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1.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 540-548, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982277

ABSTRACT

Medicinal plants or Chinese materia medica (CMM) are now attracting worldwide attention as they have increasingly prominent advantages over chemical drugs in disease treatment and healthcare. Since the 1990s, World Health Organization (WHO) and International Organization for Standardization established the Technical Committee of Traditional Chinese Medicine (ISO/TC 249) have carried out the development of quality standards on medicinal plants or CMMs respectively, and a considerable number of monographs and international standards have been published. Since the two international organizations adhere to different principles, the standards they develop naturally have different emphasis. Driven by market demand and international trade, ISO mainly takes quality, efficacy and safety into consideration when developing standards, while WHO pays more attention to clinical practice, quality control and medication guidance. Up to now, there is a lack of comparative analysis on the records, background, principles, basic content, and main requirements of quality standards on medicinal plants or CMMs respectively published by WHO and ISO. Therefore, based on international standards of CMM developed by ISO/TC 249 platform and WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants, this paper systematically compares the purposes, selected principles, standard-developing process, basic content, and main quality requirements to summarize their similarities and differences, and find their merits, aiming to serve as a reference to the development of international standards for CMMs that helps them go global.


Subject(s)
Materia Medica/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal , Commerce , Internationality , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Reference Standards , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , China
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3753-3764, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981508

ABSTRACT

Prunus mume is an edible and medicinal material, and Mume Fructus is its processed product, which was first recorded in Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica(Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing). It is an effective drug for stopping diarrhea with astringents and promoting fluid production to quiet ascaris. By consulting the ancient herbal works of the past dynasties, modern codes, and other rela-ted literature, this paper sorted out the medicinal evolution of Mume Fructus, examined the ancient efficacy of Mume Fructus and the main indications, and summarized the inclusion of Mume Fructus in national and provincial standards. It is recorded in the ancient herbal works of the past dynasties that Mume Fructus can be processed by various methods such as roasting, stir-frying or micro-frying, stir-frying with charcoal, single steaming, steaming with wine, and steaming after soaking in wine or vinegar, and prepared into pills, powders, and ointments, which are used in the treatment of fatigue, diabetes, malaria, dysentery, ascariasis, and other diseases. Mume Fructus has been included in nine editions of Chinese Pharmacopoeia and 19 provincial and municipal preparation specifications. The processing method of Mume Fructus is determined, namely, clean P. mume should be softened by moistening in water or steaming and pitted. By reviewing the effects of processing on its chemical composition, pharmacological effects, and its modern clinical application, this paper identified the following issues. The ancient application methods of Mume Fructus are diverse but less commonly used in modern times, there is a lack of standardized research on the processing, and the research on the changes caused by the difference in Mume Fructus before and after processing is not deep. Therefore, it is necessary to further investigate the change pattern of its chemical composition before and after processing and its correlation between its medicinal activity to standardize the processing technology and provide a solid basis for the use of Mume Fructus in parts and its quality control.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Materia Medica/analysis , Fruit/chemistry , Quality Control , Prunus/chemistry , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1691-1699, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970641

ABSTRACT

Slicing is critical in the processing of Chinese materia medica(CMM) processed product and the specification(thickness) is closely related to the quality of the decoction. On the basis of clarifying the concept and evolution of slicing of CMM processed product by reviewing the Chinese herbal classics of the past dynasties and general rules of local processing standards, this study discussed the development history of slicing specifications in general rules of Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020 edition), analyzed the current situation and key problems, and proposed the thinking and suggestion on promoting the sound development of slicing of CMM processed product. Since 2000, the slicing thickness of CMM processed product in the general rules of local CMM processed product processing specifications newly revised and issued by 27 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities has been consistent with that in the general rules of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020 edition). The standard that the thickness of extremely thin pieces is less than 0.5 mm is rarely retained, and the pieces in 0.5-1 mm thickness have not been found on the market, which is consistent with the provisions of the general rules of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. This study can provide a historical and modern basis for the rationality of slicing of CMM processed product.


Subject(s)
Materia Medica , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Reference Standards
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 835-840, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970554

ABSTRACT

"Taking drugs for a long term" is a qualitative expression of medication method based on the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicine, and the study on it is conducive to the full utilization of the efficacy and rational use of drugs. There are 148 drugs that can be taken for a long time recorded in Shen Nong's Classic of Materia Medica, accounting for 41% of the total drugs. This paper analyzed three-grade classification, natural qualities, four properties and five flavors, and efficacy features of the "long-term taking" drugs(LTTD), thus exploring the herbal source of traditional Chinese medicine health care and the rationality of effect accumulation by long-term taking. It was found that there were more than 110 top-grade LTTD in Shen Nong's Classic of Materia Medica, most of which were herbs, with sweet flavor, flat property, and no toxicity. The efficacies were mainly making body feel light and agile(Qingshen) and prolonging life. Eighty-three LTTD were included in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020 edition). In the modern classification, tonic LTTD accounted for the most, followed by damp-draining diuretic LTTD and exterior-releasing LTTD. Twenty LTTD were included in the "List of Medicinal and Edible Products" and 21 were in the "List of Products Used for Health-care Food", involving in various modern health care effects, such as enhancing immunity, assisting in reducing blood lipids, and anti-oxidation. Shen Nong's Classic of Materia Medica is the classic source of traditional Chinese medicine health care, and its medication thought of taking drugs for a long term to accumulate effects has guiding significance for the regulation of sub-health and chronic diseases nowadays. The efficacy and safety of LTTD have been examined in practice for a long time, and some of the drugs are edible, which is unique in the whole cycle of health-care service, especially in line with the health-care needs in the aging society under the concept of Big Health. However, some records in the book are limited by the understanding of the times, which should be scientifically studied according to the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and the related regulations and technical requirements, under the attitude of eliminating falsifications and preserving the truth and keeping the right essence, so as to achieve further improvement, innovation, and development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Delivery of Health Care , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 273-278, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970523

ABSTRACT

The paradigm can be summarized as the same methodological principles followed by the members of the learning community who received common education, training, and edification in the common social and historical stage, and had common academic views, concepts, and terms. The "species standardization" paradigm of botanical drugs in China has experienced the period of non-standardization of names(the end of the Warring States period), the period of multi-dimensional textual research paradigm of traditional materia medica(from the end of the Warring States period to 1930s), and periods of modern plant taxonomy system research paradigm(from 1930s to the present). The multi-dimensional textual research paradigm of traditional materia medica is characterized by the textual research of species in different regions and years based on the classification of the natural attributes and the habit of correspondence between names and materials, from the multi-dimensional investigation of the name, appearance, color, smell, texture, growth environment, efficacy, and morphological characteristics of medicinal materials, to find the correspondence between names and materials. The purpose of the progress in traditional species standardization is practicality for humans, and there is a lack of systematic research on the classification and naming principles in line with its laws from the plant itself, resulting in inaccurate research results. The research paradigm of modern plant taxonomy is herbal research. The characteristics of this paradigm are using plant taxonomy knowledge to conduct textual research to confirm the species of the drug and calibrate the scientific name by the double name method, based on the plant morphology, harvest season, origin distribution, ecological habits, names, drug efficacy, and other data in the lite-rature of previous dynasties. This paradigm combines the knowledge of traditional materia medica and modern plant taxonomy, and the results of species research are accurate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , China , Knowledge
6.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21(2): 2-3, May 6, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1396754

ABSTRACT

Homeopathy is controversial because using highly dilute medicines (high homeopathic potencies, HHP) beyond the Avogadro/Loschmidt limit. Previous publications [1,2] using NMR relaxation revealed the involvement of nanobubbles and/or nanoparticles and/or nanometric superstructures in high potentizations. Nano Tracking Analyse (NTA) demonstrated the presence of particles in HHPs [3,4]. WithSEM-EDX [5] we observed an ionic diversity common to all preparations including HHPs and significant differences in the relative quantity of each ion between different homeopathic manufacturing lines and controls. FTIR spectroscopy [6] shows that the molecular composition is that of carbonates, primarily sodium bicarbonate.Methods:To observe the materiality of homeopathic medicines a multidisciplinary approach is necessary. In collaboration with several universities,we canobserve these medications with NMR, NTA, SEM-EDX, FTIR, pH,and EPA. Results:The essential component of all already studied homeopathic medicines is sodium hydrogen carbonate modulated by some other elements in a specific quantity, size,and shape. The probability that the observed results could have occurred just by random chance can be rejected(significantlyabove the Avogadro limit) p < 0,001.Conclusions:The homeopathic medicines do contain material with a specific ionic composition even in HHPs diluted beyond the Avogadro/Loschmidt limit. This specificity can be attributed to the manufacturing process. These results demonstrate that the step-by-step process (dynamized or not) does not match the theoretical expectations in a dilution process. The starting material and dilution/dynamization method influencethe nature of these NPs. The role of carbonates and sodium bicarbonate must be carefully studied in the future. Its aqueous solution is alkaline in nature but itis an amphoteric compound, which means that the compound has both acidic as well as alkaline character. The reaction with acids results in sodium salts and carbonic acid and the reaction with the basic solution producescarbonates and water. Specific electric fields are indeed detectable.


Subject(s)
Materia Medica , Dynamization , Nanoparticles , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Sodium Bicarbonate/analysis
7.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 560-566, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939775

ABSTRACT

Aberrant regulation of DNA methylation plays a crucial causative role in haematological malignancies (HMs). Targeted therapy, aiming for DNA methylation, is an effective mainstay of modern medicine; however, many issues remain to be addressed. The progress of epigenetic studies and the proposed theory of "state-target medicine" have provided conditions to form a new treatment paradigm that combines the "body state adjustment" of CM with targeted therapy. We discussed the correlation between Chinese medicine (CM) syndromes/states and DNA methylation in this paper. Additionally, the latest research findings on the intervention and regulation of DNA methylation in HMs, including the core targets, therapy status, CM compounds and active components of the Chinese materia medica were concisely summarized to establish a theoretical foundation of "state-target synchronous conditioning" pattern of integrative medicine for HMs, simultaneously leading a new perspective in clinical diagnosis and therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA Methylation/genetics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Hematologic Neoplasms/genetics , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
8.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 221-229, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929231

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Different homeopathic approaches have been used as supportive care for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases, but none has been tested in a clinical trial.@*OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the effectiveness and safety of the homeopathic medicine, Natrum muriaticum LM2, for mild cases of COVID-19.@*DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND INTERVENTIONS@#A randomized, double-blind, two-armed, parallel, single-center, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted from June 2020 to April 2021 in São-Carlos, Brazil. Participants aged > 18 years, with influenza-like symptoms and positive result from a real-time polymerase chain reaction test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 were recruited and randomized (1:1) into two groups that received different treatments during a period of at-home-isolation. One group received the homeopathic medicine Natrum muriaticum, prepared with the second degree of the fifty-millesimal dynamization (LM2; Natrum muriaticum LM2), while the other group received a placebo.@*OUTCOME MEASURES@#The primary endpoint was time until recovery from COVID-19 influenza-like symptoms. Secondary measures included a survival analysis of the number and severity of COVID-19 symptoms (influenza-like symptoms plus anosmia and ageusia) from a symptom grading scale that was informed by the participant, hospital admissions, and adverse events. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to estimate time-to-event (survival) measures.@*RESULTS@#Data from 86 participants were analyzed (homeopathy, n = 42; placebo, n = 44). There was no difference in time to recovery between two groups among participants who were reporting influenza-like symptoms at the beginning of monitoring (homeopathy, n = 41; placebo, n = 41; P = 0.56), nor in a sub-group that had at least 5 moderate to severe influenza-like symptoms at the beginning of monitoring (homeopathy, n = 15; placebo, n = 17; P = 0.06). Secondary outcomes indicated that a 50% reduction in symptom score was achieved significantly earlier in the homeopathy group (homeopathy, n = 24; placebo, n = 25; P = 0.04), among the participants with a basal symptom score ≥ 5. Moreover, values of restricted mean survival time indicated that patients receiving homeopathy might have improved 0.9 days faster during the first five days of follow-up (P = 0.022). Hospitalization rates were 2.4% in the homeopathy group and 6.8% in the placebo group (P = 0.62). Participants reported 3 adverse events in the homeopathy group and 6 in the placebo group.@*CONCLUSION@#Results showed that Natrum muriaticum LM2 was safe to use for COVID-19, but there was no statistically significant difference in the primary endpoints of Natrum muriaticum LM2 and placebo for mild COVID-19 cases. Although some secondary measures do not support the null hypothesis, the wide confidence intervals suggest that further studies with larger sample sizes and more symptomatic participants are needed to test the effectiveness of homeopathic Natrum muriaticum LM2 for COVID-19.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#UMIN Clinical Trials Registry ID: JPRN-UMIN000040602.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19/therapy , Double-Blind Method , Homeopathy , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Materia Medica/therapeutic use , Primary Health Care , Treatment Outcome
9.
Artemisa; I Jornada Científica de Farmacología y Salud. Fármaco Salud Artemisa 2021; 2021. 1-13 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-1284591

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La homeopatía constituye una alternativa terapéutica que ha sido utilizada en patologías respiratorias crónicas como el asma bronquial. Objetivo: Evaluar la efectividad de tres remedios homeopáticos en el tratamiento del Asma bronquial ligera y moderada en pacientes mayores de 15 años del consultorio #10 del Policlínico Josué País. Método: Se realizó un estudio de intervención terapéutica, entre marzo y julio de 2019. El universo estuvo conformado por los 84 pacientes asmáticos dispensarizados en el consultorio. Se seleccionó de forma aleatoria simple intencional una muestra de 40 pacientes, creando un Grupo estudio y un Grupo control de 20 pacientes cada uno, según criterios de inclusión. El grupo estudio fue tratado con tratamiento convencional más homeopatía (Ipecacuhana, Dulcamara, Nux Vómica) y el grupo control con tratamiento médico convencional. Ambos grupos recibieron tratamiento por 3 meses, evaluándose a los 30,60 y 90 días. Se utilizaron números absolutos y porcentajes para resumir la información y tablas para su presentación. Se aplicó como Test estadístico la prueba Chi Cuadrado de homogeneidad con un nivel de significación p<0.05. Resultados: Predominó el grupo de 15-19 años y el sexo masculino en ambos grupos de tratamiento. En el grupo estudio disminuyeron significativamente las crisis durante el tratamiento, y la evaluación de la respuesta terapéutica fue satisfactoria en el 100% de los pacientes. En los pacientes con homeopatía y tratamiento convencional no existieron reacciones adversas. Conclusiones: Los remedios homeopáticos fueron efectivos en el control del Asma bronquial ligera y moderada en los pacientes estudiados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Asthma , Homeopathy , Patients , Complementary Therapies , Materia Medica , Cuba
10.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 801-814, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922763

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a severe pathophysiological condition characterized by pulmonary artery remodeling and continuous increases in pulmonary artery pressure, which may eventually develop to right heart failure and death. Although newly discovered and incredible treatment strategies in recent years have improved the prognosis of PH, limited types of effective and economical drugs for PH still makes it as a life-threatening disease. Some drugs from Chinese materia medica (CMM) have been traditionally applied in the treatment of lung diseases. Accumulating evidence suggests active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) derived from those medicines brings promising future for the prevention and treatment of PH. In this review, we summarized the pharmacological effects of APIs derived from CMM which are potent in treating PH, so as to provide new thoughts for initial drug discovery and identification of potential therapeutic strategies in alternative medicine for PH.


Subject(s)
Humans , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6295-6302, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921788

ABSTRACT

Lancang-Mekong Cooperation is a new type of subregional cooperation mechanism initiated and built by China and other five countries of the Lancang-Mekong subregion, namely Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam. Countries in the Lancang-Mekong subregion are geographically and culturally connected, and they have nurtured their unique traditional medicine. By combing the history of traditional medicine exchanges between China and other Lancang-Mekong countries and their progress of modern research, this paper summarized the challenges and opportunities of traditional medicine cooperation in the Lancang-Mekong subregion. It has been found that many regional cooperation mechanisms coexist for a long time in the Lancang-Mekong subregion and the medicinal resources are abundant. However, the degree of their development and utilization varies, and modern scientific research is insufficient. Lancang-Mekong Cooperation has provided a strong support for integrating the advantageous resources in Lancang-Mekong subregion countries and making progress together. Focusing on the development and protection of medicinal resources, this paper puts forward a new path of cooperation in the intellectual property rights and characteristic seed resource protection, the compilation of universal herbal pharmacopoeia in various countries, the research and development of public health products, and the construction of traditional herbal industry bases, thus enabling the traditional medicine to better protect the public health and building a human health community.


Subject(s)
Humans , China , Materia Medica , Medicine, Traditional , Rivers , Thailand
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5600-5605, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921743

ABSTRACT

Scutellariae Radix is a commonly used Chinese medicinal first recorded in the Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica. In the ancient books of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), Scutellariae Radix is used in two specifications, solid one(Ziqin) and hollow one(Kuqin). In the current rules and regulations of Chinese medicine, Scutellariae Radix is used without the specific requirements for the specifications applied. To clarify the evolution of Scutellariae Radix specifications and analyze the current specifications of Scutellariae Radix pieces, the present study reviews the Scutellariae Radix from ancient literature, modern rules and regulations, and differences between Ziqin and Kuqin in composition, efficacy, and transformation mechanism. According to the research on ancient books, Kuqin is effective in clearing the fire of the upper energizer, and Ziqin in purging the heat of the lower energizer. Modern studies have revealed that Kuqin and Ziqin are significantly different in chemical components, and Ziqin and Kuqin target the colon and lung, respectively, which are consistent with the relevant records in ancient books. The review study suggests that the two specifications of Scutellariae Radix are reasonable since they can facilitate the precise treatment of Scutellariae Radix.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Literature, Modern , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Scutellaria baicalensis
13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5436-5442, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921690

ABSTRACT

Liangmianzhen(Zanthoxyli Radix) has long been used as medicine. The current medicinal parts are different from those in the ancient. As recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopeia, the medicinal part is root. However, in ancient works, the medicinal parts include root, stem, leaf, and fruit. In an attempt to find the historical basis that stem is a reasonable medicinal part, the herbalogical study was carried out on this medicinal based on the formal names, synonyms, original plant, medicinal parts, habitat of the medicinal plant, producing area, processing and preparation methods, efficacy, and indications recorded in ancient Chinese materia medica and local gazetteers. The results showed that Liangmianzhen was firstly recorded as a medicinal in Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica with the formal name of "Manjiao". "Manjiao" was adopted from the Han Dynasty to the Qing Dynasty when it was changed to "Rudijinniu", the name originating from the folk in the south of the Five Ridges. Now, the formal name is "Liangmianzhen", which was firstly recorded in Wuxuan County Gazetteer in 1914 and then as a synonym in the Updated Records of Picking Herbs in the South of the Five Ridges. According to the formal names, synonyms, and the descriptions of the original plant, the medicinal plants of Liang-mianzhen have the characteristics of shrub-like young seedlings, vine adult seedlings, corymbiform thyrsus, stems with thorns, amphitropous golden-yellow roots with horn-like branches, and thorns on both sides of the leaves. Thus, "Manjiao", "Rudijinniu", and "Liangmianzhen" were from the same species of Zanthoxylum nitidum(Rutaceae), which was also verified based on the growth environment, habitat, processing and preparation methods, efficacy, and indications. In ancient times, the stem and root were the main medicinal parts and leaves and fruits were also used. However, in the Chinese Pharmacopeia, root is recorded as the only medicinal part, which is obviously inconsistent with the records in the ancient classics. In light of the limited medicinal resources for Liang-mianzhen, other medicinal parts of Z. nitidum is recommended. This study clarified the medicinal parts of Z. nitidum in history. It is recommended that the stem be added to the medicinal parts of Z. nitidum in the next edition of Chinese Pharmacopeia.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Fruit , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plants, Medicinal
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5144-5151, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921656

ABSTRACT

Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica are well-known Chinese herbal medicines for wind dispersing and exterior releasing. Through textual research on Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica, the discrimination of their medicinal parts in history was clarified, and the processing, the property(nature and flavor), meridian tropism, functions, indications, usage, dosage, and the selection of decoction pieces were compared to provide the basis for clinical application. As a result, the whole herb of Schizonepeta tenuifolia was used as medicine in the early records. The aerial part and the dried spike of S. tenuifolia were used as medicines separately in the Song Dynasty, which was recorded in the Atlas of Materia Medica(Ben Cao Tu Jing). Some ancient classics emphasized that only the dried spike could be used as medicine. The separation of Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica meets the different needs of clinical medication and supports the concept of rational development and utilization of Chinese medicine resources. About ten processing methods for Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica have been recorded since ancient times, and raw and charred drugs were the major products. Raw Schizonepetae Herba is required to be used in sections, whereas raw Schizonepetae Spica in clean preparation. Both charred products should avoid scorching. Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica are similar in the property(pungent, bitter, and warm), meridian tropism(lung and liver meridians, as well as qi and blood aspects), and functions(releasing exterior, dispersing wind, regulating and stopping blood, promoting eruption, dispelling sores, promoting digestion, eliminating alcohol effect, etc.), but Schizonepetae Spica is superior in efficacy. For Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica in traditional Chinese medicinal prescriptions, the raw and charred products are similar in usage and dosage, while their focuses in clinical compatibility vary. The raw and charred products of Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica are widely applied clinically. Decoction pieces of different specifications can result in different efficacies and clinical applications, so medication should be performed with caution.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Lamiaceae , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4865-4874, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888194

ABSTRACT

In ancient times, the original plants of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum and Citri Grandis Exocarpium had experienced succession and change, including tangerine(Citrus reticulata), pomelo(C. grandis), and Huazhou pomelo(C. grandis 'Tomentosa'), a specific cultivar of C. grandis produced in Huazhou, Guangdong. Before the Qing Dynasty, tangerine was the main original plant, while Huazhou pomelo came to the fore in the Qing Dynasty. In the 1950 s and 1960 s, the producing area of Huazhou pomelo was destroyed, and thus it had to be supplemented with pomelo. From then on, C. grandis 'Tomentosa' and C. grandis were both listed as the original plants of Citri Grandis Exocarpium in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. This paper reviewed the historical evolution of the collection, processing, and efficacy of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum and Citri Grandis Exocarpium. The research showed that:(1)The harvest time of the original plants of Citri Grandis Exocarpium and Citri Grandis Exocarpium had changed from maturity to immaturity. The collection and processing of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum was first recorded in the Illustrated Classics of Materia Medica in the Song Dynasty. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the mesocarp of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum needed to be removed completely, and Citri Grandis Exocarpium from C. grandis 'Tomentosa' was processed into different specifications such as seven-piece, five-piece, and single piece. Furthermore, processed young fruits of Huazhou pomelo appeared.(2)Citri Exocarpium Rubrum and Citri Grandis Exocarpium were processed with carp skin for the first time in the Master Lei's Discourse on Medicinal Processing. It was suggested that carp skin might be helpful for eliminating bones stuck in throat. During the Song, Jin, and Yuan Dynasties, some other processing methods such as ba-king, stir-frying, and salt-processing appeared. Honey, soil, ginger juice, and alum were firstly used as adjuvants for the processing in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. Citri Exocarpium Rubrum was mainly prepared with salt in order to improve the effect of lowering Qi, while it was unnecessary for Citri Grandis Exocarpium from C. grandis 'Tomentosa' because of its obvious effect of lowering Qi and eliminating phlegm. The stir-frying and honey-frying methods helped reduce the strong effect of Citri Grandis Exocarpium from C. grandis 'Tomentosa'.(3)According to the application of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum and Citri Grandis Exocarpium in history, their medicinal use began in Han and Tang Dynasties, developed in Song, Jin, and Yuan Dynasties, and matured in Ming and Qing Dynasties. Citri Grandis Exocarpium from C. grandis 'Tomentosa' was originally applied in Ming and Qing Dynasties, and it still plays an important in role treating COVID-19 nowadays. Moreover, Citri Grandis Exocarpium from C. grandis had cold medicinal property, while Citri Grandis Exocarpium from C. grandis 'Tomentosa' had warm medicinal property, and thus they should not be treated the same. At present, Huazhou pomelo has a certain production scale. Therefore, it is recommended that in the next edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, only C. grandis 'Tomentosa' should be included as the original plant of Citri Grandis Exocarpium, and C. grandis should be deleted. The results are conducive to the further development and utilization of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum and Citri Grandis Exocarpium, and support the rational use of Citri Grandis Exocarpium and its processed products.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , Citrus , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Materia Medica , SARS-CoV-2
16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3156-3164, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888056

ABSTRACT

Tianxiong has been used as a Chinese medicinal in China for thousands of years, and the earliest record can be traced back to the Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica. It is effective in dispersing wind, dissipating cold, and replenishing fire to streng-then yang. To clarify the origin of Tianxiong, the present herbalogical study reviewed the ancient and modern literature from the origin, processing, and clinical efficacy. Before the Tang Dynasty, although the description of Tianxiong was quite superficial, an apparent difference between Tianxiong and Fuzi was recognized. In the Tang and Song Dynasties, Tianxiong and Fuzi were mistakenly recognized to be prepared from a same plant since their raw materials came from artificial cultivation. Medical literature in the Ming and Qing Dynasties mostly followed the previous records, with the origin of Tianxiong remaining controversial. There were three mainstream views about the origin of Tianxiong according the ancient medical books. First, Tianxiong was a kind of Aconiti Radix(Chuanwu) without attachment of Fuzi. Second, Tianxiong was the large Fuzi. Third, Tianxiong derived from Aconiti Kusnezoffii Radix(Caowu) about 10 cm in length. By contrast, Fuzi in a large size was simply regarded as Tianxiong in modern times. The processing methods were diversified in the ancient times, and the fire-processing was continuously applied. With the deepening of the research on the efficacy and detoxification mechanism, more methods were discovered, such as processing with ginger juice, child's urine and alcohol. As for modern times, the processing of Tianxiong has not been nearly passed down. The characteristic processing of Tianxiong only handed down in Sichuan province and Lingnan area, which can be discriminated by the last step. The efficacies of Tianxiong can be directly understood from its literal name, including dispersing wind, dissipating cold, and replenishing fire to assist yang. Nowadays, Tianxiong is mostly used to strengthen yang.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Aconitum , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Extracts
17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3455-3464, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887996

ABSTRACT

Chinese materia medica( CMM) serves as an important cornerstone for the development of traditional Chinese medicine( TCM) culture and industry due to its unique ecological,medical,economic,scientific and technological,and cultural values. The supply shortage and unstable quality of some CMM resources have hindered the development of TCM. Ensuring the sustainable use of CMM resources has become essential for the development of TCM in China. Enriching CMM resources is the key to ensuring the sustainable utilization of TCM resources in China,which can be achieved via expanding the medicinal parts,developing the substitutes,seeking for analogues,exploring the ethnic and folk medicines,or introducing foreign medicinal materials. CMM efficacy or function positioning plays a very important role in the transformation of new CMM resources. The strategies and methods for efficacy or function positioning of new CMM resources,including analogy,plant genetic relationship exploration,medicinal property deduction,ethnobotanical investigation,text mining,network pharmacology,and structure-activity relationship exploration,were systematically proposed in this study based on CMM theory,textual research,and modern methodologies. This paper is expected to provide a theoretical reference for the continuous enrichment and development of CMM resources and the high-quality development of TCM culture and industry.


Subject(s)
Humans , China , Data Mining , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
18.
São Paulo; s.n; 2; 2021. 1310 p.
Monography in Portuguese | HomeoIndex, LILACS | ID: biblio-1148215

ABSTRACT

Seguindo a mesma dinâmica da homeopatia clássica, essa obra sistematiza uma proposta para empregar os fármacos modernos segundo o princípio da similitude terapêutica, estimulando o efeito rebote (reação vital) curativo do organismo através da administração de substâncias (em doses dinamizadas) que despertaram sintomas semelhantes no estado de saúde humano. Vale ressaltar que os efeitos patogenéticos (ações primárias) dos medicamentos homeopáticos clássicos correspondem aos efeitos terapêuticos, adversos e colaterais dos fármacos modernos, os quais devem apresentar uma totalidade sintomática semelhante ao do paciente para estimular a reação vital curativa (efeito rebote curativo), de acordo ao princípio da similitude terapêutica. Para viabilizar essa proposta, foi necessário elaborar uma Matéria Médica Homeopática dos Fármacos Modernos, agrupando os efeitos terapêuticos, adversos e colaterais das drogas conforme a disposição anátomo-funcional dos capítulos das matérias médicas homeopáticas tradicionais, valorizando a frequência de manifestação dos sintomas observadas nas fases de estudo da droga. Como segundo passo, para facilitar a seleção do medicamento individualizado (semelhança com a totalidade de sintomas do paciente) e a aplicação clínica da proposta, foi elaborado um Repertório Homeopático dos Fármacos Modernos, dispondo os sintomas e seus respectivos medicamentos de forma análoga aos repertórios homeopáticos tradicionais, descrito em outra obra desta coleção.


Following the pattern of traditional homeopathy, this work proposes to employ modern drugs according to the principle of therapeutic similitude, stimulating the healing rebound effect (vital reaction) of the organism through the administration of substances (in infinitesimal doses) that caused similar symptoms in healthy human. Is worth emphasizing that the pathogenetic effects (primary actions) of classical homeopathic medicines correspond to the therapeutic, adverse and side effects of conventional drugs, which should be similar to totality of the symptoms of the patient to stimulate the curative vital reaction (curative rebound effect) according to the principle of therapeutic similitude. To make this proposal operative, a Homeopathic Materia Medica of Modern Drugs was elaborated, where the therapeutic, adverse and side effects of drugs were grouped following the structure of the traditional homeopathic materia medica, while giving particular value to the frequency of the symptoms observed during the phases of study of the drugs. In order to facilitate the selection of the individualized remedy (i.e., similar to the totality of symptoms of the patient), and thus the clinical application of the present proposal, at a later stage it was also elaborated a Homeopathic Repertory of Modern Drugs, where symptoms and remedies are arranged as in the traditional homeopathic repertories, described in another work of this collection.


Subject(s)
Pharmacology , Materia Medica , Secondary Effect , Law of Similars , Homeopathic Remedy, New , Rebound Effect , Homeopathy
19.
São Paulo; Propria; 2; 2021. 1336 p.
Monography in English | HomeoIndex, LILACS | ID: biblio-1148219

ABSTRACT

Following the pattern of traditional homeopathy, this work proposes to employ modern drugs according to the principle of therapeutic similitude, stimulating the healing rebound effect (vital reaction) of the organism through the administration of substances (in infinitesimal doses) that caused similar symptoms in healthy human. Is worth emphasizing that the pathogenetic effects (primary actions) of classical homeopathic medicines correspond to the therapeutic, adverse and side effects of conventional drugs, which should be similar to totality of the symptoms of the patient to stimulate the curative vital reaction (curative rebound effect) according to the principle of therapeutic similitude. To make this proposal operative, a Homeopathic Materia Medica of Modern Drugs was elaborated, where the therapeutic, adverse and side effects of drugs were grouped following the structure of the traditional homeopathic materia medica, while giving particular value to the frequency of the symptoms observed during the phases of study of the drugs. In order to facilitate the selection of the individualized remedy (i.e., similar to the totality of symptoms of the patient), and thus the clinical application of the present proposal, at a later stage it was also elaborated a Homeopathic Repertory of Modern Drugs, where symptoms and remedies are arranged as in the traditional homeopathic repertories, described in another work of this collection.


Seguindo a mesma dinâmica da homeopatia clássica, essa obra sistematiza uma proposta para empregar os fármacos modernos segundo o princípio da similitude terapêutica, estimulando o efeito rebote (reação vital) curativo do organismo através da administração de substâncias (em doses dinamizadas) que despertaram sintomas semelhantes no estado de saúde humano. Vale ressaltar que os efeitos patogenéticos (ações primárias) dos medicamentos homeopáticos clássicos correspondem aos efeitos terapêuticos, adversos e colaterais dos fármacos modernos, os quais devem apresentar uma totalidade sintomática semelhante ao do paciente para estimular a reação vital curativa (efeito rebote curativo), de acordo ao princípio da similitude terapêutica. Para viabilizar essa proposta, foi necessário elaborar uma Matéria Médica Homeopática dos Fármacos Modernos, agrupando os efeitos terapêuticos, adversos e colaterais das drogas conforme a disposição anátomo-funcional dos capítulos das matérias médicas homeopáticas tradicionais, valorizando a frequência de manifestação dos sintomas observadas nas fases de estudo da droga. Como segundo passo, para facilitar a seleção do medicamento individualizado (semelhança com a totalidade de sintomas do paciente) e a aplicação clínica da proposta, foi elaborado um Repertório Homeopático dos Fármacos Modernos, dispondo os sintomas e seus respectivos medicamentos de forma análoga aos repertórios homeopáticos tradicionais, descrito em outra obra desta coleção.


Subject(s)
Materia Medica , Secondary Effect , Vital Force in Homeopathy , Law of Similars , Homeopathic Remedy, New , Rebound Effect , Homeopathy
20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2607-2616, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879167

ABSTRACT

Rubi Fructus is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine. The origin of Rubi Fructus is the dried fruit of Rubus chingii, a plant of the family Rosaceae, according to the 2015 edition of Chinese pharmacopoeia. There are some differences in the plant origin of Rubi Fructus in ancient herbal literature, to trace back its sources, we conducted a textual research on its origin, producing areas, quality evaluation, processing and concocting, properties, tastes and efficacy etc. based on the records of ancient herbal literatures and combined with plant morphology and related investigation. RESULTS:: showed that the variety of Rubi Fructus was more complex among ancient herbal literature, including R. coreanus, R. hirsutus, R. corchorifolius, R. foliolosus and other mixed varieties. Most scholars believe that the R. chingii has not been recorded in ancient herbal literature, while R. chingii was recorded as early as the Ming Dynasty in Compendium of materia medica through our textual research. Ancient Chinese herbs recorded that Rubi Fructus was mostly produced in Hubei, Shandong, Shanxi and Jiangsu provinces, while R. chingii mainly produced in Anhui, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Fujian and other provinces nowadays. Also, it was recorded that Rubi Fructus harvested in wheat field during May were the best. Besides, R. chingii with big, full, grain integrate, firm, yellow and green color, sour taste and impurity free possess the best quality in the contemporary. The ancient records of processing and concocting, properties, tastes and efficacy were basically the same as modern ones.These results provide the basis for the correct utilization and further development of Rubi Fructus.


Subject(s)
Humans , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Fruit , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Rubus
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