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Braz. j. anesth ; 73(2): 165-170, March-Apr. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439581


Abstract Background Opioids are the cornerstone in managing postoperative pain; however, they have many side effects. Ketamine and Magnesium (Mg) are NMDA receptor antagonists used as adjuvant analgesics to decrease postoperative opioid consumption. Objective We assumed that adding Mg to ketamine infusion can improve the intraoperative and postoperative analgesic efficacy of ketamine infusion alone in cancer breast surgeries. Methods Ninety patients aged between 18 and 65 years and undergoing elective cancer breast surgery were included in this prospective randomized, double-blind study. Group K received ketamine 0.5 bolus then 0.12 infusion for the first 24 hours postoperatively. Group KM: received ketamine 0.5 and Mg sulfate 50, then ketamine 0.12 and Mg sulfate 8 infusions for the first 24 hours postoperative. The primary outcome was the morphine consumption in the first 24 hours postoperative, while the secondary outcomes were: intraoperative fentanyl consumption, NRS, side effects, and chronic postoperative pain. Results Group KM had less postoperative opioid consumption (14.12 ± 5.11 mg) than Group K (19.43 ± 6.8 mg). Also, Group KM had less intraoperative fentanyl consumption. Both groups were similar in postoperative NRS scores, the incidence of side effects related to opioids, and chronic neuropathic pain. Conclusion Adding Mg to ketamine infusion can safely improve intraoperative and postoperative analgesia with opioid-sparing effect in cancer breast surgery.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Analgesia , Ketamine , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Breast Neoplasms/surgery , Fentanyl , Double-Blind Method , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Magnesium Sulfate/therapeutic use , Morphine/therapeutic use
Braz. j. anesth ; 73(4): 455-466, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447628


Abstract Background This study evaluated the efficacy of epidurally administered magnesium associated with local anesthetics on postoperative pain control. Methods The study protocol was registered in PROSPERO as CRD42021231910. Literature searches were conducted on Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and Web of Science for randomized controlled trials comparing epidural administration of magnesium added to local anesthetics for postoperative pain in elective surgical adult patients. Primary outcomes were the time to the first Postoperative (PO) Analgesic Request (TFAR), 24-hour postoperative opioid consumption, and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores at the first six and 24 postoperative hours. Secondary outcomes included Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV), pruritus, and shivering. Quality of evidence was assessed using GRADE criteria. Results Seventeen studies comparing epidural were included. Effect estimates are described as weighted Mean Differences (MD) and 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI) for the main outcomes: TFAR (MD = 72.4 min; 95% CI = 10.22-134.58 min; p < 0.001; I2= 99.8%; GRADE: very low); opioid consumption (MD = -7.2 mg (95% CI = -9.30 - -5.09; p < 0.001; I2= 98%; GRADE: very low). VAS pain scores within the first six PO hours (VAS) (MD = -1.01 cm; 95% CI = -1.40-0.64 cm; p < 0.001; I2= 88%; GRADE: very low), at 24 hours (MD = -0.56 cm; 95% CI = -1.14-0.01 cm; p= 0.05; I2= 97%; GRADE: very low). Conclusions Magnesium sulfate delayed TFAR and decreased 24-hour opioid consumption and early postoperative pain intensity. However, imprecision and inconsistency pervaded meta-analyses, causing very low certainty of effect estimates.

Humans , Anesthetics, Local , Magnesium Sulfate , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Analgesics, Opioid , Magnesium
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 20(3): e784, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1351980


Introducción: El efecto del sulfato de magnesio como adyuvante de la analgesia en la práctica de diferentes intervenciones quirúrgicas es un tema en debate y estudio constante con el fin de probar su eficacia y seguridad en la mejora de la evolución posoperatoria de los pacientes. Objetivo: Evaluar la efectividad y seguridad del sulfato de magnesio como ahorrador de opioides en la anestesia general de pacientes intervenidos por cirugía mayor abdominal. Métodos: Estudio cuasiexperimental, prospectivo, longitudinal realizado en 44 pacientes del Hospital Universitario "General Calixto García", desde diciembre de 2019 hasta diciembre de 2020. Se crearon dos grupos, un grupo estudio (sulfato de magnesio) y otro control. Se evaluó la analgesia intraoperatoria y posoperatoria, el consumo intraoperatorio de fentanil, la necesidad de analgesia de rescate y las complicaciones perioperatorias. Resultados: En los pacientes que se les administró el sulfato de magnesio la tensión arterial media, la frecuencia cardiaca y el índice de shock tuvieron una tendencia a mantenerse por debajo de la media global. El índice de perfusión aumentó y se mantuvo con esa tendencia y tuvieron un menor consumo de fentanil. Conclusiones: La administración de sulfato de magnesio como adyuvante de la anestesia general en pacientes intervenidos por cirugía abdominal mayor electiva, resultó efectiva y segura, pues brindó mayor analgesia perioperatoria, estabilidad hemodinámica, menor consumo de opioides intraoperatorio y menor rescate analgésico posoperatorio que cuando no se usó. La incidencia de complicaciones fue baja y sin repercusión clínica(AU)

Introduction: The effect of magnesium sulfate as an adjunct to analgesia during different surgical interventions is a subject under constant debate and study, with respect to showing its efficacy and safety in improving the postoperative evolution of patients. Objective: To assess the effectiveness and safety of magnesium sulfate as an opioid sparer in general anesthesia with patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. Methods: Quasiexperimental, prospective and longitudinal study carried out, from December 2019 to December 2020, with 44 patients from General Calixto García University Hospital. Two groups were created: a study group (magnesium sulfate) and a control group. Intraoperative and postoperative analgesia, intraoperative fentanyl consumption, requirement of salvage analgesia, as well as perioperative complications were evaluated. Results: In the patients who were administered magnesium sulfate, mean arterial pressure, heart rate and shock index tended to remain below the global mean. The perfusion index increased and maintained this trend, while they had a lower consumption of fentanyl. Conclusions: The administration of magnesium sulfate as an adjunct to general anesthesia in patients undergoing major elective abdominal surgery was effective and safe, as it provided greater perioperative analgesia, hemodynamic stability, less intraoperative opioid consumption and less postoperative analgesic rescue than in the control group. The incidence of complications was low and without clinical repercussions(AU)

Humans , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Analgesics, Opioid , Anesthesia, General , Magnesium Sulfate/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Perfusion Index/methods
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 5(4): 322-345, out.dez.2021. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399777


Exacerbação aguda de asma é uma condição frequente na criança e no adolescente e uma das causas mais comuns de procura aos pronto atendimentos e de internações. Pode ocorrer em pacientes que ainda não foram diagnosticados como asmáticos, e mesmo naqueles cujo controle da doença não se encontre adequado. Reconhecer a exacerbação e iniciar seu tratamento desde o domicílio até o adequado manejo inicial em ambiente hospitalar é fundamental para evitar sua evolução para complicações que coloquem o paciente em risco de vida. O tratamento compreende o reconhecimento e tratamento da hipoxemia, da obstrução e do processo inflamatório, além de fornecer orientações na alta hospitalar e encaminhamentos para continuidade do tratamento.

Acute exacerbation of asthma is a frequent condition in children and adolescents and one of the most common causes of seeking emergency care and hospitalization. It can occur in patients who have not yet been diagnosed with asthma, and even in those whose disease control is not adequate. Recognizing the exacerbation and starting its treatment from home until proper initial management in a hospital environment is essential to avoid its evolution to complications that put the patient at risk of life. Treatment comprises the recognition and treatment of hypoxemia, obstruction, and the inflammatory process, in addition to providing guidance at hospital discharge and referrals for continued treatment.

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Asthma , Societies, Medical , Therapeutics , Allergy and Immunology , Patients , Pediatrics , Referral and Consultation , Theophylline , Bronchial Spasm , Epinephrine , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Ipratropium , Anesthetics, Inhalation , Emergency Medical Services , Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists , Noninvasive Ventilation , Aminophylline , Hospitalization , Ketamine , Magnesium Sulfate , Hypoxia , Anti-Bacterial Agents
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 86(6): 583-590, dic. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388700


OBJETIVO: Reportar el caso de una gestante con miastenia grave (MG) más preeclampsia-eclampsia y crisis miasténica en el puerperio mediato, y realizar una revisión de la literatura sobre el manejo farmacológico. MÉTODO: Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 26 años con MG, primigesta de 36 semanas de gestación, quien cursó con eclampsia y recibió fenitoína por 24 horas. Tuvo parto espontáneo sin complicaciones y crisis miasténica al día 11 del puerperio asociada a infección de vías urinarias y sepsis. Se realiza revisión de la literatura en PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, LILACS y Scopus, empleando los términos "Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced", "Preeclampsia" y "Eclampsia", combinados con "Myasthenia Gravis", durante el periodo de publicación de 1960 a junio 2020, en inglés y español. RESULTADOS: Se encontraron 12 reportes de caso, dos con eclampsia y MG; el caso aquí reportado es el número 13. Ocho pacientes no recibieron medicamentos profilácticos de eclampsia y tres de ellas convulsionaron. En las que se usó sulfato de magnesio, todas cursaron con crisis miasténica. CONCLUSIONES: La evidencia actual en cuanto a la profilaxis y el tratamiento de la eclampsia y la MG corresponde a reportes de casos. El uso de sulfato de magnesio está contraindicado en pacientes con MG, por lo que se han utilizado fenitoína y levetiracetam.

OBJECTIVE: To report a case of pregnant women with myasthenia gravis (MG), plus preeclampsia-eclampsia and myasthenic crisis in the mediate puerperium; to conduct a literature review regarding its pharmacological management. METHOD: 26-year-old primigravida with 36 weeks of gestation and previous history of MG, who developed eclampsia and was treated with phenytoin for 24 hours, with later spontaneous delivery without any complications nor new seizures; and myasthenic crisis on day 11 of the puerperium associated with urinary tract infection and sepsis. A literature review was conducted in PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, LILACS and Scopus, using the controlled vocabulary "Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced", "Preeclampsia" and "Eclampsia", combined with "Myasthenia Gravis", between 1960 and June 2020, in English and Spanish. RESULTS: 12 case reports were found, two of these with eclampsia and MG, the case reported here was number 13. In eight cases patients did not receive any prophylactic drugs for eclampsia and three of them had convulsions. In the cases where magnesium sulfate was used, all developed myasthenic crisis. CONCLUSIONS: The current evidence regarding prophylactic management and treatment corresponds to case reports. The use of magnesium sulfate is contraindicated in patients with MG, therefore phenytoin and levetiracetam have been used.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Pre-Eclampsia/drug therapy , Eclampsia/drug therapy , Myasthenia Gravis/complications , Pre-Eclampsia/prevention & control , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced , Eclampsia/prevention & control , Magnesium Sulfate/therapeutic use , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(3): e602, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280185


Abstract Radical penectomy (RP) is infrequently performed as it is reserved for specific cases of penile cancer, hence the paucity of reports regarding surgical and anesthetic considerations. Acute postoperative pain, chronic post-surgical pain, concomitant mood disorders as well as a profound impact on the patient's quality of life have been documented. This case is of a patient with diabetes and coronary heart disease, who presented with advanced, over infected penile cancer, depressive disorder and a history of pain of neuropathic characteristics. The patient underwent radical penectomy using a combined spinal-epidural technique for anesthesia. Preoperatively, the patient was treated with pregabalin and magnesium sulphate, and later received a blood transfusion due to intraoperative blood loss. Adequate intra and postoperative analgesia was achieved with L-bupivacaine given through a peridural catheter during one week. Recovery was good, pain was stabilized to preoperative levels and the patient received pharmacological support and follow-up by psychiatry and the pain team.

Resumen La penectomía radical (PR) es una cirugía infrecuente, reservada para casos específicos de cáncer de pene, por lo que hay escasos informes sobre sus consideraciones quirúrgicas y anestésicas. Se ha documentado dolor agudo postoperatorio, dolor crónico posquirúrgico y alteraciones del estado de ánimo concomitantes, así como un profundo impacto en la calidad de vida posterior del paciente. Se presenta el caso de un paciente diabético y cardiópata coronario con cáncer de pene avanzado y sobreinfectado, trastorno depresivo y dolor previo de características neuropáticas, que recibe técnica combinada espinal-peridural para cirugía de penectomía radical. Se le trata también con pregabalina preoperatoria, sulfato de magnesio y transfusión por sangrado quirúrgico. Se otorgó una adecuada analgesia intra y postoperatoria, mediante catéter peridural con L-bupivacaína hasta por una semana. El paciente tuvo una buena recuperación, estabilización del dolor a niveles preoperatorios, controles y apoyo farmacológico por psiquiatría de enlace y equipo del dolor.

Humans , Male , Aged , Penile Neoplasms , Penile Neoplasms/surgery , Catheters , Anesthetics , Pain, Postoperative , Psychiatry , Quality of Life , Blood Transfusion , Bupivacaine , Coronary Disease , Depressive Disorder , Pain Management , Analgesia , Anesthesia , Magnesium Sulfate
Gac. méd. boliv ; 44(1): 69-74, jun. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286575


Objetivos: explicar la utilidad del sulfato de magnesio en el área de anestesiología con la información disponible de libre acceso. Material y métodos: para alcanzar el objetivo se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de ensayos clínicos, meta análisis publicados en importantes plataformas de datos de ciencia médicas. Con palabras de búsqueda como: anestesiología y sulfato de magnesio, analgesia, relajantes musculares, escalofríos, Ginecología-Eclampsia. Resultados: se obtuvo información variada en el ámbito de anestesiología, seleccionando aquellos que hacen referencia en al ámbito de anestesiología, realizando la combinación de palabras, se obtuvo en google académico de alrededor de 114 artículos relacionados, de los cuales se eligió aquellos ensayos clínicos y meta análisis. Conclusiones: se concluyó que el sulfato de magnesio ayuda en disminución de la dosis de los anestésicos, sin embargo, no es concluyente que como adyuvante ayude en la analgesia. Se observó que prolonga la acción de los relajantes musculares. Se sugiere permanecer con los estudios para revelar la dosis, inicio de administración, calidad para la inclusión en estudios de meta análisis.

Objectives: Explain the usefulness of magnesium sulphate in the area of anesthesiology with the freely available information. Material and methods: To achieve the objective, a bibliographic review of clinical trials was carried out, meta-analyzes published in important medical science data platforms. With search words like: anesthesiology and magnesium sulfate, analgesia, muscle relaxants, chills, Gynecology-Eclampsia. Results: A variety of information was obtained in the field of anesthesiology, selecting those that refer to the field of anesthesiology, it was obtained in academic google by combining the words of around 114 related articles, of which those clinical trials and also meta-analysis. Conclusions: It is concluded that magnesium sulfate helps in reducing the dose of anesthetics, however it is not conclusive that as an adjuvant it helps in analgesia. It was observed to prolong the action of muscle relaxants. It is suggested to stay with the studies to reveal the dose, initiation of administration, quality for inclusion in meta-analysis studies.

Magnesium Sulfate
ABCS health sci ; 46: e021309, 09 fev. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349415


INTRODUCTION: Premature rupture of membranes remains a challenge for professionals due to the high rates of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, mainly related to complications resulting from prematurity. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the scientific production about premature rupture of membranes in pregnancies above 28 weeks and below 34 weeks. METHODS: Integrative literature review carried out in the Lilacs, SciELO, Medline and Cochrane Library databases, between 2014 and 2018, in Portuguese, English and Spanish, including original articles, available in full online, with free access, that addressed the study theme, using the keywords "premature rupture of ovular membranes", "premature labor" and "pregnancy complications" combined using the Boolean operators "AND" and "OR". RESULTS: Fourteen studies were included. It was possible to highlight the main recommendations regarding preterm premature rupture of membranes, divided into six categories for discussion, namely: indications for expectant management and delivery induction, prophylactic antibiotic therapy, prenatal corticosteroids, use of tocolytics, recommendations regarding the use of magnesium sulfate and amniocentesis. CONCLUSION: It was identified that expectant management is the ideal approach, with constant monitoring of the pregnant woman and the fetus, in addition to the administration of prophylactic antibiotics and prenatal corticosteroids, in the face of premature rupture of membranes in pregnancies between 28 and 34 weeks in order to provide the best maternal and perinatal results, guiding health professionals to evidence-based practice.

INTRODUÇÃO: A ruptura prematura de membranas continua a ser um desafio para os profissionais devido às altas taxas de morbimortalidade materna e neonatal, relacionada principalmente às complicações decorrentes da prematuridade. OBJETIVO: Analisar a produção científica acerca das evidências frente a ruptura prematura de membranas em gestações acima de 28 semanas e abaixo de 34 semanas. MÉTODOS: Revisão integrativa da literatura realizada nas bases de dados Lilacs, SciELO, Medline e Cochrane Library, entre 2014-2018, em português, inglês e espanhol, incluídos artigos originais, disponíveis completos online, com acesso livre, que abordassem a temática do estudo, utilizando os descritores "ruptura prematura de membranas ovulares", "trabalho de parto prematuro" e "complicações na gravidez" combinados por meio dos operadores booleanos "AND" e "OR". RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 14 estudos, nos quais foi possível evidenciar as principais recomendações frente a ruptura prematura de membranas fetais pré-termo, divididos em seis categorias para discussão, sendo elas: indicações para o manejo expectante e indução do parto, antibioticoterapia profilática, corticosteroides pré-natais, uso de tocolíticos, recomendações quanto ao uso de sulfato de magnésio e realização de amniocentese. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo possibilitou identificar que o manejo expectante é a conduta ideal, com monitorização constante da gestante e do feto, além da administração de antibióticos profiláticos e corticosteroides pré-natais, frente a ruptura prematura de membranas em gestações entre 28 e 34 semanas a fim de proporcionar os melhores resultados maternos e perinatais, guiando os profissionais da saúde para uma prática baseada em evidências.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture , Obstetric Labor, Premature , Tocolysis , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Watchful Waiting , Amniocentesis , Labor, Induced , Magnesium Sulfate
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 31: 30211, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291269


O sulfato de magnésio tem sido utilizado em obstetrícia por décadas e milhares de mulheres já foram incluídas em ensaios clínicos que estudaram sua eficácia em uma variedade de condições gestacionais. Os principais usos do medicamento na atual prática obstétrica incluem prevenção e tratamento de convulsões eclâmpticas, prolongamento da gravidez para administração antenatal de corticosteroides e neuroproteção fetal na iminência de interrupção prematura da gravidez. Em função da alta qualidade e da consistência dos resultados de importantes ensaios clínicos, a indicação do sulfato de magnésio para profilaxia e terapia das convulsões eclâmpticas está bem estabelecida. Entretanto, tal unanimidade não ocorre com relação ao seu emprego como tocolítico, tanto pela discussão sobre sua efetividade quanto pelas doses mais altas usualmente utilizadas para esse fim. Em relação à importância do sulfato de magnésio como agente neuroprotetor fetal, a paralisia cerebral é a causa mais comum de deficiência motora na infância e tem como fator de risco mais importante a prematuridade, cuja incidência tem aumentado significativamente. Diretrizes nacionais e internacionais mais recentes, baseadas em resultados de ensaios clínicos randomizados e metanálises de boa qualidade, mostraram que a administração antenatal de sulfato de magnésio na iminência de parto pré-termo precoce é uma intervenção eficiente, viável, segura, com boa relação custo-benefício e pode contribuir para a melhoria dos desfechos neurológicos neonatais.

Magnesium sulfate has been used in obstetrics for decades and thousands of women have already been included in clinical trials that have studied its effectiveness in a variety of gestational conditions. The main uses of the drug in current obstetrical practice include prevention and treatment of eclamptic seizures, prolongation of pregnancy for antenatal administration of corticosteroids, and fetal neuroprotection in the imminence of premature termination of pregnancy. Because of the high quality and consistency of the results of important clinical trials, the indication of magnesium sulfate for prophylaxis and therapy of eclamptic seizures is well established. However, such unanimity does not occur regarding its use as tocolytic, either by the discussion of its effectiveness or by the higher doses usually used for this purpose. Regarding the importance of magnesium sulfate as a fetal neuroprotective agent, cerebral palsy is the most common cause of motor deficits in childhood and has a significantly higher incidence of prematurity as a major risk factor. More recent national and international guidelines, based on results from randomized controlled trials and good quality meta-analyzes, have shown that the antenatal administration of magnesium sulfate at the imminence of early preterm delivery is a cost-effective, viable, efficient intervention and safe and can contribute to the improvement of neonatal neurological outcomes.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Magnesium Sulfate/therapeutic use , Obstetrics , Tocolysis , Cerebral Palsy , Eclampsia/drug therapy , Neuroprotection , Obstetric Labor, Premature , Magnesium
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(5): 1625-1630, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131536


Magnesium sulphate (MS) and dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate (DSS) are laxative drugs frequently used for the treatment of impactions. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of MS and DSS in fecal hydration, output and systemic hydration in healthy horses. Five healthy horses received 3 treatments with a 21-day interval. Treatment 1 was performed with administration of 4 liters of warm water; treatment 2: administration of 4 liters of warm water associated with 1g/kg of MS; and treatment 3: administration of 4 liters of warm water associated with 20mg/kg DSS. General and specific physical examination of the digestive system were performed, alongside with packed cell volume and total plasma protein measurement, abdominal ultrasonography and quantification of the amount and hydration of feces, before and 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours after the treatments. No adverse effects were observed. The administration of laxatives promoted greater fecal output and hydration without resulting in systemic dehydration, yet no differences were observed between treatments. The absence of adverse effects of DSS demonstrates the safety of its use as a laxative drug at a dose of 20mg/kg. Studies comparing the effects of the laxative drugs in horses with large colon impaction are needed.(AU)

O sulfato de magnésio (SM) e o dioctil-sulfossuccinato de sódio (DSS) são drogas laxativas frequentemente utilizadas no tratamento da compactação. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar os efeitos do SM e do DSS na hidratação e eliminação fecal, e na hidratação sistêmica de cavalos saudáveis. Cinco cavalos receberam três tratamentos, com intervalo de 21 dias. O tratamento 1 consistiu na administração de quatro litros de água morna; o tratamento 2: administração de quatro litros de água morna associada a 1g/kg de SM; e o tratamento 3: administração de quatro litros de água morna associada a 20mg/kg de DSS. Foram realizados exames físicos gerais e específicos do trato digestivo, hematócrito e proteína plasmática total, ultrassonografia abdominal e mensuração da quantidade e hidratação das fezes antes e após seis, 12, 24, 36 e 48 horas dos tratamentos. Não foram observados efeitos adversos. A administração de ambos os laxantes promoveu maior produção fecal e hidratação, sem resultar em desidratação sistêmica, entretanto não houve diferença entre os tratamentos. A ausência de efeitos adversos do DSS demonstra a segurança de seu uso como medicamento laxante na dose de 20mg/kg. São necessários estudos que comparem o efeito dos laxantes em equinos portadores de compactação de cólon.(AU)

Animals , Colon/pathology , Dioctyl Sulfosuccinic Acid/therapeutic use , Laxatives/administration & dosage , Fecal Impaction/therapy , Horses , Magnesium Sulfate/therapeutic use , Fecal Impaction/veterinary , Fluid Therapy/methods
Medisan ; 24(4)jul.-ago. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1125134


Introducción: El temblor es frecuente. Además de agravar el dolor, aumenta la demanda metabólica y el consumo de oxígeno; varios fármacos son utilizados para eliminarlo. Objetivo: Determinar la efectividad de la ketamina y el sulfato de magnesio en pacientes con temblor posanestesia subaracnoidea. Métodos: Se realizó una investigación cuasi-experimental de 394 pacientes, quienes se encontraban bajo anestesia espinal de forma electiva, atendidos en el Hospital General Docente Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso de Santiago de Cuba, desde septiembre de 2016 hasta igual periodo de 2018. Se dividieron en 2 grupos aleatorios con 197 integrantes cada uno: A (ketamina 0,4 mg/kg) y B (sulfato de magnesio 50 mg/kg), a los cuales se le suministraron los medicamentos una vez iniciado el temblor. Resultados: En ambos grupos predominaron los pacientes de 45-64 años de edad. Hubo homogeneidad entre hombres y mujeres, sin significación estadística (p= 0,5378). La mayoría de los afectados se encontraban en el grupo de riesgo anestésico II (88,1 %). En los 2 grupos primó del grado III del temblor antes de la terapia, solo 3,5 % del grupo B a los 30 minutos mantuvo igual condición. En los primeros 10 minutos de suministrar el sulfato de magnesio despareció el temblor en la mayoría de los pacientes (74,5 %). Dicho fármaco resultó efectivo en 83,8 % de los afectados y en aquellos que recibieron ketamina fue de 42,1 %, ambos sin efectos secundarios. Conclusiones: La incidencia del temblor fue alta. La ketamina y el sulfato de magnesio fueron efectivos al permitir la desaparición del temblor en un corto periodo de tiempo, pero el segundo fármaco superó al primero en magnitud considerable.

Introduction: The shaking is frequent. Besides increasing the pain, it increases the metabolic demand and the oxygen consumption; several drugs are used to eliminate it. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of ketamine and magnesium sulfate in patients with shaking after subarachnoid anesthesia. Methods: A quasi-experimental investigation of 394 patients who received spinal anesthesia in an elective way, assisted at Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso Teaching General Hospital was carried out in Santiago de Cuba, from September, 2016 to the same period in 2018. They were divided in 2 random groups with 197 members each one: A (ketamine 0.4 mg/kg) and B (magnesium sulfate 50 mg/kg), to whom the medications were given once shaking began. Results: In both groups the 45-64 years patients prevailed. There was homogeneity between men and women, without statistical significance (p = 0.5378). Most of those affected were in the group of anesthetic risk II (88.1 %). In the 2 groups the degree III of shaking before therapy prevailed, just 3.5 % in group B maintained the same condition at 30 minutes. In the first 10 minutes of giving the magnesium sulfate shaking disappeared in most of the patients (74.5 %). This drug was effective in 83.8 % of those affected and in those that received ketamine it was of 42.1 %, both without side effects. Conclusions: The incidence of shaking was high. The ketamine and magnesium sulfate were effective when allowing the disappearance of shaking in a short period of time, but the second drug overcame the first one in a considerable magnitude.

Anesthesia/adverse effects , Ketamine/therapeutic use , Magnesium Sulfate/therapeutic use , Tremor
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(4): 1491-1497, 01-06-2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147326


This project was designedto explore the effects of ritodrine hydrochloride combined with magnesium sulfate in the prevention of preterm delivery of patients with threatened premature birth. 128 cases of threatened premature birth were randomly divided into two groups according to the number table method. The control group was treated with magnesium sulfate, while the study group was treated with ritodrine hydrochloride combined with magnesium sulfate. The data (p > 0.05) was analyzed using SPSS 18.0 and was subjected to Chi-square and t-test. The onset time and prolonged gestation time of the study group were shorter than those of the control group (p < 0.05). There was no difference in the incidence of myocardial ischemia between the study group and the control group (p > 0.05). The heart rate per minute of the study group was higher than that of the control group (p < 0.05). There was no difference in blood pressure between the study group and the control group. Nevertheless, the neurological function, pregnancy outcome, and neonatal status of the group were better than those of the control group (p < 0.05).(AU)

Este projeto foi desenvolvido para explorar os efeitos do cloridrato de ritodrina combinado com sulfato de magnésio na prevenção do parto prematuro de pacientes com risco de nascimento prematuro. 128 casos de nascimento prematuro ameaçado foram divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos, de acordo com o método da tabela numérica. O grupo de controle foi tratado com sulfato de magnésio, enquanto o grupo de estudo foi tratado com cloridrato de ritodrina combinado com sulfato de magnésio. Os dados (p > 0,05) foram analisados pelo SPSS 18.0 e submetidos ao teste do qui-quadrado e ao teste t. O tempo de início e o tempo prolongado de gestação do grupo de estudo foram menores que os do grupo de controle (p < 0,05). Não houve diferença na incidência de isquemia miocárdica entre o grupo de estudo e o grupo de controle (p > 0,05). A frequência cardíaca por minuto do grupo de estudo foi superior à do grupo controle (p < 0,05). Não houve diferença na pressão arterial entre o grupo de estudo e o grupo de controle. No entanto, a função neurológica, o resultado da gravidez e o status neonatal do grupo foram melhores do que os do grupo de controle (p < 0,05).(AU)

Ritodrine , Obstetric Labor, Premature , Magnesium Sulfate , Blood Pressure , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Myocardial Ischemia , Premature Birth , Disease Prevention , Arterial Pressure , Heart Rate
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(1): 116-121, feb. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092796


Resumen: Introducción: En recién nacidos (RN) con encefalopatía hipóxico isquémica (EHI) en hipotermia se describen alte raciones metabólicas que se asocian a pronóstico neurológico. La hipomagnesemia ha sido reportada en la literatura, pero no es medida ni corregida en todos los centros de atención neonatal. Objeti vo: Evaluar la frecuencia de hipomagnesemia e hipocalcemia en RN con EHI en tratamiento con hipotermia corporal total y evaluar la respuesta al aporte de sulfato de magnesio. Pacientes y Méto do: Estudio prospectivo, observational y descriptivo en RN con EHI sometidos a hipotermia corporal total, hospitalizados entre los años 2016-2017. Se realizó medición seriada en sangre de magnesemia (Mg) y calcemia (Ca). Con Mg menor o igual de 1,8 mg/dl se administró suplemento como sulfato de Mg para mantener niveles entre 1,9 y 2,8 mg/dl. Se describió la frecuencia de hipomagnesemia e hipocalcemia y su presentación en el tiempo. Se realizó registro prospectivo de evolución clínica. Se hizo un análisis estadístico descriptivo, con medidas de tendencia central. Resultados: Se incluyeron 16 pacientes. Presentaron hipomagnesemia 13/16 (81,3%), la que fue precoz (6-36 h de vida), nor malizándose con aporte de sulfato de magnesio, requiriendo 2a dosis 4 de ellos. Presentaron hipo- calcemia 6/16 (37,5%). Conclusiones: La hipomagnesemia es frecuente (80%), similar a lo descrito en la literatura. Dado su importancia fisiológica debe controlarse y corregirse, de igual manera que el calcio.

Abstract: Introduction: In newborns with the diagnosis of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) treated with hypother mia, metabolic alterations are observed, which are associated with neurological prognosis. Hypo magnesemia has been reported frequently in the literature in these patients, but it is not measured or corrected in all neonatal healthcare centers. Objective: To evaluate the frequency of hypomag nesemia and hypocalcemia in newborns with HIE treated with whole-body hypothermia and to evaluate the response to the magnesium sulfate administration. Patients and Method: Prospective, observational and descriptive study in hospitalized newborns with the diagnosis of HIE and trea ted with whole-body hypothermia between the years 2016 and 2017. Serial blood measurement of magnesemia (Mg) and calcemia (Ca) was performed. When presenting an Mg level < 1.8 mg/dl, supplementation with magnesium sulfate was administered to maintain levels between 1.9 and 2.8 mg/dl. The frecuency of hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia and clinical evolution was registered. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed, with central tendency measures. Results: Sixteen ca ses were included, 13 of them presented hypomagnesemia (81.3%), with early-onset (6-36 hours of life), which was normalized with magnesium sulfate treatment, receiving a second dose 4 patients. Six of 16 patients presented hypocalcemia (37.5 %). Conclusions: Hypomagnesemia is frequent (80%), similar to that described in the literature, and should be controlled and corrected early, given its physiological role, in the same way that calcium is controlled.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/complications , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/therapy , Hypocalcemia/etiology , Hypothermia, Induced , Magnesium Deficiency/etiology , Biomarkers/blood , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Hypocalcemia/diagnosis , Hypocalcemia/drug therapy , Hypocalcemia/epidemiology , Magnesium/blood , Magnesium Deficiency/diagnosis , Magnesium Deficiency/drug therapy , Magnesium Deficiency/epidemiology , Magnesium Sulfate/therapeutic use
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(1): 42-47, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137142


Abstract Introduction and objectives: Magnesium sulphate has been used in anesthesia because it has relevant clinical features such as: analgesia, autonomic response control and muscle relaxation. Using the agent to establish adequate conditions for tracheal intubation remains controversial. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of magnesium sulfate and rocuronium for rapid sequence tracheal intubation in adults. Methods: Double blind, randomized, unicentric, prospective study assessed 68 patients, ASA 1 or 2, over 18 years, scheduled for appendectomy under general anesthesia. Patients were divided into two groups. GM patients received 50 sulfate and GR patients, 1 rocuronium immediately before anesthesia induction. Arterial Blood Pressure (BP) and Heart Rate (HR) were measured in both groups at five times related to the administration of the drugs studied. The primary variable was the clinical status of tracheal intubation. Trial Registry: RBR-4xr92k. Results: GM was associated with no significant hemodynamic parameter change after injection. GM showed 85% (29/34) poor intubation clinical status, 15% (5/34) good, and 0% excellent (< 0.0001). Conclusion: Magnesium sulfate did not provide adequate clinical status when compared to rocuronium at a dose of 50 for rapid sequence intubation in adult patients.

Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: O sulfato de magnésio vem sendo utilizado em anestesia por apresentar características relevantes à prática clínica como: analgesia, controle dos reflexos autonômicos e relaxamento muscular. A utilização deste agente para garantir condições adequadas para a intubação traqueal permanece controverso. O objetivo deste trabalho é determinar a efetividade do sulfato de magnésio comparado ao rocurônio para intubação orotraqueal em sequência rápida em pacientes adultos. Métodos: Este estudo duplamente encoberto, aleatorizado, unicêntrico e prospectivo avaliou 68 pacientes, ASA 1 ou 2, maiores de 18 anos, escalados para cirurgias de apendicectomia sob anestesia geral. Foram alocados em dois grupos, o GM recebeu 50 de sulfato de magnésio e o GR, 1 de rocurônio imediatamente antes da indução anestésica. Os valores de Pressão Arterial (PA) e Frequência Cardíaca (FC) foram aferidos nos dois grupos em cinco momentos relacionados com a administração dos fármacos do estudo. A variável primária foi condição clínica da intubação. Registro: RBR-4xr92k. Resultados: O GM não apresentou alteração significativa dos parâmetros hemodinâmicos após infusão. O GM apresentou 85% (29/34) de condição pobre, 15% (5/34) condição clínica boa e 0% condição clínica excelente (< 0,0001). Conclusão: O sulfato de magnésio não propiciou condições clínicas aceitáveis quando comparado ao rocurônio para intubação orotraqueal em sequência rápida em pacientes adultos quando utilizada a dose de 50

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents , Rocuronium , Rapid Sequence Induction and Intubation , Analgesics , Magnesium Sulfate , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 18(3): e522, sept.-dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093120


Introducción: Una de las urgencias más temidas durante la instrumentación de la vía respiratoria es el broncoespasmo. El sulfato de magnesio, administrado por vía endovenosa, tiene un efecto broncodilatador al antagonizar los canales del calcio, inhibir la contracción muscular mediada por el calcio y favorecer la relajación del músculo liso bronquial. Objetivo: Evaluar la eficacia del sulfato de magnesio endovenoso en pacientes con broncoespasmo durante broncoscopias. Métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal en 20 pacientes, con broncoespasmo, desencadenado por manipulación de la vía respiratoria con broncoscopio flexible, tratados con sulfato de magnesio 50 mg/kg, (máximo 2 g), por vía endovenosa durante 5 min. Resultados: Predominaron los hombres entre 50-59 años (75 por ciento), todos los pacientes eran fumadores, 15 pacientes fueron clasificados como estado físico ASA III. Sufrieron broncoespasmo de intensidad moderada 60 por ciento, clasificado según la clínica y monitorización de SpO2. En 75 por ciento de los pacientes cedió el broncoespasmo tras el tratamiento sin administrar otro medicamento. No se registraron efectos adversos. Ningún paciente necesitó intubación orotraqueal para ventilación ni requirió hospitalización por más de 8 h. Conclusiones: El sulfato de magnesio es una buena opción farmacológica para el tratamiento de urgencia del broncoespasmo desencadenado por manipulación de la vía respiratoria(AU)

Introduction: One of the most feared emergencies during the instrumentation of the respiratory tract is bronchospasm. Magnesium sulfate, administered intravenously, has a bronchodilation effect by antagonizing calcium channels, inhibiting muscle contraction mediated by calcium and promoting bronchial smooth muscle relaxation. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of magnesium sulfate administered intravenously in patients with bronchospasm during bronchoscopy. Methods: Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study carried out with 20 patients, with bronchospasm, triggered by airway manipulation with flexible bronchoscope, treated with 50 mg/kg of magnesium sulfate, (maximum 2 g), administered intravenously for 5 min. Results: Men between 50-59 years (75 percent) predominated. All patients were smokers. 15 patients were classified with physical state ASA III. They suffered bronchospasm of mild intensity 60 percent, classified according to the clinic and monitoring of oxygen saturation. In 75 percent of the patients, the bronchospasm ceased after the treatment without administering any other medication. No adverse effects were recorded. No patient needed orotracheal intubation for ventilation or required hospitalization for more than 8 hours. Conclusions: Magnesium sulfate is a good pharmacological option for the emergency treatment of bronchospasm triggered by manipulation of the respiratory tract(AU)

Humans , Male , Bronchial Spasm/drug therapy , Magnesium Sulfate/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Bronchoscopes/adverse effects
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 35(2): 7-13, Jul.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1120190


Con el objetivo de evaluar la eficacia del sulfato de magnesio como coadyuvante en la analgesia postoperatoria en pacientes sometidos a colecistectomía abierta que ingresaron al Hospital Central Universitario Dr. Antonio María Pineda durante el período mayo­agosto de 2018, se realizó un ensayo clínico controlado simple ciego cuya muestra estuvo formada por 50 pacientes asignados aleatoriamente en dos grupos (relación 1:1): grupo experimental quienes recibieron sulfato de magnesio a una dosis de 50 mg/kg vía intravenoso (IV) más ketoprofeno 100 mg IV y grupo control a quienes se les administró solo ketoprofeno 100 mg IV. La intensidad del dolor se estimó a través de la escala visual análoga (EVA). La intensidad basal del dolor fue menor en el grupo experimental. Las dosis analgésicas de rescate requeridas fueron superiores en el grupo control (p  0,05) mientras que las náuseas se presentaron sólo en el grupo control. El 62,5% de los pacientes del grupo control con EVA > 4 ameritó medicación de rescate entre 30 minutos a 12 horas post-cirugía y el 37,5% de los pacientes del grupo experimental la requirió entre 8 a 24 horas (p < 0,05). Los resultados evidencian que el sulfato de magnesio es una alternativa efectiva en el tratamiento del dolor postoperatorio.

In order to evaluate the efficacy of magnesium sulphate as a coadjuvant in postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing open cholecystectomy admitted to the Hospital Central Universitario Dr. Antonio Maria Pineda during the May - August 2018 period, we performed a controlled single blind study with a sample of 50 patients randomly assigned to two groups (1:1 ratio): experimental group which received 50 mg/kg intravenous magnesium sulfate plus ketoprofen 100 mg IV and control group which only received ketoprofen 100 mg IV. The intensity of pain was estimated through the visual analogue scale (VAS). Basal pain intensity was less in the experimental group. Analgesic rescue doses were higher in the control group (p  0.05) while nausea was only seen in this group. 62.5% of patients of the control group with VAS > 4 required rescue medication between 30 minutes and 12 hours post-surgery while 37.5% of patients of the experimental group received rescue medication between 8 to 24 hours post-surgery (p < 0.05). The results show that magnesium sulphate is an effective alternative in the treatment of postoperative pain.

Humans , Male , Female , Cholecystectomy , Analgesia , Magnesium Sulfate/administration & dosage , Magnesium Sulfate/therapeutic use , Pain, Postoperative , Perioperative Care , Pain Management
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(1): 79-88, jan./fev. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048562


The potato plant presents extraordinary productive capacity, being the fertilization one of the essential factors to optimize the cultivars potential. Potassium (K), the nutrient most absorbed and transported by the crop, interferes with the productivity and tubers quality. Despite many efforts to improve the general and nutritional management of the crop, information as K source and its parceling are still not well elucidated, generating doubts to the producers regarding the decision making. The aim of this study was to evaluate the development, productivity and potatoes quality in relation to sources and proportions of potassic fertilization and its subdivision. The field experiment were conducted with the Agate variety, in the municipalities of Ibicoara - BA and São Gotardo - MG. The design was in randomized blocks, in factorial 6X2, with four replications. The treatments consisted of the combination of potassium chloride and double sulfate of potassium and magnesium (100% KCl; 87.5% KCl + 12.5% K2SO4.2MgSO4; 75% KCl + 25% K2SO4.2MgSO4; 50% KCl + 50% K2SO4.2MgSO4; 25% KCl + 75% K2SO4.2MgSO4 and 100% K2SO4.2MgSO4) of the potassium recommended amount (100% at planting or 50% at planting and 50% at the beginning of tuberization). The proportion of potassium fertilizer sources in São Gotardo-MG does not affect the vegetative development at 60 days after planting (DAP) and potato productivity. In Ibicoara-BA, plants fertilized with 100% KCl reduced the amount of discarded tubers and presented aerial dry mass (MSA) accumulation 41% higher than the application of 50% KCl and 50% K2SO4.2MgSO4. The K subdivision is favorable to special tuber classes in São Gotardo-MG and reduces the class Discard in Ibicoara-BA. Most of the proportions between K2SO4.2MgSO4 and KCl did not differ from the exclusive use of KCl for the quantitative parameters. On the other hand, qualitative factors such as starch and soluble solids are related to the application of 100% of K via K2SO4.2MgSO4 in installments.

A batateira apresenta extraordinária capacidade produtiva, sendo a adubação um dos fatores essenciais para otimização do potencial das cultivares. O potássio (K), nutriente mais absorvido e transportado pela cultura, interfere na produtividade e qualidade dos tubérculos. Apesar dos muitos esforços para melhoria do manejo geral e nutricional da cultura, informações como a fonte do K e o seu parcelamento ainda não estão bem elucidados, gerando dúvidas aos produtores quanto a tomada de decisão. Com isso, objetivou-se avaliar o desenvolvimento, produtividade e qualidade de batata em função de fontes e proporções de adubação potássica e seu parcelamento. Os ensaios foram conduzidos a campo com a variedade Ágata, nos municípios de Ibicoara ­ BA e de São Gotardo ­ MG. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, em fatorial 6X2 com 4 repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram na combinação das fontes cloreto de potássio e sulfato duplo de potássio e magnésio (100% KCl; 87.5% KCl + 12.5% K2SO4.2MgSO4; 75% KCl + 25% K2SO4.2MgSO4; 50% KCl + 50% K2SO4.2MgSO4; 25% KCl + 75% K2SO4.2MgSO4 e 100% K2SO4.2MgSO4) e parcelamento ou não da quantidade de potássio recomendada (100% no plantio ou 50% no plantio e 50% no início da tuberização). O desenvolvimento vegetativo aos 60 DAP e a produtividade da batateira não é afetado pela proporção entre fontes de fertilizante potássico em São Gotardo-MG. Por outro lado, em Ibicoara-BA, plantas adubadas com 100% KCl reduziu a quantidade de tubérculos descartados e apresentaram acúmulo de massa seca de parte aérea (MSPA) 41% superior a aplicação de 50% KCl e 50% K2SO4.2MgSO4. O parcelamento do K é favorável a classe Especial de tubérculos, em São Gotardo e reduz a classe Descarte em Ibicoara-BA. A maioria das proporções entre K2SO4.2MgSO4 como KCl não diferiu do uso exclusivo do KCl para os parâmetros quantitativos. Por outro lado, fatores qualitativos como amido e sólidos solúveis estão relacionados a aplicação de 100% do K via K2SO4.2MgSO4 parcelado.

Potassium , Potassium Chloride , Solanum tuberosum , Magnesium Sulfate
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(1): 64-71, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977413


Abstract Background: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is an important cause of premature death and disability worldwide. Magnesium sulphate is shown to have a neuroprotective effect and it reverses cerebral vasospasm. Milrinone is also used in the treatment of cerebral vasospasm. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of prophylactic magnesium sulphate and milrinone on the incidence of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods: The study included 90 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage classified randomly (by simple randomization) into two groups: magnesium sulphate was given as an infusion of 500 without loading dose for 21 days. Group B: milrinone was given as an infusion of 0.5 µ without loading dose for 21 days. The cerebral vasospasm was diagnosed by mean cerebral blood flow velocity in the involved cerebral artery (mean flow velocity ≥ 120 cm.s-1), neurological deterioration by Glasgow coma scale, or angiography (the decrease in diameter of the involved cerebral artery >25%). Results: The mean cerebral blood flow velocity decreased significantly in the magnesium group compared to milrinone group through Day 7, Day 14 and Day 21 (p < 0.001). The incidence of cerebral vasospasm decreased significantly with magnesium compared to milrinone (p = 0.007). The Glasgow coma scale significantly improved in the magnesium group compared to milrinone group through Day 7, Day 14 and Day 21 (p = 0.036, p = 0.012, p = 0.016, respectively). The incidence of hypotension was higher with milrinone than magnesium (p = 0.012). Conclusions: The incidence of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage was significantly lower and Glasgow coma scale significantly better with magnesium when compared to milrinone. Milrinone was associated with a higher incidence of hypotension and requirement for dopamine and norepinephrine when compared to magnesium.

Resumo Justificativa: A hemorragia subaracnoidea por aneurisma é uma importante causa de morte prematura e de incapacidade em todo o mundo. O sulfato de magnésio mostra um efeito neuroprotetor e reverte o vasoespasmo cerebral. A milrinona também é usada no tratamento de vasoespasmo cerebral. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar o efeito profilático do sulfato de magnésio e da milrinona sobre a incidência de vasoespasmo cerebral após hemorragia subaracnoidea. Métodos: O estudo incluiu 90 pacientes com hemorragia subaracnoidea por aneurisma randomicamente distribuídos (randomização simples) em dois grupos: sulfato de magnésio foi administrado em infusão de 500 mg.dia-1 sem dose de ataque durante 21 dias. O Grupo B recebeu milrinona em infusão de 0,5 µ·min-1 sem dose de ataque durante 21 dias. O vasoespasmo cerebral foi diagnosticado pela velocidade média do fluxo sanguíneo cerebral na artéria cerebral envolvida (velocidade média do fluxo ≥ 120 cm.s-1), a deterioração neurológica por escala de coma de Glasgow ou angiografia (diminuição do diâmetro da artéria cerebral envolvida > 25%). Resultados: A velocidade média do fluxo sanguíneo cerebral diminuiu significativamente no grupo magnésio em comparação com o grupo milrinona nos dias 7, 14 e 21 (p < 0,001). A incidência de vasoespasmo cerebral diminuiu significativamente com o magnésio em comparação com milrinona (p = 0,007). A escala de coma de Glasgow melhorou significativamente no grupo magnésio em comparação com o grupo milrinona nos dias 7, 14 e 21 (p = 0,036, p = 0,012, p = 0,016, respectivamente). A incidência de hipotensão foi maior com milrinona do que com magnésio (p = 0,012). Conclusões: A incidência de vasoespasmo cerebral após hemorragia subaracnoidea por aneurisma foi significativamente menor e a escala de coma de Glasgow significativamente melhor com magnésio em comparação com milrinona. A milrinona foi associada a uma maior incidência de hipotensão e necessidade de dopamina e norepinefrina em comparação com o magnésio.

Humans , Male , Female , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Milrinone/therapeutic use , Vasospasm, Intracranial/prevention & control , Phosphodiesterase 3 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Magnesium Sulfate/therapeutic use , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/complications , Double-Blind Method , Incidence , Vasospasm, Intracranial/etiology , Vasospasm, Intracranial/epidemiology , Middle Aged