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1.
Medisan ; 25(5)2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1346542

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En los pacientes con cáncer de pulmón resulta vital el tratamiento quirúrgico, pues posibilita una estadificación patológica minuciosa, así como un pronóstico y tratamiento acordes con la carga tumoral de cada paciente. Objetivo: Determinar la influencia del tipo de linfadenectomía mediastinal en la supervivencia de pacientes operados por cáncer pulmonar de células no pequeñas. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y longitudinal en el Servicio de Cirugía General del Hospital Provincial Clínico-Quirúrgico Docente Saturnino Lora de Santiago de Cuba, durante un período de 10 años (de 2009 a 2019), en 55 pacientes seleccionados aleatoriamente, quienes recibieron algún tipo de linfadenectomía del mediastino además de resección pulmonar. En el procesamiento estadístico, se utilizaron el número absoluto, el porcentaje y la media como medidas de resumen; también la prueba de independencia de la Χ2, para identificar la posible asociación entre variables, y el método de Kaplan-Meier, para precisar la supervivencia. Resultados: La técnica de linfadenectomía mediastínica más utilizada fue el muestreo ganglionar (47,3 %), con la cual también se obtuvo un mayor porcentaje (84,6) de resultados negativos en cuanto a invasión neoplásica, a diferencia de lo observado con la disección ganglionar sistemática, que reveló positividad de infiltración tumoral en un elevado número de pacientes (52,9 %). Asimismo, los pacientes operados mediante disección ganglionar sistemática mostraron mejor supervivencia a los 6 meses (100 %) y al año (87,5 %); a los 5 años las cifras de supervivencia con esta técnica fueron superiores a las obtenidas con todos los tipos de escisiones ganglionares practicadas. Conclusiones: Existió mayor probabilidad del diagnóstico de invasión linfática del mediastino y una mejor supervivencia en los pacientes tratados con disección ganglionar sistemática. Por ello, se recomienda protocolizar dicho tratamiento quirúrgico, lo cual pudiera estar avalado por un ensayo clínico que permita comparar grupos homogéneos que reciban cada tipo de linfadenectomía, respectivamente, a fin de recoger una evidencia científica relevante y concluyente.


Introduction: In the patients with lung cancer it is vital the surgical treatment, because it facilitates a meticulous pathological staging, as well as a prognosis and treatment according to each patient tumoral charge. Objective: To determine the influence of the mediastinal limphadenectomy type in the survival of patients operated due to non-small cells lung cancer. Methods: A descriptive and longitudinal study was carried out in the General Surgery Service of Saturnino Lora Teaching Clinical-Surgical Provincial Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, during 10 years (from 2009 to 2019), in 55 patients selected at random who received some type of mediastinum lymphadenectomy besides lung resection. In the statistical processing, the absolute number, percentage and the mean were used, as summary measures; also the chi-squared test to identify the possible association among variables, and the Kaplan-Meier method, to specify survival. Results: The most used medistinic lymphadenectomy technique was the ganglionar sampling (47.3 %), with which a higher percentage of negative results was also obtained (84.6) as regards neoplastic invasion, contrary to that is observed with the systematic ganglionar dissection that revealed metastasis positivity in a high number of the patients that received it (52.9 %). Likewise, patients operated by means of systematic ganglionar dissection showed a better survival 6 months later (100 %) and a year later (87.5 %); after 5 years the survival number with this technique was superior to all the types of ganglionar excisions practiced. Conclusions: There was a higher probability of the mediastinic lymphatic infiltration diagnosis and better survival in the patients treated with systematic ganglionar dissection. Reason why, it is recommended to protocolize this surgical treatment, which could be endorsed by a clinical trial that allows to compare homogeneous groups that receive each type of lymphadenectomy, respectively, in order to obtain an outstanding and conclusive scientific evidence.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Neoplasm Staging , Survivorship , Lymph Node Excision
2.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(3): 484-494, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154488

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Prostate cancer is the most common invasive cancer in men. Radical prostatectomy (RP) is a definitive treatment option, but biochemical recurrence can reach 40%. Salvage lymphadenectomy is a relatively recent approach to oligometasis and has been rapidly diffused primarily due to improvement in imaging diagnosis and results showing possibly promising therapy. A systematic literature review was performed in March 2020, according to the PRISMA statement. We excluded studies with patients with suspicion or confirmation of visceral and / or bone metastases. A total of 27 articles were included in the study. All studies evaluated were single arm, and there were no randomized studies in the literature. A total of 1,714 patients received salvage lymphadenectomy after previous treatment for localized prostate cancer. RP was the most used initial therapeutic approach, and relapses were based on PET / CT diagnosis, with Coline-11C being the most widely used radiopharmaceutical. Biochemical response rates ranged from 0% to 80%. The 5 years - Free Survival Biochemical recurrence was analyzed in 16 studies with rates of 0% up to 56.1%. The articles do not present high levels of evidence to draw strong conclusions. However, even if significant rates of biochemical recurrence are not evident in all studies, therapy directed to lymph node metastases may present good oncological results and postpone the onset of systemic therapy. The long-term impact in overall survival and quality of life, as well as the best strategies for case selection remains to be determined.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Quality of Life , Prostatectomy , Salvage Therapy , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery
3.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(2): e501, Apr.-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1251503

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Neuropathic pain is present in up to 40 % of all cancer patients. A considerable number of patients fail to achieve enough pain relief with conventional treatment, which is why therapeutic alternatives such as spinal cord stimulation should be considered. Case description and results This is the case of a female patient with chronic neuropathic pain secondary to a partial femoral nerve injury sustained during resection and lymph node dissection surgery with curative intent for a large stage II cell squamous cell carcinoma T2N0M0, localized in the right popliteal fossa. The patient presented with difficult to manage chronic neuropathic pain, despite receiving multiple oral analgesics and nerve blocks. A medullary neurostimulator was implanted that relieved the patient's pain intensity in up to 80%, in addition to improved function and quality of life. Conclusions Spinal cord stimulation is considered an effective neuromodulatory intervention which has shown satisfactory results in the treatment of various types of refractory chronic pain in cancer patients, including neuropathic pain.


Resumen Introducción El dolor neuropático está presente hasta en el 40 % de los pacientes con cáncer. Un número considerable de pacientes no logran un alivio suficiente del dolor con el tratamiento convencional, por lo cual deben considerarse alternativas terapéuticas como la estimulación de la médula espinal. Descripción del caso y resultados Caso de una paciente con dolor neuropático crónico secundario a lesión parcial de nervio femoral durante cirugía de resección y vaciamiento ganglionar con objetivos curativos de carcinoma escamocelular de célula grande T2N0M0 estadio II, localizado en la fosa poplítea derecha, quien cursó con dolor neuropático crónico de difícil manejo a pesar de recibir múltiples analgésicos orales y bloqueos nerviosos. Se implantó un neuroestimulador medular con lo cual se logró un alivio hasta del 80 % en intensidad de dolor de la paciente, además de una mejoría de su funcionalidad y calidad de vida. Conclusiones La estimulación de la médula espinal se considera una intervención neuromoduladora eficaz, que ha demostrado resultados satisfactorios para tratar diversas formas de dolor crónico refractario en los pacientes con cáncer, incluido el dolor neuropático.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Chronic Pain , Pain Management , Spinal Cord Stimulation , Lymph Node Excision , Neoplasms , Quality of Life , Therapeutics , Cells , Femoral Nerve , Analgesics , Nerve Block , Neuralgia
4.
Oncol. (Guayaquil) ; 31(1): 66-73, Abril 30, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1222460

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El cáncer de mama afecta cada vez más a las mujeres a nivel mundial. Los tipos de tratamiento quirúrgico y quimioterápico han evolucionado, consecuentemente es necesaria la correc-ta evaluación del tumor primario y los ganglios linfáticos implicados por ser un importante factor pronóstico y tratamiento. La técnica de ganglio centinela evalúa al primer ganglio en recibir el drenaje linfático del tumor. Métodos: el objetivo fue determinar el impacto en pacientes con cáncer de mama en un estudio cuantitativo, observacional no experimental, correlacional de recolección retrospectiva, de tipo cohorte histórico. Se recuperó 153 pacientes en dos grupos de estudio, los que se sometieron a la técnica de ganglio centinela y los que se realizaron linfadenectomía axilar. Resultados: el tipo histológico de cáncer de mama más frecuente fue el ductal infiltrante de grado histológico 2, un 76.4% y 73.6% de pacientes tuvieron receptores de estrógeno y progesterona positivo respectivamente mientras el receptor 2 de factor de crecimiento epidérmico humano fue positivo en 16.9%. La mediana del número de ganglios metastásicos fue semejante en los dos grupos, no así el número de ganglios libres 3 vs. 14 respectivamente (P < 0.001). En el estudio se evidenció morbilidad en 23.1% de pacientes que se biopsiaron el Ganglio Centinela, en contraste con 45.5% de en quienes no se efectuó dicho procedimiento (P = 0.025), la morbilidad más frecuentemente asociada fue el edema de la extremidad (27%). Conclusiones: se demostró que la linfadenectomía expone tres veces a desarrollar morbilidades en comparación con la técnica de ganglio centinela.


Introduction: Breast cancer affects more and more women worldwide. The types of surgical and chemotherapeutic treatment have evolved, consequently the correct evaluation of the primary tumor and the involved lymph nodes is necessary because it is an important prognostic factor and treatment. The sentinel lymph node technique evaluates the first node in receiving the lymphatic drainage of the tumor. Methods: the objective was to determine its impact in patients with breast cancer in a quantitative, observational, non-experimental, correlational, retrospective, historical cohort study. We recovered 153 patients in two study groups, those who underwent the sentinel lymph node technique and those who underwent axillary lymphadenectomy. Results: the most frequent histological type of breast cancer was the infiltrative ductal of histologi-cal grade 2, 76.4% and 73.6% of patients had positive estrogen and progesterone receptors respec-tively while the receptor 2 of human epidermal growth factor was positive in 16.9 %. The median number of metastatic lymph nodes was similar in the two groups, but not the number of free nodes 3. 14 respectively (P <0.001). In the study, morbidity was evidenced in 23.1% of patients who were sentinel lymph node biopsies, in contrast to 45.5% of those who did not undergo the procedure (P= 0.025), the most frequently associated morbidity was the edema of the extremity (27%). Conclusions: lymphadenectomy was shown three times to develop morbidities compared to the sentinel lymph node technique.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Morbidity , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy , Sentinel Lymph Node , Lymph Node Excision
5.
Rev. argent. mastología ; 40(145): 65-80, mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1291291

ABSTRACT

El estado axilar es un factor pronóstico para los estadios tempranos de cáncer de mama. Existen factores que podrían predecir riesgo de mayor enfermedad axilar. El objetivo es determinar cuáles son los factores predictivos independientes de alta carga residual ganglionar axilar (4 o más GNC comprometidos) luego de la BGC positiva. Estudio analítico, observacional, cohorte retrospectiva de pacientes con tumores T1-2, axila clínicamente negativa, a las que se les realizó cirugía conservadora (CC) y BGC con resultado positivo (marco o micrometástasis) y se les realizó posterior linfadenectomía axilar (LA). Del total de 325 pacientes, 96 tuvieron resultado positivo para metástasis en el ganglio centinela (29,5%) y también se les realizó LA. Se dividió a la población seleccionada en dos grupos según el compromiso de los GNC: baja carga axilar 0-3 GNC positivos, y alta carga axilar 4 o más GNC positivos. Se observaron como factores que demostraron mayor riesgo para alta carga axilar ganglionar residual al grado histológico, ki-67 y la invasión extracapsular en el GC; pero solamente la invasión extracapsular en el GC demostró ser significativa en el análisis multivariado. Probablemente con un mayor número de pacientes otras variables pudieran haber resultado factores de riesgo independiente


Axillary status is a prognostic factor for early stages of breast cáncer. There are predictive factors that might indicate the risk of greater axilary disease. The aim is to determine which are the independent predictive factor sor a high residual axillary nodal burden (four or more non-sentinel lymph nodes involved) after a positive sentinel node biopsy. Retrospective cohort analytic observational study of patients with T1-2 tumors, negative axilla, who underwent breast conserving surgery and sentinel node biopsy with a positive result (macro ­ or micro-metastasis) and later underwent lymph node dissection. Out of the total 325 patients, 96 got a positive result for metástasis in the sentinel lymph node (29.5%) and also underwent lymph node dissection. The selected population was divided into two groups according to the involvement of NSLNs: low axillary burden: 0-3 NSLNs, and high axillary burden: 4 or more positive NSLNs. Among the factors found to have a higher risk of high residual axillary nodal burden were the histologic grade, Ki-67 and the extracapsular invasión of the SLN, but only the extracapsular invasión of the SLN was found to be significant in the multivariate analysis. It is likely that with a higher number of patients, other variables might have been independent risk factors


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Sentinel Lymph Node , Axilla , Biopsy , Breast Neoplasms , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes
6.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(1): 93-99, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248989

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: As age advances, a higher burden of comorbidities and less functional reserve are expected, however, the impact of aging in the surgical outcomes of gastric cancer (GC) patients is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate surgical outcomes of GC patients according to their age group. METHODS: Patients submitted to gastrectomy with curative intent due to gastric adenocarcinoma were divided in quartiles. Each group had 150 patients and age limits were: ≤54.8, 54.9-63.7, 63.8-72, >72. The outcomes assessed were: postoperative complications (POC), 90-day postoperative mortality, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Major surgical complications were 2.7% in the younger quartile vs 12% for the others (P=0.007). Major clinical complications raised according to the age quartile: 0.7% vs 4.7% vs 5.3% vs 7.3% (P<0.042). ASA score and age were independent risk factors for major POC. The 90-day mortality progressively increased according to the age quartile: 1.3% vs 6.0% vs 7.3% vs 14% (P<0.001). DFS was equivalent among quartile groups, while OS was significantly worse for those >72-year-old. D2 lymphadenectomy only improved OS in the three younger quartiles. Age >72 was an independent risk factor for worse OS (hazard ratio of 1.72). CONCLUSION: Patients <55-year-old have less surgical complications. As age progresses, clinical complications and 90-day mortality gradually rise. OS is worse for those above age 72, and D2 lymphadenectomy should be individualized after this age.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Conforme a idade avança, se esperam mais morbidades e menor reserva funcional. Entretanto não está claro qual o impacto do envelhecimento nos resultados cirúrgicos do câncer gástrico (CaG). OBJETIVO: O intuito deste estudo é avaliar os resultados cirúrgicos de pacientes com CaG de acordo com o grupo etário. MÉTODOS: Pacientes submetidos a gastrectomia por adenocarcinoma gástrico com intuito curativo foram divididos em quartis. Cada grupo incluiu 150 indivíduos e os limites etários foram: ≤54,8; 54,9-63,7; 63,8-72; >72. Os resultados avaliados foram: complicações pós-operatórias (CPO), mortalidade em 90 dias, sobrevida livre de doença (SLD) e sobrevida global (SG). RESULTADOS: Complicações cirúrgicas maiores ocorreram em 2,7% dos pacientes no quartil mais jovem vs 12% para os demais (P=0,007). A incidência de complicações clínicas maiores aumentou conforme o quartil: 0,7% vs 4,7% vs 5,3% vs 7,3% (P<0,042). A pontuação ASA e a idade foram fatores de risco independentes para CPO maiores. A mortalidade em 90 dias aumentou progressivamente conforme o quartil etário: 1,3% vs 6,0% vs 7,3% vs 14% (P<0,001). A SLD foi equivalente entre os quartis, enquanto a SG foi significativamente pior para os >72 anos de idade. Linfadenectomia D2 aumentou a SG apenas para os 3 quartis mais jovens. Idade > 72 foi fator independente de risco para pior SG (razão de chances de 1,72) CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes < 55 anos tem menos complicações cirúrgicas. Conforme a idade avança, as complicações clínicas e a mortalidade em 90 dias aumenta gradualmente. A SG é pior se >72 anos e a indicação de linfadenectomia D2 deve ser individualizada a partir dessa idade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery , Adenocarcinoma/surgery , Postoperative Complications , Survival Rate , Retrospective Studies , Gastrectomy/adverse effects , Lymph Node Excision , Middle Aged
7.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 36(2): 268-274, 20210000. fig, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223966

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El arco de Langer es una entidad infrecuente, cuya prevalencia depende de la técnica quirúrgica utilizada y usualmente no se asocia con síntomas de compresión vascular o neuronal. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir las características clínicas y morfológicas, y la proporción de síntomas de compresión neurovascular del arco de Langer, en mujeres con cáncer de mama llevadas a cirugía axilar. Métodos. Estudio descriptivo del arco de Langer en mujeres con cáncer de mama, llevadas a cirugía axilar en el registro personal de un cirujano, en Medellín, Colombia, entre el 1 enero de 2017 y el 15 agosto de 2020. Se evaluaron características clínicas, morfológicas y síntomas de compresión neurovascular. Las variables categóricas se agruparon según su frecuencia como porcentajes, y para las variables continuas se calculó la mediana y su rango intercuartílico. Resultados. Entre el 1 enero de 2017 y el 15 agosto de 2020 se realizaron 725 cirugías axilares, 479 biopsias de ganglio centinela y 246 linfadenectomías, encontrando 17 casos de arco de Langer, para una frecuencia de 2,3 %. Fue más frecuente encontrarlo en el curso de una linfadenectomía (n=11, 64,7 %). En 15 (88,2 %) casos se presentó riesgo de ocultamiento ganglionar y en 14 (82,3 %) generó dificultad quirúrgica. No hubo casos con síntomas de compresión vascular o neuronal. En ningún caso se realizó el diagnostico imagenológico prequirúrgico. La conducta quirúrgica predominante fue sección, en 88,2 %, sin presentar complicaciones quirúrgicas asociadas. Discusión. Es importante para el cirujano el conocimiento del arco axilar como una variante anatómica de la axila, que puede ocultar los ganglios o dificultar la disección axilar, por lo que la conducta más usada es la sección


Introduction. Langer's arch is an infrequent entity, the prevalence of which depends on the surgical technique used and is usually not associated with symptoms of vascular or neuronal compression. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical and morphological characteristics, and the proportion of symptoms of neurovascular compression of Langer's arch, in women with breast cancer who underwent axillary surgery.Methods. Descriptive study of Langer's arch in women with breast cancer, who underwent axillary surgery in the personal registry of a surgeon, in Medellín, Colombia, between January 1, 2017 and August 15, 2020. Clinical, morphological and clinical characteristics were evaluated for symptoms of neurovascular compression. Categorical variables were grouped according to their frequency as percentages, and the median and interquartile range were calculated for continuous variables.Results. Between January 1, 2017 and August 15, 2020, 725 axillary surgeries, 479 sentinel node biopsies, and 246 lymphadenectomies were performed, finding 17 cases of Langer's arch, for a frequency of 2.3%. It was more frequently found in the course of lymphadenectomy (n= 11; 64.7%). In 15 (88.2%) cases there was a risk of lymph node concealment and in 14 (82.3%) it generated surgical difficulty. There were no cases with symptoms of vas-cular or neuronal compression. In no case was the pre-surgical imaging diagnosis made. The predominant surgical approach was section, in 88.2%, without presenting associated surgical complications.Discussion. Knowledge of the axillary arch as an anatomical variant of the axilla is important for the surgeon, which can hide the lymph nodes or make axillary dissection difficult, so the most commonly used approach is to cut it


Subject(s)
Humans , Axilla , Breast Neoplasms , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy , Lymph Node Excision
8.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 34(1): e1562, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248501

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Nearly 10% of node negative gastric cancer patients who underwent curative surgery have disease recurrence. Western data is extremely poor on this matter and identifying the risk factors that associate with relapse may allow new strategies to improve survival. Aim: Verify the clinical and pathological characteristics that correlate with recurrence in node negative gastric cancer. Methods: All gastric cancer patients submitted to gastrectomy between 2009 and 2019 at our institution and pathologically classified as N0 were considered. Their data were available in a prospective database. Inclusion criteria were: gastric adenocarcinoma, node negative, gastrectomy with curative intent, R0 resection. Main outcomes studied were: disease-free survival and overall survival. Results: A total of 270 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Mean age was 63-year-old and 155 were males. Subtotal gastrectomy and D2 lymphadenectomy were performed in 64% and 74.4%, respectively. Mean lymph node yield was 37.6. Early GC was present in 54.1% of the cases. Mean follow-up was 40.8 months and 19 (7%) patients relapsed. Disease-free survival and overall survival were 90.9% and 74.6%, respectively. Independent risk factors for worse disease-free survival were: total gastrectomy, lesion size ≥3.4 cm, higher pT status and <16 lymph nodes resected. Conclusion: In western gastric cancer pN0 patients submitted to gastrectomy, lymph node count <16, pT3-4 status, tumor size ≥3.4 cm, total gastrectomy and presence of lymphatic invasion, are all risk factors for disease relapse.


RESUMO Racional: Aproximadamente 10% dos pacientes com câncer gástrico submetidos a operação curativa e sem linfonodos acometidos irão apresentam recorrência da doença. Os dados ocidentais são extremamente pobres sobre este assunto e a identificação dos fatores de risco associados à recidiva podem permitir novas estratégias para melhorar a sobrevida. Objetivo: Identificar as características clínicas e patológicas que se correlacionam com recidiva em pacientes com câncer gástrico pN0. Métodos: Foram considerados todos os pacientes com câncer gástrico submetidos à gastrectomia entre 2009 e 2019 em nossa instituição e que na classificação patológica não apresentaram acometimento linfonodal. Os critérios de inclusão foram: adenocarcinoma gástrico, pN0, gastrectomia com intenção curativa, ressecção R0. Os principais desfechos estudados foram: sobrevida livre de doença e sobrevida global. Resultados: Ao todo 270 pacientes preencheram os critérios de inclusão. A idade média foi de 63 anos e 155 eram homens. A gastrectomia subtotal e a linfadenectomia D2 foram realizadas em 64% e 74,4%, respectivamente. A média de linfonodos ressecados foi de 37,6. Câncer gástrico precoce estava presente em 54,1% dos casos. O seguimento médio foi de 40,8 meses e 19 (7%) apresentaram recidiva. A sobrevida livre de doença e sobrevida global foram de 90,9% e 74,6%, respectivamente. Os fatores de risco independentes para pior sobrevida livre de doença foram: gastrectomia total, lesão ≥3,4 cm, status pT avançado e <16 linfonodos ressecados. Conclusão: Os fatores de risco para recidiva no grupo estudado foram: <16 linfonodos ressecados, status pT3-4, tumor ≥3,4 cm, gastrectomia total e presença de invasão linfática.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Gastrectomy , Lymph Node Excision , Lymphatic Metastasis , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/epidemiology , Neoplasm Staging
9.
Barchi, Leandro Cardoso; Ramos, Marcus Fernando Kodama Pertille; Dias, André Roncon; Forones, Nora Manoukian; Carvalho, Marineide Prudêncio de; Castro, Osvaldo Antonio Prado; Kassab, Paulo; Costa-Júnior, Wilson Luiz da; Weston, Antônio Carlos; Zilbertein, Bruno; Ferraz, Álvaro Antônio Bandeira; ZeideCharruf, Amir; Brandalise, André; Silva, André Maciel da; Alves, Barlon; Marins, Carlos Augusto Martinez; Malheiros, Carlos Alberto; Leite, Celso Vieira; Bresciani, Claudio José Caldas; Szor, Daniel; Mucerino, Donato Roberto; Wohnrath, Durval R; JirjossIlias, Elias; Martins Filho, Euclides Dias; PinatelLopasso, Fabio; Coimbra, Felipe José Fernandez; Felippe, Fernando E Cruz; Tomasisch, Flávio Daniel Saavedra; Takeda, Flavio Roberto; Ishak, Geraldo; Laporte, Gustavo Andreazza; Silva, Herbeth José Toledo; Cecconello, Ivan; Rodrigues, Joaquim José Gama; Grande, José Carlos Del; Lourenço, Laércio Gomes; Motta, Leonardo Milhomem da; Ferraz, Leonardo Rocha; Moreira, Luis Fernando; Lopes, Luis Roberto; Toneto, Marcelo Garcia; Mester, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Marco Antônio Gonçalves; Franciss, Maurice Youssef; AdamiAndreollo, Nelson; Corletta, Oly Campos; Yagi, Osmar Kenji; Malafaia, Osvaldo; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; Savassi-Rocha, Paulo Roberto; Colleoni Neto, Ramiro; Oliveira, Rodrigo Jose de; AissarSallun, Rubens Antonio; Weschenfelder, Rui; Oliveira, Saint Clair Vieira de; Abreu, Thiago Boechat de; Castria, Tiago Biachi de; Ribeiro Junior, Ulysses; Barra, Williams; Freitas Júnior, Wilson Rodrigues de.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 34(1): e1563, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248513

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background : The II Brazilian Consensus on Gastric Cancer of the Brazilian Gastric Cancer Association BGCA (Part 1) was recently published. On this occasion, countless specialists working in the treatment of this disease expressed their opinion in the face of the statements presented. Aim : To present the BGCA Guidelines (Part 2) regarding indications for surgical treatment, operative techniques, extension of resection and multimodal treatment. Methods: To formulate these guidelines, the authors carried out an extensive and current review regarding each declaration present in the II Consensus, using the Medline/PubMed, Cochrane Library and SciELO databases initially with the following descriptors: gastric cancer, gastrectomy, lymphadenectomy, multimodal treatment. In addition, each statement was classified according to the level of evidence and degree of recommendation. Results : Of the 43 statements present in this study, 11 (25,6%) were classified with level of evidence A, 20 (46,5%) B and 12 (27,9%) C. Regarding the degree of recommendation, 18 (41,9%) statements obtained grade of recommendation 1, 14 (32,6%) 2a, 10 (23,3%) 2b e one (2,3%) 3. Conclusion : The guidelines complement of the guidelines presented here allows surgeons and oncologists who work to combat gastric cancer to offer the best possible treatment, according to the local conditions available.


RESUMO Racional: O II Consenso Brasileiro de Câncer Gástrico da Associação Brasileira de Câncer Gástrico ABCG (Parte 1) foi recentemente publicado. Nesta ocasião inúmeros especialistas que atuam no tratamento desta doença expressaram suas opiniões diante declarações apresentadas. Objetivo: Apresentar as Diretrizes da ABCG (Parte 2) quanto às indicações de tratamento cirúrgico, técnicas operatórias, extensão de ressecção e terapia combinada. Métodos: Para formulação destas diretrizes os autores realizaram extensa e atual revisão referente a cada declaração presente no II Consenso, utilizando as bases Medline/PubMed, Cochrane Library e SciELO, inicialmente com os seguintes descritores: câncer gástrico, gastrectomia, linfadenectomia, terapia combinada. Ainda, cada declaração foi classificada de acordo com o nível de evidência e grau de recomendação. Resultados: Das 43 declarações presentes neste estudo, 11 (25,6%) foram classificadas com nível de evidência A, 20 (46,5%) B e 12 (27,9%) C. Quanto ao grau de recomendação, 18 (41,9%) declarações obtiveram grau de recomendação 1, 14 (32,6%) 2a, 10 (23,3%) 2b e um (2,3%) 3. Conclusão: O complemento das diretrizes aqui presentes possibilita que cirurgiões e oncologistas que atuam no combate ao câncer gástrico possam oferecer o melhor tratamento possível, de acordo com as condições locais disponíveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery , Brazil , Consensus , Gastrectomy , Lymph Node Excision
10.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 59(4): e996, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1149844

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La evaluación del mediastino en los pacientes que reciben tratamiento quirúrgico por cáncer del pulmón tiene sus orígenes en la necesidad de definir la extensión anatómica de cada estación nodal, lo cual es indispensable para la categorización patológica de los nódulos linfáticos. Objetivo: Evaluar la utilidad de la linfadenectomía mediastinal en el tratamiento quirúrgico del cáncer pulmonar. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio analítico de carácter prospectivo en el período comprendido entre enero de 2015 al 31 de agosto de 2018. El universo estuvo conformado por 96 pacientes con algún tipo de linfadenectomía mediastinal en el tratamiento quirúrgico del cáncer pulmonar dentro del período señalado. Se utilizaron métodos estadísticos, teóricos y empíricos. Resultados: La edad promedio fue 58,69 ± 9,343, el sexo masculino fue el más afectado y el adenocarcinoma el tipo histológico que predominó. La etapa clínica y patológica mayoritaria fue la III A y la lobectomía superior derecha la intervención más realizada. Se efectuaron un total de 76 disecciones ganglionares sistemáticas, seguidas por 18 muestreos ganglionares y 2 biopsias. Las linfadenectomías realizadas provocaron cambios de estadios en 46 pacientes. El análisis del valor predictivo positivo y negativo, así como de la sensibilidad y la especificidad fueron altos, así como las complicaciones escasas. Conclusiones: La linfadenectomía mediastinal como parte del tratamiento quirúrgico en el cáncer pulmonar constituye un pilar fundamental en la estadificación patológica del TNM, al mostrar una exactitud diagnóstica alta(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Evaluation of the mediastinum in patients receiving surgical treatment for lung cancer has its origins in the need to define the anatomical extension of each node station, which is essential for the pathological categorization of lymph nodes. Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of mediastinal lymphadenectomy in the surgical treatment of lung cancer. Methods: A prospective and analytical study was carried out in the period from January 2015 to August 31, 2018. The universe consisted of 96 patients with some type of mediastinal lymphadenectomy in the surgical treatment of lung cancer within the indicated period. Statistical, theoretical and empirical methods were used. Results: The average age was 58.69 ± 9.343. The male sex was the most affected. Adenocarcinoma was the histological type that predominated. The most manifested clinical and pathological stage was III A. Right upper lobectomy was the most performed intervention. A total of 76 systematic lymph node dissections were performed, followed by 18 lymph node samples and two biopsies. The lymphadenectomies performed caused stage changes in 46 patients. The analysis of positive and negative predictive value, as well as sensitivity and specificity, were high. There were few complications. Conclusions: Mediastinal lymphadenectomy as part of the surgical treatment in lung cancer constitutes a fundamental procedure for the pathological staging of TNM, as it shows high diagnostic accuracy(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adenocarcinoma/etiology , Predictive Value of Tests , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Lymph Node Excision/methods , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
11.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 40(4): 315-320, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143170

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background Current threshold for minimum lymph node harvest may not be adequate for appropriate staging in colon cancer and newer surgical techniques may allow more lymph nodes to be harvested. The aim of this study was to examine the prognostic role of harvesting and examining lymph nodes higher in number than the recommended threshold (≥12), in patients with colon cancer. Methods This retrospective study included 179 patients that underwent open colon resection for adenocarcinoma of the colon. A D3 resection with high vascular ligation was made so that large number of lymph nodes was removed in most patients. Differences in overall survival between below and above three cutoff points (≥18, ≥24, ≥40) were estimated. Results During median 33 months of follow-up, 45 patients died and mean overall survival was 108.7 ± 5.6 months (95% CI, 97.7-119.7). The mean number of lymph nodes harvested and examined was 44.0 ± 25.7 (median 38; range, 7-150). No significant effect was found for three different cut-off values (≥18, ≥24, or ≥40 nodes) on mean overall survival (p > 0.05 for all comparisons). The same was true for the whole study population as well as for N0 (N negative) and N1-2 (N positive) patient subgroups, when they are analyzed separately. Conclusions Our findings do not support the survival benefit of substantially higher number of lymph nodes harvested in colon cancer.


RESUMO Fundamento: O limite atual para a coleta mínima de linfonodos pode não ser adequado para o estadiamento adequado no câncer de cólon e novas técnicas cirúrgicas podem permitir que um número maior de linfonodos seja coletado. O objetivo deste estudo foi examinar o papel prognóstico da coleta e exame de linfonodos em número maior do que o limite recomendado (≥ 12), em pacientes com câncer de cólon. Método: Este estudo retrospectivo incluiu 179 pacientes submetidos à ressecção aberta de cólon para adenocarcinoma de cólon. A ressecção D3 com ligadura vascular alta foi realizada para que um grande número de linfonodos fosse removido na maioria dos pacientes. As diferenças na sobrevida global entre abaixo e acima de três pontos de corte (≥ 18, ≥ 24, ≥ 40) foram estimadas. Resultados: Durante a mediana de 33 meses de seguimento, 45 pacientes morreram e a sobrevida global média foi de 108,7 ± 5,6 meses (IC 95%: 97,7-119,7). O número médio de linfonodos coletados e examinados foi de 44,0 ± 25,7 (mediana = 38; variação: 7-150). Nenhum efeito significativo foi encontrado para três valores de corte diferentes (≥ 18, ≥ 24 ou ≥ 40 linfonodos) na sobrevida global média (p >0,05 para todas as comparações). O mesmo foi verdadeiro para toda a população do estudo, bem como para os subgrupos de pacientes N0 (N negativos) e N1-2 (N positivos), quando analisados separadamente. Conclusões: Nossos achados não apoiam o benefício na sobrevida de um número substancialmente maior de linfonodos coletados no câncer de cólon.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adenocarcinoma/diagnosis , Colonic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colonic Neoplasms/mortality , Lymph Node Excision/methods , Prognosis , Survival Analysis
12.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e49435, jan.-dez. 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1146262

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: identificar e mapear estratégias preconizadas para prevenção de linfedema em pacientes submetidas a esvaziamento axilar em tratamento do câncer de mama. Método: revisão de escopo realizada em agosto de 2019 considerando oito bases de dados e oito bases da literatura cinzenta. A amostra final foi composta por 13 artigos, selecionados de acordo com critérios de elegibilidade. Resultados: os estudos foram predominantemente randomizados, com nível de evidência 1a, e realizados na América do Norte. Medidas preventivas tradicionalmente utilizadas, como limitar exercícios com carga ou evitar punção venosa e aferição de pressão arterial, não se demonstraram efetivas em nenhum dos estudos encontrados. Foi evidenciado como medida preventiva o controle dos fatores de risco modificáveis associados ao linfedema: IMC elevado (> 25 kg/m2 ) e quimioterapia administrada no braço ipsilateral. Conclusões: não foram apresentadas evidências significativas para medidas cotidianamente preconizadas na prevenção do linfedema, e fatores de risco modificáveis se destacaram entre os riscos para seu desenvolvimento.


Objective: to identify and map strategies recommended for prevention of lymphedema in patients after axillary dissection during breast cancer treatment. Method: this scoping review was conducted in August 2019 across eight databases and eight gray literature data sources. The final sample comprised 13 journal articles that met eligibility criteria. Results: the studies, most of which were randomized, conducted in North America, and offered Level 1a evidence. None of the studies reviewed found traditionally employed preventive measures, such as limiting weight training or avoiding venipuncture and blood pressure measurements, to be effective. Evidence indicated that controlling modifiable lymphedema-related risk factors ­ namely high BMI (> 25 kg/m²) and chemotherapy administration in the ipsilateral arm ­ was a preventive measure. Conclusion: no significant evidence was reported for traditionally recommended preventive measures against lymphedema, and modifiable factors figured prominently among risk factors for lymphedema.


Objetivo: identificar y mapear las estrategias recomendadas para la prevención del linfedema en pacientes después de una disección axilar durante el tratamiento del cáncer de mama. Método: esta revisión de alcance se realizó en agosto de 2019 en ocho bases de datos y ocho fuentes de datos de literatura gris. La muestra final comprendió 13 artículos de revistas que cumplieron con los criterios de elegibilidad. Resultados: los estudios, la mayoría de los cuales fueron aleatorios, se realizaron en Norteamérica y ofrecieron evidencia de Nivel 1a. Ninguno de los estudios revisados encontró que las medidas preventivas empleadas tradicionalmente, como limitar el entrenamiento con pesas o evitar la punción venosa y las mediciones de la presión arterial, sean efectivas. La evidencia indicó que el control de los factores de riesgo relacionados con el linfedema modificables, a saber, un IMC alto (> 25 kg / m²) y la administración de quimioterapia en el brazo ipsilateral, era una medida preventiva. Conclusión: no se informó evidencia significativa de las medidas preventivas recomendadas tradicionalmente contra el linfedema, y los factores modificables figuraron de manera prominente entre los factores de riesgo para el linfedema.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Axilla , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , Lymph Node Excision/adverse effects , Lymphedema/prevention & control , Body Mass Index , Risk Factors , Control , Arterial Pressure
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1479-1484, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134465

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Gastric cancer (CG) is the second leading cause of cancer deaths. The best treatment option for patients with advanced GC (AGC) is still surgery, which involves performing a gastrectomy and D2 lymphadenectomy (D2L). The aim of this study was to determine postoperative morbidity (POM) and 5-year OS in patients resected by AGC without neoadjuvant. Case series with follow-up of patients with AGC undergoing total or subtotal gastrectomies and D2L, consecutively at RedSalud Mayor Temuco Clinic, between 2008 and 2019. The outcome variables were POM and 5-year OS. Other variables of interest were surgical time, number of resected lymph nodes, hospital stay, and recurrence. Descriptive statistics was used, and Kaplan-Meier curves were calculated. In this analysis 38 patients (71.1 % men), with a median age of 65 years, were operated. The most frequent location was subcardial (50.0 %). The most frequent type of resection was total gastrectomy (60.5 %). The median of surgical time, number of resected lymph nodes and hospital stay; was 190 min, 32 and 6 days respectively. MPO was 18.4 %. With a median follow-up of 28 months, a recurrence of 44.7 % was verified; and 5-year OS for stages IIIA, IIIB and IV were 53.3 %, 46.1 % and 20.0 % respectively (p= 0,007). The results achieved, in terms of POM and OS series were similar to national and international series in which neoadjuvant therapies have not been applied.


RESUMEN: El cáncer gástrico (CG) es la segunda causa de muerte por cáncer. La mejor opción terapéutica para pacientes con CG avanzado (CGA), sigue siendo la cirugía, que supone la realización de gastrectomía asociada a linfadenectomía D2 (LD2). El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar morbilidad postoperatoria (MPO) y supervivencia (SV) en pacientes resecados por CGA sin neoadyuvancia. Serie de casos con seguimiento, de pacientes con CGA sometidos a gastrectomía total o subtotal con LD2, de forma consecutiva, en Clínica RedSalud Mayor Temuco, entre 2008 y 2019. Las variables resultado fueron MPO y SV actuarial global (SVAG) a 5 años. Otras variables de interés fueron: tiempo quirúrgico, número de linfonodos resecados, estancia hospitalaria y recurrencia. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva, con medidas de tendencia central y dispersión; y análisis de SV con curvas de Kaplan Meier. Se intervinieron 38 pacientes (71,1 % hombres), con una mediana de edad de 65 años. La localización más frecuente fue subcardial (50,0 %); el tipo de resección más frecuente fue gastrectomía total (60,5 %). Las medianas del tiempo quirúrgico, del número de linfonodos resecados y de estancia hospitalaria; fue 190 min, 32 y 6 días respectivamente. La MPO fue 18,4 %. Con una mediana de seguimiento de 28 meses, se verificó recurrencia de 44,7 %; y SVAG a 5 años para estadios IIIA, IIIB y IV de 53,3%, 46,1 % y 20,0 % respectivamente (p=0,007). Los resultados obtenidos, en términos de MPO, mortalidad y SVAG, fueron similares a series de centros de derivación nacionales e internacionales en los que no se ha aplicado terapias neoadyuvantes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery , Gastrectomy/methods , Lymph Node Excision/methods , Postoperative Complications , Recurrence , Survival Analysis , Follow-Up Studies , Operative Time , Length of Stay
14.
Rev. méd. panacea ; 9(2): 90-97, mayo-ago. 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1121163

ABSTRACT

Los linfomas son el conjunto de enfermedades neoplásicas de los linfocitos. El diagnóstico se fundamenta en la anamnesis, examen físico, biopsia ganglionar y estudios imagenológicos que permiten valorar la enfermedad para su estadiación y tratamiento. Objetivo: Caracterizar a partir de indicadores clínico-histo-imagenológico en casos con linfomas de localización mediastinal atendidos en el Instituto Nacional de Oncología y Radiobiología de Septiembre de 2017 a Diciembre de 2019. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio preliminar, descriptivo, prospectivo en una población de 167 casos y una muestra de 43 pacientes con linfomas de localización mediastinal. Se estudiaron las variables: sexo, edad, índice de masa corporal, síntomas y signos, tipo de tumor, subtipo histológico, estadiación por criterios de Ann-Arbor, tamaño ganglionar y localización mediastinal. Resultados: El pico de incidencia se observó entre los 25-35 años. La mayor cantidad de casos presentaron sobrepeso (n=10; 23,3%). Predominaron los Linfomas de Hodgkin (n=31; 71,8%) subtipo Esclerosis Nodular (n=22; 51,2%) con estadio IA (LH=14; 32,6%). El tamaño promedio de los ganglios fue de 25,1±17,3 mm. En todos los niveles de la anatomía mediastínica se observaron lesiones ganglionares, a predominio del mediastino superior. Otras características predominantes observadas por TC incluyeron ganglios hipodensos homogéneos (n=34; 79,07%), realce postcontraste con captación homogénea (n=24; 55,81), invasión de estructuras vecinas (n=18; 41,8%) y densidades entre 32-108 UH. Conclusiones: En la valoración de los indicadores imagenológicos por tomografía computarizada contrastada se detectan cambios morfológicos, al tomar como criterio fundamental la afectación ganglionar y el tamaño de las adenopatías en el diagnóstico, estadiamiento y reevaluación de casos con linfomas. (AU)


Lymphomas are the group of neoplastic diseases of lymphocytes. The diagnosis is based on the anamnesis, physical examination, lymph node biopsy and imaging studies that allow the disease to be assessed for its statistics and treatment. Objective: To characterize, with clinical-histological-imaging indicators, cases with lymphomas of mediastinal location treated at the National Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology from September 2017 to December 2019. Materials and methods: A preliminary, descriptive, prospective study was conducted in a population of 167 cases and a sample of 43 patients with lymphomas of mediastinal location. Variables were studied: sex, age, body mass index, symptoms and signs, tumor type, histological subtype, statistics by Ann-Arbor criteria, lymph node size and mediastinal location. Results: The peak incidence was recorded between 25-35 years. The highest number of specific cases of overweight (n = 10; 23.3%). Hodgkin lymphomas (n = 31, 71.8%), Nodular sclerosis subtype (n = 22, 51.2%) with stage IA (LH = 14, 32.6%) predominated. The average size of the nodes was 25.1 ± 17.3 mm. Nodal lesions were observed at all levels of the mediastinal anatomy, a predominance of the upper mediastinum. Other predominant features observed by CT include homogeneous hypodense nodes (n = 34; 79.07%), post-contrast enhancement with homogeneous uptake (n = 24; 55.81), invasion of neighboring structures (n = 18; 41.8%) and densities between 32-108 UH. Conclusions: Morphological changes were detected in the evaluation of the imaging indicators by contrast computed tomography, taking lymph node involvement and the size of lymphadenopathy as a fundamental criterion in the diagnosis, staging and reevaluation of cases with lymphomas. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Lymph Node Excision , Lymphoma/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies
15.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(7): 1025-1030, jul. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139405

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic metastases of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) are exceptional. We report a 80-year-old man consulting for obstructive jaundice and dysphonia. Abdominal ultrasonography showed biliary dilation and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a pancreatic head mass of 36 mm. A left vocal cord paralysis was confirmed and cervical computed tomography (CT) showed multiple thyroid nodules of up to 35 mm associated with bilateral cervical lymph nodes (LN). Positron emission tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET/CT) evidenced hyper-metabolic activity in bilateral cervical LN, lungs, pancreas and left intercostal soft tissue, as well as left gluteus. Thyroid biopsy reported a tall-cell variant of PTC, and endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of pancreatic mass confirmed PTC metastasis. The molecular study was positive for BRAFV600E. Pancreatic metastasis from PTC can be accurately diagnosed with 18 F-FDG PET/CT and EUS-FNA, which is consistent with a predominant expression of BRAFV600E mutation and, thus, an aggressive presentation with poor short-term survival.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pancreatic Neoplasms/secondary , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology , Pancreatectomy , Pancreatic Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Lymph Node Excision , Lymphatic Metastasis
16.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 72(3): 262-266, jun. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115553

ABSTRACT

Resumen El cáncer de vesícula es infrecuente a nivel mundial, a diferencia de su alta incidencia en Chile. Su pronóstico es malo en general, y dependerá de su forma de presentación, siendo mejor en los casos diagnosticados después de una colecistectomía laparoscópica por patología benigna. La reintervención, que incluye la resección hepática y linfadenectomía, es el pilar de la terapia curativa en esta neoplasia. Presentamos la descripción de la técnica quirúrgica realizada en los pacientes con cáncer de vesícula de diagnóstico incidental, en el Servicio de Cirugía de Clínica Alemana de Santiago y en el Hospital de la Fuerza Aérea de Chile. El abordaje laparoscópico representa una alternativa quirúrgica válida en el tratamiento de pacientes con cáncer de vesícula biliar diagnosticados después de la colecistectomía. La estandarización de la técnica debiera contribuir a su mayor empleo y a la obtención de buenos resultados desde un punto de vista oncológico.


Gallbladder cancer is considered an infrequent disease but in Chile has a higher incidence. Prognostic is considered dismal except in those patients in whom the diagnosis is performed after the cholecystectomy specimen study. Reoperation with gallbladder bed resection and lymphadenectomy is considered the treatment in patients with incidental cases. We show the way this operation is performed in Clinica Alemana of Santiago and in the Air Force Hospital. The laparoscopic approach is an alternative to those patients in whom the diagnosis was done after the cholecystectomy. Laparoscopy allows to accomplish same objectives and to obtain identical results that the open approach. The technical standardization should contribute to spread its employment and to improve the results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biliary Tract Surgical Procedures/methods , Gallbladder/surgery , Gallbladder Neoplasms/surgery , Lymph Node Excision/methods , Biliary Tract Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Laparoscopy , Disease Management , Incidental Findings , Lymph Node Excision/standards
17.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 85(1): 3-13, feb. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092770

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El cáncer cervical es una patología común en países en vías de desarrollo. La histerectomía radical es el estándar de manejo en estadios tempranos sin deseo de fertilidad. La linfadenectomía paraaórtica como parte del tratamiento quirúrgico es controversial. El objetivo de este estudio es determinar la frecuencia de compromiso ganglionar paraaórtico en una serie retrospectiva de pacientes con carcinoma cervical estadio IB1 (clasificación FIGO 2009) llevadas a histerectomía radical mas linfadenectomía pélvica y paraaórtica en el Instituto Nacional de Cancerología durante el periodo de enero 1 de 2009 a marzo 31 de 2017. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo. Se describieron variables clínicas, operatorias e histopatológicas. Se determinó la frecuencia de compromiso ganglionar a nivel paraaórtico o pélvico, y concurrente. Se realizó análisis univariado en el software estadístico R Project versión 3.6.0. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 88 casos. El promedio de edad fue 44,24 ± 9,99 años. La mediana del número de ganglios pélvicos y paraaórticos resecados fue de 23 (6-68) y 4 (1-25), respectivamente. En el 12,5% de las pacientes se observó compromiso tumoral ganglionar pélvico. No se detectó compromiso metastásico de ganglios paraórticos en ningún caso. Dos pacientes presentaron recaída ganglionar paraaórtica durante el seguimiento, recibiendo tratamiento con quimioterapia y quimiorradioterapia de campo extendido, respectivamente. CONCLUSIÓN: En este estudio no se detectó compromiso paraaórtico en pacientes con cáncer cervical IB1 sometidas a histerectomía radical. Este resultado se debe considerar al ofrecer linfadenectomía paraaórtica en pacientes con ganglios pélvicos aparentemente normales en el acto operatorio y/o en los estudios de imágenes prequirúrgicas.


INTRODUCTION: Cervical cancer is a common pathology in developing countries. Radical hysterectomy is the standard of management in early stages without desire for fertility. Paraaortic lymphadenectomy as part of surgical treatment is controversial. The objective of this study is to determine the frequency of paraaortic lymph node involvement in a retrospective series of patients with stage IB1 cervical carcinoma (FIGO 2009 classification) underwent to radical hysterectomy plus pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia during the period of January 1 2009 to March 31 2017. METHODS: Descriptive, retrospective study. Clinical, operative, and histopathological variables were described. The frequency of paraaortic, pelvic, concurrent lymph node involvement and adjuvant treatment was determined. A univariate analysis of the variables was performed in the R project statistical software version 3.6.0. RESULTS: 88 cases were included. The mean age was 44,24 ± 9,99 years. The median number of resected pelvic and para-aortic nodes was 23 (6-68) and 4 (1-25), respectively. In 12,5 % of the patients, involvement of the pelvic lymph nodes was present. No patient had paraaortic lymph node involvement. Two patients presented para-aortic lymph node relapse during follow-up, receiving treatment with chemotherapy and extended field chemoradiotherapy, respectively. CONCLUSION: In this study, the frequency of paraaortic involvement in patients with cervical cancer IB1 was 0%. This result should be considered when offering paraaortic lymphadenectomy in patients with apparently normal pelvic nodes in presurgical imaging studies and during the procedure.


Subject(s)
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/surgery , Hysterectomy/methods , Lymph Node Excision/methods , Aorta, Abdominal , Pelvis/surgery , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , Colombia , Hysterectomy/statistics & numerical data , Lymph Node Excision/statistics & numerical data , Mesentery/surgery
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826371

ABSTRACT

Bladder cancer has high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Its incidence is high in western countries and has shown an increasing trend in China. While radical cystectomy combined with pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) is the standard treatment for bladder cancer,the optimal range of PLND remains controversial. In addition,the prognostic value of lymph node factors is also unclear. This article reviews research advances in PLND.


Subject(s)
China , Humans , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes , Pelvis , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms , Diagnosis
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785427

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Major liver resection and radical lymph node dissection has been accepted as a definite treatment of choice for hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC). However, the perioperative and survival outcomes of right hemihepatectomy (RH) and left hemihepatectomy (LH) still remain controversial. Thus, this study aimed to compare the surgical and oncological outcomes of RH and LH in HC patients.METHODS: From January 2000 to January 2018, a total of 326 patients underwent surgical resection for HC at Yonsei University College of Medicine in Seoul, Korea. Among the 326 patients, we excluded 130 patients and selected 196 patients, who underwent hemihepatectomy with caudate lobectomy. Among these 196 patients, 114 patients underwent RH, and 82 patients underwent LH. We compared the clinicopathological features as well as the surgical and oncologic outcomes of the RH and LH groups.RESULTS: There were no significant differences in disease-free survival (P = 0.473) or overall survival (P = 0.946) in the RH and LH groups. The LH group had fewer complications compared with the RH group, including postoperative ascites (RH: 15 [13.2%] vs. LH: 3 [3.7%], P = 0.023); however, the LH group had more bile leakage complications (RH: 5 [4.4%] vs. LH: 12 [14.6%], P = 0.012). The average time lag from portal vein embolization to operation was 25.80 ± 12.06 days (n = 45). There was no difference in postoperative liver failure (P = 0.402), although there were significantly more frequent ascites after RH (P = 0.023).CONCLUSION: LH might be a good alternative option for the surgical treatment of HC given appropriate tumor location and biliary anatomy indications.


Subject(s)
Ascites , Bile , Cholangiocarcinoma , Disease-Free Survival , Hepatectomy , Humans , Klatskin Tumor , Korea , Liver , Liver Failure , Lymph Node Excision , Portal Vein , Seoul , Treatment Outcome
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811213

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate survival and recurrence in stage II endometrial cancer in relation to uterine risk stratification. Outcome for stage II was compared before and after the introduction of lymph node (LN) resection and omission of all postoperative radiotherapy.METHODS: The cohort consisted of 4,380 endometrial carcinoma patients radically operated (no visual tumor, all distant metastasis removed) (2005–2012) including 461 stage II. Adjusted Cox regression was used to compare survival and actuarial recurrence rates.RESULTS: Uterine risk factors (low-, intermediate-, and high-) were the strongest predictors of survival and recurrence in stage II. Stage II low-risk having a prognosis comparable to low-risk stage I (grade 1–2, <50% myometrial invasion), whereas cervical invasion significantly increased the risk of recurrence and decreased cancer-specific survival in intermediate- and high-risk compared to the corresponding stage I risk groups. In 355 cases of 708 with cervical stromal invasion, LN-resection showed 27.9% with LN metastasis and upstaged 18.1% from stage II to IIIC resulting in longer survival and lower recurrence in LN-resected compared to non-LN resected stage II. Radical as compared to simple hysterectomy did not alter survival. Treatment with external beam radiotherapy decreased local recurrence without affecting survival.CONCLUSION: Uterine risk groups are the strongest predictors for survival and recurrence in stage II patients and should be considered when advising adjuvant therapy. LN-resected stage II had increased survival and decreased recurrence. Omitting radiotherapy increase vaginal recurrence without affecting survival.


Subject(s)
Cohort Studies , Endometrial Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Hysterectomy , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Risk Factors
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