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1.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 351-356, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986860

ABSTRACT

We explored clinicopathological features and treatment strategies for thoracic SMARCA4-deficient undifferentiated tumor (SMARCA4-UT). Thoracic SMARCA4-UT is a new entity recently acknowledged in the 2021 edition of World Health Organization Classification of Thoracic Tumors, and doctors are relatively unfamiliar with its diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Taking a case of SMARCA4-UT treated in Peking University First Hospital as an example, this multi-disciplinary discussion covered several hot issues on diagnosing and treating thoracic SMARCA4-UT, including histological features, immu- nohistochemical and molecular phenotype, immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy, and pathological assessment of neoadjuvant therapy response. The patient was an older man with a long history of smoking and was admitted due to a rapidly progressing solid tumor in the lower lobe of the right lung. Histologically, tumor cells were epithelioid, undifferentiated, diffusely positive for CD34, and partially positive for SALL4.The expression of BRG1 protein encoded by SMARCA4 gene was lost in all of tumor cells, and next-generation sequencing(NGS)confirmed SMARCA4 gene mutation (c.2196T>G, p.Y732Ter). The pathological diagnosis reached as thoracic SMARCA4-UT, and the preoperative TNM stage was T1N2M0 (ⅢA). Tumor proportion score (TPS) detected by immunohistochemistry of programmed cell death 1-ligand 1 (PD-L1, clone SP263) was 2%. Tumor mutation burden (TMB) detected by NGS of 1 021 genes was 16. 3/Mb. Microsatellite detection showed the tumor was microsatellite stable (MSS). Neo-adjuvant therapy was implemented with the combined regimen of chemotherapy and ICI. Right lower lobectomy was performed through thoracoscopy after the two weeks' neoadjuvant. The pathologic assessment of lung tumor specimens after neoadjuvant therapy revealed a complete pathological response (CPR). The post-neoadjuvant tumor TNM stage was ypT0N0M0. Then, five cycles of adjuvant therapy were completed. Until October 2022, neither tumor recurrence nor metastasis was detected, and minimal residual disease (MRD) detection was negative. At present, it is believed that if BRG1 immunohistochemical staining is negative, regardless of whether SMARCA4 gene mutation is detected, it should be classified as SMARCA4-deficient tumors. SMARCA4-deficient tumors include a variety of carcinomas and sarcomas. The essential criteria for diagnosing SMARCA4-UT includes loss of BRG1 expression, speci-fic histological morphology, and exclude other common thoracic malignant tumors with SMARCA4-deficiency, such as squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma. SMARCA4-UT is a very aggressive malignant tumor with a poor prognosis. It has almost no targeted therapy mutations, and little response to chemotherapy, but ICI is currently the only effective drug. The successful diagnosis and treatment for this case of SMARCA4-UT should enlighten significance for various kinds of SMARCA4-deficient tumors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Thoracic Neoplasms/pathology , Adenocarcinoma , DNA Helicases , Nuclear Proteins , Transcription Factors
2.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 38-45, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971177

ABSTRACT

The occurence and development of tumors is a complicated process, which not only depends on the mutation or deletion of genes, but also is affected by epigenetic regulation. Accumulating evidences have shown that epigenetic modifications play fundamental roles in transcriptional regulation, heterochromatin formation, X chromosome inactivation, DNA damage response and tumor development. SET domain containing lysine methyltransferase 7 (SETD7) was initially identified as an important lysine methyltransferase, which methylated histone and non-histone proteins. These modifications play fundamental roles. Once this modification disorders, it can directly lead to cell abnormalities and cause many diseases. Studies have shown that SETD7 is related to the occurence and development of various tumors, but the methylation sites of SETD7 and its regulatory mechanism have not been fully elucidated. This article summarizes the research progress of the role of SETD7 on histone and non-histone methylation modification in tumors and the molecular mechanism, in order to provide new therapeutic targets for tumor pathogenesis and diagnosis.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Epigenesis, Genetic , Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase/metabolism , Lysine/metabolism , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Histones/metabolism
3.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 168-176, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970733

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the expression of CD24 gene in human malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) cells and tissues, and evaluate its relationship with clinicopathological characteristics and clinical prognosis of MPM patients. Methods: In February 2021, UALCAN database was used to analyze the correlation between CD24 gene expression and clinicopathological characteristics in 87 cases of MPM patients. The TIMER 2.0 platform was used to explore the relationship between the expression of CD24 in MPM and tumor immune infiltrating cells. cBioportal online tool was used to analyze the correlation between CD24 and MPM tumor marker gene expression. RT-qPCR was used to analyze the expressions of CD24 gene in human normal pleural mesothelial cell lines LP9 and MPM cell lines NCI-H28 (epithelial type), NCI-H2052 (sarcoma type), and NCI-H2452 (biphasic mixed type). RT-qPCR was performed to detect the expressions of CD24 gene in 18 cases of MPM tissues and matched normal pleural tissues. The expression difference of CD24 protein in normal mesothelial tissue and MPM tissue was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. A Kaplan-Meier model was constructed to explore the influence of CD24 gene expression on the prognosis of MPM patients, and Cox regression analysis of prognostic factors in MPM patients was performed. Results: The CD24 gene expression without TP53 mutation MPM patients was significantly higher than that of patients in TP53 mutation (P<0.05). The expression of CD24 gene in MPM was positively correlated with B cells (r(s)=0.37, P<0.001). The expression of CD24 gene had a positive correlation with the expressions of thrombospondin 2 (THBS2) (r(s)=0.26, P<0.05), and had a negative correlation with the expression of epidermal growth factor containing fibulin like extracellular matrix protein 1 (EFEMP1), mesothelin (MSLN) and calbindin 2 (CALB2) (r(s)=-0.31, -0.52, -0.43, P<0.05). RT-qPCR showed that the expression level of CD24 gene in MPM cells (NCI-H28, NCI-H2052 and NCI-H2452) was significantly higher than that in normal pleural mesothelial LP9 cells. The expression level of CD24 gene in MPM tissues was significantly higher than that in matched normal pleural tissues (P<0.05). Immunohistochemistry showed that the expressions of CD24 protein in epithelial and sarcoma MPM tissues were higher than those of matched normal pleural tissues. Compared with low expression of CD24 gene, MPM patients with high expression of CD24 gene had lower overall survival (HR=2.100, 95%CI: 1.336-3.424, P<0.05) and disease-free survival (HR=1.800, 95%CI: 1.026-2.625, P<0.05). Cox multivariate analysis showed that compared with the biphasic mixed type, the epithelial type was a protective factor for the prognosis of MPM patients (HR=0.321, 95%CI: 0.172-0.623, P<0.001). Compared with low expression of CD24 gene, high expression of CD24 gene was an independent risk factor for the prognosis of MPM patients (HR=2.412, 95%CI: 1.291-4.492, P=0.006) . Conclusion: CD24 gene and protein are highly expressed in MPM tissues, and the high expression of CD24 gene suggests poor prognosis in MPM patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mesothelioma, Malignant , Mesothelioma/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Pleural Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prognosis , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Extracellular Matrix Proteins , CD24 Antigen/genetics
4.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 111-116, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969813

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in men and women worldwide, and 85% of these patients have non-small cell lung cancer. In recent years, the clinical use of targeted drug therapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors has dramatically changed the treatment landscape for advanced NSCLC. The mechanism and the value of targeted therapies have been a hot topic of research, as KRAS is one of the earliest discovered and most frequently mutated oncogenes, which is activated by binding to GTP and triggers a series of cascade reactions in cell proliferation and mitosis. The KRAS protein acts as a molecular switch and is activated by binding to GTP, triggering a series of cascade responses in cell proliferation and mitosis. Clinically, patients with KRAS mutated NSCLC have poor response to systemic medical therapy and poor prognosis. Since the first report of KRAS gene in 1982, research on KRAS targeted therapeutics has been slow, and previous studies such as farnesyltransferase inhibitors and downstream protein inhibitors of KRAS signaling pathway have not achieved the expected results, making KRAS long defined as a "non-druggable target". The deeper understanding of the crystal structure of KRAS has led to the discovery of potential therapeutic sites for KRAS and the development of several drugs directly targeting KRAS, especially KRAS G12C inhibitors such as AMG510 (sotorasib) and MRTX849 (adagrasib), which have shown encouraging results in clinical trials. In recent years, studies on the therapeutic efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors for KRAS-mutated NSCLC have made some progress. In this review, we systematically introduce the basic understanding of RAS gene and clinical characteristics of KRAS mutated NSCLC patients, summarize the medical treatments for KRAS mutated NSCLC, including chemotherapy, anti-vascular drug therapy and tumor immunotherapy, and focus on the review and outlook of the research progress of KRAS targeted therapy.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Female , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)/therapeutic use , Genes, ras , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Guanosine Triphosphate/therapeutic use , Mutation
5.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 207-219, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982585

ABSTRACT

The rearranged during transfection (RET) is a receptor protein tyrosine kinase. Oncogenic RET fusions or mutations are found most often in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and in thyroid cancer, but also increasingly in various types of cancers at low rates. In the last few years, two potent and selective RET protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), pralsetinib (BLU-667) and selpercatinib (LOXO-292, LY3527723) were developed and received regulatory approval. Although pralsetinib and selpercatinib gave high overall response rates (ORRs), < 10% of patients achieved a complete response (CR). The RET TKI-tolerated residual tumors inevitably develop resistance by secondary target mutations, acquired alternative oncogenes, or MET amplification. RET G810 mutations located at the kinase solvent front site were identified as the major on-target mechanism of acquired resistance to both selpercatinib and pralsetinib. Several next-generation of RET TKIs capable of inhibiting the selpercatinib/pralsetinib-resistant RET mutants have progressed to clinical trials. However, it is likely that new TKI-adapted RET mutations will emerge to cause resistance to these next-generation of RET TKIs. Solving the problem requires a better understanding of the multiple mechanisms that support the RET TKI-tolerated persisters to identify a converging point of vulnerability to devise an effective co-treatment to eliminate the residual tumors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Neoplasm, Residual , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret/genetics
6.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 667-679, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982408

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Immunotherapy has brought significant clinical benefits to a subset of patients, but has thus far been disappointing in the treatment of immunologically "cold" tumors. Existing biomarkers that can precisely identify these populations are insufficient. In this context, a potential cold tumor microenvironment (TME) marker FARSB was investigated to reveal its impact on TME and patients' response to immunotherapy across pan-cancer.@*METHODS@#The expression levels and mutational landscape of FARSB in pan-cancer were investigated. Kaplan-Meier and univariate Cox regression analyses were applied to analyze the prognostic significance of FARSB. Pathways affected by FARSB were investigated by gene set enrichment and variation analysis. The relationship between FARSB expression and immune infiltration was examined using the TIMER2 and R packages. Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) data of several cancer types from GSE72056, GSE131907, GSE132465, GSE125449 and PMID32561858 were analyzed to validate the impact of FARSB on the TME. The predictive effect of FARSB on immunotherapy efficacy was explored in 3 immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs)- treated cohorts (PMID32472114, GSE176307, and Riaz2017).@*RESULTS@#FARSB expression was significantly higher in 25 tumor tissues than in normal tissues and was associated with poor prognosis in almost all tumor types. FARSB expression exhibited a strong association with several DNA damage repair pathways and was significantly associated with TP53 mutation in lung adenocarcinoma (P < 0.0001, OR=2.25). FARSB characterized a typical immune desert TME and correlated with impaired expression of chemokines and chemokines receptors. Large-scale scRNA-seq analysis confirmed the immunosuppressive role of FARSB and revealed that FARSB potentially shapes the cold TME by impeding intercellular interactions. In 3 ICI-treated cohorts, FARSB demonstrated predictive value for immunotherapy.@*CONCLUSION@#This study provides a pan-cancer landscape of the FARSB gene by integrated single-cell and bulk DNA sequencing analysis and elucidates its biological function to promote DNA damage repair and construct the immune desert TME, suggesting the potential value of FARSB as a novel marker for stratifying patients with poor immunotherapeutic benefits and "cold" TME.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tumor Microenvironment , Prognosis , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Sequence Analysis, RNA
7.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 416-428, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982174

ABSTRACT

The mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (MET) exon 14 skipping mutation is mainly caused by the loss of c-Cbl tyrosine binding site. This mutation could result in a decrease in the degradation rate of proteasome-mediated MET proteins, trigger continuous activation of downstream pathways, and ultimately lead to tumorigenesis. The incidence of MET exon 14 skipping mutation in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is 0.9% to 4.0%. Patients with advanced NSCLC are recommended to test MET exon 14 skipping mutations who may benefit from MET inhibitors-targeted therapy. MET inhibitors have a high objective response rate and good safety profiles, which could prolong the survival of NSCLC patients with MET exon 14 skipping mutations. The Lung Cancer Specialty Committee of Chinese Elderly Health Care Association organized multidisciplinary experts to give suggestions on the important issues of clinical aspects for targeted therapy of MET exon 14 skipping mutation in NSCLC according to the clinical practice experiences and evidences based medicine. "Expert Consensus on Targeted Therapy of NSCLC with MET Exon 14 Skipping Mutation" is proposed, aiming to provide standardized guidances for the clinical practice of Chinese physicians.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Consensus , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met/genetics , Mutation , Exons , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
8.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 392-399, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982171

ABSTRACT

With the development of precision medicine for lung cancer, targeted therapy has greatly improved the survival and prognosis of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but the occurrence of acquired drug resistance ultimately leads to patients with no targeted drugs available and no standard treatment options for this group of patients afterwards. The emergence of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has revolutionized the treatment of advanced NSCLC. However, due to the unique features of NSCLC with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation, such as immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME), single ICIs treatment has limited clinical benefits in NSCLC patients with EGFR mutation, and the combination of ICIs with chemotherapy and/or targeted therapies is the trend. This review further discusses potential subpopulations with EGFR mutations that may benefit from ICIs treatment, and analyzes how decisions can be made in the era of combined immunotherapy to maximize the efficacy of ICIs treatment in EGFR mutation targeted therapy for NSCLC patients with drug resistance, with the aim of achieving individualized treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Tumor Microenvironment
9.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 291-302, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982159

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is the most common malignancy in the world and the leading cause of cancer death. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) refers to the NSCLC caused by mutation, amplification or overexpression of the HER2 gene, resulting in its dysfunction. HER2 is the most active receptor in the HER family and can combine with other members to form dimers, which can activate multiple signaling pathways and regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis. In NSCLC, HER2 positivity is usually considered a poor prognostic marker. At present, the diagnosis and treatment of HER2-positive NSCLC are not mature. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), next generation sequencing (NGS) and other technologies are often used to detect the positive status of HER2 mutation, amplification or overexpression. In previous studies, antitumor drugs did not show ideal therapeutic effects in HER2-positive NSCLC. However, in recent years, related researches have shown that antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) and new tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in targeted therapy show good antitumor activity against HER2 positive NSCLC. This article summarized the progress in diagnosis and treatment of HER2-positive NSCLC, so as to provide reference for subsequent researches.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Receptor, ErbB-2/genetics , Mutation , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
10.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 281-290, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982158

ABSTRACT

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase and its rearrangements occur in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), resulting in signal dysregulation in kinase domain. As a new generation of potent ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), Brigatinib was approved in China in March 2022 as a treatment for locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC patients with ALK rearrangement positive. Brigatinib significantly improved the survival, cranial efficacy and quality of life compared to Crizotinib in clinical trials. Brigatinib is generally well tolerated. Brigatinib has been one of the preferred treatments and an addition of options in ALK-rearranged NSCLC. Pulmonary toxicity is one of the adverse effects observed during the treatment of TKIs and deserves the intense attention of clinicians, despite of its low incidence rate. Pulmonary toxicity reported during the treatment of Brigatinib has shown distinct clinical presentations, such as early-onset (median time to onset, 2 days) and rapid tolerance and reversibility of symptoms. In view of this, the concept of early-onset pulmonary events (EOPEs) was proposed and established during the submission for regulatory review and approval. We focused on clinical characteristics, potential mechanism of etiology, and management strategies of EOPEs to provide clinicians evidence for better clinical decision support.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Quality of Life , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects
11.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 313-319, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981544

ABSTRACT

How to improve the performance of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) signal acquisition and the accuracy to authenticate ultra low-frequency mutation are major challenges of minimal residual disease (MRD) detection in solid tumors. In this study, we developed a new MRD bioinformatics algorithm, namely multi-variant joint confidence analysis (MinerVa), and tested this algorithm both in contrived ctDNA standards and plasma DNA samples of patients with early non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Our results showed that the specificity of multi-variant tracking of MinerVa algorithm ranged from 99.62% to 99.70%, and when tracking 30 variants, variant signals could be detected as low as 6.3 × 10 -5 variant abundance. Furthermore, in a cohort of 27 NSCLC patients, the specificity of ctDNA-MRD for recurrence monitoring was 100%, and the sensitivity was 78.6%. These findings indicate that the MinerVa algorithm can efficiently capture ctDNA signals in blood samples and exhibit high accuracy in MRD detection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasm, Residual/pathology , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Computational Biology
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3576-3588, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981489

ABSTRACT

Network pharmacology, molecular docking, and in vivo and in vitro experiments were employed to study the molecular mechanism of Blaps rynchopetera Fairmaire in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC). The components of B. rynchopetera were collected by literature review, and the active components were screened out through the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP). PharmMapper was used to obtain the targets of the active components. The targets of NSCLC were obtained from DrugBank, GeneCards, OMIM, TTD, and PharmGKB. The Venn diagram was drawn to identify the common targets shared by the active components of B. rynchopetera and NSCLC. The "drug component-target" network and protein-protein interaction(PPI) network were constructed by Cytoscape, and the key targets were screened by Centiscape. Gene Ontology(GO) annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) enrichment of the above key targets were performed by DAVID. AutoDock and PyMOL were used for the molecular docking between the key targets and corresponding active components. A total of 31 active components, 72 potential targets, and 11 key targets of B. rynchopetera against NSCLC were obtained. The active components of B. rynchopetera had good binding activity with key targets. Further, the serum containing B. rynchopetera was prepared and used to culture human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The CCK-8 assay was employed to determine the inhibition rates on the growth of A549 cells in blank control group and those exposed to different concentrations of B. rynchopetera-containing serum, cisplatin, and drug combination(B. rynchopetera-containing serum+cisplatin) for different time periods. The cell migration and invasion of A549 cells were detected by cell scratch assay and Transwell assay, respectively. Western blot was employed to determine the expression levels of B-cell lymphoma-2(Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X(Bax), caspase-3, cell division cycle 42(CDC42), proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase SRC, and vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) in A549 cells. C57BL/6 mice were inoculated with Lewis cells and randomly assigned into a model control group, a B. rynchopetera group, a cisplatin group, and a drug combination(B. rynchopetera+cisplatin) group, with 12 mice per group. The body weight and the long diameter(a) and short diameter(b) of the tumor were monitored every other day during treatment, and the tumor volume(mm~3) was calculated as 0.52ab~2. After 14 days of continuous medication, the mice were sacrificed for the collection of tumor, spleen, and thymus, and the tumor inhibition rate and immune organ indexes were calculated. The tissue morphology of tumors was observed by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining, and the positive expression of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, CDC42, SRC, and VEGF in the tumor tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that B. rynchopetera and the drug combination regulated the expression levels of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, CDC42, SRC, and VEGF to inhibit the proliferation, migration, and invasion of A549 cells and Lewis cells, thus playing a role in the treatment of NSCLC via multiple ways.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Caspase 3 , Network Pharmacology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Cisplatin , Molecular Docking Simulation , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Cell Proliferation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2000-2009, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981333

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is one of the common malignant tumors in the world, and its incidence and mortality is increasing year by year. Interactions between tumor cells and immune cells in the tumor microenvironment(TME) affect tumor proliferation, infiltration, and metastasis. Tumor-associated macrophages(TAMs) are prominent components of TME, and they have dual regulation effects on malignant progression of lung cancer. The number, activity, and function of M2 macrophages are related to the poor prognosis of lung cancer, and M2 macrophages participate in tumor angiogenesis and immune escape. It has been proved that traditional Chinese medicines(TCMs) and their active ingredients can enhance the antitumor effects, reduce the toxicity of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and prolong the survival rates of patients with cancer. This paper summarized the role of TAMs in the lung cancer initiation and progression, explored the molecular mechanism of TCM in regulating the recruitment, polarization phenotype, activity, and expression of related factors and proteins of TAMs, and discussed related signal pathways in the prevention and treatment of lung cancer based on the TCM theory of "reinforcing healthy qi and eliminating pathogen". This paper is expected to provide new ideas for the immunotherapy of targeted TAMs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tumor-Associated Macrophages/pathology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Macrophages , Immunotherapy , Tumor Microenvironment
14.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 18-42, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971635

ABSTRACT

With the improved understanding of driver mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), expanding the targeted therapeutic options improved the survival and safety. However, responses to these agents are commonly temporary and incomplete. Moreover, even patients with the same oncogenic driver gene can respond diversely to the same agent. Furthermore, the therapeutic role of immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in oncogene-driven NSCLC remains unclear. Therefore, this review aimed to classify the management of NSCLC with driver mutations based on the gene subtype, concomitant mutation, and dynamic alternation. Then, we provide an overview of the resistant mechanism of target therapy occurring in targeted alternations ("target-dependent resistance") and in the parallel and downstream pathways ("target-independent resistance"). Thirdly, we discuss the effectiveness of ICIs for NSCLC with driver mutations and the combined therapeutic approaches that might reverse the immunosuppressive tumor immune microenvironment. Finally, we listed the emerging treatment strategies for the new oncogenic alternations, and proposed the perspective of NSCLC with driver mutations. This review will guide clinicians to design tailored treatments for NSCLC with driver mutations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation , Tumor Microenvironment/genetics
15.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 123-136, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971616

ABSTRACT

NDFIP1 has been previously reported as a tumor suppressor in multiple solid tumors, but the function of NDFIP1 in NSCLC and the underlying mechanism are still unknown. Besides, the WW domain containing proteins can be recognized by NDFIP1, resulted in the loading of the target proteins into exosomes. However, whether WW domain-containing transcription regulator 1 (WWTR1, also known as TAZ) can be packaged into exosomes by NDFIP1 and if so, whether the release of this oncogenic protein via exosomes has an effect on tumor development has not been investigated to any extent. Here, we first found that NDFIP1 was low expressed in NSCLC samples and cell lines, which is associated with shorter OS. Then, we confirmed the interaction between TAZ and NDFIP1, and the existence of TAZ in exosomes, which requires NDFIP1. Critically, knockout of NDFIP1 led to TAZ accumulation with no change in its mRNA level and degradation rate. And the cellular TAZ level could be altered by exosome secretion. Furthermore, NDFIP1 inhibited proliferation in vitro and in vivo, and silencing TAZ eliminated the increase of proliferation caused by NDFIP1 knockout. Moreover, TAZ was negatively correlated with NDFIP1 in subcutaneous xenograft model and clinical samples, and the serum exosomal TAZ level was lower in NSCLC patients. In summary, our data uncover a new tumor suppressor, NDFIP1 in NSCLC, and a new exosome-related regulatory mechanism of TAZ.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/metabolism , Carrier Proteins/metabolism , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Exosomes/metabolism , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Transcriptional Coactivator with PDZ-Binding Motif Proteins/metabolism
16.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 242-250, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971521

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To screen the differentially expressed long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells with acquired resistance to osimertinib and explore their roles in drug resistance of the cells.@*METHODS@#The cell lines H1975_OR and HCC827_OR with acquired osimertinib resistance were derived from their osimertinib-sensitive parental NSCLC cell lines H1975 and HCC827, respectively, and their sensitivity to osimertinib was assessed with CCK-8 assay, clone formation assay and flow cytometry. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) were used to screen the differentially expressed lncRNAs in osimertinib-resistant cells. The role of the identified lncRNA in osimertinib resistance was explored using CCK-8, clone formation and Transwell assays, and its subcellular localization and downstream targets were analyzed by nucleoplasmic separation, bioinformatics analysis and qPCR.@*RESULTS@#The resistance index of H1975_OR and HCC827_OR cells to osimertinib was 598.70 and 428.82, respectively (P < 0.001), and the two cell lines showed significantly increased proliferation and colony-forming abilities with decreased apoptosis (P < 0.01). RNA-seq identified 34 differentially expressed lncRNAs in osimertinib-resistant cells, and among them lnc-TMEM132D-AS1 showed the highest increase of expression after acquired osimertinib resistance (P < 0.01). Analysis of the TCGA database suggested that the level of lnc-TMEM132D-AS1 was significantly higher in NSCLC than in adjacent tissues (P < 0.001), and its high expression was associated with a poor prognosis of the patients. In osimertinib-sensitive cells, overexpression of Lnc-TMEM132D-AS1 obviously promoted cell proliferation, colony formation and migration (P < 0.05), while Lnc-TMEM132D-AS1 knockdown partially restored osimertinib sensitivity of the resistant cells (P < 0.01). Lnc-TMEM132D-AS1 was localized mainly in the cytoplasm, and bioinformatics analysis suggested that hsa-miR-766-5p was its candidate target, and their expression levels were inversely correlated. The target mRNAs of hsa-miR-766-5p were mainly enriched in the Ras signaling pathway.@*CONCLUSION@#The expression of lnc-TMEM132D-AS1 is significantly upregulated in NSCLC cells with acquired osimertinib resistance, and may serve as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for osimertinibresistant NSCLC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/metabolism , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , Sincalide/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Cell Movement , MicroRNAs/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Membrane Proteins/metabolism
17.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 143-156, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971476

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to identify subtypes of genomic variants associated with the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) by conducting systematic literature search in electronic databases up to May 31, 2021. The main outcomes including overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), and durable clinical benefit (DCB) were correlated with tumor genomic features. A total of 1546 lung cancer patients with available genomic variation data were included from 14 studies. The Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog G12C (KRASG12C) mutation combined with tumor protein P53 (TP53) mutation revealed the promising efficacy of ICI therapy in these patients. Furthermore, patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) classical activating mutations (including EGFRL858R and EGFRΔ19) exhibited worse outcomes to ICIs in OS (adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 1.40; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01‍‒‍1.95; P=0.0411) and PFS (adjusted HR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.49‍‒‍2.63; P<0.0001), while classical activating mutations with EGFRT790M showed no difference compared to classical activating mutations without EGFRT790M in OS (adjusted HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.48‍‒‍1.94; P=0.9157) or PFS (adjusted HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.39‍‒‍1.35; P=0.3050). Of note, for patients harboring the Usher syndrome type-2A(USH2A) missense mutation, correspondingly better outcomes were observed in OS (adjusted HR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.32‍‒‍0.82; P=0.0077), PFS (adjusted HR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.38‍‒‍0.69; P<0.0001), DCB (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 4.74; 95% CI, 2.75‍‒‍8.17; P<0.0001), and ORR (adjusted OR, 3.45; 95% CI, 1.88‍‒‍6.33; P<0.0001). Our findings indicated that, USH2A missense mutations and the KRASG12Cmutation combined with TP53 mutation were associated with better efficacy and survival outcomes, but EGFR classical mutations irrespective of combination with EGFRT790M showed the opposite role in the ICI therapy among lung cancer patients. Our findings might guide the selection of precise targets for effective immunotherapy in the clinic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Extracellular Matrix Proteins/genetics , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)/genetics , Treatment Outcome
18.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1937-1948, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980973

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Lung cancer prevails and induces high mortality around the world. This study provided real-world information on the evolution of clinicopathological profiles and survival outcomes of lung cancer, and provided survival information within stage I subtypes.@*METHODS@#Patients pathologically confirmed with lung cancer between January 2009 and December 2018 were identified with complete clinicopathological information, molecular testing results, and follow-up data. Shifts in clinical characteristics were evaluated using χ2 tests. Overall survival (OS) was calculated through the Kaplan-Meier method.@*RESULTS@#A total of 26,226 eligible lung cancer patients were included, among whom 62.55% were male and 52.89% were smokers. Non-smokers and elderly patients took increasingly larger proportions in the whole patient population. The proportion of adenocarcinoma increased from 51.63% to 71.80%, while that of squamous carcinoma decreased from 28.43% to 17.60%. Gene mutations including EGFR (52.14%), KRAS (12.14%), and ALK (8.12%) were observed. Female, younger, non-smoking, adenocarcinoma patients and those with mutated EGFR had better survival prognoses. Importantly, this study validated that early detection of early-stage lung cancer patients had contributed to pronounced survival benefits during the decade. Patients with stage I lung cancer, accounted for an increasingly considerable proportion, increasing from 15.28% to 40.25%, coinciding with the surgery rate increasing from 38.14% to 54.25%. Overall, period survival analyses found that 42.69% of patients survived 5 years, and stage I patients had a 5-year OS of 84.20%. Compared with that in 2009-2013, the prognosis of stage I patients in 2014-2018 was dramatically better, with 5-year OS increasing from 73.26% to 87.68%. Regarding the specific survival benefits among stage I patients, the 5-year survival rates were 95.28%, 93.25%, 82.08%, and 74.50% for stage IA1, IA2, IA3, and IB, respectively, far more promising than previous reports.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Crucial clinical and pathological changes have been observed in the past decade. Notably, the increased incidence of stage I lung cancer coincided with an improved prognosis, indicating actual benefits of early detection and management of lung cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Prognosis , Survival Rate , Mutation , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Neoplasm Staging , Retrospective Studies
19.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1422-1429, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980945

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are increasingly used as first-line therapy for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring no actionable mutations; however, data on their efficacy among patients presenting with intracranial lesions are limited. This study aimed to explore the efficacy and safety of ICIs combined with chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC patients with measurable brain metastasis at initial diagnosis.@*METHODS@#Our study retrospectively analyzed clinical data of a total of 211 patients diagnosed with driver gene mutation-negative advanced NSCLC with measurable, asymptomatic brain metastasis at baseline from Hunan Cancer Hospital between January 1, 2019 and September 30, 2021. The patients were stratified into two groups according to the first-line treatment regimen received: ICI combined with chemotherapy ( n = 102) or chemotherapy ( n = 109). Systemic and intracranial objective response rates (ORRs) and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed. Adverse events were also compared between the groups.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the chemotherapy-based regimen, the ICI-containing regimen was associated with a significantly higher intracranial (44.1% [45/102] vs . 28.4% [31/109], χ2 = 5.620, P = 0.013) and systemic (49.0% [50/102] vs . 33.9% [37/109], χ2 = 4.942, P = 0.019) ORRs and longer intracranial (11.0 months vs . 7.0 months, P <0.001) and systemic (9.0 months vs . 5.0 months, P <0.001) PFS. Multivariable analysis consistently revealed an independent association between receiving ICI plus platinum-based chemotherapy as a first-line regimen and prolonged intracranial PFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.37-0.73, P <0.001) and systemic PFS (HR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.35-0.66, P <0.001). No unexpected serious adverse effects were observed.@*CONCLUSION@#Our study provides real-world clinical evidence that ICI combined with chemotherapy is a promising first-line treatment option for driver gene mutation-negative advanced NSCLC patients who present with brain metastasis at initial diagnosis.@*CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION@#https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ , OMESIA, NCT05129202.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Brain Neoplasms/genetics
20.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 279-290, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980722

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is the malignant tumor with the highest incidence and mortality rate in China, among which non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for about 85%. BRAF mutation occurs about 1.5% to 5.5% in NSCLC patients, while BRAF V600 accounts for about 30% to 50% of all BRAF mutations. The overall prognosis of patients with BRAF-mutation is poor. At present, there are many clinical trials on BRAF-mutation NSCLC and new drugs constantly emerging. However, there is no standardized consensus on the diagnosis and treatment of BRAF-mutation NSCLC in China. The expert group of the Lung Cancer Professional Committee of the Chinese Anti-Cancer Association formulated this consensus by integrating foreign and domestic BRAF-mutation-related guidelines, consensus, and existing clinical trials, and combining with Chinese experts' clinical experience in the diagnosis and treatment of BRAF-mutation NSCLC. This consensus provides systematic recommendations for the clinical diagnosis and treatment process, rational drug choice, and adverse events management of BRAF-mutation NSCLC, aiming to provide reference for the standard of diagnosis and treatment of BRAF-mutation NSCLC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , Consensus , Mutation
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