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1.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353121

ABSTRACT

. (AU)Acute hepatic porphyrias (AHPs) are inborn errors of hemebiosynthesis and its most common and severe type is the acute intermittent porphyria (AIP). AIP is an hereditary autosomal dominant disease caused by accumulated porphobilinogen deaminase (PBG) and delta aminolevulin acid (ALA) products. The main symptoms are severe abdominal pain, neuromuscular and psychiatric disturbances, nausea, vomiting, encephalopathy, tachycardia, seizures, tremors and hypertension, that usually are manifested by acute crises. The treatment is based on clinical management and in cases which the patient's quality of life is affected liver transplantation (LT) may be an alternative choice. We report the case of a patient with AHP presenting recurrent crisis leading to chronic symptoms occurrence and poor quality of life with progressive unresponsiveness to hemin treatment. Patient was submitted to LT as curative therapy proposal, but patient still presents some clinical manifestations that may indicate the possibility of a secondary cause to explain persistence of her symptoms despite of biochemical normalization of ALA and PBG. (AU)


As porfirias hepáticas agudas (PHA) compreendem um grupo de porfirias que apresentam erros inatos na biossíntese do grupo heme, sendo a mais severa e o tipo mais comum da PHA, a porfiria aguda intermitente (PAI). A PAI é uma doença autossômica dominante causada pelo acúmulo dos produtos porfobilinogênio deaminase (PBG) e ácido delta-aminolevulínico (ALA). Os principais sintomas são dor abdominal intensa, distúrbios neuromusculares e psiquiátricos, náuseas, vômitos, encefalopatia, taquicardia, febre, tremores e hipertensão, os quais normalmente são manifestados durante as crises agudas. O tratamento é baseado no manejo clínico de todos pacientes durante a crise. Para os casos em que a qualidade de vida do paciente é afetada negativamente, a terapêutica de transplante hepático poderá ser indicada. O objetivo do relato de caso é introduzir o tratamento de uma paciente com recorrentes crises agudas de porfiria e danos em sua qualidade de vida. Uma vez que a paciente não apresentou melhora após tratamento com hematina, foi submetida ao transplante hepático visando a cura da doença. Após o transplante, a paciente ainda apresentou alguns sintomas clínicos, necessitando reformular uma segunda hipótese para explicar a persistência de tais sintomas apesar da normalização dos níveis de ALA e PBG. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Porphobilinogen , Hydroxymethylbilane Synthase , Quality of Life , Abdominal Pain , Liver Transplantation , Porphyrias, Hepatic , Porphyria, Acute Intermittent
2.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(3): 370-376, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345282

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Immunosuppressive drugs have important role in transplant of solid grafts, it aim avoid episodes of acute and chronic rejection and improving graft survival and patient survival. In Brazil, in 2016, liver transplantation was the third most frequent, with 1,880 transplants performed, of which 150 in Rio Grande do Sul. Several studies evaluated the association between variability in blood levels of immunosuppressive tacrolimus and late acute cellular graft rejection. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of tacrolimus blood levels with clinical outcomes late acute cellular rejection, death, patient survival and graft survival in patients undergoing liver transplantation. METHODS: This is a retrospective longitudinal study including patients submitted to adult liver transplantation by the Liver Transplantation Group in the Santa Casa de Misericórdia Hospital of Porto Alegre, from January 2006 to January 2013, and who used tacrolimus as immunosuppressive therapy. RESULTS: Of the 127 patients included in the study, the majority were male (70.1%), 52-60 years old (33.9%) at the transplant. The most frequent causes of liver transplantation in this series were hepatitis C virus and hepatocellular carcinoma (24.4%) and alcohol (15.7%). Thirteen patients had late acute cellular rejection (10.2%); of these, three had two episodes. Regarding severity classification, seven patients had mild late acute cellular rejection. The mean time of rejection after liver transplantation was 14 months (ranging from 8 to 33 months). Overall survival was 8.98 years. Regarding tacrolimus blood levels, 52 patients with a variation ≥2 standard deviations were identified. Of these patients, eight had rejection; however, the association was not significant (P=0.146). A significant association was found between variation ≥2 standard deviations in tacrolimus blood levels and death (P=0.023) and survival (P=0.019). Regarding 5-year follow-up of graft survival, being two standard deviations above increases by 2.26 times the risk of transplanted graft loss, and for each unit of increase of standard deviation of tacrolimus blood levels there is a two-fold increase in the risk of graft loss in 5 years. CONCLUSION: Increased risk of graft loss associated with increased standard deviations of tacrolimus blood levels may indicate the need for more rigorous and prospective monitoring of tacrolimus blood levels.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Os imunossupressores desempenham importante papel no transplante de órgãos sólidos, com o objetivo de evitar a rejeição aguda e crônica, aumentando o tempo de sobrevida do órgão e do paciente. No Brasil, em 2016, o transplante de fígado foi o 3° mais frequente, com um número de 1.880 transplantes, sendo 150 realizados no Rio Grande do Sul. OBJETIVO: Investigar a associação da variação dos níveis sanguíneos de tacrolimo com os desfechos clínicos, rejeição celular aguda tardia, óbito, sobrevida de paciente e enxerto em pacientes submetidos ao transplante hepático. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo longitudinal retrospectivo, no qual foram incluídos os pacientes submetidos ao transplante hepático adulto pelo grupo de transplante hepático na Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre, no período de janeiro de 2006 a janeiro de 2013, e que fizeram o uso de tacrolimo como terapia imunossupressora. RESULTADOS: Dos 127 pacientes incluídos no estudo, a maioria era do gênero masculino (70,1%), caucasiana (86,4%), com idade entre 52 e 60 anos (33,9%). As associações de causas mais frequentes para transplante hepático foram vírus da hepatite C, carcinoma hepatocelular (24,4%) e álcool (15,7%). Um total de treze pacientes apresentaram rejeição celular aguda tardia (10,2%); destes, três tiveram dois episódios. O tempo médio de rejeição após o transplante hepático foi de 14 meses, variando de 8 a 33 meses. A sobrevida global foi de 8,98 anos. Em relação aos níveis sanguíneos de tacrolimo, foram identificados 52 pacientes com uma variação maior ou igual a dois desvios-padrão. Destes pacientes, oito tiveram rejeição, contudo, a associação não foi significativa (P=0,146). Foi encontrada uma associação significativa entre a variação maior ou igual a dois desvios-padrão nos níveis sanguíneos de tacrolimo com óbito (P=0,023) e sobrevida (P=0,019). Em relação ao acompanhamento de sobrevida do enxerto em cinco anos, estar dois desvios-padrão acima aumenta em 2,26 vezes o risco de perda do enxerto transplantado, e a cada unidade de aumento de desvio-padrão dos níveis sanguíneos de tacrolimo há um aumento de duas vezes no risco de perda do enxerto transplantado em 5 anos. CONCLUSÃO: O aumento do risco da perda do enxerto associado ao aumento da variação dos níveis sanguíneos de tacrolimo pode indicar a necessidade do acompanhamento mais rigoroso e prospectivo dos níveis sanguíneos de tacrolimo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Liver Transplantation , Tacrolimus/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Middle Aged
3.
Infectio ; 25(3): 189-192, jul.-set. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1250091

ABSTRACT

Abstract Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a respiratory process of acute onset, showing on X rays as bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and severe respiratory failure, Coccidiodomycosis is a unusual cause of acute respiratory distress syndrome, the incidence of coccidiomycosis in a solid organ trasplant recipientes ranges from 1.4% a 6.9%, inadecuancy of cellular inmunity is a well established risk factor for development of coccididomcosis, less than 1% of patients develop disseminaded infecction and carrying high mortality, the case that we are presenting add to the small list of reports documenting the ocasionally acute and agressive nature of the disseminated clinical form of coccidiodomycosis.


Resumen El síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda (SDRA) es un proceso respiratorio de inicio agudo, que se manifiesta en las radiografías como infiltrados pulmonares bilaterales, clinicamente como insuficiencia respiratoria grave, la coccidiodomicosis es una causa inusual de síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda, la incidencia de coccidiomicosis en receptores de trasplante de órgano sólido varía desde 1.4% a 6.9%, una inadecuada inmunidad celular es un factor de riesgo bien establecido para el desarrollo de coccidomicosis, menos del 1% de los pacientes desarrollan enfermedad diseminada y alta mortalidad, el caso que presentamos se suma a la pequeña lista de informes que documentan la naturaleza ocasionalmente aguda y agresiva de la forma clínica diseminada de coccidiodomicosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Organ Transplantation , Liver Transplantation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Coccidioidomycosis , Immunity, Cellular
4.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(4): 555-558, ago. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346506

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of preservation fluids (PF) bacterial positive cultures, identify the germs involved, determine their correlation with infections in recipients during the postoperative period and compare outcomes in terms of morbidity, hospital stay and both patient and graft survival. We describe incidence and etiology of germs developed in PF cultures in our series and evaluate its impact on recipients. A prospective study in deceased donor liver transplants (LT) recipients was carried out from January 2014 to December 2017. Back table PF cultures were analized considering positive the development of any germs and negative to no signs of growth after 5 days. PF were classified as contamination or pathogens. Targeted antibiotic therapy was administered in the last ones. Recipients were divided in: PF (-) and PF(+). Recipients infections related to positive PF were analyzed. These were identified as "direct correlation" when the same germ grew up in PF. Hospital stay and 30 days follow up were compared. Eighty-eight patients PFs were included, 38% (33) had positive cultures, 28 (85%) of these were considered contamination and only 5 as pathogens. We found no differences in postoperative infections (p 0.840), ICU and total hospital stay (p 0.374 and 0.427) between both groups. Postoperative infections and hospital stay seem not to be influenced by PF cultures positivity. Treatment of isolated pathogens could have prevented infections, therefore, those groups that perform PF cultures should consider treatment in these cases and conclude prophylaxis when PF is negative or contaminated.


Resumen Las infecciones bacterianas son frecuentes en pacientes sometidos a trasplante hepático. Describimos la incidencia y etiología de los cultivos de líquidos de preservación (LP) positivos en nuestra serie y analizamos su importancia clínica. Se trata de un trabajo prospectivo de pacientes trasplantados hepáticos, entre enero 2014 a diciembre 2017. Se analizaron muestras de LP tomadas al finalizar la mesa de banco, considerándose positivo el desarrollo de cualquier germen y negativo la ausencia del mismo luego de 5 días. Los LP positivos se clasificaron en: con contaminantes y con patógenos. Los pacientes con LP patógenos recibieron tratamiento antibiótico de acuerdo al antibiograma. Los pacientes fueron divididos en dos grupos: con LP + y LP-. Las infecciones relacionadas a los LP fueron analizadas. Se consideró "correlación directa" cuando el mismo germen desarrolló en el LP y en el recipiente. Se comparó estadía hospitalaria en ambos grupos. Se incluyeron 88 pacientes, 38% (33) presentaron LP+, de los que el 85% (28) fueron por contaminación y 5 por pa tógenos. No se hallaron diferencias significativas en infecciones postoperatorias (p 0.840) y estadía hospitalaria (p 0.427) entre ellos. No hubo casos de "correlación directa". Las infecciones postoperatorias y la estadía hospitalaria de los pacientes no parecen estar influidas por la positividad de los cultivos de LP. El tratamiento dirigido a los gérmenes aislados como patógenos pudo prevenir infecciones, por lo tanto, los grupos que realizan cultivos de rutina deberían considerar el tratamiento en estos casos y finalizar la profilaxis cuando el LP sea negativo o contaminado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Organ Preservation Solutions , Drug Contamination , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Living Donors
5.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 217-226, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285329

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The nature of liver disease, the evolutionary course and duration of liver diseases, as well as the degree of severity and disability can trigger multiple outcomes with repercussions on neuromotor acquisition and development. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review and conduct a meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of liver disease on the neuropsychomotor development of children and adolescents with their native livers and those who underwent liver transplantation. METHODS: Observational studies published since the early 1980s until June 2019 were sought in the PubMed and Scopus databases. An α value of 0.05 was considered significant. The statistical heterogeneity of the treatment effect between the studies was assessed by the Cochran's Q test and the I2 inconsistency test, in which values above 25 and 50% were considered indicative of moderate and high heterogeneity, respectively. Analyses were performed with Review Manager 5.3. RESULTS: Twenty-five studies met the eligibility criteria, including 909 children and adolescents with liver disease. Meta-analyses showed deficits in total IQ -0.41 (95%CI: -0.51 to -0.32; N: 9,973), verbal IQ -0.38 (95%CI: -0.57 to -0.18; N: 10,284) and receptive language -0.85 (95%CI: -1.16 to -0.53; N: 921) in liver transplantation, and those with native livers who had symptoms early had total and verbal IQ scores (85±8.8; 86.3±10.6 respectively) lower than the scores of those with late manifestations (99.5±13.8; 96.2±9.2). Gross motor skill was reduced -46.29 (95%CI: -81.55 to -11.03; N: 3,746). CONCLUSION: Acute or chronic liver disease can cause declines in cognitive, motor and language functions. Although the scores improve after liver transplantation, children remain below average when compared to healthy children.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A natureza da doença hepática, curso evolutivo e duração das hepatopatias, bem como grau de severidade e incapacidade podem desencadear desfechos múltiplos e com repercussões na aquisição e desenvolvimento neuromotores. OBJETIVO: Revisar sistematicamente e avaliar por meta-análise os efeitos da doença hepática sobre o desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor de crianças e adolescentes com seus fígados nativos e aquelas que realizaram transplante hepático. MÉTODOS: As buscas foram realizadas nas bases de dados PubMed e periódicos Scopus desde as primeiras publicações na década de 1980 até junho de 2019, de estudos observacionais. Um valor de 0,05 foi considerado significativo. A heterogeneidade estatística do efeito do tratamento entre os estudos foi avaliada pelo teste Q de Cochran e o teste de inconsistência I2, no qual valores acima de 25 e 50% foram considerados indicativos de heterogeneidade moderada e alta, respectivamente. As análises foram realizadas com o Review Manager 5.3. RESULTADOS Vinte e cinco estudos preencheram os critérios de elegibilidade, incluindo 909 crianças e adolescentes com doenças hepáticas. As meta-análises mostraram déficits QI total -0,41 (IC 95%: -0,51 até -0,32; N: 9.973), QI verbal -0,38 (IC 95%; -0,57 até -0,18; N: 10.284) e linguagem receptiva -0,85 IC 95%: -1,16 até -0,53; N: 921) nos transplantes hepáticos e as com fígados nativos que apresentaram sintomas precocemente tinham escores de QI total e verbal (85±8,8; 86,3±10,6 respectivamente) menores do que aquelas com manifestações tardias (99,5±13,8; 96,2±9,2). Habilidade motora grossa apresentou-se reduzida -46,29 (IC 95%: -81,55 até -11,03; N: 3.746). CONCLUSÃO: A doença hepática aguda ou crônica pode determinar declínios nas funções cognitivas, motoras e de linguagem. Muito embora, os escores melhorem após transplante hepático, as crianças continuam abaixo da média quando comparadas às crianças sadias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Liver Transplantation , Liver Diseases
6.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(1): 77-81, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248994

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The use of immunosuppressive drugs after liver transplantation (LT) is associated with the development of systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), in addition to other comorbidities of metabolic syndrome. OBJECTIVE: Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the time after use immunosuppressive drugs the patient progresses to SAH, as well as to identify its prevalence and the factors that may be correlated to it. METHODS: A retrospective and longitudinal study was conducted, based on the analysis of medical records of 72 normotensive patients, attended in the transplant unit of a university hospital, between 2016 and 2019. RESULTS: It was observed, on average, 9±6.98 months after immunosuppressive use, the patients were diagnosed with hypertension, and the prevalence of transplanted patients who evolved to SAH in this study was 59.64% (41 patients). In addition, there was a correlation between serum dosage of tacrolimus and the development of SAH (P=0.0067), which shows that tacrolimus has a significant role in the development of SAH. Finally, it was noticed that the development of post-transplantation hypertension indicates a higher risk of the patient presenting the other parameters of metabolic syndrome, as well as a higher impairment in its renal function (P=0.0061). CONCLUSION: This study shows that the patients evolved to SAH in an average of 9±6.98 months after immunosuppressive drug use. We have also found high prevalence of systemic arterial hypertension (59.64%) in patients after liver transplantation, who used calcineurin inhibitors, especially when associated with the use of tacrolimus.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: O uso de imunossupressores pós-transplante de fígado (TF) está associado ao desenvolvimento de hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS), além de outras alterações da síndrome metabólica. OBJETIVO: Sendo assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a partir de quando tempo após o uso do imunossupressor o paciente evolui para HAS, assim como, identificar a sua prevalência e outros fatores que podem estar relacionados, como injuria renal. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo retrospectivo, longitudinal, baseado em análise de 72 prontuários de pacientes, atendidos na unidade de transplante de um hospital universitário, que não apresentavam hipertensão arterial prévia, entre período de 2016 a 2019. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que, em média, 9±6,98 meses após uso do imunossupressor, os pacientes foram diagnosticados com hipertensão arterial sistêmica, sendo que a prevalência de pacientes transplantados que evoluíram para HAS, neste estudo, foi de 59,64% (41 pacientes). Além disso, verificou-se uma correlação entre a dosagem sérica de tacrolimus e o desenvolvimento de HAS (P=0,0067), o que evidencia que o tacrolimus tem uma atuação significativa no desenvolvimento da hipertensão arterial sistêmica. Por fim, percebeu-se que o desenvolvimento de HAS pós-transplante indica um maior risco de paciente apresentar os outros parâmetros da síndrome metabólica, como também maior prejuízo na sua função renal (P=0,0061). CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo mostra que os pacientes evoluíram para HAS em média 9±6,98 meses após o início do uso do imunossupressor. Verificou-se também alta prevalência de hipertensão arterial sistêmica (59,64%) em pacientes pós-transplante de fígado, que usavam inibidores de calcineurina, principalmente, quando associado ao uso de tacrolimus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Hypertension , Hypertension/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Tacrolimus/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects
7.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(1): 10-16, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248987

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Receptors of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) have higher rate of postoperative biliary and vascular complications that may reduce posttransplant quality of life (QOL) due to the need of invasive and repetitive treatments. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study is to assess the various aspects of QOL of receptors undergoing LDLT after 10 years of transplantation and to identify potential factors that might be associated with impaired QOL. METHODS: Data of all patients with more than 10 years of LDLT were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were interviewed through a quality of life questionnaire (SF-36). RESULTS: From a total of 440 LT performed in 17 years (from September 1991 through December 2008), 78 patients underwent LDLT, of which 27 were alive and 25 answered completely the questionnaire. There were 17 (68%) men and 8 (32%) women, with a mean age of 38.6±18.5 years at the time of transplantation and mean follow up time of 15.1±1.9 years. The average MELD was 16.4±4.9 and the main indication for LT was hepatic cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B virus (32%). When compared to the general po­pulation, LDLT patients had lower mental health score (66.4 vs 74.5, P=0.0093) and higher vitality score (87.8 vs 71.9, P<0.001), functional aspects (94.6 vs 75.5, P=0.002), social aspects (93 vs 83.9, P=0.005), physical aspects (92 vs 77.5, P=0.006), and emotional aspects (97.33 vs 81.7, P<0.001). General health status (73.28 vs 70.2, P=0.074) and pain (78.72 vs 76.7, P=0.672) scores were similar in both groups. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that the various aspects LDLT recipients' QOF are similar to those of the general population more than a decade after the transplant, except for the mental health domain which is lower.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Receptores de transplante hepático inter-vivo (THIV) apresentam elevada taxa de complicações biliares e vasculares pós-operatórias que podem reduzir a qualidade de vida (QV) devido à necessidade de tratamentos invasivos e repetitivos. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar os vários aspectos da qualidade de vida dos pacientes submetidos a THIV após 10 anos de transplante e identificar possíveis fatores que possam estar associados à diminuição da QV. MÉTODOS: Os dados de todos os pacientes com mais de 10 anos de THIV foram avaliados retrospectivamente. Os pacientes foram entrevistados por meio de um questionário de qualidade de vida (SF-36). RESULTADOS: Do total de 440 transplantes hepáticos realizados em 17 anos (setembro de 1991 a dezembro de 2008), 78 pacientes foram submetidos a THIV, dos quais 27 estavam vivos e 25 responderam completamente ao questionário. Destes, 17 (68%) homens e 8 (32%) mulheres, com idade média de 38,6±18,5 anos no momento do transplante e tempo médio de acompanhamento de 15,1±1,9 anos. O MELD médio foi de 16,4±4,9 e a principal indicação para o transplante hepático foi cirrose hepática causada pelo vírus da hepatite B, 32%. Quando comparado com a população geral, os pacientes submetidos a THIV apresentaram menor escore de saúde mental (66,4 vs 74,5; P=0,0093) e escores mais altos de vitalidade (87,8 vs 71,9; P<0,001), aspectos funcionais (94,6 vs 75,5; P=0,002), aspectos sociais (93 vs 83,9; P=0,005), aspectos físicos (92 vs 77,5; P=0,006), e aspectos emocionais (97,33 vs 81,7; P<0,001). Os escores do estado geral de saúde (73,28 vs 70,2; P=0,074) e de dor (78,72 vs 76,7; P=0,672) eram similares nos dois grupos. CONCLUSÃO: Conclui-se que os vários aspectos da QV dos receptores de transplante hepático inter-vivo são semelhantes aos da população geral mais de uma década após o transplante, exceto o domínio da saúde mental que é menor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Quality of Life , Liver Transplantation , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Living Donors , Liver Cirrhosis , Middle Aged
8.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 60(1): e1034, ene.-mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289372

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La historia de la cirugía del hígado abarca 28 siglos, lo que ha permitido su evolución desde considerar al hígado como un órgano intocable hasta realizar hepatectomías complejas y trasplante hepático. Esta investigación representa el balance de 10 años en la actividad de un grupo de cirugía hepatobiliar. Objetivo: Caracterizar el tratamiento quirúrgico de los tumores hepáticos sólidos en el Centro de Investigaciones Médico-Quirúrgicas entre los años 2009 y 2019. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de tipo observacional, descriptivo, longitudinal y retrospectivo en el que se analizaron 129 pacientes que fueron tributarios de tratamiento quirúrgico. Resultados: Los tumores malignos representaron el 73 por ciento del total, dentro de este grupo se destacan los metastásicos con 50 casos. La morbilidad de esta cirugía fue del 13 por ciento y la mortalidad operatoria del 2 por ciento. La causa de muerte identificada fue el shock séptico por peritonitis generalizada. Conclusiones: Los tumores malignos fueron los más frecuentes. Se presentó una baja morbilidad encontrándose el derrame pleural como la complicación más usual. Existe una mortalidad acorde a los valores reportados para este tipo de cirugía(AU)


Introduction: The history of liver surgery covers twenty-eight centuries, which has allowed its evolution from considering the liver as an untouchable organ to performing complex hepatectomies and hepatic transplantation. This research describes the ten years' balance in the activity developed by a hepatobiliary surgery team. Objective: To characterize the surgical management of solid hepatic tumors in the Center for Medical-Surgical Research between 2009 and 2019. Methods: An observational, descriptive, longitudinal and retrospective study was carried out, for which 129 patients who underwent surgical treatment were analyzed. Results: Malignant tumors accounted for 73 percent of the total; within this group, metastatic tumors stand out, accounting for fifty cases. Morbidity of this surgery type was 13 percent, while operative mortality was 2 percent. The cause of death identified was septic shock due to generalized peritonitis. Conclusions: Malignant tumors were the most frequent. There was low morbidity, with pleural effusion as the most common complication. Mortality is consistent with the values reported for this type of surgery(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Peritonitis/mortality , Shock, Septic/mortality , Liver Transplantation/methods , Hepatectomy/methods , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Observational Studies as Topic
9.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 48: e20202492, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250703

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: liver Transplantation is currently the treatment of choice for several terminal liver diseases. Despite the increase in performed transplants, the waiting lists continue to increase. In order to expand the supply of organs, transplantation teams have started to use previously rejected livers for transplants because of an increased risk of unfavorable outcomes. Objective: to evaluate the use of livers of expanded criterion donators. Methods: retrospective study of medical records. The livers were classified as normal or expanded criteria. The groups were divided in low and high MELD. A multivariate analysis was performed through logistic regression. Results: there was no statistical difference regarding early, late and global mortality between the groups. Decreased survival was observed in patients with high MELD (higher or equal to 20) when they received grafts from expanded criterion donators. The association between the occurrence of cardiorespiratory arrest and presence of elevated total bilirubin in donators was associated with higher mortality rates in expanded criterion livers. Conclusion: the overall results are similar, but expanded criteria liver donators was associated with higher mortality in patients with high MELD.


RESUMO Introdução: o Transplante Hepático é atualmente o tratamento de escolha para diversas doenças terminais do fígado. Apesar do aumento de transplantes realizados, as filas de espera continuam aumentando. Com a finalidade de ampliar a oferta de órgãos, as equipes transplantadoras passaram a utilizar fígados até então rejeitados para transplantes devido ao risco aumentado de desfechos desfavoráveis. Objetivo: avaliar utilização de fígados de doadores de critério expandido. Métodos: estudo retrospectivo por meio de análise de prontuários. Classificaram-se os fígados utilizados em padrão ou critério expandido. Os grupos foram subdivididos em MELD baixo e alto. Foi realizada análise multivariada por regressão logística. Resultados: não houve diferença estatística com relação à mortalidade precoce, tardia e global entre os grupos. Observou-se menor sobrevida em pacientes com MELD alto (maior ou igual a 20) quando receberam enxertos de doadores de critério expandido. Foi observada a associação entre ocorrência de parada cardiorrespiratória e presença de bilirrubina total elevada no doador com maiores taxas de mortalidade em receptores de fígados de critério expandido. Conclusão: os resultados globais são semelhantes, porém o uso de fígado de doadores de critério expandido esteve associado a maior mortalidade em pacientes com MELD alto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Liver Transplantation , Retrospective Studies , Waiting Lists , Liver
10.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021272, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249024

ABSTRACT

Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis occurs due to chronic irritation of the peritoneal surface resulting in inflammation and fibrosis. Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis usually occurs in patients requiring peritoneal dialysis (PD); however, it may also occur in liver transplant patients. The fibrosis in encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis could be severe enough to cause small bowel obstruction (SBO). Herein, we report a case of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis secondary to liver transplantation that presented with SBO. The patient was started on Tamoxifen for encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis and evaluated at follow-up without any other intestinal obstruction episodes. This case demonstrates that encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis can occur as a liver transplant complication and present with small bowel obstruction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Peritoneal Diseases/complications , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Intestinal Obstruction
11.
Rev Rene (Online) ; 22: e61476, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1250673

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo compreender a vivência do paciente submetido ao transplante hepático na transição do cuidado entre o hospital e o domicílio. Métodos estudo com abordagem qualitativa, com 20 pacientes submetidos ao transplante hepático e que foram entrevistados por meio de roteiro semiestruturado. A análise de conteúdo foi a técnica selecionada para identificar aspectos inerentes à transição do cuidado. Resultados com base nos dados obtidos, formaram-se quatro categorias temáticas: Percurso marcado por sentimentos e incertezas; Trajetória de idas e vindas à rede de saúde para adquirir insumos; Percurso de aprendizado para desenvolver cuidados domiciliares e: Itinerário entre idealização social e a realidade vivenciada após o transplante. Conclusão perceberam-se as dificuldades de receptores e família após o transplante hepático, em especial, no preparo para a transição do cuidado e no enfrentamento e adaptação às atividades cotidianas.


ABSTRACT Objective to understand the experience of patients undergoing liver transplantation in the transition of care between hospital and home. Methods study with a qualitative approach, with 20 patients undergoing liver transplantation who were interviewed using a semi-structured script. Content analysis was the selected technique to identify aspects inherent to the transition of care. Results based on the data obtained, four thematic categories were formed: Path marked by feelings and uncertainties; Path of comings and goings to the health network to acquire supplies; Learning path to develop home care and: Itinerary between social idealization and the reality experienced after transplantation. Conclusion difficulties of recipients and family after liver transplantation were perceived, especially in the preparation for the transition of care and in coping and adapting to daily activities.


Subject(s)
Liver Transplantation , Continuity of Patient Care , Transplant Recipients , Transitional Care , Nursing Care
12.
Clinics ; 76: e2597, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153997

ABSTRACT

A combination of immunosuppressants may improve outcomes due to the synergistic effect of their different action mechanisms. Currently, there is no consensus regarding the best immunosuppressive protocol after liver transplantation. This review aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of tacrolimus associated with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in patients undergoing liver transplantation. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Eight randomized trials were included. The proportion of patients with at least one adverse event related to the immunosuppression scheme with tacrolimus associated with MMF was 39.9%. The tacrolimus with MMF immunosuppression regimen was superior in preventing acute cellular rejection compared with that of tacrolimus alone (risk difference [RD]=-0.11; p =0.001). The tacrolimus plus MMF regimen showed no difference in the risk of adverse events compared to that of tacrolimus alone (RD=0.7; p=0.66) and cyclosporine plus MMF (RD=-0.7; p=0.37). Patients undergoing liver transplantation who received tacrolimus plus MMF had similar adverse events when compared to patients receiving other evaluated immunosuppressive regimens and had a lower risk of acute rejection than those receiving in the monodrug tacrolimus regimen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Kidney Transplantation , Liver Transplantation , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Immunosuppression , Tacrolimus/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Mycophenolic Acid/adverse effects
13.
Clinics ; 76: e2184, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153968

ABSTRACT

Non-tumoral portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is associated with higher morbidity and mortality in liver transplantation (LT). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the impact of PVT in LT outcomes and analyze the types of surgical techniques used for dealing with PVT during LT. A systematic review was conducted in Cochrane, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases, selecting articles from January 1990 to December 2019. The MESH-terms used were ("Portal Vein"[Mesh] AND "Thrombosis"[Mesh] NOT "Neoplasms"[Mesh]) AND ("Liver Transplantation"[Mesh]). The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) recommendation was used, and meta-analysis was performed with Review Manager Version 5.3 software. A total of 1,638 articles were initially found: 488 in PubMed, 289 in Cochrane Library, and 861 in EMBASE, from which 27 were eventually selected for the meta-analysis. Surgery time of LT in patients with PVT was longer than in patients without LT (p<0.0001). Intraoperative red blood cell (p<0.00001), fresh frozen plasma (p=0.01), and platelets (p=0.03) transfusions during LT were higher in patients with PVT. One-year (odds ratio [OR] 1.17; p=0.002) and 5-year (OR 1.12; p=0.01) patient survival after LT was worse in the PVT group. Total occlusive PVT presented higher mortality (OR 3.70; p=0.00009) and rethrombosis rates (OR 3.47 [1.18-10.21]; p=0.02). PVT Yerdel III/IV classification exhibited worse 1-year [2.04 (1.21-3.42); p=0.007] and 5-year [0.98 (0.59-1.62); p=0.93] patient survival. Thrombectomy with primary anastomosis was associated with better outcomes. LT in patients with non-tumoral PVT demands more surgical time, needs more intraoperative transfusion, and presents worse 1- and 5-year patient survival. Total occlusive PVT and Yerdel III/IV PVT classification were associated with higher mortality. (PROSPERO, registration number: CRD42020132915).


Subject(s)
Humans , Liver Transplantation , Venous Thrombosis , Portal Vein/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Thrombectomy , Liver Cirrhosis
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880419

ABSTRACT

This paper introduced a liver normothermic machine perfusion repair and assessment system. This system consists of a liver normothermic machine perfusion device, a fluorescence imaging system and a tissue oxygen detector. The normothermic machine perfusion device can continuously perfuse the donor liver and monitor and control the perfusion parameters in real time. The fluorescence imaging system can detect the indocyanine green metabolized by the liver to evaluate the microcirculation and the metabolism function of hepatocytes. The tissue oxygen detector can monitor the change of oxygen partial pressure of liver tissue in real time to evaluate the state of cell oxygen consumption.


Subject(s)
Humans , Liver , Liver Transplantation , Living Donors , Organ Preservation , Perfusion
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879966

ABSTRACT

To investigate the postoperative serum triglyceride (TG) levels in predicting the risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) in patients following allogeneic liver transplantation. One hundred and forty three patients undergoing allogeneic liver transplantation in Shanghai General Hospital from July 2007 to July 2014 were enrolled in this study. The NODM developed in 33 patients after liver transplantation. The curve of dynamic TG levels in the early period after liver transplantation was generated. Independent risk factors of NODM were determined by univariate and multivariant logistic regression analyses. The clinical value of TG in predicting NODM was analyzed by area under the ROC curve (AUC). Serum TG levels were gradually rising in the first week and then reached the plateau phase (stable TG, sTG) in patients after surgery. The sTG in NODM group were significantly higher than that in non-NODM group (=-2.31, <0.05). Glucocorticoid therapy (=4.054, <0.01), FK506 drug concentration in the first week after operation (=3.482, <0.05) and sTG (=3.156, <0.05) were independent risk factors of NODM. ROC curve analysis showed that the AUC of sTG in predicting NODM was 0.72. TG shows a gradual recovery process in the early period after liver transplantation, and the higher TG level in stable phase may significantly increase the risk of NODM in patients.


Subject(s)
China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Humans , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Tacrolimus/adverse effects , Triglycerides
16.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 179-191, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878277

ABSTRACT

Pediatric liver transplantation (PLT) is an effective strategy of treating various acute or chronic end-stage liver diseases and inherited metabolic diseases in children.PLT has been applied in many transplant centers nationwide and has achieved satisfactory results.However,the development of transplant centers is uneven,and there is a lack of consensus and standards within the industry.In order to reduce post-operative complications,accelerate post-operative recovery,and improve the short-and long-term quality of life of children,the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Committee of Chinese Research Hospital Association organized multidisciplinary experts to summarize the progress of domestic and international research,and formulated a perioperative consensus on PLT based on the principles of evidence-based medicine.The consensus provides recommendations for perioperative PLT from three aspects:preoperative assessment and preparation,intraoperative management and postoperative management,in order to provide reference guidelines for centers that are conducting or preparing to conduct PLT.


Subject(s)
Child , Consensus , End Stage Liver Disease/therapy , Enhanced Recovery After Surgery/standards , Humans , Liver Transplantation/standards , Metabolism, Inborn Errors/therapy , Perioperative Care/standards , Practice Guidelines as Topic
17.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 36(4): 4-36, dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1144750

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: el trasplante hepático (TH) constituye el tratamiento de elección en pacientes con enfermedades hepáticas severas e irreversibles, sin opción de tratamientos alternativos eficaces. La medición de indicadores de calidad permite detectar problemáticas susceptibles de ser mejoradas a fin de optimizar los resultados. Objetivo: presentar los resultados del Programa Nacional de Trasplante Hepático (PNTH) del Uruguay a 10 años de su implementación y compararlos con los estándares de calidad internacionales. Material y método: estudio retrospectivo de los TH realizados del 14/7/2009 al 14/7/2019. Resultados: N: 190 TH. Edad promedio: 45 años. Sexo: 60% hombres. MELD promedio al TH: 21. Principales indicaciones: cirrosis (59%) y hepatocarcinoma (21%). Mortalidad posoperatoria: 7,4% y perioperatoria: 2,1% (estándares <10% y 1%). Tasa de retrasplante: precoz 3,7% y tardío 4,2% (estándares <5% y 8%). Tasa de reintervención: 13,1% (estándar <10%) y de no función primaria: 2,6% (estándar <2%). Sobrevida: 86,6% al año, 81,8% a 3, 77,4% a 5 y 63,2% a 10 años (estándares >80, 75, 70 y 60%). Pacientes evaluados en menos de 30 días: 47% (estándar >75%). Tasa de hígados no implantados sin causa objetiva: 0,5% (estándar <1%). El 86% de los usuarios expresaron satisfacción (estándar >80%). Mortalidad en lista: 19% (estándar <15%). Mortalidad precoz con hígado funcionante: 1% (estándar <1%). Conclusiones: el PNTH del Uruguay cumple con la mayoría de los indicadores de calidad, presentando resultados en sobrevida por encima de los estándares internacionales.


Summary: Introduction: liver transplantation constitutes the first therapy chosen by patients with severe and irreversible liver conditions, when no effective alternative options are available. Measurement of quality indicators allow for the detection of problems that may be solved in order to optimize results. Objective: to present the results obtained in the National Program of Liver Transplantation in Uruguay, 10 years after its implementation and to compare them to international quality standards. Method: retrospective study of liver transplantations performed from July 14, 2009 through July 14, 2019. Results: N: 190 Liver transplantations (LT). Average age: 45 years old. Gender: 60% male. MELD average MELD (Model for End-stage Liver Disease) upon LT: 21. Main indications: cirrhosis he(59%) y hepatocarcinoma (21%). Post-surgery mortality: 7.4% and peri-operative mortality 2.1% (standards <10 and 1%). Re-transplantation rate: early 3.7% and late 4.2% (standards <5% and 8%). Reoperation rate: 13.1% (standard <10%) and of non-primary function: 2.6% (standard <2%). Survival: 86.6% per year, 81.8% after 3 years, 77.4% after 5 and 63.2% after 10 years (standards >80, 75, 70 and 60%). Patients assessed in less than 30 days: 47% (standard >75%). Non-implanted livers with no objective cause rate: 0.5% (standard <1%). 86% of users stated they were satisfied (standard >80%). Mortality in the waiting list: 19% (standard <15%). Early mortality with functioning liver: 1% (standard <1%). Conclusions: national Program of Liver Transplantation in Uruguay meets most quality indicators standards, evidencing survival results that are above international standards.


Resumo: Introdução: o transplante de fígado (TH) é o tratamento de escolha em pacientes com doenças hepáticas graves e irreversíveis, sem a opção de tratamentos alternativos eficazes. A medição de indicadores de qualidade permite detectar problemas que podem ser melhorados para otimizar os resultados. Objetivo: apresentar os resultados do Programa Nacional de Transplante de Fígado (PNTH) do Uruguai 10 anos após sua implantação e compará-los com os padrões internacionais de qualidade. Materiais e métodos: estudo retrospectivo do HT realizado de 14/07/2009 a 14/07/2019. Resultados: N: 190 TH. Idade média: 45 anos. Sexo: 60% homens. Escala MELD média no TH: 21. Principais indicações: cirrose (59%) e hepatocarcinoma (21%). Mortalidade pós-operatória: 7,4% e peri-operatória 2,1% (padrões <10 e 1%). Taxa de retransplante: 3,7% inicial e 4,2% tardio (padrão <5% e 8%). Taxa de reintervenção: 13,1% (padrão <10%) e não função primária: 2,6% (padrão <2%). Sobrevivência: 86,6% em 1 ano, 81,8% em 3, 77,4% em 5 e 63,2% em 10 anos (padrões> 80, 75, 70 e 60%). Pacientes avaliados em menos de 30 dias: 47% (padrão> 75%). Taxa de fígados não implantados sem causa objetiva: 0,5% (padrão <1%). 86% dos usuários expressaram satisfação (padrão> 80%). Mortalidade em lista de espera: 19% (padrão <15%). Mortalidade precoce com fígado funcionante: 1% (padrão <1%). Conclusões: o PNTH do Uruguai cumpre a maioria dos indicadores de qualidade, apresentando resultados de sobrevivência acima dos padrões internacionais.


Subject(s)
Survival , Liver Transplantation , Quality Indicators, Health Care , Quality Improvement , Uruguay
18.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20200191, Jan.-Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1127489

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to submit the experience lived in the care transition for hospital discharge of patients undergoing liver transplantation due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: an experience report on hospital discharge planning and care transition for patients undergoing liver transplantation at a teaching hospital. Results: after COVID-19 pandemic has been declared, several technological means were used to support self-care strategies at the time of the hospital-home transition, as well as remote care for patients focusing on doubts about the routine of care and treatments. In addition, new counterreferral strategies were structured, prioritizing safety and social isolation. Conclusion: the adjustments in care transition with the support of the technologies provided transplanted patients access to all the information that guides self-care. Likewise, they regulated the flow of the support network and the health network, decreasing the possibility for COVID-19 spread, infection and development.


RESUMEN Objetivo: presentar la experiencia en la transición del cuidado para el alta hospitalaria de pacientes sometidos a trasplante hepático en vistas de la pandemia del COVID-19. Método: informe de experiencia sobre la planificación del alta hospitalaria y la transición del cuidado de pacientes sometidos a trasplante hepático en un hospital escuela. Resultados: después de declarada la pandemia del COVID-19 se utilizaron diversos medios tecnológicos para respaldar las estrategias de autocuidado al momento de la transición entre el hospital y el domicilio, al igual que la asistencia remota a los pacientes enfocada en dudas acerca de la rutina de cuidados y tratamientos. También se estructuraron nuevas estrategias de contra-derivación, priorizando la seguridad y el aislamiento social. Conclusión: los ajustes en la transición del cuidado con el respaldo de las tecnologías viabilizaron el acceso de los pacientes trasplantados a todas las informaciones que guían el autocuidado. De igual manera, regularon el flujo de la red de apoyo y de la red de salud, reduciendo así la posibilidad de propagación, infección y desarrollo del COVID-19.


RESUMO Objetivo: apresentar a experiência vivenciada na transição do cuidado para alta hospitalar de pacientes submetidos ao transplante hepático em razão da pandemia da COVID-19. Método: relato de experiência sobre planejamento da alta hospitalar e transição do cuidado de pacientes submetidos ao transplante hepático em um hospital-escola. Resultados: após a declaração da pandemia da COVID-19 foram utilizados diversos meios tecnológicos para apoiar as estratégias de autocuidado no momento da transição entre hospital e domicílio. Assim como, atendimento remoto aos pacientes com foco em dúvidas acerca da rotina de cuidados e tratamentos. Além disso, novas estratégias de contrarreferência foram estruturadas, priorizando a segurança e o isolamento social. Conclusão: os ajustes na transição de cuidado com apoio das tecnologias oportunizaram acesso aos pacientes transplantados a todas as informações que orientam o autocuidado. Igualmente, regularam o fluxo da rede de apoio e rede de saúde, diminuindo a possibilidade de propagação, infecção e desenvolvimento da COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Patient Discharge , Liver Transplantation , Nursing , Coronavirus Infections , Continuity of Patient Care
19.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(supl.6): 71-82, dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250322

ABSTRACT

Resumen La pandemia COVID-19 declarada en marzo del 2020, ha generado preocupación mundial por su efecto en la salud de la población y el potencial colapso sanitario. La estrategia de "aplanar la curva" mediante el distanciamiento social permitió adaptar los recursos del sistema de salud a pacientes con COVID-19, pero no se pudo prever su repercusión en otras áreas de la salud. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar las consecuencias de la pandemia sobre el trasplante hepático en general y por hepatocarcinoma (HCC). Fueron realizados los siguientes estudios: a) un análisis retrospectivo utilizando datos del CRESI/INCUCAI para comparar ingreso en lista de espera, mortalidad en lista, donación y trasplante hepático desde 20/03 a 15/08, 2019 e igual periodo de 2020, y b) una encuesta a los centros de trasplante de mayor actividad trasplantológica para valorar el efecto de las medidas tomadas en diferentes situaciones institucionales y regionales. El primer análisis evidenció una disminución del 55% de los trasplantes hepáticos, con una reducción similar en la donación y en el ingreso a lista de espera hepática; mientras que el trasplante por HCC ascendió de 10% en 2019 a 22% en 2020. El segundo análisis, mostró que la tasa de ocupación de camas por pacientes COVID-19/semana fue variable: de 0.4% al 42.0%. El número de cirugías, hepato-bilio-pancreática, resección de HCC y trasplante hepático, se redujeron en 47%, 49%, 31% y 36% respectivamente. La reducción de la actividad trasplantológica afectó mayormente los centros con alta ocupación por COVID-19. El impacto final a largo plazo deberá evaluarse.


Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic declared in March 2020, has generated worldwide concern due to its effect on the health of the population and the potential health collapse. The strategy of "flattening the curve" through social distancing made it possible to adapt the resources of the health system to patients with COVID-19, but results in other areas of health could not be predicted. The objective of this work was to analyze the consequences of the pandemic on liver transplantation in general and for hepatocarcinoma (HCC). The following studies were carried out: a) a retrospective analysis using data from the CRESI / INCUCAI to compare admission to the waiting list, mortality on the list, donation and liver transplantation from 03/20 to 08/15, 2019 and the same period in 2020, and b) a survey of the transplant centers with the highest transplant activity to assess the effect of the measures taken in different institutional and regional situations. The first analysis showed a 55% decrease in liver transplants, with a similar reduction in donation and admission to the liver waiting list; while HCC transplantation rose from 10% in 2019 to 22% in 2020. The second analysis showed that the occupancy rate of beds by COVID-19 patients / week was variable: from 0.4% to 42.0%. The number of surgeries, hepato-bilio-pancreatic, resection of HCC and liver transplantation, were reduced by 47%, 49%, 31% and 36% respectively. The reduction in transplant activity mainly affected centers with high occupancy due to COVID-19. The final long-term outcome will need to be assessed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Liver Transplantation , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/surgery , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Waiting Lists , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(4): 347-353, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142344

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Biliary complications remain one of the most important causes of morbidity and graft loss after liver transplant (LT). Endoscopic therapy of biliary complications has proven to be effective over time, leaving surgical treatment restricted to only very few cases. However, we cannot yet predict which patients will have the greatest potential to benefit from endoscopic treatment. OBJECTIVE On this premise we decide to conduct this study to evaluate the role and safety of single operator cholangioscopy (SOC) in the endoscopic treatment of post-LT biliary anastomotic strictures (AS). METHODS: Between March/2016 and June/2017, 20 consecutive patients referred for endoscopic treatment for biliary anastomotic stricture were included in this prospective observational cohort study. Inclusion criteria were age over 18 years old, and a deceased LT performed within at least 30 days. Exclusion criteria were non-anastomotic biliary stricture, biliary leakage, cast syndrome, any previous endoscopic therapy, pregnancy and inability to provide informed consent. All patients underwent SOC before endoscopic therapy with fully covered self-expandable metal stent (FCSEMS) and after stent removal. RESULTS: At pre-treatment SOC, stricture orifice and fibrotic changes could be visualized in all patients, vascular changes and surgical sutures in 60% and acute inflammatory changes in 30%. SOC was essential for guidewire placement in five cases. FCSEMS was successfully deployed in all patients. Stricture resolution rate was 44.4% (median stent indwelling 372 days). Stricture recurrence was 12.5% (median follow-up of 543 days). Adverse events were distal (66.6%) and proximal (5.5%) stent migration, stent occlusion (16.6%), severe abdominal pain (10%) and mild acute pancreatitis (10%). SOC was repeated after FCSEMS removal. Post-treatment SOC showed fibrotic changes in all but one patient; vascular and acute inflammatory changes were less frequent in comparison to index procedure. The disappearance of suture material was remarkable. None of the cholangioscopic findings were statistically correlated to treatment outcome or stricture recurrence. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography with SOC is feasible in post-LT patients with AS. Cholangioscopic findings can be classified into fibrotic, vascular and acute inflammatory changes. Cholangioscopy may be helpful to assist guidewire passage, but Its overall role for changing management is post-LT patients was not demonstrated.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: As complicações biliares continuam sendo uma das principais causas de morbidade e perda do enxerto após o transplante hepático. O tratamento endoscópico das complicações biliares provou ser eficaz ao longo do tempo, deixando o tratamento cirúrgico restrito a casos de exceção. No entanto, ainda não podemos prever quais pacientes terão maior potencial de se beneficiar da terapia endoscópica. OBJETIVO: Nesta premissa, decidimos realizar este estudo para avaliar o papel e a segurança da colangioscopia peroral de operador único (CPO) no tratamento endoscópico das estenoses anastomóticas biliares (EA) pós-transplante hepático. MÉTODOS: Entre março de 2016 e junho de 2017, 20 pacientes consecutivos encaminhados para tratamento endoscópico da EA biliar foram incluídos neste estudo prospectivo de coorte observacional. Os critérios de inclusão foram idade superior a 18 anos e um transplante hepático de doador falecido realizado há pelo menos 30 dias. Pacientes com estenose biliar não anastomótica, fístula biliar, "cast" síndrome, qualquer terapia endoscópica prévia, gravidez e incapacidade de fornecer consentimento informado foram excluídos. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos à CPO antes da terapia endoscópica com prótese metálica autoexpansível totalmente coberta (PMAEC) e após a sua remoção. RESULTADOS: Na CPO realizada antes do tratamento endoscópico, o orifício de estenose e alterações fibróticas foram visualizadas em todos os pacientes, alterações vasculares e a presença de suturas cirúrgicas em 60%, enquanto alterações inflamatórias agudas em 30%. A CPO foi determinante para a transposição do fio-guia através da estenose em cinco casos. Uma PMAEC foi implantada com sucesso em todos os pacientes. A taxa de resolução da estenose foi de 44,4% (tempo médio de permanência de 372 dias). A recorrência da EA foi de 12,5% (acompanhamento médio de 543 dias). Os eventos adversos foram migração distal (66,6%) e proximal (5,5%) da prótese metálica, oclusão da PMAEC (16,6%), dor abdominal intensa (10%) e pancreatite aguda leve (10%). A CPO foi repetida após a remoção da PMAEC. A colangioscopia realizada após o tratamento endoscópico mostrou alterações fibróticas em todos, exceto em um paciente; alterações vasculares e inflamatórias agudas foram menos frequentes em comparação à CPO inicial. O desaparecimento do material de sutura, observado em todos os casos, foi notável. Nenhum dos achados colangioscópicos foram estatisticamente correlacionados ao resultado do tratamento ou à recorrência de estenose. CONCLUSÃO: A colangioscopia peroral é viável nos pacientes pós-transplante hepático com estenose biliar anastomótica. Os achados colangioscópicos podem ser classificados em alterações inflamatórias agudas, fibróticas e vasculares. A colangioscopia pode ser útil para auxiliar na passagem do fio-guia, mas seu papel geral na mudança de tratamento nos pacientes pós-transplante hepático não foi demonstrado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Bile Ducts/surgery , Bile Ducts/pathology , Cholestasis/surgery , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde/methods , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Pancreatitis , Acute Disease , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Treatment Outcome , Constriction, Pathologic , Living Donors
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