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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1217-1222, oct. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134428

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Repeated stress is a risk factor for memory impairment and neurological abnormalities in both humans and animals. We sought to investigate the extent of (i) brain tissue injury; (ii) nitrosative and oxidative stress in brain tissue homogenates; (iii) apoptotic and survival biomarkers in brain tissue homogenates; and (iv) immobility and climbing abilities, induced over a period of three weeks by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS). Wistar rats were either left untreated (Control group) or exposed to a variety of unpredictable stressors daily before being sacrificed after 3 weeks (model group). Assessment of depression-like behavior was performed and animals were then culled and harvested brain tissues were stained with basic histological staining and examined under light microscopy. In addition, brain tissue homogenates were prepared and assayed for these parameters; inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), caspase-3, and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2). Histology images showed CUS induced profound damage to the cerebral cortex as demonstrated by severe neuronal damage with shrunken cells, disrupted atrophic nuclei, perineuronal vacuolation and swollen glial cells. CUS also significantly (p<0.05) induced iNOS, MDA, and caspase-3, whereas SOD and Bcl-2 brain tissue levels were inhibited by CUS. In addition, data from the depression-like behavior, forced swimming test showed significant (p<0.05) increase in animal immobility and decrease in climbing ability in the model group of rats. Thus, here we demonstrated a reliable rat model of chronic stress-induced brain injury, which can further be used to investigate beneficial drugs or agents used for a period of three weeks to protect against CUS-induced brain damage.


RESUMEN: El estrés crónico es un factor de riesgo para el deterioro de la memoria y las anomalías neurológicas tanto en humanos como en animales. Intentamos investigar el alcance de lesión del tejido cerebral; (ii) estrés nitrosativo y oxidativo en homogeneizados de tejido cerebral; (iii) biomarcadores apoptóticos y de supervivencia en homogeneizados de tejido cerebral; y (iv) inmovilidad y habilidades de escalada, inducidas durante un período de tres semanas por estrés crónico impredecible (ECI). Se dejaron sin tratamiento (grupo control) ratas Wistar, o se expusieron a una variedad de factores estresantes impredecibles diariamente antes de ser sacrificadas después de 3 semanas (grupo modelo). Se realizó una evaluación del comportamiento similar a la depresión y luego se sacrificaron los animales y se tiñeron los tejidos cerebrales con tinción histológica básica y se examinaron con microscopía óptica. Además, se prepararon homogeneizados de tejido cerebral y se analizaron los siguientes parámetros; óxido nítrico sintasa inducible (iNOS), malondialdehído (MDA), superóxido dismutasa (SOD), caspasa- 3 y linfoma de células B 2 (Bcl-2). Las imágenes histológicas mostraron que el CUS indujo un daño profundo en la corteza cerebral como lo demuestra el daño neuronal severo con células encogidas, núcleos atróficos alterados, vacuolación perineuronal y células gliales inflamadas. ECI también indujo significativamente (p <0,05) iNOS, MDA y caspase-3, mientras que los niveles de tejido cerebral SOD y Bcl-2 fueron inhibidos por ECI. Además, los datos del comportamiento similar a la de- presión, la prueba de natación forzada mostró un aumento significativo (p <0,05) en la inmovilidad animal y una disminución en la capacidad de escalada en el grupo modelo de ratas. Por lo tanto, aquí demostramos un modelo confiable de daño cerebral crónico en rata inducido por el estrés, que se puede utilizar para investigar medicamentos o agentes beneficiosos usados durante un período de tres semanas para proteger el daño cerebral inducido por ECI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Stress, Psychological/complications , Brain Damage, Chronic/pathology , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Behavior, Animal , Brain Injuries/metabolism , Biomarkers , Cerebral Cortex , Chronic Disease , Analysis of Variance , Rats, Wistar , Apoptosis , Oxidative Stress , Nitric Oxide Synthase/analysis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 , Depression , Disease Models, Animal , Caspase 3/analysis , Nitrosative Stress , Malondialdehyde/analysis
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(6): 555-568, 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284299

ABSTRACT

Despite the development of modern medicine, alternative medicine, which has not lost its timeliness, remains attractive for the treatment of various diseases. Glabridin, a major flavonoid of Glycyrrhiza glabra, is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. The aim of this study was: 1) to determine the possible protective role of glabridin against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of the intestine; 2) to evaluate the in vitrocontractile responses of ileum smooth muscles to acetylcholine after an intestinal I/R; and 3) to explain the underlying molecular mechanism of its effect. Rats were assigned to groups of six rats each; 1) I/R, 2) gla10, 3) gla20, 4) gla40, 5) N5-[imino(nitroamino)methyl]-L-ornithine, methyl ester monohydrochloride (L-NAME)+gla40, and 6) Sham group. The healing effect of glabridin was abolished by L-NAME. Glabridin did not cause contractility of the smooth muscles to acetylcholine-induced contractile responses in intestinal I/R. Yet, it increased to spontaneous basal activity.


A pesar del desarrollo de la medicina moderna, la medicina alternativa, sin perder su vigencia, sigue siendo atractiva para el tratamiento de varias enfermedades. Glabradina, el flavonoide mayoritario de Glycyrrhiza glabra, es conocido por su actividad antioxidante y antiinflamatoria. Los propósitos de este estudio fueron: 1) Determinar el posible rol protector de glabradina ante daños intestinales por isquemia/reperfusion (I/R) 2) Evaluar in vitrolas respuestas de contracción de los músculos lisos del ileum ante acetilcolina después de I/R intestinal; y 3) Explicar el mecanismo molecular subyacente de este efecto. Se asignaron grupos de seis ratas: 1) I/R, 2) gla10, 3) gla20, 4) gla40, 5) N5-[imino(nitroamino)metil]-L-ornithina, metil ester monohidrochloruro (L-NAME)+gla40, y 6) Grupo testigo. El efecto curativo de glabridina fue abolido por L-NAME. Glabridina no causó contracción en el músculo liso como respuesta acetilcolina-inducida I/R. Además, incrementa la actividad basal expontánea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Phenols/administration & dosage , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Cyclic AMP/metabolism , Glycyrrhiza , Isoflavones/administration & dosage , Phenols/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Cyclic AMP/analysis , Cyclic GMP/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester , Ileum/drug effects , Ileum/chemistry , Isoflavones/pharmacology , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects
3.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(11): e201901102, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054682

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effect of Picroside II on testicular ischemia and reperfusion (l/R) injury and the underlying mechanism. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: sham operated group (Sham), Sham with Picroside II treatment group (Sham+ Pic II), l/R group (l/R) and l/R with Picroside II treatment group (I/R+ Pic II). l/R model was established by rotating the left testis 720° in a clock-wise direction for 4 hours. The histopathologic and spermatogenetic evaluation was performed. The apoptosis changes and the levels of HO-1 (heme oxygenase-1), MPO (myeloperoxidase), NOX (NADPH oxidase), SOD (superoxide dismutase), XO (xanthine oxidase) and NOS (nitric oxide synthase) were measured. Results: The seminiferous tubules were damaged in l/R rats, but Picroside II alleviated the changes induced by l/R. The increased level of apoptosis was decreased by Picroside II (P=0.01, 9.05±0.35 vs. 4.85±0.25). The activities of HO-1, MPO, NOX, XO and MDA content were increased and the SOD activity was decreased in l/R (P<0.05) and could be reversed by Picroside II (P=0.03, 405.5±7.5 vs. 304±17U/mgprot; P=0.02, 0.99±0.05 vs. 0.52±0.04 mgprot; P=0.01, 260+7 vs. 189±2 mgprot; P=0.04, 10.95+0.55 vs. 8.75+0.35 U/mgprot; P=0.045, 6.8+0.7 vs. 3.75+0.35 mgprot; P=0.04, 44.5+3.5 vs. 57.5+3.5 mgprot). Western blot showed that the expression of iNOS, nNOS and eNOS were increased in l/R (P<0.05); however, they were decreased after Picroside II treatment (P<0.05). Conclusion: Picroside II attenuated testicular I/R injury in rats mainly through suppressing apoptosis and oxidative stress through reduction of nitric oxide synthesis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Testis/blood supply , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Cinnamates/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Iridoid Glucosides/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/biosynthesis , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Random Allocation , Blotting, Western , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Peroxidase/analysis , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Heme Oxygenase-1/analysis , Malondialdehyde/analysis , NADP/analysis
4.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(5): 407-413, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1059102

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Vegetables have some beneficial effects on human health due to their antioxidant compounds, like polyphenols. Cooking leads to many physical and chemical changes to plant structure that can alter the phytochemical compounds of vegetables. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of heat treatment and freezing on the antioxidant properties of garlic, onion, broccoli and cauliflower. DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental in vitro study in a university laboratory. METHODS: Fresh broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepa) were obtained from a local store. These vegetables were divided into three treatment groups: raw, heated and frozen. The heat treatment consisted of heating them in a drying oven at 150 °C for 20 minutes. The freezing treatment consisted of keeping them frozen at -20 °C until analysis. The total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and malondialdehyde levels of the vegetables were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu phenol reagent, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, respectively. RESULTS: Heat treatment had deleterious effects on the antioxidant properties of onion and garlic; and it decreased the antioxidant activity of broccoli. Freezing improved the antioxidant activity of broccoli and garlic, but had detrimental effects for cauliflower and onion. CONCLUSIONS: Heat treatment and freezing exhibit different effects on the antioxidant properties of broccoli, cauliflower, garlic and onion. Convenient cooking and storage patterns should be identified for each vegetable, to obtain the best nutritional benefit from the antioxidant compounds of vegetables.


Subject(s)
Vegetables/chemistry , Allium/chemistry , Food Handling/methods , Food Preservation/methods , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , In Vitro Techniques , Brassica/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Onions/chemistry , Freezing , Garlic/chemistry , Heating , Nutritive Value
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 515-521, June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002253

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Reproductive dysfunction is a complication for many diseases and toxins. Its early diagnosis and treatment are immensely important. Here the morphological histoarchitecture changes in early testicular and cauda toxicity before and after treatment with angiotensin receptor blockers were evaluated. Low-grade testicular damage was induced using thioacetamide (TAA, 50 mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally for two weeks in rats. The rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 8) treated daily orally for three weeks as follows: Normal control (distilled water), TAA (positive control), TAA+candesartan (0.2 mg/kg) and TAA+losartan (7.5 mg/kg). Serum testosterone and testicular malondialdehyde and glutathione were measured. The changes in histoarchitecture of testis and cauda epididymis were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin for general structure, Masson's trichrome for collagen, periodic acid Schiff for basement membrane, and caspase-3 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) for immunohistochemical analysis. The TAA-rats showed decreases of serum testosterone and testicular glutathione, increases in testicular malondialdehyde, degenerative changes and apoptosis in germ cells, thickening of tubular basal lamina and increases in expression of caspase 3, and decreases in expression of PCNA. The ARBs (candesartan and losartan) significantly reversed these changes with non-significant differences in-between. Treatment with ARBs (candesartan and losartan) significantly reversed TAA-induced low-grade testicular and cauda toxicity in rats. This could be potentially useful for early treatment of male patients with occupational toxicant-induced reproductive dysfunction especially if they are using ARBs for other comorbidities.


RESUMEN: La disfunción reproductiva es una complicación por muchas enfermedades y toxinas. Su diagnóstico y tratamiento tempranos son inmensamente importantes. Aquí se evaluaron los cambios morfológicos en la histoarquitectura en la toxicidad precoz testicular y cauda antes y después del tratamiento con bloqueadores de receptores de angiotensina. Se indujo daño testicular de bajo grado usando tioacetamida (TAA, 50 mg / kg / día) por vía intraperitoneal durante dos semanas en ratas. Las ratas se dividieron aleatoriamente en cuatro grupos (n = 8) tratados diariamente por vía oral durante tres semanas de la siguiente manera: control normal (agua destilada), TAA (control positivo), TAA + candesartan (0,2 mg / kg) y TAA + losartán (7,5 mg / kg). Se midieron la testosterona sérica, el malondialdehído testicular y el glutatión. Los cambios en la histoarquitectura de los testículos y la epidermis de la cauda se evaluaron mediante Hematoxilina y Eosina para determinar la estructura general, con tricrómicro de Masson para el colágeno, ácido periódico de Schiff para la membrana basal y la caspasa-3 y el antígeno nuclear de células proliferantes (PCNA) para análisis inmunohistoquímico. Las ratas TAA mostraron disminución de la testosterona sérica y glutatión testicular, aumentos en el malondialdehído testicular, cambios degenerativos y apoptosis en células germinales, engrosamiento de la lámina basal tubular y aumentos en la expresión de la caspasa 3, y disminución en la expresión de PCNA. Los ARB (candesartán y losartán) revirtieron significativamente estos cambios con diferencias no significativas en el medio. El tratamiento con BRA (candesartán y losartán) revirtió significativamente la toxicidad testicular y cauda inducida por TAA en ratas. Esto podría ser potencialmente útil para el tratamiento temprano de pacientes con disfunción reproductiva inducida por tóxicos ocupacionales, especialmente si están usando BRA para otras comorbilidades.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Testis/drug effects , Thioacetamide/toxicity , Benzimidazoles/pharmacology , Losartan/pharmacology , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/pharmacology , Testis/pathology , Testosterone/analysis , Tetrazoles/pharmacology , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Glutathione/analysis , Malondialdehyde/analysis
6.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(2): 106-114, Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983892

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Ducrosia anethifolia has been recommended as a remedy for neurological disorders. However, the anticonvulsant effects of D. anethifolia essential oil (DAEO) and its major constituent α-pinene have not yet been clarified. Methods: A rat model of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions was used. Oxidant and antioxidant parameters were assayed in the temporal lobe. Results: The data showed that DAEO (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) and α-pinene (0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg i.p.) delayed the initiation time, and reduced the duration of myoclonic and tonic-clonic seizures following PTZ injection. The PTZ produced oxidative stress so that malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide levels were increased and catalase and peroxidase activity decreased. Pretreatment with DAEO and α-pinene significantly inhibited the above-mentioned enzymatic changes in PTZ-treated animals. Conclusion: The results suggest that α-pinene, at teast in part, was responsible for the induction of the anticonvulsant and antioxidant effects of DAEO in rats.


RESUMO A Ducrosia anethifolia tem sido recomendada como remédio para os distúrbios neurológicos. No entanto, os efeitos anticonvulsivantes do óleo essencial de Ducrosia anethifolia (DAEO) e do seu principal constituinte atfa-pineno (α-pineno) ainda não foram clarificados. Métodos: Foi utilizado um modelo de rato de convulsões induzidas por pentilenotetrazol (PTZ). Os parâmetros oxidante e antioxidante foram ensaiados no lobo temporal do cérebro. Resultados: Os dados mostraram que DAEO (50, 100 e 200 mg / kg, i.p.) e α-pineno (0,2 e 0,4 mg / kg i.p.) retardaram o tempo de iniciação e reduziram a duração das crises mioclônicas e tônico-clônicas após a injeção de PTZ. O PTZ produziu estresse oxidativo, de modo que os níveis de malondialdeído (MDA) e de peróxido de hidrogênio aumentaram e a atividade da catalase e da peroxidase diminuiu. O pré-tratamento com DAEO e α-pineno inibiu significativamente as alterações enzimáticas mencionadas em animais tratados com PTZ. Conclusão: O resultado sugere que α-pineno, peto menos em parte, é responsável peta indução dos efeitos anticonvulsivantes e antioxidantes da DAEO em ratos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Seizures/drug therapy , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Apiaceae/chemistry , Bicyclic Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Anticonvulsants/pharmacology , Pentylenetetrazole , Seizures/metabolism , Time Factors , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Catalase/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Peroxidase/analysis , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Bicyclic Monoterpenes/chemistry , Hydrogen Peroxide/analysis , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Anticonvulsants/chemistry , Antioxidants/analysis , Antioxidants/metabolism
7.
Clinics ; 74: e787, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011911

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Intestinal obstruction has a high mortality rate when therapeutic treatment is delayed. Resuscitation in intestinal obstruction requires a large volume of fluid, and fluid combinations have been studied. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of hypertonic saline solution (HS) with pentoxifylline (PTX) on apoptosis, oxidative stress and survival rate. METHODS: Wistar rats were subjected to intestinal obstruction and ischemia through a closed loop ligation of the terminal ileum and its vessels. After 24 hours, the necrotic bowel segment was resected, and the animals were randomized into four groups according to the following resuscitation strategies: Ringer's lactate solution (RL) (RL-32 ml/kg); RL+PTX (25 mg/kg); HS+PTX (HS, 7.5%, 4 ml/kg), and no resuscitation (IO-intestinal obstruction and ischemia). Euthanasia was performed 3 hours after resuscitation to obtain kidney and intestine samples. A malondialdehyde (MDA) assay was performed to evaluate oxidative stress, and histochemical analyses (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling [TUNEL], Bcl-2 and Bax) were conducted to evaluate kidney apoptosis. Survival was analyzed with another series of animals that were observed for 15 days. RESULTS: PTX in combination with RL or HS reduced the MDA levels (nmol/mg of protein), as follows: kidney IO=0.42; RL=0.49; RL+PTX=0.31; HS+PTX=0.34 (p<0.05); intestine: IO=0.42; RL=0.48; RL+PTX=0.29; HS+PTX=0.26 (p<0.05). The number of labeled cells for TUNEL and Bax was lower in the HS+PTX group than in the other groups (p<0.05). The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was lower in the HS+PTX group than in the other groups (p<0.05). The survival rate on the 15th day was higher in the HS+PTX group (77%) than in the RL+PTX group (11%). CONCLUSION: PTX in combination with HS enhanced survival and attenuated oxidative stress and apoptosis. However, when combined with RL, PTX did not reduce apoptosis or mortality.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Pentoxifylline/pharmacology , Resuscitation/methods , Saline Solution, Hypertonic/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Intestinal Obstruction/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Disease Models, Animal , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Intestinal Obstruction/mortality , Intestinal Obstruction/prevention & control , Intestine, Small/drug effects , Intestine, Small/metabolism , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/metabolism , Malondialdehyde/analysis
8.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(4): e201900407, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001083

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the functional and structural response of tadalafil effects in the intestinal mucosa, using an experimental model of hypoxia and reoxygenation injury in rats. Methods: The animals were divided into 4 groups: CTL, H/R, H/R+Td and M+Td. The newborn rats allocated in groups H/R, H/R+Td and M+Td were submitted twice a day, to a gas chamber with CO2 at 100% for 10 minutes and afterward reoxygenation with O2 at 98% for 10 minutes, in the three first days of life. Tadalafil dose was given to newborn of group H/R+Td and to the pregnant rat of group M+Td. Histological analysis was made with hematoxylin-eosin technique and oxidative stress through nitrite and nitrate levels and lipid peroxidation. Results: The histological analysis showed a reduction of mucosa alterations in the groups that received tadalafil. In the oxidative stress evaluation, occurred an increase of NO levels and less lipidic peroxidation in the ileum segments that received tadalafil. Conclusion: Tadalafil provides tissue protection when administered independently to both, pregnant or newborns.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Oxygen/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Tadalafil/pharmacology , Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Hypoxia/metabolism , Time Factors , Lipid Peroxidation , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Animals, Newborn , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Nitrates/analysis , Nitrites/analysis
9.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e18261, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039068

ABSTRACT

Learning and memory play main roles in daily life of human, and memory represents the basis of all trainings and learning. The aim of the current study is to investigate the effects of gallic acid and physical exercise on the levels of passive avoidance memory in rat. In this experimental study, 46 rats weighing 200-300 g were randomLy divided to six groups of eight each: including control group, groups treated with 10 and 20 mg/kg gallic acid, group undergoing physical exercise alone, and groups both undergoing physical exercise and treated with 10 and 20 mg/kg gallic acid. The interventions continued for 10 days. After the intervention, passive avoidance memory was measured by shuttle box, blood samples were taken, and serum and brain antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured. Secondary latency in shuttle box significantly increased in groups undergoing treadmill exercise and undergoing treadmill exercise + treating 10 and 20 mg/kg gallic acid. In groups treated with 10 and 20 mg/kg gallic acid alone, secondary latency increased significantly. Results confirmed the effects of gallic acid and physical exercise, either alone or combined, in improving memory.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Exercise/physiology , Gallic Acid/adverse effects , Learning/drug effects , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Memory/drug effects
10.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(8): e201900805, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038124

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To investigate the effect of sevoflurane preconditioning on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced pulmonary/hepatic injury Methods Fifty-one Wistar rats were randomly grouped into sham, I/R, and sevoflurane groups. After reperfusion, the structural change of the lung was measured by Smith score, the wet and dry weights (W/D) were determined, malondialdehyde (MDA) myeloperoxidase (MPO) content was determined colorimetrically and by fluorescence, respectively, and matrix metalloprotein-9 (MMP-9) mRNA was quantified by RT-PCR. Biopsy and morphological analyses were performed on liver tissue, activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were determined, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) level was determined. Results The sham group showed no changes in tissue structure. Structural lesions in the sevoflurane and I/R groups were mild and severe, respectively. Smith score, W/D, MDA, MPO, and MMP mRNA showed the same trend, and were increased in the I/R group and recovered in the sevoflurane group, compared with the sham group (both P<0.05). AST and ALT were significantly increased compared to the sham group (AST: 655±52.06 vs . 29±9.30 U/L; ALT: 693±75.56 vs . 37±6.71 U/L; P<0.05). In the sevoflurane group, AST and ALT levels were significantly decreased (464±47.71 and 516±78.84 U/L; P<0.001). TNF-α presented similar results. Conclusion The protection of lung and liver by sevoflurane may be mediated by inhibited leukocyte recruitment and MMP-9 secretion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Anesthetics, Inhalation/therapeutic use , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Liver/blood supply , Lung/blood supply , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Peroxidase/analysis , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Sevoflurane/therapeutic use , Ischemia/prevention & control , Liver/drug effects , Liver/pathology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Malondialdehyde/analysis
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(1): 87-92, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990010

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: This study aimed to investigate the toxic effects of cigarette smoke exposure on lung and the protective role of Omega 3 and Vitamin D against these toxic effects biochemically and histologically. 28 pregnant Wistar Albino rats were divided into four groups. The first group was control group; the second group was exposed to smoke of 10 cigarette by puff device 2 hours/day after pregnancy; the third group was exposed to cigarette smoke together with Omega 3 (0.5 mg/kg/day) and the fourth group was exposed to cigarette smoke together with vitamin D (42 microgram/kg/day). Finally, lung tissue sections of the newborn rats were stained with Hemotoxilen eosine and Masson tricromite. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Fluorescent Oxidation Products (FOU) levels were measured. Fetal weights and the number of fetuses were significantly lower in the group received only cigarette smoke (both p<0.001). Histopathologically, pulmonary volume, number of developed alveols and parenchyma elasticity decreased significantly, meanwhile interstitial tissue increased, elastin and collagen did not develop adequately. Histopathologic changes significantly decreased in the group given Omega 3 and Vitamin D. Statistically, MDA and FOU levels were found to be higher in the group exposed to cigarette smoke compared to the control group, and MDA and FOU levels were lower in the group given Omega 3 along with cigarette smoke (p<0.001). Cigarette smoke caused histologically significant damage to fetal lung tissue, oxidative stress and increased MDA and FOU levels. This damage was significantly reduced with Omega 3 and Vitamine D supplementation. Omega 3 is an important antioxidant; vitamin D has no significant antioxidant effect.


RESUMEN: Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar los efectos tóxicos de la exposición al humo de cigarrillo en el pulmón, y el papel protector de Omega 3 y la Vitamina D contra esos efectos. 28 ratas Wistar albino preñadas fueron separadas en cuatro grupos. El primer grupo grupo control; el segundo grupo estuvo expuesto al humo de 10 cigarrillos por dispositivo de inhalación 2 horas / día después de la preñez; el tercer grupo se expuso al humo del cigarrillo junto con Omega 3 (0,5 mg / kg / día) y el cuarto grupo se expuso al humo del cigarrillo junto con vitamina D (42 microgramos / kg / día). Secciones de tejido pulmonar de las ratas recién nacidas se tiñeron con Hematoxilina Eosina y tricrómico de Masson. Se midieron los niveles de malondialdehído (MDA) y productos de oxidación fluorescente (POF). Los pesos fetales y el número de fetos fueron significativamente más bajos en el grupo que recibió solamente humo de cigarrillo (ambos p <0,001). Histopatológicamente, el volumen pulmonar, el número de alveolos desarrollados y la elasticidad del parénquima disminuyeron significativamente; mientras que el tejido intersticial aumentó y la elastina y el colágeno no se desarrollaron adecuadamente. Los cambios histopatológicos disminuyeron significativamente en el grupo que recibió Omega 3 y Vitamina D. Estadísticamente, se encontró que los niveles de MDA y POF eran más altos en el grupo expuesto al humo de cigarrillo en comparación con el grupo control, además los niveles de MDA y POF fueron más bajos en el grupo que recibió Omega 3 junto con el humo del cigarrillo (p <0,001). El humo del cigarrillo causó daños histológicamente significativos en el tejido pulmonar fetal, el estrés oxidativo y el aumento de los niveles de MDA y FOU. Este daño se redujo significativamente con los suplementos de Omega 3 y Vitamina D. El omega 3 es un importante antioxidante; la vitamina D no tiene ningún efecto antioxidante significativo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/administration & dosage , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Lung Injury/prevention & control , Nicotine/toxicity , Smoke/adverse effects , Analysis of Variance , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress , Lung Injury/chemically induced , Lung Injury/pathology , Fetus/drug effects , Fluorescence , Animals, Newborn , Malondialdehyde/analysis
12.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180211, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-984568

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of gliclazide on oxidative stress, inflammation, and bone loss in an experimental periodontal disease model. Material and Methods Male albino Wistar rats were divided into no ligature, ligature, and ligature with 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg gliclazide groups. Maxillae were fixed and scanned using micro-computed tomography to quantify linear and bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV) and volumetric bone loss. Histopathological, immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence analyses were conducted to examine matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), cathepsin K, members of the receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand (RANKL), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β (RANK), osteoprotegerin (OPG) pathway, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1), glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1), NFKB p 50 (Cytoplasm), NFKB p50 NLS (nuclear localization signal), PI3 kinase and AKT staining. Myeloperoxidase activity, malondialdehyde and glutathione levels, while interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels were evaluated by spectroscopic ultraviolet-visible analysis. A quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the gene expression of the nuclear factor kappa B p50 subunit (NF-κB p50), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3k), protein kinase B (AKT), and F4/80. Results Micro-computed tomography showed that the 1 mg/kg gliclazide treatment reduced linear bone loss compared to the ligature, 5 mg/kg gliclazide, and 10 mg/kg gliclazide treatments. All concentrations of gliclazide increased bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV) compared to the ligature group. Treatment with 1 mg/kg gliclazide reduced myeloperoxidase activity, malondialdehyde, IL-1β, and TNF-α levels (p≤0.05), and resulted in weak staining for COX-2, cathepsin k, MMP-2, RANK, RANKL, SOD-1, GPx-1,MIF and PI3k. In addition, down-regulation of NF-κB p50, PI3k, AKT, and F4/80 were observed, and OPG staining was strong after the 1 mg/kg gliclazide treatment. Conclusions This treatment decreased neutrophil and macrophage migration, decreased the inflammatory response, and decreased bone loss in rats with ligature-induced periodontitis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Periodontitis/drug therapy , Alveolar Bone Loss/drug therapy , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Gliclazide/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Periodontitis/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Alveolar Bone Loss/pathology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors/adverse effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Peroxidase/analysis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/analysis , Interleukin-1beta/analysis , RANK Ligand/analysis , Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B/analysis , X-Ray Microtomography , Cathepsin K/analysis , Gingiva/pathology , Gingiva/chemistry , Gliclazide/therapeutic use , Glutathione/analysis , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Neutrophils/drug effects , Antioxidants/therapeutic use
13.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180108, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-975873

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: This study aims to evaluate the clinical and biochemical (oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory mediators) effects of the gaseous ozone use accompanied by scaling and root planning (SRP) in periodontal treatment. Material and Methods: The study population consisted of 40 patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) randomly sorted into two groups of 20. The experimental group received SRP plus 3 watts gaseous ozone in two separate applications five days apart, whereas the control group received SRP plus placebo. Clinical periodontal parameters were assayed and saliva samples were taken before the initial and one month after the second treatment. Periodontal examination assessed plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth, and clinical attachment level (CAL). Total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), nitric oxide (NO), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), myeloperoxidase (MPO), glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) levels were evaluated from saliva samples. Results: Changes following treatment in PI, GI, probing depth, and CAL scores were similar for both groups (p>0.05). Of note, TGF-β levels were observed to be higher in the treatment group than in controls (p<0.05). Changes in 8-OHdG, TAS, TOS, NO, MPO, GSH and MDA levels, however, were not significantly different between groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that SRP plus gaseous ozone versus SRP alone does not correlate to a significant improvement in periodontal recovery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Oxidants, Photochemical/therapeutic use , Ozone/therapeutic use , Root Planing/methods , Chronic Periodontitis/therapy , Saliva/chemistry , Time Factors , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Periodontal Index , Dental Plaque Index , Reproducibility of Results , Transforming Growth Factor beta/analysis , Treatment Outcome , Oxidants/antagonists & inhibitors , Peroxidase/analysis , Statistics, Nonparametric , Deoxyguanosine/analysis , Deoxyguanosine/analogs & derivatives , Chronic Periodontitis/pathology , Glutathione/analysis , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Middle Aged , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis
14.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(12): 1043-1051, Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973484

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To analyze the effect of methylene blue (MB) therapy during the liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R) process. Methods: Thirty-five male Wistar rats were used, (70%) submitted to partial ischemia (IR) or not (NIR) (30%) were obtained from the same animal. These animals were divided into six groups: 1) Sham (SH), 2) Sham with MB (SH-MB); 3) I/R, submitted to 60 minutes of partial ischemia and 15 minutes of reperfusion; 4) NI/R, without I/R obtained from the same animal of group I/R; 5) I/R-MB submitted to I/R and MB and 6) NI/R-MB, without I/R. Mitochondrial function was evaluated. Osmotic swelling of mitochondria as well as the determination of malondialdehyde (MDA) was evaluated. Serum (ALT/AST) dosages were also performed. MB was used at the concentration of 15mg/kg, 15 minutes before hepatic reperfusion. Statistical analysis was done by the Mann Whitney test at 5%. Results: State 3 shows inhibition in all ischemic groups. State 4 was increased in all groups, except the I/R-MB and NI/R-MB groups. RCR showed a decrease in all I/R and NI/R groups. Mitochondrial osmotic swelling showed an increase in all I/R NI/R groups in the presence or absence of MB. About MDA, there was a decrease in SH values in the presence of MB and this decrease was maintained in the I/R group. AST levels were increased in all ischemic with or without MB. Conclusions: The methylene blue was not able to restore the mitochondrial parameters studied. Also, it was able to decrease lipid peroxidation, preventing the formation of reactive oxygen species.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Liver/blood supply , Methylene Blue/therapeutic use , Oxygen Consumption , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Reference Values , Time Factors , Mitochondria, Liver/drug effects , Mitochondria, Liver/metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Reproducibility of Results , Reactive Oxygen Species/analysis , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Cell Respiration , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Mitochondrial Membranes/drug effects , Mitochondrial Membranes/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Methylene Blue/pharmacology , Mitochondrial Swelling/drug effects
15.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(12): 1067-1077, Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973486

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effect of alprostadil on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in rats. Methods: Rats were subjected to myocardial ischemia for 30 min followed by 24h reperfusion. Alprostadil (4 or 8 μg/kg) was intravenously administered at the time of reperfusion and myocardial infarct size, levels of troponin T, and the activity of creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the serum were measured. Antioxidative parameters, nitric oxide (NO) content and phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase 3 (p-eNOS) expression in the left ventricles were also measured. Histopathological examinations of the left ventricles were also performed. Results: Alprostadil treatment significantly reduced myocardial infarct size, serum troponin T levels, and CK-MB and LDH activity (P<0.05). Furthermore, treatment with alprostadil significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) content (P<0.05) and markedly reduced myonecrosis, edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities (P<0.05), NO level (P<0.01) and p-eNOS (P<0.05) were significantly increased in rats treated with alprostadil compared with control rats. Conclusion: These results indicate that alprostadil protects against myocardial I/R injury and that these protective effects are achieved, at least in part, via the promotion of antioxidant activity and activation of eNOS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Alprostadil/pharmacology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Catalase/analysis , Random Allocation , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Troponin T/drug effects , Troponin T/blood , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/drug effects , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Heart Ventricles/drug effects , Heart Ventricles/pathology , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/drug effects , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Nitric Oxide/analysis
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(4): 1350-1355, Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975707

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: We sought to investigate the potential protective effect of Vitamin E supplementation against hepatocyte ultrastructural alterations induced by high fat diet (HFD) in a rat model of pre-diabetes. Therefore, rats were either fed with HFD (model group) or a standard laboratory chow (control group) for 12 weeks before being sacrificed. The protective group fed on a HFD and started the treatment with vitamin E (100 mg/kg/day, i.p) from day 1 until being sacrificed at week 12. The harvested liver tissues were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and blood samples were assayed for biomarkers of liver injury and prediabetes. TEM images showed that HFD induced profound pathological changes to the hepatocyte ultrastructure as demonstrated by degenerated hepatocytes with damaged cytoplasm that have mitochondrial swelling, dilation of endoplasmic reticulum, blebbing of plasma membranes, and cytoplasmic accumulations of lipid droplets and vacuoles, which were substantially but not completely protected with vitamin E. In addition, HFD significantly (p<0.05) augmented biomarkers of liver injury and pre-diabetes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), malondialdehyde (MDA), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), which were significantly (p<0.05) reduced with vitamin E except TNF-α and TC. Furthermore, none of these biomarkers were reduced to the control level by vitamin E. We conclude that vitamin E is a partial protective agent against HFD-induced liver injury and pre-diabetes.


RESUMEN: El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar el posible efecto protector de la administración de suplementos de vitamina E contra las alteraciones ultraestructurales de los hepatocitos inducidas por una dieta rica en grasas (DRG) en un modelo de prediabetes en ratas. Antes de ser sacrificadas las ratas fueron alimentadas con DRG (grupo modelo) o un alimento estándar de laboratorio (grupo control) durante 12 semanas. El grupo protector se alimentó con una DRG y comenzó el tratamiento con vitamina E (100 mg/kg/día, i.p) desde el día 1 hasta sacrificarlo en la semana 12. Los tejidos hepáticos recolectados se examinaron mediante microscopía electrónica de transmisión (MET) y se tomaron muestras de sangre y se analizaron los biomarcadores de daño hepático y prediabetes. Las imágenes de MET mostraron que el DRG indujo cambios patológicos profundos en la ultraestructura de los hepatocitos, como lo demuestran los hepatocitos degenerados con citoplasma dañado e hinchazón mitocondrial, dilatación del retículo endoplasmático, formación de ampollas en las membranas plasmáticas y acumulaciones citoplásmicas de gotas de lípidos y vacuolas, los que fueron sustancialmente protegidas con vitamina E. Además, DRG aumentó significativamente (p <0,05) los biomarcadores de daño hepático y prediabetes como alanina aminotransferasa (ALT), aspartato aminotransferasa (AST), factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-α), malondialdehído (MDA), colesterol total (CT), triglicéridos (TG) y lipoproteína de colesterol de baja densidad (LDL-C), la cual se redujo significativamente (p <0,05) con vitamina E, excepto TNF-α y CT. Ninguno de estos biomarcadores se redujo al nivel de control por la vitamina E. Concluimos que la vitamina E es un agente protector parcial contra la lesión hepática inducida por DRG y la prediabetes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Prediabetic State/drug therapy , Vitamin E/administration & dosage , Hepatocytes/drug effects , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Aspartate Aminotransferases/drug effects , Vitamin E/pharmacology , Cholesterol/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Hepatocytes/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Alanine Transaminase/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/prevention & control , Liver/drug effects , Malondialdehyde/analysis
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(4): 1453-1462, Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975722

ABSTRACT

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can potentially lead to hemorrhages in all areas of the skull, which can damage cells and nerve connections. This study aims to investigate the protective effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLPS) as a antioxidant on cerebellar cell tissues after traumatic brain injury in rats. Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to TBI with a weight-drop device using 300 g1m weight-height impact. The groups are consisted of control, trauma, and trauma+Ganoderma lucidum groups. At seven days post-brain injury, experimental rats were decapitated after intraperitoneal administration of ketamine HCL (0.15 ml/100 g body weight). Cereballar samples were taken for histological examination or determination of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Significant improvement was observed in cells and vascular structures of Ganoderma lucidum treated groups when compared to untreated groups. It is believed that Ganoderma lucidum may have an effect on the progression of traumatic brain injury. Ganoderma lucidum application may affect angiogenetic development in blood vessel endothelial cells, decrease inflammatory cell accumulation by affecting cytokine mechanism and may create apoptotic nerve cells and neuroprotective mechanism in glial cells.


La lesión cerebral traumática (LCT) puede provocar hemorragias en todas las áreas del cráneo, lo que puede dañar las células y las conexiones nerviosas. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar los efectos protectores de los polisacáridos de Ganoderma lucidum (GLPS) como antioxidante en los tejidos de las células del cerebelo después de la lesión cerebral traumática en ratas. Ratas Sprague Dawley fueron sometidas a TBI con un dispositivo de caída de peso usando un impacto de peso de 300 g-1 m. Se formaron los siguientes grupos: control, trauma y trauma + Ganoderma lucidum. Siete días después de la lesión cerebral, las ratas experimentales fueron decapitadas después de la administración intraperitoneal de ketamina HCL (0,15 ml / 100 g de peso corporal). Se tomaron muestras cerebrales para el examen histológico y para la determinación de niveles de malondialdehído (MDA) y glutatión (GSH) y actividad de mieloperoxidasa (MPO). Se observó una mejora significativa en las células y las estructuras vasculares de los grupos tratados con Ganoderma lucidum en comparación con los grupos no tratados. Durante el estudio se observó que Ganoderma lucidum puede tener un efecto sobre la progresión de la lesión cerebral traumática. La aplicación de Ganoderma lucidum puede afectar el desarrollo angiogénico en las células endoteliales de los vasos sanguíneos, disminuir la acumulación de células inflamatorias al afectar el mecanismo de las citocinas y puede crear células nerviosas apoptóticas y un mecanismo neuroprotector en las células gliales.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Cerebellum/drug effects , Reishi/chemistry , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/pathology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Immunohistochemistry , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic , Antigens, CD , Cerebellum/metabolism , Cerebellum/pathology , Blotting, Western , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Peroxidase/metabolism , Neuroprotective Agents , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Glutathione/analysis , Malondialdehyde/analysis
18.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 64(10): 888-895, Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-976782

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY BACKGROUND: To determine the concentration of the Lipid Peroxidation Marker: Malondialdehyde (MDA), and Antioxidant Markers: Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPX), Catalase (CAL) in umbilical cord blood and in unstimulated saliva in the first 24 and 48 hours of life in the PTNB of mothers with and without risk factors for early-onset neonatal sepsis. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with the signing of informed consent by the pregnant women and application of a standard questionnaire classifying the PTNB in Group 1 or 2. RESULTS: Twenty-one PTNB were studied. Regarding gender, birth weight, need for oxygen, use of phototherapy, diagnosis of assumed sepsis, presence of fetal distress, number of pregnancies, type of delivery, use of corticosteroids, premature rupture of membranes, maternal fever, chorioamnionitis, APGAR at the 5th and 10th minute of life. Statistical analysis was performed with the Mann-Whitney test (p = 0.019) on the GPX variable of umbilical cord blood in the group of mothers with risk factors for early-onset neonatal sepsis. There was no statistical difference in the MDA, SOD, and CAT variables of the group with risk factors and in any variable of the group without risk factors. CONCLUSION: There was an increase of the GPX concentration in the blood from the umbilical vein in the group with risk factors for early-onset neonatal sepsis. There was no statistical significance in the comparison of saliva and umbilical cord blood. There was no statistically significant difference in MDA, SOD, CAT.


RESUMO OBJETIVOS: Determinar a concentração do marcador de peroxidação lipídica: Malondialdeído (MDA) e dos marcadores antioxidantes: Superóxido Dismutase (SOD), Glutationa Peroxidase (GPX), Catalase (CAL) no sangue do cordão umbilical e na saliva não estimulada nas primeiras 24 e 48 horas de vida nos RNPT de mães com e sem fatores de risco para sepse neonatal precoce. METODOLOGIA: Estudo transversal com a assinatura do termo de consentimento livre esclarecido pela gestante e aplicação de um questionário padrão classificando o RNPT no Grupo 1 ou 2. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 21 RNPT. Quanto ao gênero, peso ao nascimento, necessidade de oxigênio, uso de fototerapia, diagnóstico de sepse presumida, presença de sofrimento fetal, número de gestações, tipo de parto, uso de corticoide, rotura prematura de membranas, a presença de febre materna, a presença de corioamnionite, Apgar no 50 e 100 minuto de vida, a análise estatística foi feita com o teste de Mann-Whitney (p=0,019) na váriável GPX do sangue do cordão umbilical no grupo das mães com fatores de risco para sepse neonatal precoce. Não houve diferença estatística nas outras variáveis MDA, SOD, CAT do grupo com fatores de risco e em nenhuma variável do grupo sem fatores de risco. CONCLUSÃO: O aumento de duas vezes a concentração da GPX no sangue da veia umbilical dos RNPT do grupo das mães com fatores de risco para sepse neonatal precoce. Sem significância estatística na comparação entre a saliva e o sangue do cordão umbilical. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante nas variáveis MDA, SOD e CAT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Biomarkers/analysis , Fetal Blood/chemistry , Neonatal Sepsis/diagnosis , Saliva/chemistry , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture , Infant, Premature , Catalase/analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Neonatal Sepsis/metabolism , Glutathione Peroxidase/analysis , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Antioxidants/metabolism
19.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(4): 384-390, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958430

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of baicalin on myocardial infarction in rats and explore the related mechanisms. Methods: Fifty Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into the control, model, and low-, medium- and high-dose baicalin groups. The latter 3 groups were intraperitoneally injected with baicalin, with a dose of 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg, respectively. Then, the myocardial infarction model was established. The hemodynamic of rats was tested, the serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), prostacyclin (PGI2) and thromboxane A2 (TXA2) were determined, the myocardial superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were detected, and the myocardial B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2 associated X (Bax) protein expressions were determined. Results: Compared with the model group, in the high-dose baicalin group the ST segment height and LVEDP were significantly decreased (P<0.05), the LVSP was significantly increased (P<0.05), the serum LDH, CK-MB and TXA2 levels were significantly decreased (P<0.05), the PGI2 level was significantly increased (P<0.05), the myocardial SOD level was significantly increased (P<0.05), and the myocardial MDA level was significantly decreased (P<0.05); the myocardial Bcl-2 protein level was significantly increased, and the Bax protein level was significantly decreased (P<0.05). Conclusion: Baicalin has protective effects on myocardial infarction in rats. The possible mechanisms may be related to its resistance to oxidative stress, and up-regulation of Bcl-2 protein expression and down-regulation of Bax protein expression in myocardial tissue.


Subject(s)
Animals , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Myocardial Infarction/prevention & control , Reference Values , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Thromboxane A2/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Epoprostenol/blood , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Genes, bcl-2 , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/analysis , Hemodynamics/drug effects , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Malondialdehyde/analysis
20.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(7): 629-640, July 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949364

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effect of melatonin on uterine tissue in the ovariectomized rat model. Methods: Fourty Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups for histologic and immunohistochemical examination. The rats were first numbered randomly and then randomly divided into 4 equal groups: control (group 1), torsion (group 2), torsion+detorsion (group 3) and torsion+detorsion+melatonin (group 4) groups. In addition, four Wistar albino rats were used for western blot analysis in each group. And also, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured biochemically in all rats. Results: The histopathological examination of the uterine tissue in rats ovarectomized showed a degeneration in uterine glands, dilation of blood vessels in the internal layer with a thrombosis and bleeding, abnormal nucleuses and vacuolated cytoplasm above and below the nucleus. In torsion group, the apoptotic cells increased in luminal epithelium and gland cells. In the melatonin group showed that the Bcl2 negative effect on the uterine epithelium and did not lead to apoptotic cells. Conclusion: The increase in vascular endothelial growth factor expression resulted in the rearrangement of endothelial cell growth and the induction of angiogenesis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Uterus/drug effects , Uterus/pathology , Estrus/drug effects , Genes, bcl-2/drug effects , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/analysis , Melatonin/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Immunohistochemistry , Ovariectomy , Random Allocation , Blotting, Western , Actins/analysis , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/drug effects , Malondialdehyde/analysis
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