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1.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 368-373, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986896

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the characteristics of electromyography (EMG) signals and the starting threshold voltages of the orbicularis oris muscles (OOM) in healthy rhesus monkeys under different muscle movement conditions. Methods: The EMG signals and the starting threshold voltages at different time points in 4 healthy rhesus monkeys were acquired and recorded with EMG device and evoked potentiometer. The voltage amplitude variation of EMG signals was analyzed, and the voltage amplitude range of EMG signals at the beginning of OOM contraction was established. The data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: The EMG of OOM in healthy monkeys in the quiet, natural and continuous mouth-closed state was linear and relatively stable, and the absolute value fluctuated between 15 and 50 μV. The EMG waveform increased rapidly during the natural lip contraction movement, and its amplitude fluctuated greatly, with the highest absolute value of the peak value reaching hundreds of microvolts. The amplitude of EMG induced by continuous mouth closure was more than thousands of microvolts. There was no significant difference in EMG amplitudes of OOM in the healthy rhesus monkey under quiet and continuous lip closure at different time points (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in threshold voltages in the state of natural lip contraction of bilateral OOM at different time points (average range: 57.17-57.47 μV) in the healthy rhesus monkeys (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in threshold voltages of OOM induced by bilateral OOM at different time points(average range: 55.38-55.99 μV) in the healthy rhesus monkeys(P>0.05). There were significant differences in the absolute values of EMG amplitudes of OOM between the three lip movement modes: (30.67±8.72) μV in quiet and natural continuous lip closure (475.12±54.72) μV in natural lip contraction, and (921.22±312.79) μV in the induced persistent lip closure, with t values of -8.48, -9.35 and -5.01 respectively, all P<0.001. Conclusions: The EMG signals of OOM show different characteristics under different muscle movement conditions, which can be used as a basis for computer to judge and recognize the movement conditions of OOM. The upper limits of the EMG threshold voltage values of OOM under different motion states are 55-60 μV.


Subject(s)
Animals , Lip , Macaca mulatta , Facial Muscles , Electromyography
2.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 14-28, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971562

ABSTRACT

Recent work in decision neuroscience suggests that visual saliency can interact with reward-based choice, and the lateral intraparietal cortex (LIP) is implicated in this process. In this study, we recorded from LIP neurons while monkeys performed a two alternative choice task in which the reward and luminance associated with each offer were varied independently. We discovered that the animal's choice was dictated by the reward amount while the luminance had a marginal effect. In the LIP, neuronal activity corresponded well with the animal's choice pattern, in that a majority of reward-modulated neurons encoded the reward amount in the neuron's preferred hemifield with a positive slope. In contrast, compared to their responses to low luminance, an approximately equal proportion of luminance-sensitive neurons responded to high luminance with increased or decreased activity, leading to a much weaker population-level response. Meanwhile, in the non-preferred hemifield, the strength of encoding for reward amount and luminance was positively correlated, suggesting the integration of these two factors in the LIP. Moreover, neurons encoding reward and luminance were homogeneously distributed along the anterior-posterior axis of the LIP. Overall, our study provides further evidence supporting the neural instantiation of a priority map in the LIP in reward-based decisions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Macaca mulatta/physiology , Parietal Lobe , Neurons/physiology , Saccades , Reward , Photic Stimulation
3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21371, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439539

ABSTRACT

Abstract Ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R) is commonly related to acute kidney injury (AKI) and oxidative stress. Antioxidant agents are used to treat this condition. Lippia sidoides is a brazillian shrub with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Lippia sidoides ethanolic extract (LSEE) on in vivo and in vitro models of AKI induced by I/R. Male Wistar rats were submitted to unilateral nephrectomy and ischemia on contralateral kidney for 60 min via clamping followed by reperfusion for 48 h. They were divided into four groups: Sham, LSEE (sham-operated rats pre-treated with LSEE), I/R (rats submitted to ischemia) and I/R-LSEE (rats treated with LSEE before ischemia). Kidney tissues homogenates were used to determine stress parameters and nephrin expression. Plasma and urine samples were collected for biochemical analysis. I/R in vitro assays were evaluated by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) and flow cytometry assays in Rhesus Monkey Kidney Epithelial Cells (LLC-MK2). The LSEE treatment prevented biochemical and nephrin expression alterations, as well as oxidative stress parameters. In the in vitro assay, LSEE protected against cell death, reduced the reactive oxygen species and increased mitochondrial transmembrane potential. LSEE showed biotechnological potential for a new phytomedicine as a nephroprotective agent.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Hypericum/adverse effects , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Ischemia/classification , Herbal Medicine/instrumentation , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Flow Cytometry/methods , Macaca mulatta , Antioxidants/administration & dosage
4.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 489-504, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929090

ABSTRACT

Studies have shown that spatial attention remarkably affects the trial-to-trial response variability shared between neurons. Difficulty in the attentional task adjusts how much concentration we maintain on what is currently important and what is filtered as irrelevant sensory information. However, how task difficulty mediates the interactions between neurons with separated receptive fields (RFs) that are attended to or attended away is still not clear. We examined spike count correlations between single-unit activities recorded simultaneously in the primary visual cortex (V1) while monkeys performed a spatial attention task with two levels of difficulty. Moreover, the RFs of the two neurons recorded were non-overlapping to allow us to study fluctuations in the correlated responses between competing visual inputs when the focus of attention was allocated to the RF of one neuron. While increasing difficulty in the spatial attention task, spike count correlations were either decreased to become negative between neuronal pairs, implying competition among them, with one neuron (or none) exhibiting attentional enhancement of firing rate, or increased to become positive, suggesting inter-neuronal cooperation, with one of the pair showing attentional suppression of spiking responses. Besides, the modulation of spike count correlations by task difficulty was independent of the attended locations. These findings provide evidence that task difficulty affects the functional interactions between different neuronal pools in V1 when selective attention resolves the spatial competition.


Subject(s)
Animals , Attention/physiology , Macaca mulatta , Neurons/physiology , Photic Stimulation , Primary Visual Cortex , Visual Cortex/physiology
5.
Clinics ; 75: e1339, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089602

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Cerebral ischemia seriously threatens human health and is characterized by high rates of incidence, disability and death. Developing an ideal animal model of cerebral ischemia that reflects the human clinical features is critical for pathological studies and clinical research. The goal of this study is to establish a local cerebral ischemia model in rhesus macaque, thereby providing an optimal animal model to study cerebral ischemia. METHODS: Eight healthy rhesus monkeys were selected for this study. CT scans were performed before the operation to exclude cerebral vascular and intracranial lesions. Under guidance and monitoring with digital subtraction angiography (DSA), a microcatheter was inserted into the M1 segment of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) via the femoral artery. Then, autologous white thrombi were introduced to block blood flow. Immediately following embolization, multisequence MRI was used to monitor cerebrovascular and brain parenchymal conditions. Twenty-four hours after embolization, 2 monkeys were sacrificed and subjected to perfusion, fixation and pathological examination. RESULTS: The cerebral ischemia model was established in 7 rhesus monkeys; one animal died during intubation. DSA and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) indicated the presence of an arterial occlusion. MRI showed acute local cerebral ischemia. HE staining revealed infarct lesions formed in the brain tissues, and thrombi were present in the cerebral artery. CONCLUSION: We established a rhesus macaque model of local cerebral ischemia by autologous thrombus placement. This model has important implications for basic and clinical research on cerebral ischemia. MRI and DSA can evaluate the models to ensure accuracy and effectiveness.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Cerebral Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Angiography, Digital Subtraction , China , Macaca mulatta , Models, Biological , Models, Cardiovascular
6.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e66-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765161

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gross anatomy and sectional anatomy of a monkey should be known by students and researchers of veterinary medicine and medical research. However, materials to learn the anatomy of a monkey are scarce. Thus, the objective of this study was to produce a Visible Monkey data set containing cross sectional images, computed tomographs (CTs), and magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of a monkey whole body. METHODS: Before and after sacrifice, a female rhesus monkey was used for 3 Tesla MRI and CT scanning. The monkey was frozen and sectioned at 0.05 mm intervals for the head region and at 0.5 mm intervals for the rest of the body using a cryomacrotome. Each sectioned surface was photographed using a digital camera to obtain horizontal sectioned images. Segmentation of sectioned images was performed to elaborate three-dimensional (3D) models of the skin and brain. RESULTS: A total of 1,612 horizontal sectioned images of the head and 1,355 images of the remaining region were obtained. The small pixel size (0.024 mm × 0.024 mm) and real color (48 bits color) of these images enabled observations of minute structures. CONCLUSION: Due to small intervals of these images, continuous structures could be traced completely. Moreover, 3D models of the skin and brain could be used for virtual dissections. Sectioned images of this study will enhance the understanding of monkey anatomy and foster further studies. These images will be provided to any requesting researcher free of charge.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Anatomy, Cross-Sectional , Brain , Dataset , Haplorhini , Head , Macaca mulatta , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Primates , Skin , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Veterinary Medicine
7.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 458-473, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763781

ABSTRACT

The function of microglia/macrophages after ischemic stroke is poorly understood. This study examines the role of microglia/macrophages in the focal infarct area after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rhesus monkeys. We measured infarct volume and neurological function by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and non-human primate stroke scale (NHPSS), respectively, to assess temporal changes following MCAO. Activated phagocytic microglia/macrophages were examined by immunohistochemistry in post-mortem brains (n=6 MCAO, n=2 controls) at 3 and 24 hours (acute stage), 2 and 4 weeks (subacute stage), and 4, and 20 months (chronic stage) following MCAO. We found that the infarct volume progressively decreased between 1 and 4 weeks following MCAO, in parallel with the neurological recovery. Greater presence of cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68)-expressing microglia/macrophages was detected in the infarct lesion in the subacute and chronic stage, compared to the acute stage. Surprisingly, 98~99% of transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) was found colocalized with CD68-expressing cells. CD68-expressing microglia/macrophages, rather than CD206⁺ cells, may exert anti-inflammatory effects by secreting TGFβ after the subacute stage of ischemic stroke. CD68⁺ microglia/macrophages can therefore be used as a potential therapeutic target.


Subject(s)
Brain , Haplorhini , Immunohistochemistry , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Inflammation , Macaca mulatta , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Microglia , Middle Cerebral Artery , Primates , Stroke , Transforming Growth Factor beta
8.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 50(1): 22-26, jun. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-911961

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: A campilobacteriose é uma das principais doenças entéricas do mundo. Ocorre não só no homem mas também em primatas não humanos, sendo desta forma importante no monitoramento sanitário de colônias de animais provenientes de criatórios científicos. É causada por bactérias do gênero Campylobacter, cuja detecção em biotérios possibilita não só controlar a doença e prevenir sua disseminação, mas assegurar a qualidade das pesquisas que serão realizadas nestes biomodelos. Com base na importância deste isolamento, nosso objetivo foi a verificação do status sanitário de uma colônia de criação de Macaca mulatta, usando como referência a presença de Campylobacter spp. Métodos: Durante o manejo médico anual coletaram-se 52 swabs fecais de primatas não humanos adultos, o que representou um percentual de 10% da colônia total. Esse material foi submetido ao esquema de semeadura/incubação e identificação de Campylobacter sp. seguindo as recomendações de cultivo microbiológico, incluindo o isolamento, prova de Gram e testes bioquímicos. Todo o processo levou de cinco a sete dias e foi realizado em atmosfera de microaerofilia. Resultados: Em 14 indivíduos foram isoladas bactérias do gênero Campylobacter. Destes, sete eram portadores de Campylobacter coli, seis portadores de Campylobacter jejuni e em um indivíduo não foi possível definir a espécie de Campylobacter isolada. Conclusão: Apesar da baixa prevalência (27%), esses resultados reforçam a necessidade de constante monitoramento microbiológico dos primatas pertencentes à colônia, visando não só a qualidade dos animais fornecidos, mas minimizando o risco de contaminação dentro da colônia e de contágio pelos profissionais que lidam com os animais, já que o Campylobacter possui importante potencial zoonótico.


Subject(s)
Campylobacter , Campylobacter Infections , Macaca mulatta
9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(4): 348-353, Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888059

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Vimentin is a main structural protein of the cell, a component of intermediate cell filaments and immersed in cytoplasm. Vimentin is mimicked by some bacterial proteins and anti-vimentin antibodies occur in autoimmune cardiac disease, as rheumatic fever. In this work we studied vimentin distribution on LLC-MK2 cells infected with T. cruzi and anti-vimentin antibodies in sera from several clinical pictures of Chagas' disease or American Trypanosomiasis, in order to elucidate any vimentin involvement in the humoral response of this pathology. Objective: We standardized an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFI) to determine sub cellular expression in either parasites and host cells, and ELISA to evaluate anti-vimentin antibodies in sera fron chagasic patients. Methods: We analyzed the distribution of vimentin in culture cells using indirect fluorescent assays, using as external controls anti-T. cruzi sera, derived from chronic infected patients for identification of the parasites in the same model. After infection and growth of T.cruzi amastigotes, those cells express larger amounts of vimentin, with heavy staining of cytoplasm outside the parasitophorous vacuole and some particle shadowing patterns, suggesting that vimentin are associated with cell cytoplasm. Anti-vimentin antibodies were present in most American trypanosomiasis samples, but notably, they are much more present in acute (76, 9%) or clinical defined syndromes, especially cardiac disease (87, 9%). Paradoxically, they were relatively infrequent in asymptomatic (25%) infected patients, which had a clearly positive serological reaction to parasite antigens, but had low frequency of anti-vimentin antibodies, similar to controls (2,5%). Conclusion: Our current data revealed that anti-vimentin antibodies induced during T. cruzi infection could be a marker of active disease in the host and its levels could also justify drug therapy in American Trypanosomiasis chronic infection, as a large group of asymptomatic patients would be submitted to treatment with frequent adverse reactions of the available drugs. Anti-vimentin antibodies could be a marker of cardiac muscle cell damage, appearing in American Trypanosomiasis patients during active muscle cell damage.


Resumo Fundamento: A Vimentina é uma proteína estrutural importante da célula, um componente dos filamentos celulares intermediários e imersa no citoplasma. Algumas proteínas bacterianas imitam a Vimentina e anticorpos anti-vimentina ocorrem em doenças cardíacas auto-imunes, como a febre reumática. Neste trabalho, estudamos a distribuição de vimentina em células LLC-MK2 infectadas com T. Cruzi e anticorpos anti-vimentina em soros de várias imagens clínicas da doença de Chagas ou tripanossomíases americanas, a fim de elucidar qualquer implicação da vimentina na resposta humoral desta patologia. Objetivo: padronizamos um teste de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI) para determinar a expressão subcelular em parasitas e células hospedeiras, e ELISA para testar anticorpos anti-vimentina em soros de pacientes chagásicos. Métodos: analisamos a distribuição de vimentina em células de cultura usando ensaios fluorescentes indiretos, utilizando como controles externos soros anti-T. Cruzi, derivados de pacientes com infecção crônica para a identificação de parasitas no mesmo modelo. Após a infecção e o crescimento de amastigotas de T. Cruzi, essas células expressam grandes quantidades de vimentina, com forte coloração do citoplasma fora da vacuola parasitófora e alguns padrões de sombreamento das partículas, sugerindo que a vimentina está associada ao citoplasma da célula. Os anticorpos anti-vimentina estavam presentes na maioria das amostras americanas de tripanossomíases, mas estão notavelmente mais presentes em síndromes agudas ou clinicamente definidas (76,9%), especialmente em doenças cardíacas (87,9%). Paradoxalmente, eram relativamente infrequentes em pacientes infectados assintomáticos (25%), que apresentavam uma reação sorológica claramente positiva aos antígenos parasitas, mas apresentavam baixa frequência de anticorpos anti-vimentina, semelhante aos controles (2,5%). Conclusão: Nossos dados atuais revelaram que os anticorpos anti-vimentina induzidos durante a infecção por T. Cruzi poderiam ser um marcador de doença ativa no hospedeiro e seus níveis também poderiam justificar o tratamento farmacológico em infecção crônica com tripanossomíase americana, uma vez que um grande grupo de pacientes assintomáticos seria submetido a tratamento com reações adversas frequentes aos medicamentos disponíveis. Os anticorpos anti-vimentina poderiam ser um marcador de danos nas células do músculo cardíaco, que aparece em pacientes com tripanossomíase americana durante o dano das células musculares ativas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Trypanosoma cruzi/immunology , Vimentin/immunology , Antibodies, Protozoan/immunology , Chagas Disease/immunology , Antigens, Protozoan/immunology , Reference Values , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Antibodies, Protozoan/analysis , Cells, Cultured , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/methods , Macaca mulatta , Antigens, Protozoan/analysis
10.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 291-302, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777062

ABSTRACT

Prepulse inhibition (PPI) refers to a decreased response to a startling stimulus when another weaker stimulus precedes it. Most PPI studies have focused on the physiological startle reflex and fewer have reported the PPI of cortical responses. We recorded local field potentials (LFPs) in four monkeys and investigated whether the PPI of auditory cortical responses (alpha, beta, and gamma oscillations and evoked potentials) can be demonstrated in the caudolateral belt of the superior temporal gyrus (STGcb). We also investigated whether the presence of a conspecific, which draws attention away from the auditory stimuli, affects the PPI of auditory cortical responses. The PPI paradigm consisted of Pulse-only and Prepulse + Pulse trials that were presented randomly while the monkey was alone (ALONE) and while another monkey was present in the same room (ACCOMP). The LFPs to the Pulse were significantly suppressed by the Prepulse thus, demonstrating PPI of cortical responses in the STGcb. The PPI-related inhibition of the N1 amplitude of the evoked responses and cortical oscillations to the Pulse were not affected by the presence of a conspecific. In contrast, gamma oscillations and the amplitude of the N1 response to Pulse-only were suppressed in the ACCOMP condition compared to the ALONE condition. These findings demonstrate PPI in the monkey STGcb and suggest that the PPI of auditory cortical responses in the monkey STGcb is a pre-attentive inhibitory process that is independent of attentional modulation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Auditory Cortex , Physiology , Evoked Potentials, Auditory , Physiology , Macaca mulatta , Prepulse Inhibition , Physiology , Temporal Lobe , Physiology
11.
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine ; (6): 173-181, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713807

ABSTRACT

Fast progresses in stem cell-based tooth tissue engineering have been achieved in recent years in several animal models including the mouse, rat, dog, and pig. Moreover, various postnatal mesenchymal stem cells of dental origin have been isolated and shown capable of differentiating into odontoblasts and generating dentin. Meanwhile, human keratinocyte stem/progenitor cells, gingival epithelial cells, and even iPSC-derived epithelium have been demonstrated to be able to differentiate into functional ameloblasts. Translational medicine studies in the nonhuman primate are irreplaceable steps towards clinical application of stem cell-based tissue engineering therapy. In the present study, we first examined the epithelial stem cell markers in the rhesus skin using immunostaining. Keratinocyte stem cells were then isolated from rhesus epidermis, cultured in vitro, and characterized by epithelial stem cell markers. Epithelial sheets of these cultured keratinocytes, which were recombined with E13.5 mouse dental mesenchyme that possesses odontogenic potential in the presence of exogenous FGF8, were induced to differentiate into enamel-secreting ameloblasts. Our results demonstrate that in the presence of appropriate odontogenic signals, rhesus keratinocytes can be induced to gain odontogenic competence and are capable of participating in odontogenesis, indicating that rhesus keratinocytes are an ideal epithelial cell source for further translational medicine study of tooth tissue engineering in nonhuman primates.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Humans , Mice , Rats , Ameloblasts , Dentin , Epidermis , Epithelial Cells , Epithelium , In Vitro Techniques , Keratinocytes , Macaca mulatta , Mental Competency , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Mesoderm , Models, Animal , Odontoblasts , Odontogenesis , Primates , Skin , Stem Cells , Tissue Engineering , Tooth , Translational Research, Biomedical
12.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 323-327, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-303153

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Few studies have focused on peripheral nerve conduction during exposure to microgravity. The -6° head-down tilt (HDT) comprises an experimental model used to simulate the space flight environment. This study investigated nerve conduction characteristics of rhesus monkeys before and after prolonged exposure to HDT.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Six rhesus monkeys (3-4 years old) were tilted backward 6° from the horizontal. Nerve conduction studies (NCSs) were performed on the median, ulnar, tibial, and fibular motor nerves. Analysis of variance with a randomized block design was conducted to compare the differences in the NCS before and 7, 21, and 42 days after the -6° HDT.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The proximal amplitude of the CMAP of the median nerve was significantly decreased at 21 and 42 days of HDT compared with the amplitude before HDT (4.38 ± 2.83 vs. 8.40 ± 2.66 mV, F = 4.85, P = 0.013 and 3.30 ± 2.70 vs. 8.40 ± 2.66 mV, F = 5.93, P = 0.004, respectively). The distal amplitude of the CMAP of the median nerve was significantly decreased at 7, 21, and 42 days of HDT compared with the amplitude before HDT (7.28 ± 1.27 vs. 10.25 ± 3.40 mV, F = 4.03, P = 0.039; 5.05 ± 2.01 vs. 10.25 ± 3.40 mV, F = 6.25, P = 0.04; and 3.95 ± 2.79 vs. 10.25 ± 3.40 mV, F = 7.35, P = 0.01; respectively). The proximal amplitude of the CMAP of the tibial nerve was significantly decreased at 42 days of HDT compared with the amplitude before HDT (6.14 ± 1.94 vs. 11.87 ± 3.19 mV, F = 5.02, P = 0.039).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>This study demonstrates that the compound muscle action potential amplitudes of nerves are decreased under simulated microgravity in rhesus monkeys. Moreover, rhesus monkeys exposed to HDT might be served as an experimental model for the study of NCS under microgravity.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Action Potentials , Physiology , Head-Down Tilt , Physiology , Macaca mulatta , Neural Conduction , Physiology , Weightlessness Simulation
14.
Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine ; (12): 351-358, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-328303

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the effect of Chinese herbal extract HuNan A-1 (HNA-1) on the thymic output function in Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) chronically infected rhesus macaques.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Eight Chinese rhesus macaques had been infected by SIVmac239 for 16 to 21 months, and then they were randomly divided into the treatment group and the control group, 4 in each group. Monkeys in the treatment group were administered with HNA-1 by gastrogavage, once daily for 2 successive months, while those in the control group were administered with equal volume of normal saline by gastrogavage, once daily for 2 successive months. The general condition and body weight of monkeys were observed. Plasma viral loads were detected using real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR assay. CD4 percentages and counts, as well as naive CD subsets were detected using flow cytometry. T-cell receptor excision circles (TREC) were detected using real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR assay. The thymus tissue was pathologically observed using routine HE staining. The correlation between lesions of the thymus tissue, CD4 counts, naive CD counts, and TREC were analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>There was no statistical difference in body weight, viral loads, absolute CD ratios between the two groups after treatment (P > 0.05). The altered TREC multiple showed an obvious decreasing tendency in the control group, while it showed an increasing tendency in the treatment group (P < 0.05). In both groups, destroyed structures of the thymus tissue could be seen, filled with pink unstructured material. Increased connective tissues, lowered connective cell density, and confused arrangement could also be seen in the two groups, with no obvious difference. TREC contents were positively correlated with naive CD4 counts after removing extremum (r = 0.926, P = 0.001). Naive CD4 counts were positively correlated with CD4 counts (r = 0.961, P = 0.005).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>TREC content determination, as a marker of newly thymic emigrants, could be taken as a testing method for evaluating the thymic output function. Besides, HNA-1 treatment increased the thymic output significantly in SIV chronically infected monkeys. Correlation existed among TREC contents, naive CD4 counts, and pathologies of thymus tissues, especially in late infection stage.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Flow Cytometry , Macaca mulatta , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Random Allocation , Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Drug Therapy , Simian Immunodeficiency Virus , Thymus Gland , Viral Load
15.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 725-733, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-215557

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To understand microstructural changes after myocardial infarction (MI), we evaluated myocardial fibers of rhesus monkeys during acute or chronic MI, and identified the differences of myocardial fibers between acute and chronic MI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six fixed hearts of rhesus monkeys with left anterior descending coronary artery ligation for 1 hour or 84 days were scanned by diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), fractional anisotropy (FA) and helix angle (HA). RESULTS: Comparing with acute MI monkeys (FA: 0.59 ± 0.02; ADC: 5.0 ± 0.6 × 10(-4) mm2/s; HA: 94.5 ± 4.4°), chronic MI monkeys showed remarkably decreased FA value (0.26 ± 0.03), increased ADC value (7.8 ± 0.8 × 10(-4) mm2/s), decreased HA transmural range (49.5 ± 4.6°) and serious defects on endocardium in infarcted regions. The HA in infarcted regions shifted to more components of negative left-handed helix in chronic MI monkeys (-38.3 ± 5.0°-11.2 ± 4.3°) than in acute MI monkeys (-41.4 ± 5.1°-53.1 ± 3.7°), but the HA in remote regions shifted to more components of positive right-handed helix in chronic MI monkeys (-43.8 ± 2.7°-66.5 ± 4.9°) than in acute MI monkeys (-59.5 ± 3.4°-64.9 ± 4.3°). CONCLUSION: Diffusion tensor MRI method helps to quantify differences of mechanical microstructure and water diffusion of myocardial fibers between acute and chronic MI monkey's models.


Subject(s)
Anisotropy , Coronary Vessels , Diffusion , Endocardium , Haplorhini , Heart , Ligation , Macaca mulatta , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methods , Myocardial Infarction , Water
16.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1087-1090, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-290121

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography is a novel technique by which we can detect the local perfusion of fundus directly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of optic disc and macular flow perfusion parameters in rhesus monkeys using OCT angiography.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Eighteen healthy monkeys (18 eyes) were subjected to optic disc and macula flow index measurements via a high-speed and high-resolution spectral-domain OCT XR Avanti with a split-spectrum amplitude de-correlation angiography algorithm. Right eye was imaged 3 times during the first examination and once during each of the two following examinations. The intra-visit and inter-visit intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were both determined.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The average flow indices of the four optic disc area layers were 0.171 ± 0.009 (optic nerve head), 0.015 ± 0.004 (vitreous), 0.052 ± 0.009 (radial peripapillary capillary), and 0.167 ± 0.011 (choroid). Average flow indices of the four macula area layers were 0.044 ± 0.011 (superficial retina), 0.036 ± 0.011 (deep retina), 0.016 ± 0.009 (outer retina), and 0.155 ± 0.013 (choroid). Intra-visit (ICC value: 0.821-0.954) and inter-visit (ICC value: 0.844-0.899) repeatability were both high.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The study is about the reproducibility of optic disc and macular perfusion parameters as measured by OCT angiography in healthy rhesus monkeys. Flow index measurement reproducibility is high for both the optic disc and macula of normal monkey eyes. OCT angiography might be a useful technique to assess changes when examining monkeys with experimental ocular diseases.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Angiography , Macaca mulatta , Macula Lutea , Diagnostic Imaging , Optic Disk , Diagnostic Imaging , Reproducibility of Results , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Methods
17.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 8-15, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-167821

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of thiopental versus propofol on cardiopulmonary functions, when used as an induction agent prior to isoflurane anesthesia in rhesus monkeys. Eight healthy rhesus monkeys weighing 3.72 to 5.7 kg, 4-5 years old, were used in the study. Anesthesia was induced with thiopental or propofol intravenous injection, and then maintained with isoflurane in oxygen for 45 minutes. Cardiopulmonary measurements were obtained before and 5, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after induction. The induction doses of thiopental and propofol were 19.41±0.54 and 9.33±1.02 mg/kg, respectively. In both groups, the values of heart rate, respiratory rate, temperature, systolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pH, and lactate were decreased, while the values of partial pressure of carbon dioxide, partial pressure of oxygen, total carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, oxygen saturation, and base excess in the extracellular fluid were increased, as compared with baseline. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower in thiopental group compare to propofol group. Induction time was very short in both agents but not revealed a significant difference between both groups. However, recovery time was extremely faster in the propofol group. Our results demonstrated that propofol provides a minor suppression in systolic arterial blood pressure than thiopental sodium. In addition, propofol have a fast recovery effect from the anesthesia as well. Furthermore, it is suggested that thiopental sodium could also be used to induce anesthesia instead of propofol, despite slight more suppression of cardiopulmonary function compared to thiopental sodium.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Arterial Pressure , Blood Pressure , Carbon Dioxide , Extracellular Fluid , Heart Rate , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Injections, Intravenous , Isoflurane , Lactic Acid , Macaca mulatta , Oxygen , Partial Pressure , Propofol , Respiratory Rate , Thiopental
18.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 42-48, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-289908

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the characteristic morphological changes of corneal endothelial dysfunction induced by phacoemulcification in rhesus monkey models under confocal microscope.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The corneal endothelial dysfunction models were established by phacoemulcification power on the central corneal of 7 to 9 mm diameter in the right eyes of 4 rhesus monkeys (the modeling group). The left eyes of 4 rhesus monkeys were set as blank control group. The structural changes in different corneal layers were evaluated by slit lamp microscope and in vivo confocal microscope before surgery and 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after surgery. SPSS 19.0 software was applied to analyze data. Paired-t test was used to compare the number of nerve plexus in Bowman's layer and corneal endothelial cell density. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze corneal thickness.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>After phacoemulcification, the changes of cornea occurred gradually in the endothelial layer, stroma, Bowman's membrane, and basal epithelial layer. In the early stage, the interspace of corneal endothelial cells enlarged and few activated stromal cells were detected in the stroma. The cell morphology of stroma altered. The thickness of stroma increased. Two weeks after surgery, the nerve plexus in Bowman's layer decreased and edema of stroma and endothelial layer increased. Three weeks after surgery, the interspace of basal epithelial cells increased with a few Langerhans' cells infiltration and edema of stroma and endothelial layer increased. Four weeks after the surgery, a large amount of Langerhans' cells presented in basal epithelial layer. Only a few nerve lexus could be seen in Bowman's layer. The stroma and endothelial cells had severe edema. A large number of activated stromal cells could be found in stromal layer. Two weeks after the surgery, the number of nerve plexus in Bowman's layer (t=6.9192, P=0.002) and corneal endothelial cell density (t=7.8936, P<0.0001) in the modeling group were significantly lower than that in control group. Compared with corneal thickness in control group, it was significantly larger in the modeling group at 1 (t=28.31, P<0.0001), 2 (t=63.56, P<0.0001), 3 (t=123.22, P<0.0001), and 4 weeks (t=180.80, P<0.0001) after the surgery.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The changes in corneal endothelial dysfunction induced by phacoemulcification in rhesus monkey models can be clearly shown under in vivo confocal microscope. Gradual increase of endothelial cells interspace, activated stromal cells, increase of Langerhans' cells, and decrease of plexus in Bowman's layer are the main changes.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Corneal Diseases , Endothelial Cells , Langerhans Cells , Macaca mulatta , Microscopy, Confocal
19.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 573-579, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-360045

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the therapeutic effects of combined administration of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF), recombinant human thrombopoietin (rhTPO) and recombinant human interleukin-2 (rhIL-2) on radiation-induced severe haemopoietic acute radiation sickness (ARS) in rhesus monkeys, so as to provide experimental evidences for the effective clinical treatment.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Seventeen rhesus monkeys were exposed to 7.0 Gy (60)Co γ-ray total body irradiation (TBI) to establish severe haemopoietic ARS model, and were randomly divided into supportive care group, rhG-CSF+rhTPO treatment group and rhG-CSF+rhTPO+rhIL-2 treatment group. Survival time, general signs such as bleeding and infections, and peripheral blood cell counts in each group were monitored. Bone marrow cells were cultivated to examine the colony formation ability. The histomorphology changes of bone marrow were observed at 45 d post irradiation.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>After 7.0 Gy (60)Co γ-ray TBI, monkeys of supportive care group underwent tarry stool and emesis, then died in 12~18 d. The overall survival rate in this group was 16.7%. Gastrointestinal reactions of monkeys in two combined-cytokines treatment groups were inapparent. Combined-cytokines treatment induced 100% survival. Complete blood cells declined sharply after irradiation in each group, but two combined-cytokines treatment schemes could elevate the nadir of all blood cells, shorten the duration of pancytopenia and accelerate the recovery of hemogram. Compared with rhG-CSF+ rhTPO treatment, rhG-CSF+ rhTPO+ rhIL-2 treatment could increase the counts of lymphocytes and monocytes. The colony-formation rate of haemopoietic stem/progenitor cells in bone marrow dropped markedly at 2 d after irradiation. Combined-cytokines treatment promoted the ability of colony formation on day 29. Hematopoietic cells mostly disappeared in bone marrow of animals in supportive care group, but hematopoietic functions were recovered after cytokines were administrated.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>rhG-CSF+ rhTPO and rhG-CSF+ rhTPO+ rhIL-2 treatment can significantly promote hematopoiesis recovery, improve the quantity of life, simplify the supportive therapy, and enhance the survival rate of rhesus monkeys with severe haemopoietic ARS induced by 7.0 Gy (60)Co γ-ray exposure. Especially the application of rhIL-2 can accelerate the recovery of lymphocytes and monocytes and restore the immunological function. Thus, combination of rhG-CSF, rhTPO and rhIL-2 on the basis of supportive care is an efficient strategy to treat severe haemopoietic ARS.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Bone Marrow , Pathology , Bone Marrow Cells , Pathology , Gamma Rays , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor , Pharmacology , Hematopoiesis , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Cell Biology , Interleukin-2 , Pharmacology , Macaca mulatta , Radiation Injuries , Drug Therapy , Random Allocation , Recombinant Proteins , Therapeutic Uses , Thrombopoietin , Pharmacology , Whole-Body Irradiation
20.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 59(3): 210-214, 06/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-751317

ABSTRACT

Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic expression of adipokines in the adipocytes of monosodium glutamate (MSG)-treated obese rats submitted to physical activity.Materials and methods Obesity was induced by neonatal MSG administration. Exercised rats (MSG and control) were subjected to swim training for 30 min for 10 weeks, whereas their respective controls remained sedentary. Total RNA was obtained from sections of the mesenteric adipose tissue of the rats. mRNA levels of adiponectin (Adipoq), tumor necrosis factor alpha (Tnf), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (Ppara), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg) adipokines were quantified by quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR).Results In the exercise-trained control group, the expression of Adipoq increased compared to the sedentary control, which was not observed in the MSG-obese rats. Increased levels of Tnf in MSG-obese rats were not reversed by the swim training. The expression of Ppara was higher in sedentary MSG-obese rats compared to the sedentary control. Swimming increased this adipokine expression in the exercise-trained control rats compared to the sedentary ones. mRNA levels of Pparg were higher in the sedentary MSG-rats compared to the sedentary control; however, the exercise did not influenced its expression in the groups analyzed.Conclusions In conclusion, regular physical activity was not capable to correct the expression of proinflammatory adipokines in MSG-obese rat adipocytes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Molecular Mimicry/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factors , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vaccines/chemistry , Vaccines/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/chemistry , /immunology , /chemistry , /metabolism , Cancer Vaccines/chemistry , Cancer Vaccines/immunology , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Genetic Vectors/immunology , Immunotherapy , Ligands , Lentivirus/genetics , Lentivirus/immunology , Macaca mulatta , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/therapy , Protein Multimerization , TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand/chemistry , Toll-Like Receptors/agonists , Tumor Necrosis Factors/chemistry , Vaccines, Synthetic/chemistry , Viral Matrix Proteins/immunology
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