenaceae) is widely used in different regions of Central and South America as a tranquilizer. The plant’s anxiolytic properties, however, merit investigation. The present study evaluated the effects of repeated daily (14 days) intraperitoneal (ip) treatment with an essential oil (EO) from a chemotype of L. alba (LA, chemotype II, 12.5 and 25 mg/kg; N = 6-8) and (R)-(-)-carvone (25 mg/kg; N = 8-12), the main constituent of this chemotype, on male Wistar rats (weighing 250 g at the beginning of the experiments) submitted to the elevated T-maze (ETM). The ETM allows the measurement of two defensive responses: inhibitory avoidance and one-way escape. In terms of psychopathology, these responses have been related to generalized anxiety and panic disorder, respectively. Treatment with the EO impaired ETM avoidance latencies, without altering escape, in a way similar to the reference drug diazepam (P < 0.05) (avoidance 2: control = 84.6 ± 35.2; EO 12.5 mg/kg = 11.8 ± 3.8; EO 25 mg/kg = 14.6 ± 2.7; diazepam = 7 ± 2.1). (R)-(-)-carvone also significantly altered this same response (P < 0.05; avoidance 1: control = 91.9 ± 31.5; carvone = 11.6 ± 1.8; diazepam = 8.1 ± 3.3). These results were not due to motor changes since no significant effects were detected in an open field. These observations suggest that LA exerts anxiolytic-like effects on a specific subset of defensive behaviors that have been implicated in generalized anxiety disorder, and suggest that carvone is one of the constituents of LA responsible for its action as a tranquilizer.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Anti-Anxiety Agents/administration & dosage , Anxiety/drug therapy , Avoidance Learning/drug effects , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Lippia/chemistry , Monoterpenes/administration & dosage , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Rats, Wistar
19.
Biol. Res ; 45(4): 399-402, 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-668692

ABSTRACT

Leishamaniasis is a disease that affects more than 2 million people worldwide, whose causative agent is Leishmania spp. The current therapy for leishmaniasis is far from satisfactory. All available drugs, including pentavalent antimony, require parenteral administration and are potentially toxic. Moreover, an increase in clinical resistance to these drugs has been reported. In this scenario, plant essential oils used traditionally in folk medicine are emerging as alternative sources for chemotherapeutic compounds. In this study, in vitro leishmanicidal effects of a thymol- and a carvacrol-rich essential oil from leaves of Lippia sidoides Cham. were investigated. The essential oils were extracted and their constituents were characterized by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Both essential oils showed significant activity against promastigote forms of Leishmania chagasi. However, we found that carvacrol-rich essential oil was more effective, with IC50/72 h of 54.8 μg/mL compared to 74.1 μg/mL for thymol-rich oil. Carvacrol also showed lower IC50 than thymol. Our data suggest that L. sidoides essential oils are indeed promising sources of leishmanicidal compounds.


Subject(s)
Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Leishmania/drug effects , Lippia/chemistry , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Thymol/pharmacology , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Monoterpenes/isolation & purification , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Thymol/isolation & purification
20.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 42(4): 1537-1546, Oct.-Dec. 2011. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-614620

ABSTRACT

The essential oil of Lippia alba is reported as an antifungal against human pathogenic microorganisms but few articles report its use as an alternative to synthetic fungicides on green mould control. The objective of this study was to determine chemical characteristics of L. alba essential oil and its antifungal activity against green molds as an alternative to synthetic fungicides. Essential oil was extracted by Clevenger hydrodistillation, characterized by GC-MS analysis, and the structure of the main compounds confirmed by ¹H and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Microdilution assays evaluated the essential oil minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). Commercial fungicides Ketoconazole and Bifonazole were used as control. Essential oil yield is of 0.15 percent and the major components are neral (33.32 percent) and geranial (50.94 percent). The L. alba essential oil has MIC of 0.300-1.250 mg/mL and MFC of 0.600-1.250 mg/mL. Ketoconazole and Bifonazole show MIC ranging from 0.025-0.500 to 0.100-0.200 mg/mL, and MFC ranging from 0.250-0.100 to 0.200-0.250 mg/mL, respectively. L. alba essential oil is classified as citral type and the results indicate that it is a potential alternative to synthetic fungicides.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/analysis , Fungicides, Industrial/analysis , Lippia/adverse effects , Lippia/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Petroleum , Environmental Microbiology , Methods , Methods
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL