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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4996-5013, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008074

ABSTRACT

Transmembrane emp24 domain (TMED) gene is closely related to immune response, signal transduction, growth and disease development in mammals. However, only the Drosophila TMED gene has been reported on insects. We identified the TMED family genes of silkworm, Tribolium castaneum, tobacco moth and Italian bee from their genomes, and found that the TMED family gene composition patterns of one α-class, one β-class, one δ-class and several γ-classes arose in the common ancestor of pre-divergent Hymenoptera insects, while the composition of Drosophila TMED family members has evolved in a unique pattern. Insect TMED family γ-class genes have evolved rapidly, diverging into three separate subclasses, TMED6-like, TMED5-like and TMED3-like. The TMED5-like gene was lost in Hymenoptera, duplicated in the ancestors of Lepidoptera and duplicated in Drosophila. Insect TMED protein not only has typical structural characteristics of TMED, but also has obvious signal peptide. There are seven TMED genes in silkworm, distributed in six chromosomes. One of seven is single exon and others are multi-exons. The complete open reading frame (ORF) sequences of seven TMED genes of silkworm were cloned from larval tissues and registered in GenBank database. BmTMED1, BmTMED2 and BmTMED6 were expressed in all stages and tissues of the silkworm, and all genes were expressed in the 4th and 5th instar and silk gland of the silkworm. The present study revealed the composition pattern of TMED family members, their γ class differentiation and their evolutionary history, providing a basis for further studies on TMED genes in silkworm and other insects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bombyx/metabolism , Genes, Insect/genetics , Moths/metabolism , Insecta/metabolism , Drosophila , Insect Proteins/metabolism , Phylogeny , Mammals/genetics
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3710-3723, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007987

ABSTRACT

As central players in cellular structure and function, proteins have long been central themes in life science research. Analyzing the impact of protein sequence variation on its structure and function is one of the important means to study proteins. In recent years, a technology called deep mutational scanning (DMS) has been widely used in the field of protein research. It introduces thousands of mutations in parallel in specific regions of proteins through high-abundance DNA libraries. After screening, high-throughput sequencing is employed to score each mutation, revealing sequence-function correlations. Due to its high-throughput, fast and easy, and labor-saving features, DMS has become an important method for protein function research and protein engineering. This review briefly summarizes the principle of DMS technology, highlighting its applications in mammalian cells. Moreover, this review analyzes the current technical bottlenecks, aiming to facilitate relevant research.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mutation , Proteins/chemistry , Protein Engineering , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Mammals/genetics
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3681-3694, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007985

ABSTRACT

Single chain antibody fragment (scFv) is a small molecule composed of a variable region of heavy chain (VH) and a variable region of light chain (VL) of an antibody, and these two chains are connected by a flexible short peptide. scFv is the smallest functional fragment with complete antigen-binding activity, which contains both the antibody-recognizing site and the antigen-binding site. Compared with other antibodies, scFv has the advantages of small molecular weight, strong penetration, low immunogenicity, and easy expression. Currently, the most commonly used display systems for scFv mainly include the phage display system, ribosome display system, mRNA display system, yeast cell surface display system and mammalian cell display system. In recent years, with the development of scFv in the field of medicine, biology, and food safety, they have also attracted much attention in the sectors of biosynthesis and applied research. This review summarizes the advances of scFv display systems in recent years in order to facilitate scFv screening and application.


Subject(s)
Animals , Immunoglobulin Variable Region/genetics , Immunoglobulin Fragments/metabolism , Single-Chain Antibodies/metabolism , Peptide Library , Mammals/genetics
4.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 662-673, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009791

ABSTRACT

Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the most common genetic cause of human male infertility. However, the effect of the extra X chromosome on different testicular cell types remains poorly understood. Here, we profiled testicular single-cell transcriptomes from three KS patients and normal karyotype control individuals. Among the different somatic cells, Sertoli cells showed the greatest transcriptome changes in KS patients. Further analysis showed that X-inactive-specific transcript ( XIST ), a key factor that inactivates one X chromosome in female mammals, was widely expressed in each testicular somatic cell type but not in Sertoli cells. The loss of XIST in Sertoli cells leads to an increased level of X chromosome genes, and further disrupts their transcription pattern and cellular function. This phenomenon was not detected in other somatic cells such as Leydig cells and vascular endothelial cells. These results proposed a new mechanism to explain why testicular atrophy in KS patients is heterogeneous with loss of seminiferous tubules but interstitial hyperplasia. Our study provides a theoretical basis for subsequent research and related treatment of KS by identifying Sertoli cell-specific X chromosome inactivation failure.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Female , Sertoli Cells/metabolism , Klinefelter Syndrome/genetics , Endothelial Cells , Testis/metabolism , X Chromosome/metabolism , Mammals/genetics
5.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 939-956, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010802

ABSTRACT

A small proportion of mononuclear diploid cardiomyocytes (MNDCMs), with regeneration potential, could persist in adult mammalian heart. However, the heterogeneity of MNDCMs and changes during development remains to be illuminated. To this end, 12 645 cardiac cells were generated from embryonic day 17.5 and postnatal days 2 and 8 mice by single-cell RNA sequencing. Three cardiac developmental paths were identified: two switching to cardiomyocytes (CM) maturation with close CM-fibroblast (FB) communications and one maintaining MNDCM status with least CM-FB communications. Proliferative MNDCMs having interactions with macrophages and non-proliferative MNDCMs (non-pMNDCMs) with minimal cell-cell communications were identified in the third path. The non-pMNDCMs possessed distinct properties: the lowest mitochondrial metabolisms, the highest glycolysis, and high expression of Myl4 and Tnni1. Single-nucleus RNA sequencing and immunohistochemical staining further proved that the Myl4+Tnni1+ MNDCMs persisted in embryonic and adult hearts. These MNDCMs were mapped to the heart by integrating the spatial and single-cell transcriptomic data. In conclusion, a novel non-pMNDCM subpopulation with minimal cell-cell communications was unveiled, highlighting the importance of microenvironment contribution to CM fate during maturation. These findings could improve the understanding of MNDCM heterogeneity and cardiac development, thus providing new clues for approaches to effective cardiac regeneration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Diploidy , Heart , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Cell Communication , Gene Expression Profiling , Mitochondria , Regeneration , Mammals/genetics
6.
Biol. Res ; 56: 19-19, 2023. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439486

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: AMBRA1 is an intrinsically disordered protein, working as a scaffold molecule to coordinate, by protein-protein interaction, many cellular processes, including autophagy, mitophagy, apoptosis and cell cycle progression. The zebrafish genome contains two ambra1 paralogous genes (a and b), both involved in development and expressed at high levels in the gonads. Characterization of the zebrafish paralogous genes mutant lines generated by CRISPR/Cas9 approach showed that ambra1b knockout leads to an all-male population. RESULTS: We demonstrated that the silencing of the ambra1b gene determines a reduction of primordial germ cells (PGCs), a condition that, in the zebrafish, leads to the development of all-male progeny. PGC reduction was confirmed by knockdown experiments and rescued by injection of ambra1b and human AMBRA1 mRNAs, but not ambra1a mRNA. Moreover, PGC loss was not rescued by injection with human AMBRA1 mRNA mutated in the CUL4-DDB1 binding region, thus suggesting that interaction with this complex is involved in PGC protection from loss. Results from zebrafish embryos injected with murine Stat3 mRNA and stat3 morpholino suggest that Ambra1b could indirectly regulate this protein through CUL4-DDB1 interaction. According to this, Ambra1+/- mice showed a reduced Stat3 expression in the ovary together with a low number of antral follicles and an increase of atretic follicles, indicating a function of Ambra1 in the ovary of mammals as well. Moreover, in agreement with the high expression of these genes in the testis and ovary, we found significant impairment of the reproductive process and pathological alterations, including tumors, mainly limited to the gonads. CONCLUSIONS: By exploiting ambra1a and ambra1b knockout zebrafish lines, we prove the sub-functionalization between the two paralogous zebrafish genes and uncover a novel function of Ambra1 in the protection from excessive PGC loss, which seems to require binding with the CUL4-DDB1 complex. Both genes seem to play a role in the regulation of reproductive physiology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Sex Differentiation , Zebrafish/genetics , Zebrafish/metabolism , Reproduction , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Zebrafish Proteins/genetics , Zebrafish Proteins/metabolism , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Germ Cells/metabolism , Mammals/genetics , Mammals/metabolism
7.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 476-489, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939867

ABSTRACT

Cell therapy approaches that employ engineered mammalian cells for on-demand production of therapeutic agents in the patient's body are moving beyond proof-of-concept in translational medicine. The therapeutic cells can be customized to sense user-defined signals, process them, and respond in a programmable and predictable way. In this paper, we introduce the available tools and strategies employed to design therapeutic cells. Then, various approaches to control cell behaviors, including open-loop and closed-loop systems, are discussed. We also highlight therapeutic applications of engineered cells for early diagnosis and treatment of various diseases in the clinic and in experimental disease models. Finally, we consider emerging technologies such as digital devices and their potential for incorporation into future cell-based therapies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Cell Engineering , Gene Regulatory Networks , Genetic Engineering , Mammals/genetics , Synthetic Biology
8.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 529-546, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939825

ABSTRACT

Mammalian bone is constantly metabolized from the embryonic stage, and the maintenance of bone health depends on the dynamic balance between bone resorption and bone formation, mediated by osteoclasts and osteoblasts. It is widely recognized that circadian clock genes can regulate bone metabolism. In recent years, the regulation of bone metabolism by non-coding RNAs has become a hotspot of research. MicroRNAs can participate in bone catabolism and anabolism by targeting key factors related to bone metabolism, including circadian clock genes. However, research in this field has been conducted only in recent years and the mechanisms involved are not yet well established. Recent studies have focused on how to target circadian clock genes to treat some diseases, such as autoimmune diseases, but few have focused on the co-regulation of circadian clock genes and microRNAs in bone metabolic diseases. Therefore, in this paper we review the progress of research on the co-regulation of bone metabolism by circadian clock genes and microRNAs, aiming to provide new ideas for the prevention and treatment of bone metabolic diseases such as osteoporosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Circadian Clocks/genetics , Circadian Rhythm/genetics , Mammals/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Osteogenesis/genetics , Osteoporosis/genetics
9.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 176-184, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929190

ABSTRACT

Studies of human and mammalian have revealed that environmental exposure can affect paternal health conditions as well as those of the offspring. However, studies that explore the mechanisms that meditate this transmission are rare. Recently, small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) in sperm have seemed crucial to this transmission due to their alteration in sperm in response to environmental exposure, and the methodology of microinjection of isolated total RNA or sncRNAs or synthetically identified sncRNAs gradually lifted the veil of sncRNA regulation during intergenerational inheritance along the male line. Hence, by reviewing relevant literature, this study intends to answer the following research concepts: (1) paternal environmental factors that can be passed on to offspring and are attributed to spermatozoal sncRNAs, (2) potential role of paternal spermatozoal sncRNAs during the intergenerational inheritance process, and (3) the potential mechanism by which spermatozoal sncRNAs meditate intergenerational inheritance. In summary, increased attention highlights the hidden wonder of spermatozoal sncRNAs during intergenerational inheritance. Therefore, in the future, more studies should focus on the origin of RNA alteration, the target of RNA regulation, and how sncRNA regulation during embryonic development can be sustained even in adult offspring.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Pregnancy , Environmental Exposure , Epigenesis, Genetic , Mammals/genetics , RNA, Small Untranslated/genetics , Spermatozoa
10.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 315-327, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929061

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasma gondii is a worldwide parasite that can infect almost all kinds of mammals and cause fatal toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients. Apoptosis is one of the principal strategies of host cells to clear pathogens and maintain organismal homeostasis, but the mechanism of cell apoptosis induced by T. gondii remains obscure. To explore the apoptosis influenced by T. gondii, Vero cells infected or uninfected with the parasite were subjected to apoptosis detection and subsequent dual RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Using high-throughput Illumina sequencing and bioinformatics analysis, we found that pro-apoptosis genes such as DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3), growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible α (GADD45A), caspase-3 (CASP3), and high-temperature requirement protease A2 (HtrA2) were upregulated, and anti-apoptosis genes such as poly(adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose) polymerase family member 3 (PARP3), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) repeat containing 5 (BIRC5) were downregulated. Besides, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 1 (TRAF1), TRAF2, TNF receptor superfamily member 10b (TNFRSF10b), disabled homolog 2 (DAB2)‍-interacting protein (DAB2IP), and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 3 (ITPR3) were enriched in the upstream of TNF, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways, and TRAIL-receptor 2 (TRAIL-R2) was regarded as an important membrane receptor influenced by T. gondii that had not been previously considered. In conclusion, the T. gondii RH strain could promote and mediate apoptosis through multiple pathways mentioned above in Vero cells. Our findings improve the understanding of the T. gondii infection process through providing new insights into the related cellular apoptosis mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Apoptosis , Chlorocebus aethiops , Gene Expression Profiling , Mammals/genetics , Toxoplasma/genetics , Toxoplasmosis/pathology , Vero Cells , ras GTPase-Activating Proteins/genetics
11.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 572-579, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922376

ABSTRACT

Programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are necessary for meiosis in mammals. A sufficient number of DSBs ensure the normal pairing/synapsis of homologous chromosomes. Abnormal DSB repair undermines meiosis, leading to sterility in mammals. The DSBs that initiate recombination are repaired as crossovers and noncrossovers, and crossovers are required for correct chromosome separation. Thus, the placement, timing, and frequency of crossover formation must be tightly controlled. Importantly, mutations in many genes related to the formation and repair of DSB result in infertility in humans. These mutations cause nonobstructive azoospermia in men, premature ovarian insufficiency and ovarian dysgenesis in women. Here, we have illustrated the formation and repair of DSB in mammals, summarized major factors influencing the formation of DSB and the theories of crossover regulation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Chromosome Segregation , DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded , DNA Repair/physiology , Mammals/genetics
12.
Indian J Hum Genet ; 2014 Apr-Jun ; 20 (2): 129-141
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-156649

ABSTRACT

The evolutionary conserved, less‑polymorphic, nonclassical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules: Qa‑1 and its human homologue human leukocyte antigen‑E (HLA‑E) along with HLA‑F, G and H cross‑talk with the T‑cell receptors and also interact with natural killer T‑cells and other lymphocytes. Moreover, these nonclassical MHC molecules are known to interact with CD94/NKG2 heterodimeric receptors to induce immune responses and immune regulations. This dual role of Qa‑1/ HLA‑E in terms of innate and adaptive immunity makes them more interesting. This review highlights the new updates of the mammalian nonclassical MHC‑I molecules in terms of their gene organization, evolutionary perspective and their role in immunity.


Subject(s)
Biological Evolution/genetics , /genetics , /immunology , Humans , Immunity/genetics , Immunity/immunology , Mammals/genetics , Mammals/immunology
13.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : e48-2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-223716

ABSTRACT

Prion diseases, including ovine scrapie, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), human kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), originate from a conformational change of the normal cellular prion protein (PrPC) into abnormal protease-resistant prion protein (PrPSc). There is concern regarding these prion diseases because of the possibility of their zoonotic infections across species. Mutations and polymorphisms of prion sequences may influence prion-disease susceptibility through the modified expression and conformation of proteins. Rapid determination of susceptibility based on prion-sequence polymorphism information without complex structural and molecular biological analyses may be possible. Information regarding the effects of mutations and polymorphisms on prion-disease susceptibility was collected based on previous studies to classify the susceptibilities of sequences, whereas the BLOSUM62 scoring matrix and the position-specific scoring matrix were utilised to determine the distance of target sequences. The k-nearest neighbour analysis was validated with cross-validation methods. The results indicated that the number of polymorphisms did not influence prion-disease susceptibility, and three and four k-objects showed the best accuracy in identifying the susceptible group. Although sequences with negative polymorphisms showed relatively high accuracy for determination, polymorphisms may still not be an appropriate factor for estimating variation in susceptibility. Discriminant analysis of prion sequences with scoring matrices was attempted as a possible means of determining susceptibility to prion diseases. Further research is required to improve the utility of this method.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Amino Acid Sequence , Discriminant Analysis , Disease Susceptibility , Mammals/genetics , Mutation , Polymorphism, Genetic , Prion Diseases/genetics , Prions/chemistry , Sequence Analysis, DNA
14.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 72(3): 221-226, jun. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-657506

ABSTRACT

La vía TOR ("Target Of Rapamycin") de mamíferos es una red proteica de regulación para una amplia gama de procesos involucrados en el crecimiento y la diferenciación celular, constituyendo un interruptor funcional entre el metabolismo anabólico y catabólico de la célula. El Trypanosoma cruzi, agente etiológico de la enfermedad de Chagas, tiene un ciclo de vida muy complejo con diferentes estadios morfológicos en varios hospedadores. Este ciclo de vida implica que los parásitos enfrentan grandes fluctuaciones en el medio extracelular que deben ser detectadas y a las cuales deben responder adaptando su metabolismo. Un candidato a ser el mediador entre los receptores/sensores del medio y la respuesta adaptativa celular es la vía TOR. En este trabajo integramos los datos bibliográficos de la vía TOR de organismos tripanosomátidos con un análisis in silico (simulación computacional de procesos o estructuras biológicas) del genoma del parásito. Se proponen además posibles efectores y procesos regulados por esta ruta metabólica. Teniendo en cuenta que existe muy poca información sobre los mecanismos de transducción de señales en tripanosomátidos, consideramos que el mapa presentado en este trabajo puede ser una referencia para futuros trabajos experimentales.


The mammalian TOR pathway ("Target Of Rapamycin") is a regulatory protein network involved in a wide range of processes including cell growth and differentiation, providing a functional switch between anabolic and catabolic cell metabolism. Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, has a complex life cycle with different morphological stages in various hosts. This life cycle implies that parasites have to deal with fluctuations in the extracellular medium that should be detected and counteracted adapting their metabolism. A candidate to be the mediator between the receptors / sensors of the environment and cellular adaptive response is the TOR pathway. In this paper we integrate the bibliographic data of the TOR pathway in trypanosomatids by in silico analysis (computer simulation of biological structures and processes) of the parasite's genome. Possible effectors and processes regulated by this metabolic pathway are also proposed. Given that the information on the mechanisms of signal transduction in trypanosomatids is scarce, we consider the model presented in this work may be a reference for future experimental work.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chagas Disease/parasitology , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Computer Simulation , Life Cycle Stages , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Mammals/genetics , Signal Transduction , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
15.
Veterinary Medical Journal. 2009; 57 (2): 203-209
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-166202

ABSTRACT

Maternal behavior is that behavior exhibited bymothers towards their young which is presumed to aid the young in their survival growth and development, both physically and behaviorally. Maternal behavior is a characteristic of mammals that the females suckle their young from specially developed mammary glands, which produce mild sufficiently nutrition to sustain the young during the early stage of life. It is therefore, appropriate to restrict the term [maternal behavior[to females and to use the general heading] parental behavior] when considering other animals [birds like pigeons] .Maternal behavior has two phases: 1] general motivation to approach and nurse a neonate and 2] specific identification of the neonate as one's own.General maternal behavior is triggered by the events of parturition especially the fall in estrogen and progesterone and the appearance of a foal - like creature - small, wet, uncoordinated, with a foreshortened face and a high pitched neigh. Signaling a critical period during which the odor of the neonate encountered will belearned . Subsequently all other neonates will be rejected. The sense she uses is probably not from the main olfactory system, but from the vomeronasal organ. In sheep, blockage of the entrance to the vomeronasal organ results in promiscuous ewes who will allow lambs other than their own to suckle. The same is probably true of horses


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals , Mammals/genetics , Parturition
16.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 12(6): 462-465, Dec. 2008.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-507441

ABSTRACT

Identification of animals that are decomposing or have been run over or burnt and cannot be visually identified is a problem in the surveillance and control of infectious diseases. Many of these animals are wild and represent a valuable source of information for epidemiologic research as they may be carriers of an infectious agent. This article discusses the results obtained using a method for identifying mammals genetically by sequencing their mitochondrial DNA control region. Fourteen species were analyzed and identified. These included the main reservoirs and transmitters of rabies virus, namely, canids, chiroptera and primates. The results prove that this method of genetic identification is both efficient and simple and that it can be used in the surveillance of infectious diseases which includes mammals in their epidemiologic cycle, such as rabies.


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Mammals/genetics , Brazil , Mammals/classification , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rabies virus , Rabies/transmission , Species Specificity
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 26(3): 669-674, Sept. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-556730

ABSTRACT

This study verified the comparative histomorphometric adaptations in the stomach of rat, bat and pangolin in relation to diet. Ten rats, ten bats and ten pangolins of both sexes were used for this investigation. The animals were sacrificed after slight anesthesia under chloroform inhalation. The stomach were excised, fixed in 10 percent formol saline and processed for light microscopic study. Stained slides were also subjected to morphometric analysis at a magnification of 400x. The results revealed that the cellular diameter/ density of parietal and zymogenic cells are significantly different in the three mammals (p<0.05) with the exception of the diameter of the zymogenic cells in pangolin which was not statistically significant (p>0.05) when compared with that of rat. Also, histological analysis revealed slight differences in the pattern of organization and distribution of connective tissue fibers. All these observations were reflections of the different pattern the stomachs of the three mammals have adopted to cope with their respective diets.


En este estudio se verificaron las adaptaciones histomorfométricas comparativas en el estómago de ratas, murciélagos y pangolines en relación a la dieta. Se utilizaron para esta investigación 10 ejemplares de cada especie, de ambos sexos. Los animales fueron sacrificados después de anestesia bajo inhalación de cloroformo. Los estómagos fueron extirpados, fijados en formol al 10 por ciento de solución salina y procesados para su estudio microscópico de luz. Los cortes teñidos fueron también objeto de análisis morfométrico con un aumento de X 400. Los resultados revelaron que el diámetro/densidad celular de parietal y las células cimógenas son significativamente diferentes en los tres mamíferos (p <0,05), con la excepción del diámetro de la células cimógenas de pangolines que no era estadísticamente significativa (p> 0,05) en comparación con la de rata. Por otra parte, el análisis histológico reveló ligeras diferencias en las características de organización y distribución de las fibras del tejido conjuntivo. Todas estas observaciones son un reflejo del patrón de los diferentes estómagos de los tres mamíferos, que han adoptado para hacer frente a sus respectivas dietas.


Subject(s)
Male , Adult , Animals , Female , Stomach/anatomy & histology , Stomach/cytology , Stomach/ultrastructure , Connective Tissue Cells/ultrastructure , Histology, Comparative/methods , Mammals/anatomy & histology , Mammals/genetics , Mammals/metabolism , Chiroptera/anatomy & histology , Chiroptera/physiology , Chiroptera/genetics , Rats/anatomy & histology , Rats/physiology
18.
J Genet ; 2006 Dec; 85(3): 179-85
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-114237

ABSTRACT

We propose that select retropseudogenes of the high mobility group nonhistone chromosomal protein genes have recently integrated into mammalian genomes on the basis of the high sequence identity of the copies to the cDNA sequences derived from the original genes. These include the Hmg1 gene family in mice and the Hmgn2 family in humans. We investigated orthologous loci of several strains and species of Mus for presence or absence of apparently young Hmg1 retropseudogenes. Three of four analysed elements were specific to Mus musculus, two of which were not fixed, indicative of recent evolutionary origins. Additionally, we datamined a presumptive subfamily (Hmgz) of mouse Hmg1, but only identified one true element in the GenBank database, which is not consistent with a separate subfamily status. Two of four analysed Hmgn2 retropseudogenes were specific for the human genome, whereas a third was identified in human, chimpanzee and gorilla genomes, and a fourth additionally found in orangutan but absent in African green monkey. Flanking target-site duplications were consistent with LINE integration sites supporting LINE machinery for their mechanism of amplification. The human Hmgn2 retropseudogenes were full length, whereas the mouse Hmg1 elements were either full length or 3'-truncated at specific positions, most plausibly the result of use of alternative polyadenylation sites. The nature of their recent amplification success in relation to other retropseudogenes is unclear, although availability of a large number of transcripts during gametogenesis may be a reason. It is apparent that retropseudogenes continue to shape mammalian genomes, and may provide insight into the process of retrotransposition, as well as offer potential use as phylogenetic markers.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cloning, Molecular , Databases, Genetic , Genome, Human , Gorilla gorilla/genetics , High Mobility Group Proteins/genetics , Humans , Mammals/genetics , Mice/genetics , Pan troglodytes/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pongo pygmaeus/genetics , Pseudogenes , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Species Specificity
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 100(5): 501-513, Aug. 2005. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-409968

ABSTRACT

Since the discovery that genes are split into intron and exons, the studies of the mechanisms involved in splicing pointed to presence of consensus signals in an attempt to generalize the process for all living cells. However, as discussed in the present review, splicing is a theme full of variations. The trans-splicing of pre-mRNAs, the joining of exons from distinct transcripts, is one of these variations with broad distribution in the phylogenetic tree. The biological meaning of this phenomenon is discussed encompassing reactions resembling a possible noise to mechanisms of gene expression regulation. All of them however, can contribute to the generation of life diversity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Genetic Variation , Kinetoplastida/genetics , Mammals/genetics , Nematoda/genetics , RNA Precursors/genetics , Trans-Splicing/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , Phylogeny
20.
Rev. invest. clín ; 56(1): 56-71, feb. 2004. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-632306

ABSTRACT

Methylation of CpG dinucleotides is an epigenetic mechanism involved in the regulation of gene expression in mammals. The patterns of CpG methylation are specie and tissue specific. The biological machinery of this system comprises a variety of regulatory proteins including DNA methyltransferases, putative demethylases, methyl-CpG binding proteins, histones modifying enzymes and chromatin remodeling complexes. DNA methylation maintains gene silencing and participates in normal development, genomic imprinting and X chromosome inactivation. In contrast, alterations in DNA methylation participate in the induction of some human diseases, especially those involving developmental defects and tumorigenesis. This review summarizes the molecular aspects of DNA methylation and its implications in cancer and other human diseases in which this epigenetic mechanism has been involved. Our understanding of the epigenetic changes that occur in human diseases will be very important for future management. Changes in the patterns of methylation can be used as markers in cancer and their potentially reversible state creates a target for therapeutic strategies involving specific gene re-activation or re-silencing.


La metilación del ADN en dinucleótidos CpG es uno de los mecanismos epigenéticos implicados en la regulación de la expresión génica en mamíferos. Los patrones de metilación son específicos para cada especie y tipo de tejido. La maquinaria implicada comprende diferentes proteínas reguladoras incluyendo a las ADN metiltransferasas, desmetilasas putativas, proteínas de unión a CpG metilados, enzimas modificadoras de histonas y complejos remodeladores de la cromatina. La metilación del ADN es de vital importancia para mantener el silenciamiento génico en el desarrollo normal, la impronta genómica y la inactivación del cromosoma X. En contraste, alteraciones en ella están implicadas en algunas enfermedades humanas, especialmente aquéllas relacionadas con defectos en el desarrollo y el proceso neoplásico. Esta revisión resume los aspectos moleculares de la metilación del ADN y su participación en el desarrollo normal, el cáncer y en algunas patologías humanas en las que los mecanismos epigenéticos han sido implicados. El conocimiento de las modificaciones epigenéticas que ocurren en las enfermedades humanas será importante para su manejo futuro. Los cambios en los patrones de metilación podrán ser empleados como marcadores en cáncer y el estado potencialmente reversible de este proceso constituye un blanco ideal para crear estrategias terapéuticas que impliquen la reactivación o el re-silenciamiento de genes específicos.


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA Methylation , Epigenesis, Genetic , Chromatin/genetics , Genome , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/genetics , Mammals/genetics , Neoplasms/genetics , Transcription, Genetic , X Chromosome/genetics
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