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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(4): e187-e191, Agosto 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1379154

ABSTRACT

El hemangioendotelioma epiteloide hepático (HEHE) es un tumor vascular raro de menor malignidad que el hemangiosarcoma. En los poco frecuentes casos unilobulares, puede indicarse hepatectomía parcial con riesgo de recurrencia agresiva; en enfermedad hepática extensa, incluso con compromiso extrahepático, el trasplante hepático ha resultado efectivo. Las metástasis son más frecuentes en pulmón,peritoneo, ganglios linfáticos, bazo y sistema nervioso. Se presenta el caso de un adolescente asintomático con HEHE con metástasis pulmonares y compromiso ganglionar abdominal que recibió trasplante hepático con evolución favorable.


Hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HEHE) is a rare vascular tumor of less malignancy than hemangiosarcoma. In the rare unilobar cases, partial hepatectomy may be indicated with risk of aggressive recurrence; in extensive liver disease, even with extrahepatic involvement, liver transplantation has been performed successfully. Metastases are more common in the lung, peritoneum, lymph nodes, spleen, and nervous system. We present the case of an asymptomatic adolescent with HEHE with lung metastases and abdominal lymph node involvement who received a liver transplant with a favorable outcome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Liver Transplantation , Hemangioendothelioma, Epithelioid/surgery , Hemangioendothelioma, Epithelioid/diagnosis , Hemangioendothelioma, Epithelioid/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Treatment Outcome
2.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 74(1): 112-119, feb. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388911

ABSTRACT

Resumen El trasplante hepático con donante vivo (THDV) es un procedimiento complejo y desafiante para el cirujano, ya que exige garantizar tanto la máxima seguridad para el donante, así como también, la mejor calidad del injerto para el receptor. Debido a lo anterior, la implementación de la cirugía mini-invasiva ha sido lenta en esta área. Sin embargo, en los últimos 10 años, gracias a los avances que ha experimentado la cirugía hepática laparoscópica, ha aumentado el interés de algunos grupos altamente especializados por incorporar la cirugía mini-invasiva a la cirugía del donante, principalmente en trasplante hepático donante vivo adulto-pediátrico (THDVA-P). Los favorables resultados obtenidos en esta área incluso han llevado a los expertos en el tema, a categorizar el abordaje laparoscópico para la cirugía del donante como el procedimiento estándar en THDVA-P. Contrario a lo anterior, la implementación de la laparoscopía para trasplante hepático donante vivo adulto-adulto (THDVA-A), es más compleja y requiere en su mayoría, una hepatectomía de lóbulo derecho o izquierdo para cumplir con las necesidades volumétricas del receptor. Esta cirugía es de mayor dificultad y riesgo para el donante, por lo que su indicación por vía mini-invasiva está limitada a centros de alto volumen y preparación, tanto en laparoscopía, como en trasplante hepático. En este trabajo, se busca dar a conocer la técnica quirúrgica y nuestra experiencia inicial con la primera hepatectomía derecha totalmente laparoscópica (HDTL) para THDVA-A realizada en Chile.


Living donor liver transplantation is a complex and challenging procedure. The surgeon needs to guarantee maximum safety for the donor, as well as the best quality of the graft for the recipient. For this reason, the implementation of mini-invasive surgery has been slow in this area. However, in the last 10 years, due to the advances in laparoscopic liver surgery, the interest of some highly specialized groups has increased in incorporating mini-invasive surgery into donor surgery, mainly in pediatric living donor liver transplantation. The favorable results obtained in this field, have even led to turn this procedure, into the technique of choice for pediatric living donor liver transplantation. Nevertheless, this procedure is even more challenging for adult-to-adult living donor transplantation. To meet the volumetric criteria of an adult, a complete hepatectomy of right or left lobe is mostly required. This surgery is of greater complexity and risk for the donor, so its indication by minimally invasive approach is limited to high-volume centers with preparation, both in laparoscopy and liver transplants. In this report we seek to present our surgical technique and initial experience with the first pure laparoscopic right hepatectomy for adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation carried out in Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Laparoscopy , Living Donors , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Chile , Liver Transplantation/methods , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Abdomen/diagnostic imaging , Hepatectomy
3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(1): e17-e20, feb 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1353739

ABSTRACT

La hipertensión portopulmonar (HTPP) es una complicación infrecuente de la hipertensión portal, que sigue un curso progresivo con un pronóstico sombrío. Los reportes en pacientes pediátricos son escasos y con períodos de seguimiento cortos. Se describe una paciente con cirrosis descompensada que desarrolló HTPP resuelta mediante trasplante hepático, que permanece asintomática tras diez años de seguimiento.


Portopulmonary hypertension is an uncommon complication of portal hypertension, running a progressive course with a negative prognosis. Reports in pediatric patients are scarce with short follow up. We describe the case of decompensated cirrhosis who developed PoPH and resolved with liver transplantation, remaining asymptomatic after ten years of follow up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Liver Transplantation , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/complications , Hypertension, Portal/complications , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , Liver Cirrhosis/complications
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(5): 1349-1353, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405283

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The application of stereology in hepatobiliary conditions is essential in liver volume estimation. Computerized topographic scan with contrast is a reliable method in liver scanning for precise boundaries demarcation. Liver volumetry varies in relation to different factors. Reports showed a correlation of liver volume with sex and body mass index. Steady relation between age and ethnicity is not established. This study aimed to design a protocol for liver volume measurement and apply it in the estimation of volume among the Sudanese population use stereology. Recruitment of the study population was obtained in the royal scan clinic in Khartoum by making an announcement for participation in the study. Patients with a history of hepatobiliary diseases were excluded. CT abdomen with contrast was obtained in DICOM format and transferred to computer-based software for image analysis. A protocol was designed and validated and then applied in volume estimation using software MRIcro for image display, ImageJ for volume estimation, and Onis 2.6 as image viewer. 300 apparently healthy volunteers were recruited. The protocol reliability result was 0.805. Absolute mean liver volume was 3261.32 ± 1365.313 cm3. High liver volume among females was detected than among males. A positive correlation was detected between volume and body mass index (p-value 0.001) regardless of sex. Relation with age showed a rough steady rise till the age of 50 years then it started to decline steadily. The relationship was detected in liver volume with sex and body mass index. More studies are needed to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and age groups.


RESUMEN: La aplicación de la estereología en condiciones hepatobiliares es fundamental en la estimación del volumen hepático. El escaneo topográfico computarizado con contraste es un método confiable en el escaneo del hígado para la demarcación precisa de sus límites. La volumetría hepática varía en función de diferentes factores. Los informes mostraron una correlación del volumen del hígado con el sexo y el índice de masa corporal. No se establece una relación estable entre la edad y la etnia. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo diseñar un protocolo para la medición del volumen hepático de la población sudanesa usando la estereología. El reclutamiento de la población de estudio fue realizado en la clínica de exploración real en Jartum mediante un anuncio de participación. Se excluyeron los pacientes con antecedentes de enfermedades hepatobiliares. Se obtuvo TC de abdomen con contraste en formato DICOM y se transfirió a un software informático para el análisis de imágenes. Se diseñó y validó un protocolo y luego se aplicó en la estimación de volumen utilizando el software MRIcro para la visualización de imágenes, ImageJ para la estimación de volumen y Onis 2.6 como visor de imágenes. Se reclutaron 300 voluntarios sanos. El resultado de la fiabilidad del protocolo fue 0,805. El volumen hepático medio absoluto fue 3261,32 ± 1365,313 cm3. Se detectó un volumen más elevado de hígado en las mujeres que en los hombres. Se detectó una correlación positiva entre el volumen y el índice de masa corporal (valor de p 0,001) independientemente del sexo. La relación con la edad mostró un aumento continuo y brusco hasta los 50 años, luego comenzó a disminuir de manera constante. Se detectó la relación del volumen hepático con el sexo y el índice de masa corporal. Se necesitan más estudios para investigar la relación entre la etnia y los grupos etarios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Liver/anatomy & histology , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Organ Size , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Body Mass Index , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Factors , Liver Transplantation , Contrast Media , Imaging, Three-Dimensional
5.
Hepatología ; 3(2): 203-217, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1396104

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La colangitis biliar primaria (CBP) es una enfermedad hepática crónica de origen autoinmune, caracterizada por inflamación y destrucción progresiva de las células epiteliales de los conductos biliares intralobulillares, que causa de manera secundaria colestasis, fibrosis, cirrosis e insuficiencia hepática. La historia natural de la enfermedad ha cambiado en los últimos años debido a la mejoría en los métodos diagnósticos y terapéuticos. Metodología. Estudio observacional descriptivo de cohorte retrospectivo, en el cual se efectuó la revisión y análisis de las historias clínicas de los pacientes mayores de 16 años con diagnóstico de CBP, atendidos en la Unidad de Hepatología y Trasplante Hepático del Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe, entre los años 2013 a 2021, con el fin de obtener información sobre las características de esta patología a nivel local. Resultados. Se evaluó un total de 239 pacientes, con un promedio de edad de 61,6±12,31 años, el 97,07% fue del sexo femenino, con criterios serológicos como anticuerpos antimitocondriales (AMA) positivos en un 76,89%, el 66,95% de los pacientes presentaban alguna enfermedad autoinmune concomitante y el 31,60% tuvieron sobreposición con hepatitis autoinmune. La manifestación clínica más frecuente fue el prurito en un 61,92% de los pacientes, seguido por la astenia en un 51,88%. La presencia de hipertensión portal al diagnóstico fue del 29,29%. La colangitis no supurativa y la ductopenia en la biopsia de hígado se documentó en un 43,79% de los casos. El ácido ursodesoxicólico (UDCA) fue la terapia de primera línea en el 100% de los pacientes, se identificó refractariedad del 16,36% según criterios de París II y del 31,79% con los criterios de Toronto. La no respuesta al UDCA, se asoció de manera significativa con mayor mortalidad (p=0,039) y presencia de hepatocarcinoma (p=0,042). Conclusión. Se caracterizó la CBP en nuestra población. El diagnóstico serológico por AMA fue bajo, con altos requerimientos de biopsia hepática en el contexto de síndromes de sobreposición. Los signos de hipertensión portal al momento del diagnóstico fueron prevalentes. La refractariedad bioquímica a la terapiafue descrita en relación con mayor progresión de fibrosis, aumento de mortalidad y presencia de hepatocarcinoma.


ntroduction. Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic liver disease of autoimmune origin, characterized by inflammation and progressive destruction of the epithelial cells of the intralobular bile ducts, causing secondary cholestasis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and liver failure. The natural history of the disease has changed in recent years due to the improvement in diagnostic and therapeutic methods. Methodology. Cross-sectional descriptive observational study, where the medical records of patients older than 16 years with a diagnosis of PBC, treated at the Hepatology and Liver Transplant Unit of the Pablo Tobón Uribe Hospital, between the years 2013 to 2021, were reviewed and analyzed in order to obtain information on the characteristics of this pathology at a local level. Results. A total of 239 patients were evaluated, with a mean age of 61.6±12.31 years, 97.07% were females, with serological criteria such as positive antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) in 76.89%. Of all included patients, 66.95% had some concomitant autoimmune disease and 31.60% had an overlap with autoimmune hepatitis. The most frequent clinical manifestation was pruritus in 61.92% of the patients, followed by asthenia in 51.88%. The presence of portal hypertension at diagnosis was 29.29%. Non-suppurative cholangitis and ductopenia on liver biopsy were documented in 43.79% of the cases. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) was the first line therapy in 100% of patients, 16.36% were refractory to treatment according to the Paris II criteria and 31.79% according to the Toronto criteria. Non-response to UDCA was significantly associated with higher mortality (p=0.039) and presence of hepatocarcinoma (p=0.042). Conclusion. PBC was characterized in our population. Serological diagnosis by AMA was low, with high requirements for liver biopsy in the context of overlap syndromes. Signs of portal hypertension at diagnosis were prevalent. Biochemical refractoriness to therapy was described in relation to greater progression of fibrosis, increased mortality, and the presence of hepatocarcinoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Liver Transplantation , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary , Autoimmune Diseases , Ursodeoxycholic Acid , Cholangitis , Cholestasis , Hepatitis, Autoimmune
6.
Hepatología ; 3(2): 225-232, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1396107

ABSTRACT

La colangitis esclerosante secundaria es una enfermedad poco prevalente, de etiología multifactorial y con una fisiopatología progresiva, caracterizada por obstrucción biliar y fibrosis. Entre las múltiples causas se destacan las siguientes: inmunomediada por IgG4, isquémica, infecciosa y relacionada a medicamentos. En el contexto de la pandemia por SARS-CoV-2, se han reportado algunas series de casos que determinan una asociación entre estas dos entidades. Se presenta el caso de una mujer en la octava década de la vida con infección por SARS-CoV-2 grave, que cursó con ictericia progresiva, perfil hepático con patrón colestásico, y hallazgos imagenológicos de colangitis esclerosante con vía biliar desestructurada de manera difusa, microcálculos y barro biliar. Se diagnosticó colangitis esclerosante secundaria a SARS-CoV-2 y se dio manejo con ácido ursodesoxicólico.


Secondary sclerosing cholangitis is a rare disease of multifactorial etiology with a progressive pathophysiology, characterized by biliary obstruction and fibrosis. Multiple causes include: IgG4-immunemediated, ischemic, infectious and drug-induced. In the context of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, some case series have been reported that determine an association between these two entities. We present the case of a woman in her eighth decade with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection that presented with progressive jaundice, liver profile with cholestatic pattern, and imaging findings of sclerosing cholangitis with obliterated bile ducts, microlithiasis and biliary sludge. Sclerosing cholangitis secondary to SARS-CoV-2 was diagnosed and the patient was treated with ursodeoxycholic acid.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cholangitis, Sclerosing , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Ursodeoxycholic Acid , Liver Transplantation , Critical Illness
7.
Hepatología ; 3(1): 40-56, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1396216

ABSTRACT

El trasplante de hígado es el último recurso para el tratamiento de hepatopatías. Para evitar el rechazo del injerto se requieren esquemas de inmunosupresión que han ido evolucionando a lo largo de los años. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica en la base de datos PubMed sobre las terapias inmunosupresoras disponibles para evitar el rechazo del injerto en el trasplante hepático, los esquemas utilizados, efectos adversos, interacciones y sus modificaciones desde la fase de inducción hasta el seguimiento posterior. Se encontró que la inducción habitual es con esteroides o terapia inmunológica clonal. En el mantenimiento, los inhibidores de la calcineurina son los más utilizados, las dosis se deben ajustar según sus niveles séricos y la presencia de efectos adversos como nefrotoxicidad o diabetes. Por otra parte, los inhibidores del mTOR han sido considerados como agentes reductores del riesgo de recidiva de cáncer hepatocelular. Las características del paciente y sus comorbilidades (embarazo, insuficiencia renal, diabetes, sepsis, carcinoma hepatocelular) requieren modificar el tratamiento e individualizarlo


Liver transplantation is the last option for the treatment of liver disease. Immunosuppression schemes are required to avoid graft rejection, which have evolved over the years. A literature review was carried out in PubMed on the immunosuppressive therapies available to avoid graft rejection in liver transplantation, as well as on the schemes used, adverse effects, interactions and their modifications from the induction phase to subsequent follow-up. The usual induction was found to be with steroids or clonal immune therapy. In maintenance, calcineurin inhibitors are the most widely used, and their doses should be adjusted according to their serum levels and the presence of adverse effects such as nephrotoxicity or diabetes. On the other hand, mTOR inhibitors have been considered to reduce the risk of hepatocellular cancer recurrence. The characteristics of the patient and their comorbidities (pregnancy, kidney failure, diabetes, sepsis, hepatocellular carcinoma) require modification and individualization of the treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunosuppression Therapy , Liver Transplantation , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Calcineurin Inhibitors , Graft Rejection , Liver Diseases , Liver Neoplasms
8.
Hepatología ; 3(1): 72-86, 2022. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1396261

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La cirrosis hepática continúa siendo una enfermedad frecuente en nuestro medio, con una mortalidad elevada. Su descompensación se puede asociar a la falla de uno o más órganos, llevando a una falla hepática aguda sobre crónica (ACLF), confiriéndoles a estos pacientes un pronóstico diferente asociado a una alta mortalidad. El objetivo de este artículo es reportar las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de los pacientes que cursaron con ACLF en un hospital de alta complejidad, así como realizar una revisión de la literatura de acuerdo con las definiciones actuales, sobre las diferentes escalas para la evaluación de su pronóstico. Metodología. Estudio descriptivo tipo retrospectivo de series de casos. La población estuvo constituida por la totalidad de los pacientes atendidos en el periodo entre diciembre del 2005 a enero del 2020, mayores de 18 años, y con diagnóstico de cirrosis hepática en el Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe, que cumplieran los criterios diagnósticos para ACLF. Resultados. Se incluyó una serie de casos de 19 pacientes con diagnóstico de ACLF, el 47,36% correspondía a hombres con una mediana de edad de 53 años, la clasificación de la cirrosis fue Child C para todos, la etiología fue de origen alcohólico en el 42,10%, autoinmune en el 21,05%, virus de la hepatitis B en el 10,52%, y virus de la hepatitis C, esteatohepatitis no alcohólica y cirrosis biliar primaria en el 5,26% de los casos. Los precipitantes de la ACLF fueron alcoholismo activo en el 42,10% de los casos, no se identificó evento en el 26,31%, y las infecciones y sangrado variceal se presentaron en el 15,78%. Ladistribución de la clasificación fue ACLF 1 15,78%, ACLF 2 26,31% y ACLF 3 36,84%. La supervivencia acumulada en los pacientes que recibieron trasplante hepático fue mayor en relación a los que no, 80% versus 33,3%. Conclusión. La ACLF es un proceso dinámico y potencialmente reversible con una mortalidad elevada a corto plazo. En nuestra serie encontramos una mayor supervivencia en los pacientes trasplantados, lo que confiere una mejoría en la sobrevida a corto y largo plazo, por lo que este continúa siendo el tratamiento óptimo en la actualidad.


Introduction. Liver cirrhosis continues to be a common disease in our setting, with high mortality. Its decompensation can be associated with the failure of one or more organs, leading to acute-onchronic liver failure (ACLF), giving these patients a different prognosis associated with higher mortality. The objective of this article is to report the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with ACLF in a high-complexity hospital, as well as to carry out a review of the literature about the different scores for evaluating their prognosis. Methodology. This is a descriptive, retrospective case series study. The population included all the patients during December 2005 to January 2020, over 18 years old, with a diagnosis of liver cirrhosis at the Pablo Tobón Uribe Hospital, who met the diagnostic criteria for ACLF. Results. We included a case series of 19 patients with a diagnosis of ACLF, 47.36% were men with a median age of 53 years, all of them with Child C cirrhosis, the etiology was alcoholic in 42.10%, autoimmune in 21.05%, hepatitis B virus in 10.52%, and hepatitis C virus, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis in 5.26% of the cases. The precipitants of ACLF were active alcoholism in 42.10% of the cases, no event was identified in 26.31%, and variceal infections and bleeding occurred in 15.78%. Classification was ACLF 1 in 15.78%, ACLF 2 in 26.31% and ACLF 3 in 36.84%. Cumulative survival in patients who received liver transplantation was higher in relation to those who did not, 80% versus 33.3%. Conclusion. ACLF is a dynamic and potentially reversible process with high short-term mortality. In our series, we found a longer survival in transplant patients, which improves survival rates at short and long term, so as of today, this continues to be the optimal treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Liver Failure , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure , Liver Transplantation , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Liver Cirrhosis
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936353

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the inhibitory effect of AZD2014, a dual mTORC1/2 inhibitor, against acute graft rejection in a rat model of allogeneic liver transplantation.@*METHODS@#Liver transplantation from Lewis rat to recipient BN rat (a donor-recipient combination that was prone to induce acute graft rejection) was performed using Kamada's two-cuff technique. The recipient BN rats were randomized into 2 groups for treatment with daily intraperitoneal injection of AZD2014 (5 mg/kg, n=4) or vehicle (2.5 mL/kg, n=4) for 14 consecutive days, starting from the first day after the transplantation. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and total bilirubin (TBIL) levels of the rats were measured 3 days before and at 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 days after the transplantation, and the survival time of the rats within 14 days were recorded. Immunohistochemical staining was used to examine the expressions of CD3 and Foxp3 in the liver graft, and acute graft rejection was assessed using HE staining based on the Banff schema.@*RESULTS@#Three rats in the control group died within 14 days after the surgery, while no death occurred in the AZD2014 group, demonstrating a significantly longer survival time of the rats in AZD2014 group (χ2=4.213, P=0.04). Serum ALT, AST and TBIL levels in the control group increased progressively after the surgery and were all significantly higher than those in AZD2014 group at the same time point (P < 0.05). Pathological examination revealed significantly worse liver graft rejection in the control group than in AZD2014 group based on assessment of the rejection index (P < 0.01); the rats in the control group showed more serious T lymphocyte infiltration and significantly fewer Treg cells in the liver graft than those in AZD2014 group (P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#AZD2014 can effectively inhibit acute graft rejection in rats with allogeneic liver transplantation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Benzamides , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Graft Survival , Liver/pathology , Liver Transplantation , Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 , Morpholines , Pyrimidines , Rats , Rats, Inbred Lew
10.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 439-442, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935963

ABSTRACT

The rising prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now the second largest indication for liver transplantation in Western countries, but viral hepatitis B and end-stage alcohol-related liver disease are still the main indications in China. With the improvement of people's living standards, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, and the number of NAFLD patients has also gradually increased. At the same time, with the hepatitis B vaccination popularization and the nucleos(t)ide analogues and other drugs uses, it is predicted that NAFLD-related end-stage liver disease may become one of the main indications for liver transplantation in our country in the future. This article reviews the research progress of NAFLD and liver transplantation.


Subject(s)
End Stage Liver Disease , Humans , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Metabolic Syndrome , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Prevalence
11.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 237-243, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935934

ABSTRACT

The high incidence of chronic liver disease is a serious threat to public health, and the current comprehensive internal medicine treatment is ineffective. Liver transplantation is limited by the shortage of liver source and post-transplant rejection, and thus unmet the clinical needs. More importantly, cell therapy shows great promise for the treatment of chronic liver disease. Over recent years, domestic and foreign scholars have carried out a variety of cell therapy preclinical and clinical trials for critical liver disease, and achieved certain results, providing new methods for the treatment of chronic liver diseases. This review discusses the cell therapy research status and application progress, various existing problems and challenges, and key issues of mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of chronic liver diseases.


Subject(s)
Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Humans , Liver Diseases/therapy , Liver Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells
12.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 396-400, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935628

ABSTRACT

Liver transplant is an unreplaceable method for benign end-stage liver disease. The risk evaluation for the waiting list recipients and for post-transplant survival could provide practical indication for organ allocation. In recent years, there are two major kinds of evaluation scores. The first kind of evaluation scores is based on model for end-stage liver disease(MELD) score,including SOFT/P-SOFT score,UCLA-FRS score and BAR score. The other evaluation system is based on the concept of acute-on-chronic liver failure,including CLIF-C-ACLF score,TAM score,AARC-ACLF score and COSSH-ACLF score. The scores based on ACLF have been shown superior power in predicting waiting list survival and post-transplant prognosis than MELD. This article reviews the two kinds of evaluation scores,aiming for the better allocation policy and the better prognosis of benign end-stage liver disease.


Subject(s)
Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure , End Stage Liver Disease/surgery , Humans , Liver Transplantation , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
13.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 181-187, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935598

ABSTRACT

Acute-on-chronic liver failure(ACLF) is the most severe form of acute decompensation that develops in patients with chronic liver disease or liver cirrhosis,and is always accompanied by one or more extrahepatic organ failure, and has an extremely poor short-term prognosis. The causes triggering ACLF are complex and diverse,and the clinical stage and the type and the definition of organ failure differ greatly from one another. Therefore, a universally accepted diagnostic criteria for ACLF is not to be defined, and the epidemiological data and patient outcomes on ACLF are not easy to predict and compare among different regions. Accumulating evidence has shown that liver transplantation(LT) plays a significant role in the surgical treatment of patients with ACLF,but its clinical value is still controversial. The specific management and treatment strategy after the admission of patients with ACLF has not yet formed a unified and standardized process or opinions, which includes the monitoring in the ICU,the support and maintenance of organ functions, the selection of the surgical indication and the timing for LT and so on. Moreover, there still exists many controversies concerning, for example, whether patients with ACLF should receive greater priority for organ allocation compared to other potential candidates on the waiting list. Besides, more prospective controlled studies are urgently needed to investigate the role of the artificial liver support system in the bridging therapy to LT. The aim of this article is to review the indication selection of patients with ACLF suitable for LT,the survival outcomes and prognostic factors after LT, the selection of timing, the organ allocation policy and the bridging therapy to LT, which intends to provide new direction for designing the future clinical studies on LT in patients with ACLF.


Subject(s)
Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/surgery , Adult , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Transplantation , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Waiting Lists
14.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 193-202, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927610

ABSTRACT

With the breakthrough in surgical technology, pediatric liver transplantation (PLT) has achieved landmark development in China in recent years. In some high-volume centers, postoperative outcomes have even been comparable to the world-leading levels. However, postoperative infection remains a major factor affecting graft and recipient survivals. Thus, the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Committee of the Chinese Research Hospital Association organized experts from multiple disciplines and formulated the consensus to improve the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of postoperative infections in PLT recipients. This consensus is based on the progress of domestic and international researches in this field and followed the principles of evidence-based medicine. It covers general and transplantation-specific infection, and is expected to provide reference for centers conducting or planning to conduct PLT.


Subject(s)
Child , Consensus , Humans , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications , Postoperative Period , Transplant Recipients
15.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 38(1): e38115, 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1389670

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Los adenovirus humanos continúan siendo un desafío en la práctica clínica, se trata de virus de tipo ADN, con amplia distribución en la población, causa frecuente de enfermedad autolimitada en niños. Sin embargo, en pacientes inmunosuprimidos, principalmente trasplantados de células hematopoyéticas y de órganos sólidos, puede llegar a ser causa de enfermedad diseminada severa, con elevada morbimortalidad. Compartimos el primer reporte nacional de enfermedad por adenovirus diseminado, en el que se presentan dos casos clínicos de pacientes trasplantados hepáticos, que desarrollan enfermedad diseminada grave por adenovirus. Se realiza una revisión de la literatura sobre el tema.


Abstract: Human adenoviruses still constitute a challenge in the clinical practice. These are DNA viruses that are widely disseminated among the population and often cause self-limiting diseases in children. However, it may result in a severe diseminated disease with high morbi-mortality rates in immunocompromised patients, in particular transplant recipients of hematopoietic cells and solid organs. The study shares the first national report for disseminated adenovirus disease, presenting two clinical cases of hepatic transplant recipients who developed severe disseminated adenovirus disease. And conducting a literature review on the topic.


Resumo: Os adenovírus humanos continuam sendo um desafio na prática clínica; são vírus do tipo DNA, com ampla distribuição na população, causa frequente de doença autolimitada em crianças. Entretanto, em pacientes imunossuprimidos, principalmente receptores de transplante de células hematopoiéticas e órgãos sólidos, pode se tornar causa de doença disseminada grave, com alta morbimortalidade. Este é o primeiro relato nacional de doença de adenovírus disseminado, no qual são apresentados dois casos clínicos de pacientes transplantados de fígado que desenvolvem doença de adenovírus disseminada grave. Realizou-se também revisão da literatura sobre o assunto.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae Infections , Transplant Recipients , Liver Transplantation
16.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353121

ABSTRACT

. (AU)Acute hepatic porphyrias (AHPs) are inborn errors of hemebiosynthesis and its most common and severe type is the acute intermittent porphyria (AIP). AIP is an hereditary autosomal dominant disease caused by accumulated porphobilinogen deaminase (PBG) and delta aminolevulin acid (ALA) products. The main symptoms are severe abdominal pain, neuromuscular and psychiatric disturbances, nausea, vomiting, encephalopathy, tachycardia, seizures, tremors and hypertension, that usually are manifested by acute crises. The treatment is based on clinical management and in cases which the patient's quality of life is affected liver transplantation (LT) may be an alternative choice. We report the case of a patient with AHP presenting recurrent crisis leading to chronic symptoms occurrence and poor quality of life with progressive unresponsiveness to hemin treatment. Patient was submitted to LT as curative therapy proposal, but patient still presents some clinical manifestations that may indicate the possibility of a secondary cause to explain persistence of her symptoms despite of biochemical normalization of ALA and PBG. (AU)


As porfirias hepáticas agudas (PHA) compreendem um grupo de porfirias que apresentam erros inatos na biossíntese do grupo heme, sendo a mais severa e o tipo mais comum da PHA, a porfiria aguda intermitente (PAI). A PAI é uma doença autossômica dominante causada pelo acúmulo dos produtos porfobilinogênio deaminase (PBG) e ácido delta-aminolevulínico (ALA). Os principais sintomas são dor abdominal intensa, distúrbios neuromusculares e psiquiátricos, náuseas, vômitos, encefalopatia, taquicardia, febre, tremores e hipertensão, os quais normalmente são manifestados durante as crises agudas. O tratamento é baseado no manejo clínico de todos pacientes durante a crise. Para os casos em que a qualidade de vida do paciente é afetada negativamente, a terapêutica de transplante hepático poderá ser indicada. O objetivo do relato de caso é introduzir o tratamento de uma paciente com recorrentes crises agudas de porfiria e danos em sua qualidade de vida. Uma vez que a paciente não apresentou melhora após tratamento com hematina, foi submetida ao transplante hepático visando a cura da doença. Após o transplante, a paciente ainda apresentou alguns sintomas clínicos, necessitando reformular uma segunda hipótese para explicar a persistência de tais sintomas apesar da normalização dos níveis de ALA e PBG. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Porphobilinogen , Hydroxymethylbilane Synthase , Quality of Life , Abdominal Pain , Liver Transplantation , Porphyrias, Hepatic , Porphyria, Acute Intermittent
17.
Rev. argent. cir ; 113(4): 460-466, dic. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356955

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La enfermedad de Caroli es una enfermedad infrecuente que requiere un alto índice de sospecha para su diagnóstico. Puede afectar un segmento hepático, un lóbulo o todo el hígado; suele generar episodios repetidos de colangitis. Existe una amplia gama de propuestas terapéuticas que oscilan desde el tratamiento médico hasta el trasplante de hígado. En este trabajo presentamos 3 casos, realizamos una revisión de la literatura y proponemos una ampliación de la clasificación de Alonso-Lej modificada por Todani que, a nuestra manera de ver, tiene implicaciones a la hora de seleccionar un tratamiento.


ABSTRACT Caroli's disease is a rare condition, and its diagnosis requires high level of suspicion. The disease may affect one segment, one lobe or the entire liver, and may result in repeated episodes of cholangitis. The disease can be managed using different therapeutic approaches ranging from medical treatment to liver transplantation. In this paper we report 3 cases with review of the literature and propose a modification of the classification by Alonso-Lej modified by Todani which we believe may be useful to guide treatment.


Subject(s)
Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic , Cholelithiasis , Caroli Disease , Therapeutics , Bile Ducts , Cholangitis , Liver Transplantation , Selectins , Dilatation
18.
Infectio ; 25(3): 189-192, jul.-set. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1250091

ABSTRACT

Abstract Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a respiratory process of acute onset, showing on X rays as bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and severe respiratory failure, Coccidiodomycosis is a unusual cause of acute respiratory distress syndrome, the incidence of coccidiomycosis in a solid organ trasplant recipientes ranges from 1.4% a 6.9%, inadecuancy of cellular inmunity is a well established risk factor for development of coccididomcosis, less than 1% of patients develop disseminaded infecction and carrying high mortality, the case that we are presenting add to the small list of reports documenting the ocasionally acute and agressive nature of the disseminated clinical form of coccidiodomycosis.


Resumen El síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda (SDRA) es un proceso respiratorio de inicio agudo, que se manifiesta en las radiografías como infiltrados pulmonares bilaterales, clinicamente como insuficiencia respiratoria grave, la coccidiodomicosis es una causa inusual de síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda, la incidencia de coccidiomicosis en receptores de trasplante de órgano sólido varía desde 1.4% a 6.9%, una inadecuada inmunidad celular es un factor de riesgo bien establecido para el desarrollo de coccidomicosis, menos del 1% de los pacientes desarrollan enfermedad diseminada y alta mortalidad, el caso que presentamos se suma a la pequeña lista de informes que documentan la naturaleza ocasionalmente aguda y agresiva de la forma clínica diseminada de coccidiodomicosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Organ Transplantation , Liver Transplantation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Coccidioidomycosis , Immunity, Cellular
19.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(3): 370-376, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345282

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Immunosuppressive drugs have important role in transplant of solid grafts, it aim avoid episodes of acute and chronic rejection and improving graft survival and patient survival. In Brazil, in 2016, liver transplantation was the third most frequent, with 1,880 transplants performed, of which 150 in Rio Grande do Sul. Several studies evaluated the association between variability in blood levels of immunosuppressive tacrolimus and late acute cellular graft rejection. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of tacrolimus blood levels with clinical outcomes late acute cellular rejection, death, patient survival and graft survival in patients undergoing liver transplantation. METHODS: This is a retrospective longitudinal study including patients submitted to adult liver transplantation by the Liver Transplantation Group in the Santa Casa de Misericórdia Hospital of Porto Alegre, from January 2006 to January 2013, and who used tacrolimus as immunosuppressive therapy. RESULTS: Of the 127 patients included in the study, the majority were male (70.1%), 52-60 years old (33.9%) at the transplant. The most frequent causes of liver transplantation in this series were hepatitis C virus and hepatocellular carcinoma (24.4%) and alcohol (15.7%). Thirteen patients had late acute cellular rejection (10.2%); of these, three had two episodes. Regarding severity classification, seven patients had mild late acute cellular rejection. The mean time of rejection after liver transplantation was 14 months (ranging from 8 to 33 months). Overall survival was 8.98 years. Regarding tacrolimus blood levels, 52 patients with a variation ≥2 standard deviations were identified. Of these patients, eight had rejection; however, the association was not significant (P=0.146). A significant association was found between variation ≥2 standard deviations in tacrolimus blood levels and death (P=0.023) and survival (P=0.019). Regarding 5-year follow-up of graft survival, being two standard deviations above increases by 2.26 times the risk of transplanted graft loss, and for each unit of increase of standard deviation of tacrolimus blood levels there is a two-fold increase in the risk of graft loss in 5 years. CONCLUSION: Increased risk of graft loss associated with increased standard deviations of tacrolimus blood levels may indicate the need for more rigorous and prospective monitoring of tacrolimus blood levels.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Os imunossupressores desempenham importante papel no transplante de órgãos sólidos, com o objetivo de evitar a rejeição aguda e crônica, aumentando o tempo de sobrevida do órgão e do paciente. No Brasil, em 2016, o transplante de fígado foi o 3° mais frequente, com um número de 1.880 transplantes, sendo 150 realizados no Rio Grande do Sul. OBJETIVO: Investigar a associação da variação dos níveis sanguíneos de tacrolimo com os desfechos clínicos, rejeição celular aguda tardia, óbito, sobrevida de paciente e enxerto em pacientes submetidos ao transplante hepático. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo longitudinal retrospectivo, no qual foram incluídos os pacientes submetidos ao transplante hepático adulto pelo grupo de transplante hepático na Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre, no período de janeiro de 2006 a janeiro de 2013, e que fizeram o uso de tacrolimo como terapia imunossupressora. RESULTADOS: Dos 127 pacientes incluídos no estudo, a maioria era do gênero masculino (70,1%), caucasiana (86,4%), com idade entre 52 e 60 anos (33,9%). As associações de causas mais frequentes para transplante hepático foram vírus da hepatite C, carcinoma hepatocelular (24,4%) e álcool (15,7%). Um total de treze pacientes apresentaram rejeição celular aguda tardia (10,2%); destes, três tiveram dois episódios. O tempo médio de rejeição após o transplante hepático foi de 14 meses, variando de 8 a 33 meses. A sobrevida global foi de 8,98 anos. Em relação aos níveis sanguíneos de tacrolimo, foram identificados 52 pacientes com uma variação maior ou igual a dois desvios-padrão. Destes pacientes, oito tiveram rejeição, contudo, a associação não foi significativa (P=0,146). Foi encontrada uma associação significativa entre a variação maior ou igual a dois desvios-padrão nos níveis sanguíneos de tacrolimo com óbito (P=0,023) e sobrevida (P=0,019). Em relação ao acompanhamento de sobrevida do enxerto em cinco anos, estar dois desvios-padrão acima aumenta em 2,26 vezes o risco de perda do enxerto transplantado, e a cada unidade de aumento de desvio-padrão dos níveis sanguíneos de tacrolimo há um aumento de duas vezes no risco de perda do enxerto transplantado em 5 anos. CONCLUSÃO: O aumento do risco da perda do enxerto associado ao aumento da variação dos níveis sanguíneos de tacrolimo pode indicar a necessidade do acompanhamento mais rigoroso e prospectivo dos níveis sanguíneos de tacrolimo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Liver Transplantation , Tacrolimus/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Middle Aged
20.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(4): 555-558, ago. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346506

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of preservation fluids (PF) bacterial positive cultures, identify the germs involved, determine their correlation with infections in recipients during the postoperative period and compare outcomes in terms of morbidity, hospital stay and both patient and graft survival. We describe incidence and etiology of germs developed in PF cultures in our series and evaluate its impact on recipients. A prospective study in deceased donor liver transplants (LT) recipients was carried out from January 2014 to December 2017. Back table PF cultures were analized considering positive the development of any germs and negative to no signs of growth after 5 days. PF were classified as contamination or pathogens. Targeted antibiotic therapy was administered in the last ones. Recipients were divided in: PF (-) and PF(+). Recipients infections related to positive PF were analyzed. These were identified as "direct correlation" when the same germ grew up in PF. Hospital stay and 30 days follow up were compared. Eighty-eight patients PFs were included, 38% (33) had positive cultures, 28 (85%) of these were considered contamination and only 5 as pathogens. We found no differences in postoperative infections (p 0.840), ICU and total hospital stay (p 0.374 and 0.427) between both groups. Postoperative infections and hospital stay seem not to be influenced by PF cultures positivity. Treatment of isolated pathogens could have prevented infections, therefore, those groups that perform PF cultures should consider treatment in these cases and conclude prophylaxis when PF is negative or contaminated.


Resumen Las infecciones bacterianas son frecuentes en pacientes sometidos a trasplante hepático. Describimos la incidencia y etiología de los cultivos de líquidos de preservación (LP) positivos en nuestra serie y analizamos su importancia clínica. Se trata de un trabajo prospectivo de pacientes trasplantados hepáticos, entre enero 2014 a diciembre 2017. Se analizaron muestras de LP tomadas al finalizar la mesa de banco, considerándose positivo el desarrollo de cualquier germen y negativo la ausencia del mismo luego de 5 días. Los LP positivos se clasificaron en: con contaminantes y con patógenos. Los pacientes con LP patógenos recibieron tratamiento antibiótico de acuerdo al antibiograma. Los pacientes fueron divididos en dos grupos: con LP + y LP-. Las infecciones relacionadas a los LP fueron analizadas. Se consideró "correlación directa" cuando el mismo germen desarrolló en el LP y en el recipiente. Se comparó estadía hospitalaria en ambos grupos. Se incluyeron 88 pacientes, 38% (33) presentaron LP+, de los que el 85% (28) fueron por contaminación y 5 por pa tógenos. No se hallaron diferencias significativas en infecciones postoperatorias (p 0.840) y estadía hospitalaria (p 0.427) entre ellos. No hubo casos de "correlación directa". Las infecciones postoperatorias y la estadía hospitalaria de los pacientes no parecen estar influidas por la positividad de los cultivos de LP. El tratamiento dirigido a los gérmenes aislados como patógenos pudo prevenir infecciones, por lo tanto, los grupos que realizan cultivos de rutina deberían considerar el tratamiento en estos casos y finalizar la profilaxis cuando el LP sea negativo o contaminado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Organ Preservation Solutions , Drug Contamination , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Living Donors
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