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Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1175-1187, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970431


In order to determine the changes of bacterial community structure and function in the early, middle and late stage of aerobic composting of chicken manure, high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics methods were used to determine and analyze the 16S rRNA sequence of samples at different stages of composting. Wayne analysis showed that most of the bacterial OTUs in the three composting stages were the same, and only about 10% of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed stage specificity. The diversity indexes including Ace, Chao1 and Simpson showed a trend of increasing at first, followed by decreasing. However, there was no significant difference among different composting stages (P < 0.05). The dominant bacteria groups in three composting stages were analyzed at the phylum and genus levels. The dominant bacteria phyla at three composting stages were the same, but the abundances were different. LEfSe (line discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size) method was used to analyze the bacterial biological markers with statistical differences among three stages of composting. From the phylum to genus level, there were 49 markers with significant differences among different groups. The markers included 12 species, 13 genera, 12 families, 8 orders, 1 boundary, and 1 phylum. The most biomarkers were detected at early stage while the least biomarkers were detected at late stage. The microbial diversity was analyzed at the functional pathway level. The function diversity was the highest in the early stage of composting. Following the composting, the microbial function was enriched relatively while the diversity decreased. This study provides theoretical support and technical guidance for the regulation of livestock manure aerobic composting process.

Animals , Manure/microbiology , Chickens/genetics , Composting , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Soil , Bacteria/genetics
Int. j. morphol ; 39(1): 57-63, feb. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385312


SUMMARY: The insectivorous bat Myotis chiloensis is endemic of South America. Even though potentially pathogenic bacterial species of Mycoplasma have been reported from this species, there are no further studies regarding the bacterial communities they harbor. This may provide important insights for the better understanding of its ecology, diet and implications in cross-species pathogens transmission. Here we report a first survey on bacterial communities of M. chiloensis based on metagenomic analysis of fecal samples. We found that taxonomic profile is dominated by Proteobacteria (23.7 to 57.7 %) and Firmicutes (11.8 to 61.6 %), which main families are represented by Burkholderiaceae- Enterobacteriaceae and Veillonellaceae-Bacillaceae, respectively. Phyla Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Planctomycetes and Acidobacteria were also present with abundance above 1 % of the total reads. Variations among individuals could be observed at genus level and no significant differences were found between sex groups regarding taxonomic profiles and diversity. Potentially pathogenic species were also detected in all the samples, including Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium perfringens. Our results highlight the significance M. chiloensis as a reservoir of pathogenic bacteria and its microbiota as an interesting ecological model due to its wide distribution. Further metagenomic studies are necessary for a better understanding of M. chiloensis diet and its host-symbiont relationships.

RESUMEN: El murciélago insectívoro Myotis chiloensis es endémico de América del Sur. A pesar de que en esta especie se han reportado bacterias potencialmente patógenas tipo Mycoplasma, no existen estudios sobre sus comunidades bacterianas, lo cual podría proporcionar información importante para una mejor comprensión de su ecología, dieta e implicaciones en la transmisión de patógenos. En el presente trabajo se realiza una descripción de las comunidades bacterianas del murciélago M. chiloensis basada en análisis metagenómico de muestras fecales. El perfil taxonómico encontradofue dominado por Proteobacterias (23,7-57,7 %) y Firmicutes (11,8-61,6 %), cuyas principales familias fueron representadas por Burkholderiaceae-Enterobacteriaceae y Veillonellaceae-Bacillaceae, respectivamente. También se encontraron los filos Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Planctomycetes y Acidobacteria con una abundancia superior al 1 %. Se observaron variaciones entre los individuos a nivel de género, sin diferencias significativas de los perfiles taxonómicos y diversidad según sexo. Se detectaron especies potencialmente patógenas en todas las muestras, entre ellos Staphylococcus aureus y Clostridium perfringens. Nuestros resultados destacan la importancia de M. chiloensis como un reservorio de bacterias patógenas y el estudio de su microbiota como un modelo ecológico debido a su amplia distribución. Más estudios metagenómicos son necesarios para comprender la dieta de M. chiloensis y sus relaciones huésped-simbionte.

Animals , Chiroptera , Feces/microbiology , Manure/microbiology , Chile , Metagenomics , Microbiota
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(4): 371-380, dic. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057403


Abstract Cattle manure composting was performed in an aerated vessel. Community structure and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) were investigated using polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) techniques targeting the ammonia monooxygenase alpha subunit (amoA) gene and the correlation between AOB and AOA communities and environmental factors was explored. Thirteen (13) AOB sequences were obtained, which were closely related to Nitrosomonas spp., Nitrosomonas eutropha, and Nitrosospira spp. and uncultured bacteria, among which Nitrosomonas spp. were predominant. Excessively high temperature and high ammonium concentration were not favorable for AOB growth. Five AOA sequences, belonging to Candidatus Nitrososphaera gargensis and to an uncultured archaeon, were obtained. During composting, community diversity of AOB and AOA fluctuated, with AOA showing a higher Shannon-Wiener index. The AOB community changed more dramatically in the mesophilic stage and the early thermophilic stage, whereas the most obvious AOA community succession occurred in the late thermophilic stage, the cooling stage and the maturity stage. Water content, total nitrogen (TN) and ammonium concentration were more relevant to the AOB community structure, while higher correlations were observed between ammonia, nitrate and TN and the AOA community. AOB community diversity was negatively correlated with pH (r = -0.938, p < 0.01) and water content (r = -0.765, p < 0.05), while positively correlated with TN (r = 0.894, p < 0.01). AOA community diversity was negatively correlated with ammonium concentration (r = -0.901, p < 0.01). Ammonium concentration played an important role in the succession of AOB and AOA communities during composting.

Resumen Se llevó a cabo un compostaje de estiércol de ganado en un recipiente aireado. Se investigó la estructura de la comunidad y la diversidad de bacterias oxidantes del amoníaco (AOB) y las arqueas oxidantes del amoníaco (AOA) mediante el uso de las técnicas de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa y la electroforesis en gel con gradiente de desnaturalización (PCR-DGGE) dirigidas al gen de la subunidad alfa de la amonio monooxigenasa (amoA), y se exploró la correlación entre las comunidades AOB, AOA y los factores ambientales. Se obtuvieron 13 secuencias de AOB, las cuales se relacionaron estrechamente con Nitrosomonas spp., Nitrosomonas eutropha y Nitrosospira spp., y bacterias no cultivadas, entre las cuales fueron predominantes las Nitrosomonas spp. La temperatura excesivamente alta y la concentración de amonio elevada no fueron favorables para el crecimiento de las AOB. Se obtuvieron 5 secuencias de AOA, pertenecientes a Candidatus Nitrososphaera gargensis y un Archaeon no cultivado. Durante el compostaje, la diversidad de AOB y AOA fluctuó y las AOA mostraron un índice de Shannon-Wiener más alto. La comunidad de AOB cambió significativamente en la etapa mesofílica y la etapa termofílica temprana, mientras que la sucesión más obvia de la comunidad AOA ocurrió en la etapa termofílica tardía y las etapas de enfriamiento y de maduración. El contenido de agua, el nitrógeno total (TN) y la concentración de amonio fueron más relevantes para la estructura de la comunidad AOB, mientras que se observaron correlaciones mayores entre amoníaco, nitrato y TN, y la comunidad AOA. La diversidad de la comunidad AOB se correlacionó negativamente con el pH (r= -0,938; p < 0,01) y el contenido de agua (r = -0,765; p < 0,05), mientras que se relacionó positivamente con TN (r = 0,894; p < 0,01). La diversidad de la comunidad AOA se correlacionó negativamente con la concentración de amonio (r = -0,901; p < 0,01). La concentración de amonio desempenó un papel importante en la sucesión de las comunidades AOB y AOA durante el compostaje.

Bacteria/growth & development , Archaea/growth & development , Nitrification , Ammonium Compounds/analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Oxidants/chemistry , Electrophoresis/methods , Manure/microbiology
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(3): 191-200, set. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041824


Diversity and abundance of the denitrifying genes nirK, nirS and nosZ were investigated in cow manure compost using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), respectively. These three genes were detected in all the stages of the composting process. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the nirK gene was closely related to Rhizobiales, Burkholderiales, the nirS gene was closely related to Pseudomonadales and Burkholderiales, and the nosZ gene was closely related to Rhodospirillales, Rhizobiales, Pseudomonadales, and Alteromonadales. qPCR results showed that the abundance of these three genes (nirK, nirS and nosZ) reached the peak value in the late thermophilic stage of composting and abundance of the nirK gene was higher than that of the nosZ gene and the nirS gene. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that the diversity of the nirK and nirS genes was significantly correlated with ammonium (p < 0.05), the diversity of the nosZ gene was significantly correlated with pH (p < 0.05) and the abundance of the nirK nirS and nosZ genes was significantly correlated with temperature (p< 0.05).

La diversidad y la abundancia de los genes desnitrificadores nirK, nirS, nosZ en el compost de estiércol de vaca se investigaron por medio de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa seguida de electroforesis en gel con gradiente de desnaturalización (PCR-DGGE) y por PCR cuantitativa (qPCR) en tiempo real, respectivamente. Estos 3 genes fueron detectados durante todas las fases del compostaje. El análisis filogenético mostró estrecha relación del gen nirK con Rhizobiales y Burkholderiales, del gen nirS con Pseudomonadales y Burkholderiales y del gen nosZ con Rhodospirillales, Rhizobiales, Pseudomonadales y Alteromonadales. Los resultados de la qPCR mostraron que la abundancia de los genes nirK, nirSy nosZ alcanzó el valor máximo en la fase termofílica tardía del compostaje, y que la abundancia del gen nirK era más elevada que los de los genes nosZ y nirS. El análisis de redundancia (RDA) mostró que la diversidad de los genes nirK y nirS estaba significativamente correlacionada con la concentración de amonio (p<0,05), mientras que la del gen nosZ estaba significativamente correlacionada con el pH (p<0,05). También mostró que la abundancia de los genes nirK, nirS y nosZ estaba significativamente correlacionada con la temperatura (p<0,05).

Animals , Cattle , Soil Microbiology , Composting , Denitrification/genetics , Genes, Bacterial , Phylogeny , Temperature , Biodiversity , Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Ammonium Compounds/analysis , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Manure/microbiology
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(4): 648-655, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889169


ABSTRACT Producing biofuels such as ethanol from non-food plant material has the potential to meet transportation fuel requirements in many African countries without impacting directly on food security. The current shortcomings in biomass processing are inefficient fermentation of plant sugars, such as xylose, especially at high temperatures, lack of fermenting microbes that are able to resist inhibitors associated with pre-treated plant material and lack of effective lignocellulolytic enzymes for complete hydrolysis of plant polysaccharides. Due to the presence of residual partially degraded lignocellulose in the gut, the dung of herbivores can be considered as a natural source of pre-treated lignocellulose. A total of 101 fungi were isolated (36 yeast and 65 mould isolates). Six yeast isolates produced ethanol during growth on xylose while three were able to grow at 42 °C. This is a desirable growth temperature as it is closer to that which is used during the cellulose hydrolysis process. From the yeast isolates, six isolates were able to tolerate 2 g/L acetic acid and one tolerated 2 g/L furfural in the growth media. These inhibitors are normally generated during the pre-treatment step. When grown on pre-treated thatch grass, Aspergillus species were dominant in secretion of endo-glucanase, xylanase and mannanase.

Animals , Ethanol/metabolism , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/metabolism , Manure/microbiology , Biofuels/analysis , Biofuels/microbiology , Fermentation , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics , Herbivory , Lignin/metabolism , Manure/analysis , Plants/metabolism , Xylose/metabolism
JEHSD-Journal of Environmental Health and Sustainable Development. 2017; 2 (1): 229-234
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189353


Introduction: The presence of pathogenic microbial agents and pathogens in organic fertilizers causes health problems and disease transmission. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify bacterial and fungal species present in vermicompost production

Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted in pilot scale in the laboratory of Public Health School in Shahid Sadoughi Univerity of Yazd. Sesame crust obtained from sesame pudding factory and cow manure mixed in three reactors with the dimension of 50 x 30 x 15 cm were used and went under the vermicompost process. Another reactor was also provided from cow manure as the control variable. Treatments were studied simultaneously during 60 days. Experiments were conducted to detect bacterial and fungal species

Results: Totally 18 species of negative-gram bacterial species, i.e., Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella Paratayfi A, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Providencia alkali Fasyns, Klebsiella oxy-Toka, Ponomonya Klebsiella, Citrobacter frondii, Citrobacter Diorsus, Serratia Marsns, Hafnya Olovia, pseudomalle Burkholderia, Enterobacter Peinous, Enterobacter Anrogenious, Enterobacter de Solonos, as well as Neisseria polysakarya, and 3 positive-gram bacterial species, i.e., Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Isteria monocytogenes grew. Overally, a total of five fungi species; Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium, Penicillium, yeasts, and Unknown fungal species grew

Conclusion: The results of this study showed that presence of the organism in vermicompost depends on various factors, such as the action of enzymes of gut earthworms, coelomic fluid secretion, as well as competition between different groups of microorganisms

Manure/microbiology , Cattle , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Bacteria , Fungi , Fertilizers/microbiology , Composting
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 59(4): 825-831, ago. 2007. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-462172


To determine the fate of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) non-O 157 in composted manure from naturally colonized cattle, fresh manure was obtained from three cows carrying non-O157 STEC strains possessing the stx2 gene. Two composting systems were used: a 0.6m deep cave opened in the soil and an one meter high solid manure heap in a pyramidal architecture. Every day, for the 10 first days, and every five days for a month, one manure sample from three different points in both systems was collected and cultured to determine the presence of E. coli and the presence of the stx 2 gene in the cells. The temperature was verified at each sampling. STEC non-O157 E. coli cells survived for 8, 25 and 30 days at 42, 40 and 38ºC, respectively, in the deep cave and 4, 4 and 7 days at 65, 58 and 52ºC, respectively, in the heap, during the composting manure. Temperature and indigenous microorganisms appear to contribute to pathogen disappearance in the composting system. It is concluded that both composting systems were efficient to eliminate STEC cells. Land application of composted manure should minimize environmental risk associated with the dissemination of the pathogen

Determinou-se o tempo necessário para a eliminação de Escherichia coli Shigatoxigênica (STEC) não-O157 em esterco bovino composto, obtido de fezes frescas de três vacas portadoras de cepas STEC não-O157 que apresentavam o gene stx 2. Foram utilizados dois sistemas de compostagem, o primeiro foi um buraco de 0,6m escavado no solo e o segundo um monte apresentando uma arquitetura piramidal com um metro de altura. Todos os dias, durante os primeiros 10 dias e a cada cinco dias durante um mês, uma amostra de três pontos diferentes dos dois sistemas de compostagem foram coletadas e semeadas para determinar a presença de E. coli e a presença do gene stx 2 nas células, sendo que em cada coleta a temperatura do sistema de compostagem foi determinada. Células de STEC não-O157 sobreviveram por 8, 25 e 30 dias nas temperaturas de 42, 40 e 38ºC, respectivamente, no sistema enterrado no solo, enquanto que no sistema de monte as células foram detectadas por 4, 4 e 7 dias em temperaturas de 65, 58 e 52ºC, respectivamente. A temperatura e os microrganismos presentes na microbiota do sistema de compostagem parecem ser os responsáveis pela eliminação do patógeno. Pode-se concluir que os dois sistemas de compostagem utilizados mostraram-se eficientes na eliminação de células de STEC. A aplicação de esterco após compostagem deve diminuir o risco de contaminação ambiental e a disseminação do patógeno

Animals , Cattle , Manure/microbiology , Cattle , Composting/methods , /isolation & purification , Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects
J Environ Biol ; 2007 Jan; 28(1): 87-97
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113530


The diversity of fungi, bacteria, yeast, actinomycetes and protozoa were analysed in the gut and casts of Eudrilus eugeniae, Lampito mauritii, Eisenia fetida and Perionyx excavatus, both qualitatively and quantitatively as influenced by different feed substrates like clay loam soil, cowdung and pressmud. While actinomycetes (Streptomyces albus, S. somaliensis, Nocardia asteroides, N. caviae and Saccharomonosporia) were not digested by any of these species of worms, protozoa (Amoeba proteus, A. terricola, Paramecium trichium, Euglena viridis, E. orientalis, Vorticella picta and Trichomonas hominis) and yeast (Candida tropicalis, C. krusei C. albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans) were totally digested. Certain species of fungi (Saksenae vasiformis, Mucor plumbeus, Cladosporium carrionii, C. herbacium, Alternaria sp., Cunninghamella echinulata, Mycetia sterila, Syncephalostrum racemosum, Curvalaria lunata, C. geniculata and Geotrichum candidum) and bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacterium antitratum, Mima polymorpha, Enterobacter aerogenes, E. cloacae, Proteus vulgaris, P. mirabilis, P. rettgeri, Escherichia coli, Staphylococus citreus, Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Enterococci and Micrococci) were completely digested. Certain other species were not digested fungi like Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. ochraceous, Trichoderma koningii (except by Eeugeniae), Fusarium moniliforme (except by E. eugeniae) and Rhizopus sp., and bacteria like Klebsiella pneumoniae and Morganella morganii) and these were multiplied during the transit of the organic residues through the gut of worms. The microbial proliferation was more in the casts, due to the environment prevailing--rich in nutrient supply and large surface area available for growth and reproduction of the microbes that lead to enhanced microbial activity and humic acid contents in the casts.

Actinobacteria/isolation & purification , Animals , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Biodiversity , Cattle , Colony Count, Microbial , Feces/microbiology , Fungi/isolation & purification , Gastrointestinal Tract/microbiology , Humic Substances , Industrial Waste , Manure/microbiology , Oligochaeta/microbiology , Oxidoreductases/metabolism , Eukaryota/isolation & purification , Saccharum , Soil , Soil Microbiology , Yeasts/isolation & purification