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1.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21(2): 2-3, May 6, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1396754

ABSTRACT

Homeopathy is controversial because using highly dilute medicines (high homeopathic potencies, HHP) beyond the Avogadro/Loschmidt limit. Previous publications [1,2] using NMR relaxation revealed the involvement of nanobubbles and/or nanoparticles and/or nanometric superstructures in high potentizations. Nano Tracking Analyse (NTA) demonstrated the presence of particles in HHPs [3,4]. WithSEM-EDX [5] we observed an ionic diversity common to all preparations including HHPs and significant differences in the relative quantity of each ion between different homeopathic manufacturing lines and controls. FTIR spectroscopy [6] shows that the molecular composition is that of carbonates, primarily sodium bicarbonate.Methods:To observe the materiality of homeopathic medicines a multidisciplinary approach is necessary. In collaboration with several universities,we canobserve these medications with NMR, NTA, SEM-EDX, FTIR, pH,and EPA. Results:The essential component of all already studied homeopathic medicines is sodium hydrogen carbonate modulated by some other elements in a specific quantity, size,and shape. The probability that the observed results could have occurred just by random chance can be rejected(significantlyabove the Avogadro limit) p < 0,001.Conclusions:The homeopathic medicines do contain material with a specific ionic composition even in HHPs diluted beyond the Avogadro/Loschmidt limit. This specificity can be attributed to the manufacturing process. These results demonstrate that the step-by-step process (dynamized or not) does not match the theoretical expectations in a dilution process. The starting material and dilution/dynamization method influencethe nature of these NPs. The role of carbonates and sodium bicarbonate must be carefully studied in the future. Its aqueous solution is alkaline in nature but itis an amphoteric compound, which means that the compound has both acidic as well as alkaline character. The reaction with acids results in sodium salts and carbonic acid and the reaction with the basic solution producescarbonates and water. Specific electric fields are indeed detectable.


Subject(s)
Materia Medica , Dynamization , Nanoparticles , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Sodium Bicarbonate/analysis
2.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 221-229, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929231

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Different homeopathic approaches have been used as supportive care for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases, but none has been tested in a clinical trial.@*OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the effectiveness and safety of the homeopathic medicine, Natrum muriaticum LM2, for mild cases of COVID-19.@*DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND INTERVENTIONS@#A randomized, double-blind, two-armed, parallel, single-center, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted from June 2020 to April 2021 in São-Carlos, Brazil. Participants aged > 18 years, with influenza-like symptoms and positive result from a real-time polymerase chain reaction test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 were recruited and randomized (1:1) into two groups that received different treatments during a period of at-home-isolation. One group received the homeopathic medicine Natrum muriaticum, prepared with the second degree of the fifty-millesimal dynamization (LM2; Natrum muriaticum LM2), while the other group received a placebo.@*OUTCOME MEASURES@#The primary endpoint was time until recovery from COVID-19 influenza-like symptoms. Secondary measures included a survival analysis of the number and severity of COVID-19 symptoms (influenza-like symptoms plus anosmia and ageusia) from a symptom grading scale that was informed by the participant, hospital admissions, and adverse events. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to estimate time-to-event (survival) measures.@*RESULTS@#Data from 86 participants were analyzed (homeopathy, n = 42; placebo, n = 44). There was no difference in time to recovery between two groups among participants who were reporting influenza-like symptoms at the beginning of monitoring (homeopathy, n = 41; placebo, n = 41; P = 0.56), nor in a sub-group that had at least 5 moderate to severe influenza-like symptoms at the beginning of monitoring (homeopathy, n = 15; placebo, n = 17; P = 0.06). Secondary outcomes indicated that a 50% reduction in symptom score was achieved significantly earlier in the homeopathy group (homeopathy, n = 24; placebo, n = 25; P = 0.04), among the participants with a basal symptom score ≥ 5. Moreover, values of restricted mean survival time indicated that patients receiving homeopathy might have improved 0.9 days faster during the first five days of follow-up (P = 0.022). Hospitalization rates were 2.4% in the homeopathy group and 6.8% in the placebo group (P = 0.62). Participants reported 3 adverse events in the homeopathy group and 6 in the placebo group.@*CONCLUSION@#Results showed that Natrum muriaticum LM2 was safe to use for COVID-19, but there was no statistically significant difference in the primary endpoints of Natrum muriaticum LM2 and placebo for mild COVID-19 cases. Although some secondary measures do not support the null hypothesis, the wide confidence intervals suggest that further studies with larger sample sizes and more symptomatic participants are needed to test the effectiveness of homeopathic Natrum muriaticum LM2 for COVID-19.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#UMIN Clinical Trials Registry ID: JPRN-UMIN000040602.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Double-Blind Method , Homeopathy , Humans , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Materia Medica/therapeutic use , Primary Health Care , Treatment Outcome
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939775

ABSTRACT

Aberrant regulation of DNA methylation plays a crucial causative role in haematological malignancies (HMs). Targeted therapy, aiming for DNA methylation, is an effective mainstay of modern medicine; however, many issues remain to be addressed. The progress of epigenetic studies and the proposed theory of "state-target medicine" have provided conditions to form a new treatment paradigm that combines the "body state adjustment" of CM with targeted therapy. We discussed the correlation between Chinese medicine (CM) syndromes/states and DNA methylation in this paper. Additionally, the latest research findings on the intervention and regulation of DNA methylation in HMs, including the core targets, therapy status, CM compounds and active components of the Chinese materia medica were concisely summarized to establish a theoretical foundation of "state-target synchronous conditioning" pattern of integrative medicine for HMs, simultaneously leading a new perspective in clinical diagnosis and therapy.


Subject(s)
DNA Methylation/genetics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Hematologic Neoplasms/genetics , Humans , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
4.
São Paulo; s.n; 2; 2021. 1310 p.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1148215

ABSTRACT

Seguindo a mesma dinâmica da homeopatia clássica, essa obra sistematiza uma proposta para empregar os fármacos modernos segundo o princípio da similitude terapêutica, estimulando o efeito rebote (reação vital) curativo do organismo através da administração de substâncias (em doses dinamizadas) que despertaram sintomas semelhantes no estado de saúde humano. Vale ressaltar que os efeitos patogenéticos (ações primárias) dos medicamentos homeopáticos clássicos correspondem aos efeitos terapêuticos, adversos e colaterais dos fármacos modernos, os quais devem apresentar uma totalidade sintomática semelhante ao do paciente para estimular a reação vital curativa (efeito rebote curativo), de acordo ao princípio da similitude terapêutica. Para viabilizar essa proposta, foi necessário elaborar uma Matéria Médica Homeopática dos Fármacos Modernos, agrupando os efeitos terapêuticos, adversos e colaterais das drogas conforme a disposição anátomo-funcional dos capítulos das matérias médicas homeopáticas tradicionais, valorizando a frequência de manifestação dos sintomas observadas nas fases de estudo da droga. Como segundo passo, para facilitar a seleção do medicamento individualizado (semelhança com a totalidade de sintomas do paciente) e a aplicação clínica da proposta, foi elaborado um Repertório Homeopático dos Fármacos Modernos, dispondo os sintomas e seus respectivos medicamentos de forma análoga aos repertórios homeopáticos tradicionais, descrito em outra obra desta coleção.


Following the pattern of traditional homeopathy, this work proposes to employ modern drugs according to the principle of therapeutic similitude, stimulating the healing rebound effect (vital reaction) of the organism through the administration of substances (in infinitesimal doses) that caused similar symptoms in healthy human. Is worth emphasizing that the pathogenetic effects (primary actions) of classical homeopathic medicines correspond to the therapeutic, adverse and side effects of conventional drugs, which should be similar to totality of the symptoms of the patient to stimulate the curative vital reaction (curative rebound effect) according to the principle of therapeutic similitude. To make this proposal operative, a Homeopathic Materia Medica of Modern Drugs was elaborated, where the therapeutic, adverse and side effects of drugs were grouped following the structure of the traditional homeopathic materia medica, while giving particular value to the frequency of the symptoms observed during the phases of study of the drugs. In order to facilitate the selection of the individualized remedy (i.e., similar to the totality of symptoms of the patient), and thus the clinical application of the present proposal, at a later stage it was also elaborated a Homeopathic Repertory of Modern Drugs, where symptoms and remedies are arranged as in the traditional homeopathic repertories, described in another work of this collection.


Subject(s)
Pharmacology , Materia Medica , Secondary Effect , Law of Similars , Homeopathic Remedy, New , Rebound Effect , Homeopathy
5.
São Paulo; Propria; 2; 2021. 1336 p.
Monography in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1148219

ABSTRACT

Following the pattern of traditional homeopathy, this work proposes to employ modern drugs according to the principle of therapeutic similitude, stimulating the healing rebound effect (vital reaction) of the organism through the administration of substances (in infinitesimal doses) that caused similar symptoms in healthy human. Is worth emphasizing that the pathogenetic effects (primary actions) of classical homeopathic medicines correspond to the therapeutic, adverse and side effects of conventional drugs, which should be similar to totality of the symptoms of the patient to stimulate the curative vital reaction (curative rebound effect) according to the principle of therapeutic similitude. To make this proposal operative, a Homeopathic Materia Medica of Modern Drugs was elaborated, where the therapeutic, adverse and side effects of drugs were grouped following the structure of the traditional homeopathic materia medica, while giving particular value to the frequency of the symptoms observed during the phases of study of the drugs. In order to facilitate the selection of the individualized remedy (i.e., similar to the totality of symptoms of the patient), and thus the clinical application of the present proposal, at a later stage it was also elaborated a Homeopathic Repertory of Modern Drugs, where symptoms and remedies are arranged as in the traditional homeopathic repertories, described in another work of this collection.


Seguindo a mesma dinâmica da homeopatia clássica, essa obra sistematiza uma proposta para empregar os fármacos modernos segundo o princípio da similitude terapêutica, estimulando o efeito rebote (reação vital) curativo do organismo através da administração de substâncias (em doses dinamizadas) que despertaram sintomas semelhantes no estado de saúde humano. Vale ressaltar que os efeitos patogenéticos (ações primárias) dos medicamentos homeopáticos clássicos correspondem aos efeitos terapêuticos, adversos e colaterais dos fármacos modernos, os quais devem apresentar uma totalidade sintomática semelhante ao do paciente para estimular a reação vital curativa (efeito rebote curativo), de acordo ao princípio da similitude terapêutica. Para viabilizar essa proposta, foi necessário elaborar uma Matéria Médica Homeopática dos Fármacos Modernos, agrupando os efeitos terapêuticos, adversos e colaterais das drogas conforme a disposição anátomo-funcional dos capítulos das matérias médicas homeopáticas tradicionais, valorizando a frequência de manifestação dos sintomas observadas nas fases de estudo da droga. Como segundo passo, para facilitar a seleção do medicamento individualizado (semelhança com a totalidade de sintomas do paciente) e a aplicação clínica da proposta, foi elaborado um Repertório Homeopático dos Fármacos Modernos, dispondo os sintomas e seus respectivos medicamentos de forma análoga aos repertórios homeopáticos tradicionais, descrito em outra obra desta coleção.


Subject(s)
Materia Medica , Secondary Effect , Vital Force in Homeopathy , Law of Similars , Homeopathic Remedy, New , Rebound Effect , Homeopathy
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922763

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a severe pathophysiological condition characterized by pulmonary artery remodeling and continuous increases in pulmonary artery pressure, which may eventually develop to right heart failure and death. Although newly discovered and incredible treatment strategies in recent years have improved the prognosis of PH, limited types of effective and economical drugs for PH still makes it as a life-threatening disease. Some drugs from Chinese materia medica (CMM) have been traditionally applied in the treatment of lung diseases. Accumulating evidence suggests active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) derived from those medicines brings promising future for the prevention and treatment of PH. In this review, we summarized the pharmacological effects of APIs derived from CMM which are potent in treating PH, so as to provide new thoughts for initial drug discovery and identification of potential therapeutic strategies in alternative medicine for PH.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879148

ABSTRACT

Biochar is a kind of solid material with high aromatization and rich in carbon, which is formed by pyrolysis of biomass at high temperature(250-700 ℃) under anoxic or hypoxic conditions. It has the characteristics of large specific surface area and rich pores. In recent years, as a good soil conditioner, biochar has gradually improved its advantages in improving soil rhizosphere micro ecological environment, promoting plant growth and development, and enhancing plant resistance, etc. It has been proved that biochar can affect the growth and development of plants by improving soil physical and chemical properties, adjusting microbial community structure, participating in the metabolic process in plants, and inducing plants to enhance resistance. This paper summarized the research progress of biochar application in agriculture and introduced the ecological effects and mechanism of biochar on plant seed germination, seedling growth, crop yield and stress resistance. Combined with the characteristics of Chinese materia medica, this paper expounds the application potential of biochar in improving the content of secondary metabolites of Chinese materia medica and alleviating continuous cropping obstacles of Chinese materia medica, etc. In the future, it is necessary to strengthen the research of biochar in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, allelopathy and heavy metal stress of medicinal plants, so as to provide reference for the application of biochar in the cultivation of Chinese materia medica.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Charcoal , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Materia Medica
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879108

ABSTRACT

Nitrogen fertilizers play an important role in the regulation of plant stress resistance. Impacts of nitrogen fertilizers on abiotic stress resistance and biotic stress resistance of Chinese materia medica(CMM) were summarized in this study. Adequate nitrogen application improves the abiotic stress resistance and weed resistance of CMM, however adverse effect appears when excess nitrogen is used. Generally, pest resistance decreases along with nitrogen deposition, while effects of nitrogen application on disease resistance vary with different diseases. Mechanisms underlying the impact of nitrogen fertilizers on plant stress resistance were also elucidated in this study from three aspects including physical defense mechanisms, biochemistry mechanisms and molecular defense mechanisms. Nitrogen availability modulates physical barrier of CMM like plant growth, formation of lignin and wax cuticle, and density of stomata. Growth of CMM promoted by nitrogen fertilizer may cause some decrease in pest resistance of CMM due to an increase in hiding places for pest along with plant growth. High ambient humidity caused by excessive plant growth facilitates the growth and development of CMM pathogen. Nitrogen application can also interfere with the accumulation of lignin in CMM which makes CMM more vulnerable to pest and pathogen attack. Stomatal closing delays due to nitrogen application is also a causal factor of increasing pathogen infection after nitrogen deposition. Biochemical defenses of plants are mainly achieved through nutrient elements, secondary metabolites, defense-related enzymes and proteins. Nutritional level of CMM and various antioxidant enzymes and resistance-related protein activities are elevated along with nitrogen deposition. These antioxidant enzymes can reduce the damage of reactive oxygen species content produced by plant in response to adversity and therefore enhance stress resistance of CMM. Researches showed that nitrogen application could also cause an increase in nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites content and a decrease in non-nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites content respectively. Nitrogen-mediated molecular defense mechanisms includes multiple plant hormones and nitric oxide signals. Plant hormones related to plant defense like salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and abscisic acid can be modulated by nitrogen application. Negative effect of nitrogen deposition was found on salicylic acid accumulation and the expression of related plant disease resistance genes. However, jasmonic acid level can be elevated by nitrogen. Nitric oxide signals constitute an important part of nitrogen mediated defense mechanisms. Nitric oxide signaling is related to many aspects of plant immunity. The roles of nitrogen fertilizers in CMM stress resistance are complex and may vary with different CMM varieties and environments. Further studies are urgently needed to provide a comprehensive understanding of how to improve stress resistance of CMM by using fertilizers.


Subject(s)
Abscisic Acid , China , Materia Medica , Nitrogen , Plant Growth Regulators
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879106

ABSTRACT

Nitrogen fertilizer has been the long-lasting crucial component in cultivation of Chinese materia medica(CMM) and crops for its profound effects on enhancing the productivity. In consideration of its role in better production, intensive and excessive application of N fertilizer is often found in CMM cultivation. Therefore, firstly, this review summarized various concentrations of N application with regards to different CMM and districts from the literatures published in the last two decades. The recommended concentration of nitrogen application of forty seven CMM species were covered in this review. We found that the optimum rates of nitrogen fertili-zer for different medicinal plants species were varied in the range between 0-1 035.55 kg·hm~(-2). Most of the optimum rates of nitrogen fertilizer for CMM in published researches fell between 100-199 kg·hm~(-2). The optimum rate of nitrogen fertilizer is not only related to amount of nitrogen required for different medicinal plants but also to soil fertilities of different fields. In addition, we outlined the diffe-rent effects of proper and excessive nitrogen deposition on yield of CMM. Proper nitrogen deposition benefits the yield of CMM, howe-ver, excessive nitrogen use accounts for a decrease in CMM yield. We elucidated that nutritional content, water use efficiencies, and photosynthesis capacity were major influencing factors. Researches showed that proper nitrogen fertilizer could promote the water use efficiencies of plants and boost photosynthesis. Consequently, the yield of CMM can be enhanced after nitrogen deposition. However, negative effects of nitrogen fertilizer were also found on plant including producing toxic substances to the soil and causing severe pest damages. Lastly we analyzed the impact of N fertilizer application on secondary metabolites which accounts for a large part of active pharmaceutical ingredients of CMM. It usually caused an increase in nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites content and a decrease in non-nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites content respectively. The potential underlying mechanisms are the different synthetic pathways of these metabolites and the plant nutritional status. Synthesis of non-nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites like phenols can be inhibited after nitrogen application because of the competition of the same precursor substances between metabolites synthesis and plant growth. To sum up, impacts and mechanisms of nitrogen fertilizer on yield and quality enhancement of CMM were discussed in this review. Negative effects of excessive nitrogen application on CMM should be paid special attention in CMM cultivation and prescription fertilization based on the field soil quality is strongly recommended. Overall, this review aims to provides insights on improving the proper application of N fertilizer in the cultivation of CMM.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , China , Fertilizers , Materia Medica , Nitrogen/analysis , Soil
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879105

ABSTRACT

Weeds is one of the important parts of agricultural ecosystem of Chinese materia medica. Weeds is a double-edged sword with advantages and disadvantages for the cultivated medicinal plants. In this study, we firstly analyzed the positive and negative effects of weeds on the yield and quality of Chinese materia medica. We then explored the possible mechanisms for the weeds' positive effects from the aspects of interspecific relationship, soil microecological environment, light environment, natural control of pests and so on. We also summarized three basic principles of weed control, that is, "making medicinal plants and weeds coexist harmoniously, achieving the overall optimum growth of medicinal plants", "prevention first, integrated control" and "preserving beneficial weeds and increasing their beneficial effects, removing harmful weeds and control their adverse effects". Finally, we introduced several common weed ecological control technology in field of the cultivated medicinal plants in China, including technology of controlling weeds by no-tillage, stral mulch, rotation, alternative herbs, competitive crops, and allelopathy. This study is aimed to apply the ecology theory to guide weed management and control, so as to achieve the goal of advantages promotion and disadvantages elimination of weeds to cultivated medicinal plants, making weeds into treasure and to promote the sustainable and healthy development of Chinese medicinal materials production and the protection of weed diversity.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , China , Ecosystem , Materia Medica , Plants, Medicinal
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879104

ABSTRACT

Ecological agriculture is a crucial way for agriculture of Chinese materia medica, which emphasizes the application of ecological principles in the cultivation of traditional Chinese medicine. While long-term intensive farming and modern chemical agriculture have threatened soil health, the sustainable development of ecological agriculture of Chinese materia medica is constrained. No-til-lage can reduce both frequency and intensity of tillage. Compared with conventional agriculture, no-tillage can reduce soil disturbance, maintain no-tillage for a long or permanent period and keep mulching. The application of no-tillage has a long history. More and more studies have shown that no-tillage has many advantages over conventional tillage, and the ecological and economic benefits of no-tillage are particularly outstandingin long-term. The cultivation of Chinese medicinal materials adheres to the principle of not grabbing land from farmland, making full use of the soil resources under forests, mountains and wasteland. Reducing the risk of soil loss and sustai-nable utilization are the core issues in the process of new land cultivation. No-tillage application, which not only inherits the traditional Chinese concept of natural farming, but also integrates the laws of ecological agriculture, will become the core strategies of sustainable development of Chinese materia medica ecological agriculture. This study will introduce the basic concepts and development process of no-tillage, analyze their ecological benefits in ecological agriculture of Chinese materia medica, and put forward their application strategies.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Sustainable Development
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879102

ABSTRACT

As the most advanced environment-friendly production model in the international society, ecological agriculture of Chinese materia medica(CMM) is the only way for the development of modern agriculture. With the proposal of the declaration on ecolo-gical agriculture of CMM, "Don't grab land from farmland, don't be enemies of grass and insects, don't be afraid of barren slopes and forests, and live up to the green and green mountains", the ecological planting of CMM has blossomed all over the country, and formed a scientific theory, technology and model. Based on the theory and method of economics, this paper expounds the comprehensive benefits and development advantages of ecological agriculture of CMM from the perspectives of farmers(producers), patients(consumers) and the country. From the perspective of medicinal farmers, the input and output income of conventional agriculture and ecological agriculture of CMM such as Panax ginseng, Astragalus propinquus, Atractylodes lancea, and Bupleurum chinense were compared, and it was found that ecological agriculture of CMM had obvious advantages in net income, average annual income and input-output ratio, which could better promote farmers' income. From the perspective of patients, according to the same dose, the content of active ingredients in ecologically planted CMMs is significantly higher than that in conventionally-planted herbs, and the amount of effective substances taken by patients is also higher, so as to achieve better therapeutic effect. At the national level, ecological planting of CMM is the key to ensuring the high-quality development of CMM industry, increasing farmers' income, ensuring the safety of people's drug use and promoting the sustainable development of agriculture. It is also an important part of realizing the harmonious development of economy, society and environment and promoting ecological civilization. In general, the declaration on ecological agriculture of CMM embo-dies the core characteristics and goals of ecological agriculture, and also points of the path and vision of ecological agriculture of CMM in the future. The declaration will guide production practice, promote the benefit of farmers, and lay the foundation for the sustainable development of CMM industry.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plants, Medicinal
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879101

ABSTRACT

This study steps through four key principles, four open problems and future perspectives of Chinese materia medica(CMM) ecological agriculture by presenting the historical development, existing theories and practice outcomes. Then, it focuses on refining the main principles of CMM ecological agriculture:(1)the principles of ecological niche associated with yield and comprehensive income;(2)principles of biological diversity associated with the integrated control of diseases, pests and weeds;(3)principles of adversity effects associated with the quality improvement of CMM;(4)principles of structural stability associated with the sustainable development of CMM ecological agriculture. On this basis, four burning issues of CMM ecological agriculture were obtained,(1)ecological planting mode and supporting technologies need to be perfect;(2)multi-integrated industrial coupling remains to strengthen;(3) quality assurance system of CMM ecological agriculture and high-quality and favorable price model remains to be formed;(4)awareness of the demonstration and extension of CMM ecological agriculture needs to be desired. Finally, suggestions for the sustainable development of CMM ecological agriculture are put forward:(1)strengthen the national planning and layout, develop CMM ecological agriculture accor-ding to local conditions;(2)pay equal attention to inheritance and innovation, and strengthen the theory and practical technology research of CMM ecological agriculture;(3)strengthen industrial coupling and realize the transformation of CMM ecological agriculture from a production-based to a multi-in-one compound model;(4)intensify standards and brands, building a quality assurance system for CMM ecological products;(5) publicize the demonstration and popularization of CMM ecological agriculture. In summary, the development of CMM ecological agriculture possessed a firmer theory and practice foundation, although there is still much room for improvement. A better field of Chinese medicine agricultural development with immense economic and social benefits will not a question of "if" but "when" by accurately grasp the way forward.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879062

ABSTRACT

Sichuan province is very famous for its abundant resources of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM).However, within the scope of administrative division of Sichuan province, the origin records of Dao-di herbs in different historical periods show a dynamic distribution process. On the basis of carefully sorting out the geographical scope of Sichuan province in different historical periods, this article focuses on the textual research of the Dao-di herbs in Sichuan province recorded in the seven mainstream ancient works of materia medica.The results showed that, according to the records of Mingyi bielu and Bencaojing Jizhu, the main distribution areas of Dao-di herbs were mainly in the central and eastern regions of Sichuan province, mainly including Moschus, Coptidis Rhizoma, Zingiberis Rhizoma, Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata and most of the rest materia medica had become unused in the historical process. Qianjin Yifang records that the distribution areas of Dao-di herbs were mainly in the middle and eastern part of Sichuan province.Aconiti Radix, Lateralis Radix Praeparata, Zingiberis Rhizoma, Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix are still the Dao-di herbs of Sichuan province. According to the book of Bencao Tujing,the main distribution areas of Dao-di herbs are Chengdu Plain, Yibin and Santai, While Toosendan Fructus, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Zanthoxyli Pericarpium, Aconiti Radix are still the Dao-di herbs of Sichuan province. Ben Cao Gang Mu records the place of origin as Sichuan.Coptidis Rhizoma, Toosendan Fructus, Cyathulae Radix are still the Dao-di herbs of Sichuan pro-vince. Yaowu Chuchanbian and Zengding Weiyao Tiaobian records the place of origin as Sichuan, as well as Kangding, Songpan, Dujiang-yan, Jiangyou, Nanchong, Ya'an, etc. Moschus, Coptidis Rhizoma, Eucommiae Cortex, Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex are still the Dao-di herbs of Sichuan province. The results of this article provide a new understanding of the history and distribution changes of Dao-di herbs in Sichuan province, and can help to further understand the formation connotation of Sichuan Dao-di herbs.


Subject(s)
Aconitum , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Rhizome
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878902

ABSTRACT

Standards for seeds and seedlings of Chinese materia medica are very important to the production, quality control and management of seeds and seedlings of Chinese materia medica. In this paper, the current standards including international standards, national standards, industry standards, local standards and group standards before 2020, involving relevant standards for seeds and seedlings of Chinese materia medica, were comprehensively and systematically summarized. Relevant standards for seeds and seedlings of Chinese materia medica were analyzed based on the standard issue year, the source and types of Chinese materia medica, and whether they are included in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China 2015. It is suggested that the standards for seed and seedling of Chinese materia medica shall be systematic, professional and feasible, so as to ensure the sould and sustainable development of the seed and seedling industry of Chinese materia medica.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Reference Standards , Seedlings , Seeds
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878901

ABSTRACT

In ancient times, there were two types of "Juhong" came from the tangerines(Citrus reticulata) and the pomelos(C. grandis and its cultivars), which corresponded to Juhong and Huajuhong recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia respectively. In different periods, Juhong basically came from the same species and the same medicinal parts, but there were also some differences. This article sorted out the ancient and modern literature, under the guidance of "Succession theory of Medicinal materials varieties" and "Change theory of Medicinal materials varieties"(XIE Zong-wan), and combined with field investigation, the evolution and reasons of the original plants and medicinal parts of Juhong were analyzed. In the Han Dynasty and before, the peel of tangerines and pomelos were both used as medicine. In the Southern and Northern Dynasties, the way tangerine peel was used was dried and aged, and then "soaked in hot water and scraped off the mesocarp", which had the essence of only using exocarp as medicine of Juhong already, and its original plant was C. reticalata. In the Song Dynasty, the name of "Juhong" and its medicinal usage were recorded in book on materia medica, and the species and medicinal parts of tangerine were inherited from the previous dynasties. The way tangerine peel was used was only dried and aged without removing the mesocarp. The medicinal material obtained by the way was called Chenpi(dried and aged tangerine peel). The item "Juhong" listing as a separate medicinal material was first recorded in the Collected Discussions from Materia Medica(Bencao Huiyan) in the Ming Dynasty. In the Ming Dynasty, the Dao-di habitat of Juhong was recorded as Guangdong province in most books on materia medica, and the original plants probably were C. reticalata and C. grandis 'Tomentosa'(Huazhou pomelo, a special cultivated species of C. grandis produced in Huazhou, Guangdong, which was recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia as "Huajuhong"), according to the records in the local chronicles. During the Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China, the original plants of Juhong were C. reticalata and C. grandis 'Tomentosa'. Of the two, the latter one was considered as the better. As far the medicinal part, it was still the exocarp, while the whole young fruit of C. grandis 'Tomentosa' began to be used as medicine. After the founding of The People's Republic of China, the exocarps of Citrus reticalata, C. grandis and C. grandis 'Tomentosa' were listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia under "Juhong". From the Northern and Southern Dynasties to the Republic of China, C. grandis exocarp was a fake of Juhong. Therefore, it was contradictory to historical records that C. grandis exocarp was listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia as Huajuhong. Juhong had been divided into two types as "Juhong" and "Huajuhong" since 1985. The medicinal part of Huajuhong was only the exocarp of immature and nearly mature fruits, but not the whole young fruit, the actual mainstream medicinal part of Huajuhong. The results are helpful to clarify the historical evolution of species and medicinal parts of Juhong and Huajuhong. It is suggested that in the next edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, only C. grandis 'Tomentosa' should be included as the original plant of Huajuhong, and C. grandis should be deleted, and the young fruit should be added in the medicinal parts besides the exocarp of immature and nearly mature fruit.


Subject(s)
China , Citrus , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Fruit , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
17.
Artemisa; I Jornada Científica de Farmacología y Salud. Fármaco Salud Artemisa 2021; 2021. 1-13 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-1284591

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La homeopatía constituye una alternativa terapéutica que ha sido utilizada en patologías respiratorias crónicas como el asma bronquial. Objetivo: Evaluar la efectividad de tres remedios homeopáticos en el tratamiento del Asma bronquial ligera y moderada en pacientes mayores de 15 años del consultorio #10 del Policlínico Josué País. Método: Se realizó un estudio de intervención terapéutica, entre marzo y julio de 2019. El universo estuvo conformado por los 84 pacientes asmáticos dispensarizados en el consultorio. Se seleccionó de forma aleatoria simple intencional una muestra de 40 pacientes, creando un Grupo estudio y un Grupo control de 20 pacientes cada uno, según criterios de inclusión. El grupo estudio fue tratado con tratamiento convencional más homeopatía (Ipecacuhana, Dulcamara, Nux Vómica) y el grupo control con tratamiento médico convencional. Ambos grupos recibieron tratamiento por 3 meses, evaluándose a los 30,60 y 90 días. Se utilizaron números absolutos y porcentajes para resumir la información y tablas para su presentación. Se aplicó como Test estadístico la prueba Chi Cuadrado de homogeneidad con un nivel de significación p<0.05. Resultados: Predominó el grupo de 15-19 años y el sexo masculino en ambos grupos de tratamiento. En el grupo estudio disminuyeron significativamente las crisis durante el tratamiento, y la evaluación de la respuesta terapéutica fue satisfactoria en el 100% de los pacientes. En los pacientes con homeopatía y tratamiento convencional no existieron reacciones adversas. Conclusiones: Los remedios homeopáticos fueron efectivos en el control del Asma bronquial ligera y moderada en los pacientes estudiados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Asthma , Homeopathy , Patients , Complementary Therapies , Materia Medica , Cuba
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921788

ABSTRACT

Lancang-Mekong Cooperation is a new type of subregional cooperation mechanism initiated and built by China and other five countries of the Lancang-Mekong subregion, namely Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam. Countries in the Lancang-Mekong subregion are geographically and culturally connected, and they have nurtured their unique traditional medicine. By combing the history of traditional medicine exchanges between China and other Lancang-Mekong countries and their progress of modern research, this paper summarized the challenges and opportunities of traditional medicine cooperation in the Lancang-Mekong subregion. It has been found that many regional cooperation mechanisms coexist for a long time in the Lancang-Mekong subregion and the medicinal resources are abundant. However, the degree of their development and utilization varies, and modern scientific research is insufficient. Lancang-Mekong Cooperation has provided a strong support for integrating the advantageous resources in Lancang-Mekong subregion countries and making progress together. Focusing on the development and protection of medicinal resources, this paper puts forward a new path of cooperation in the intellectual property rights and characteristic seed resource protection, the compilation of universal herbal pharmacopoeia in various countries, the research and development of public health products, and the construction of traditional herbal industry bases, thus enabling the traditional medicine to better protect the public health and building a human health community.


Subject(s)
China , Humans , Materia Medica , Medicine, Traditional , Rivers , Thailand
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921743

ABSTRACT

Scutellariae Radix is a commonly used Chinese medicinal first recorded in the Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica. In the ancient books of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), Scutellariae Radix is used in two specifications, solid one(Ziqin) and hollow one(Kuqin). In the current rules and regulations of Chinese medicine, Scutellariae Radix is used without the specific requirements for the specifications applied. To clarify the evolution of Scutellariae Radix specifications and analyze the current specifications of Scutellariae Radix pieces, the present study reviews the Scutellariae Radix from ancient literature, modern rules and regulations, and differences between Ziqin and Kuqin in composition, efficacy, and transformation mechanism. According to the research on ancient books, Kuqin is effective in clearing the fire of the upper energizer, and Ziqin in purging the heat of the lower energizer. Modern studies have revealed that Kuqin and Ziqin are significantly different in chemical components, and Ziqin and Kuqin target the colon and lung, respectively, which are consistent with the relevant records in ancient books. The review study suggests that the two specifications of Scutellariae Radix are reasonable since they can facilitate the precise treatment of Scutellariae Radix.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Literature, Modern , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Scutellaria baicalensis
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921690

ABSTRACT

Liangmianzhen(Zanthoxyli Radix) has long been used as medicine. The current medicinal parts are different from those in the ancient. As recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopeia, the medicinal part is root. However, in ancient works, the medicinal parts include root, stem, leaf, and fruit. In an attempt to find the historical basis that stem is a reasonable medicinal part, the herbalogical study was carried out on this medicinal based on the formal names, synonyms, original plant, medicinal parts, habitat of the medicinal plant, producing area, processing and preparation methods, efficacy, and indications recorded in ancient Chinese materia medica and local gazetteers. The results showed that Liangmianzhen was firstly recorded as a medicinal in Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica with the formal name of "Manjiao". "Manjiao" was adopted from the Han Dynasty to the Qing Dynasty when it was changed to "Rudijinniu", the name originating from the folk in the south of the Five Ridges. Now, the formal name is "Liangmianzhen", which was firstly recorded in Wuxuan County Gazetteer in 1914 and then as a synonym in the Updated Records of Picking Herbs in the South of the Five Ridges. According to the formal names, synonyms, and the descriptions of the original plant, the medicinal plants of Liang-mianzhen have the characteristics of shrub-like young seedlings, vine adult seedlings, corymbiform thyrsus, stems with thorns, amphitropous golden-yellow roots with horn-like branches, and thorns on both sides of the leaves. Thus, "Manjiao", "Rudijinniu", and "Liangmianzhen" were from the same species of Zanthoxylum nitidum(Rutaceae), which was also verified based on the growth environment, habitat, processing and preparation methods, efficacy, and indications. In ancient times, the stem and root were the main medicinal parts and leaves and fruits were also used. However, in the Chinese Pharmacopeia, root is recorded as the only medicinal part, which is obviously inconsistent with the records in the ancient classics. In light of the limited medicinal resources for Liang-mianzhen, other medicinal parts of Z. nitidum is recommended. This study clarified the medicinal parts of Z. nitidum in history. It is recommended that the stem be added to the medicinal parts of Z. nitidum in the next edition of Chinese Pharmacopeia.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Fruit , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plants, Medicinal
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