Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 390
Filter
1.
J. bras. psiquiatr ; 71(1): 32-39, jan.-mar. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365065

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The relationship between mental health and contextual factors has been increasingly investigated in the scientific literature to identify elements that may configure themselves as protective. The present study aimed to identify what resources (activities, family outings, toys, material elements, and learning) were offered in the daily lives of children with mental disorders, and from this, verify whether the offer of such resources in the family was associated with areas of greatest damage relative to mental health problems. METHODS: Thirty-three caregivers of/people responsible for children between 6 and 12 years of age with most frequent diagnoses in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder seen at a general hospital participated. We used the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ ­ parents version) and Family Environment Resources Inventory (RAF). RESULTS: From a descriptive and correlational analysis, it was revealed that the more the mental health problems were present in children, the lower the family resources offer. CONCLUSIONS: The environmental resources offer proved to be protective for child development. Such findings are relevant to aid in outlining strategies for promoting mental health among children.


OBJETIVO: As relações entre saúde mental e fatores contextuais têm sido cada vez mais investigadas na literatura científica no sentido de identificar elementos que possam se configurar como protetivos. Este estudo teve por objetivo identificar quais recursos (atividades, passeios com a família, brinquedos, elementos materiais e de aprendizagem) eram oferecidos no cotidiano das crianças que apresentam transtornos mentais e, a partir disso, verificar se há associações entre a oferta de tais recursos no ambiente familiar e as áreas de maior prejuízo em relação a problemas de saúde mental. MÉTODOS: Participaram 33 cuidadores/responsáveis de/por crianças entre 6 e 12 anos de idade com diagnósticos mais frequentes de transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade e transtorno do espectro autista acompanhadas em um hospital geral. Foram utilizados: Questionário de Capacidades e Dificuldades (SDQ ­ versão pais) e Inventário de Recursos do Ambiente Familiar (RAF). RESULTADOS: A partir de uma análise descritiva e correlacional, revelou-se que quanto mais problemas de saúde mental estão presentes nas crianças, menor é a oferta de recursos no ambiente familiar. CONCLUSÃO: A oferta de recursos ambientais mostrou-se protetiva para o desenvolvimento infantil. Tais achados são relevantes para auxiliar no delineamento de estratégias para a promoção de saúde mental destinada ao público infantil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/diagnosis , Caregivers/psychology , Family Relations/psychology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/psychology , Child Development , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Protective Factors
2.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 27(3): 937-946, mar. 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364702

ABSTRACT

Resumo O ensaio enfatiza a reflexão psicossocial do psiquiatra martinicano Frantz Fanon. Seu pensamento tem expressão na crítica da dominação colonial e do racismo, destacando-se as obras Pele negra, máscaras brancas e Os condenados da Terra. Uma transcendência literária forja seu discurso apaixonado e libertador, relevante nas teorizações pós-coloniais e decoloniais. Crescentemente reconhecido pela discussão política do mundo diaspórico contemporâneo, suas ideias e práticas médico-sociais, precursoras na atenção à saúde mental, são menos conhecidas. Referenciado por Paulo Freire e Boaventura de Sousa Santos, Fanon releva a cultura na discussão de uma sociogênese do sofrimento mental e na crítica à inadequação da psicanálise eurocêntrica para lidar com a opressão colonial e o racismo. Fanon, embora citado por Franco Baságlia, não figurou como referência para a Reforma Psiquiátrica Brasileira, mas seu pensamento descolonial e antirracista se revela, em perspectiva, uma importante contribuição para a saúde coletiva.


Abstract The essay emphasizes the psychosocial reflection of the Martinican psychiatrist Frantz Fanon. Fanon's thought is marked by criticism of colonial domination and racism, as in "Black Skin, White Masks" and "The Damned of the Earth." A literary transcendence signalizes his passionate and liberating speech, relevant in postcolonial and decolonial theories. Fanon is increasingly acknowledged for his political discussion of the diasporic contemporary world, although his medical and social ideas and practices, as precursors in mental health assistance, are less well known. Mentioned by Paulo Freire and Boaventura de Sousa Santos, Fanon stresses culture in his sociogenesis and when he criticizes the inadequacy of Eurocentric psychoanalysis to deal with colonial oppression and racism. Although he was cited by Franco Basaglia, Fanon did not feature as a benchmark in Brazilian Psychiatric Reform, though his decolonial and antiracist thought, is, when viewed in perspective, is an important contribution to Public Health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Psychiatry , Mental Disorders/psychology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Speech , Mental Health , Public Health
3.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(2): 229-236, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366051

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: It has been estimated that 17% of individuals aged 50 years or older suffer from addiction to legal or illegal drugs. Use of alcohol and psychoactive substances has been correlated with several diseases, e.g. psychiatric conditions and cardiovascular and sexual dysfunctions. Objective: To discuss the Brazilian profile of mental and behavioral disorders caused by use of alcohol and psychoactive substances among older adults and elderly people, over the period from 2008 to 2019. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted among Brazilians aged 50 years or older. METHODS: Hospitalization due to mental and behavioral disorders caused by use of alcohol and psychoactive substances was assessed through data obtained from the National Health System Department of Informatics (Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde, DATASUS). RESULTS: Decreasing and steady trends of hospitalization due to mental and behavioral disorders caused by use of alcohol among both men and women at all ages were observed. Similar trends were reported for all age ranges among men and women aged 60 years and older. In contrast, a slight increase was seen among women aged 50 to 59 years. CONCLUSION: These data are crucial for qualifying mental healthcare for older adults and elderly people and for planning mental health services.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Mental Disorders/psychology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Health Services , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitalization , Middle Aged
4.
Cad. psicol. soc. trab ; 24(2): 217-233, jul.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1356012

ABSTRACT

Este artigo apresenta uma reflexão sobre o processo de reabilitação de adoecimento mental relacionado ao trabalho por meio da reconstituição do Itinerário Terapêutico de uma trabalhadora, evidenciando a importância dos serviços públicos de saúde. Mesmo diante do expressivo aumento dos casos de adoecimento mental e das evidências de relação com as condições e formas de organização do trabalho, raramente as situações laborais são consideradas nas avaliações dos serviços de saúde. Mesmo com o atual contexto de desmonte da saúde pública, existem exemplos de atuações exitosas, como a que discutimos aqui. Por meio de entrevista semidirigida com uma trabalhadora e construção do Itinerário Terapêutico, buscou-se compreender seu processo de adoecimento mental, a relação com o trabalho e o percurso de reabilitação. Os resultados demonstram a importância do entendimento do trabalho como determinante de saúde, da elaboração de projetos terapêuticos singulares e da atenção integral, revelando que a articulação em rede, o estabelecimento de vínculo e a busca pelo protagonismo do usuário são essenciais na atenção à saúde mental relacionada ao trabalho.


This article presents a reflection on the process of rehabilitation of work-related mental illness through the reconstitution of a worker's Therapeutic Itinerary, highlighting the importance of public health services. Even in the face of significant increase in cases of mental illness and evidence of a relationship with the conditions and forms of work organization, work situations are rarely considered in the assessments of health services. However, despite the current context of dismantling the public health system, there are examples of successful actions, such as the one we discussed here. Through a semi-directed interview with a worker and construction of the Therapeutic Itinerary, we sought to understand her mental illness process, the relationship with work and the path of rehabilitation. The results demonstrate the importance of understanding work as determinant of health, the development of unique therapeutic projects and comprehensive care, revealing that networking, establishing a bond and seeking the protagonism of the user are essential in work-related mental health care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Mental Health , Occupational Health , Therapeutic Itinerary , Mental Disorders/rehabilitation , Qualitative Research , Public Health Services , Mental Disorders/psychology
5.
Psicol. Estud. (Online) ; 26: e44059, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1346771

ABSTRACT

RESUMO. O artigo busca apresentar considerações sobre a saúde mental de trabalhadoras como tema em produções acadêmicas brasileiras (2000-2016), de modo a potencializar contribuições ao debate de gênero no âmbito das relações de trabalho e do adoecimento. Para tanto, fizemos um levantamento da produção acadêmica brasileira, publicada de 2000 a 2016 e disponível na Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde - Brasil (BVS), sobre a temática saúde da trabalhadora. Do universo total de artigos localizados e analisados ao longo da pesquisa, a saúde mental foi foco de um número considerável de estudos, os quais evidenciaram, de modo geral, a relação entre a divisão sexual do trabalho e a prevalência do adoecimento de mulheres em diferentes contextos laborais. Na direção do debate proposto, 14 artigos foram selecionados pelo fato de relacionarem o tema da saúde mental a contextos profissionais produzidos como territórios femininos/masculinos de atuação e, sobretudo, por possibilitarem problematizar a desigualdade de gênero como base da divisão sexual do trabalho e da prevalência do adoecimento mental de trabalhadoras.


RESUMEN. El artículo busca presentar consideraciones sobre la salud mental de trabajadoras como tema en producciones académicas brasileñas (2000-2016), de modo a potenciar contribuciones al debate de género en el ámbito de las relaciones de trabajo y de la enfermedad. Para ello, realizamos un mapeo de la producción académica brasileña, publicada del período 2000 a 2016, disponible en la Biblioteca Virtual en Salud - Brasil (BVS), sobre la temática salud de la trabajadora. En el universo total de artículos localizados y analizados a lo largo de la investigación, la salud mental ha sido foco de un número considerable de estudios, que evidenciaron, en general, la relación entre la división sexual del trabajo y la prevalencia de la enfermedad de las mujeres en distintos contextos laborales. En la dirección del debate propuesto, 14 artículos han sido seleccionados por el hecho de relacionar el tema de la salud mental a contextos profesionales producidos como territorios femeninos/masculinos de actuación y, sobre todo, por posibilitaren problematizar la desigualdad de género como base de la división sexual del trabajo y de la prevalencia de la enfermedad mental de las trabajadoras.


ABSTRACT. The article sough to analyze considerations on the mental health of women workers as a theme in the Brazilian academic productions (2000-2016), in order to enhance contributions to the gender debate in the context of work relations and illness. Therefore, we performed a mapping of the Brazilian academic literature published from 2000 to 2016, available on the Virtual Health Library - Brazil, on the subject of woman worker health. From the total universe of articles located and analyzed throughout the research, mental health was the focus of a considerable number of studies, which showed, in general, the relationship between the sexual division of labor and the prevalence of illness among women in different contexts. In the direction of the proposed debate, 14 articles were selected because they relate the topic of mental health to professional contexts produced as female/male territories in which they operate and, above all, because they made it possible to problematize gender inequality as the basis of the sexual division of labor and prevalence of mental illness of women workers.


Subject(s)
Women, Working/psychology , Mental Health , Work , Occupational Health , Women's Health , Occupational Stress/psychology , Gender Inequality , Mental Disorders/psychology
6.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1287499

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze caries experience depending on periodontitis affection concomitant or not with cardiovascular risks or mental health issues with the hypothesis that worse accumulated caries experience is not necessarily the result of the presence of concomitant overall health issues. Material and Methods: All subjects of this cross-sectional study were participants of the Dental Registry and DNA Repository project. Variables age, ethnicity, sex, caries experience, periodontitis and mental disease statuses and blood pressure assessment, dental clinical data (DMFT, DMFS and periodontitis) were evaluated and collected from the clinical records. We used chi-square, Fisher's exact, or Student's t-tests to determine differences in frequencies of sex, age, ethnicity, and dental clinical data depending on caries experience, periodontitis, mental health status, and cardiovascular risks. The established alpha was 5%. Results: Of the total 1,437 subjects included in this study, 407 were individuals with high blood pressure and 1,030 were individuals without high blood pressure. Also, 558 were individuals with mental disease and 879 were individuals without mental disease. High blood pressure patients were mostly men (47.17%) and women were the majority when analyzing patients with mental illness (60.04%). Most of the patients in the different groups were white, with a mean age ranging from 15.4 to 88 years. Conclusion: We concluded that caries experience concomitant or not with periodontitis affection does not associate with high blood pressure and mental disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Periodontitis/pathology , Oral Health/education , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Mental Disorders/psychology , Brazil/epidemiology , Chi-Square Distribution , DMF Index , Medical Records , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Data Interpretation, Statistical
7.
Rev. ANACEM (Impresa) ; 15(1): 63-71, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1281434

ABSTRACT

La literatura ha estudiado los efectos de anteriores epidemias en la salud mental de la población. En el contexto de la actual pandemia COVID-19, resulta de interés estudiar lo publicado referente a esta temática, considerando que, a diferencia de epidemias recientes, la actual se ha presentado a nivel mundial, con mayores cifras de contagio y mortalidad, con períodos de restricciones sociales más prolongados, alterando diversas dimensiones en la vida de la población. Las distintas implicaciones de la pandemia COVID-19 en la salud mental y las enfermedades psiquiátricas se recopilaron, de forma general, mediante la literatura publicada en PubMed durante los primeros meses de pandemia. La literatura evidencia que la actual pandemia ha influido negativamente en diversas dimensiones de la salud mental de la población general y específicas. Otras implicaciones revisadas son: abuso de alcohol y drogas, reacciones de duelo, agravamiento de trastornos mentales previos, y el rol e importancia de las redes sociales, servicios de salud mental y telepsiquiatría, entre otros.


The literature has studied the effects of previous epidemics on the mental health of the population. In the context of the current COVID-19 pandemic, it is of interest to study what has been published regarding this issue, considering that unlike recent epidemics, the current one has occurred worldwide, with higher numbers of contagion and mortality, with periods of longer social restrictions, altering various dimensions in the life of the population. The different implications of the COVID-19 pandemic with mental health and psychiatric diseases were collected in a general form, using the literature published in PubMed during the first months of the pandemic. The literature shows that the current pandemic has negatively influenced various dimensions of mental health in the general and specific population. Other implications reviewed are: alcohol and drugs, grief, patients with previous mental disorders, social networks, mental health services, telepsychiatry, among others.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Mental Disorders/psychology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders , Stress, Psychological , Depression/epidemiology , Social Networking , Mental Health Services
8.
Rev. bras. educ. méd ; 45(3): e177, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288311

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Introdução: O curso de Medicina é conhecido pela alta prevalência de estudantes diagnosticados com algum tipo de transtorno mental. O ingresso e a formação no curso são marcados por inúmeras modificações no estilo de vida que podem influenciar a saúde mental do indivíduo. Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivos compreender como se sentem os alunos de Medicina que relatam fazer acompanhamento psiquiátrico por transtorno mental e também identificar aspectos que influenciam o problema mental deles. Método: Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa desenvolvida por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas, guiadas por um roteiro de perguntas abertas que abordaram temáticas preestabelecidas de acordo com o objetivo da pesquisa. A seleção dos sujeitos se deu por meio da técnica bola de neve, em que o primeiro participante foi convidado a indicar outro aluno e assim sucessivamente, formando uma cadeia de referência. Os critérios de inclusão foram os seguintes: ser estudante de Medicina, estar em acompanhamento psiquiátrico e concordar em participar espontaneamente da pesquisa. As entrevistas foram audiogravadas, transcritas na íntegra e convertidas em narrativas para posterior categorização e análise do conteúdo. Resultado: Analisaram-se sete entrevistas, nas quais as experiências relatadas apontaram para sofrimentos mentais potencializados ao longo do curso. O recebimento do diagnóstico de transtorno mental e a realização de acompanhamento psiquiátrico e psicológico foram descritos como momentos de alívio e de maior compreensão individual. Contudo, o preconceito dos próprios estudantes quanto aos problemas mentais e a constatação desse estigma em seu entorno foram percebidos como causa para se postergar a busca por ajuda. Conclusão: Percebeu-se, por meio das experiências dos alunos de Medicina diante do sofrimento mental, o quanto o estigma é presente mesmo em um curso em que se esperam maior conhecimento e abertura sobre o tema, sendo esse um desafio a ser superado.


Abstract: Introduction: Medical school is renowned for a high prevalence of mental disorder diagnoses among students. Admission and training are marked by countless lifestyle changes that can influence the mental health of the individual. Objective: To understand how medicine students who report psychiatric care feel, and also to identify aspects that influence their own mental problem. Methods: This study is a qualitative research developed from semi-structured and audio-taped interviews. Participants were selected through the snowball technique, in which the first participant was invited to recommend another student and so on, building a chain of reference. The inclusion criteria were: to be a medical student; to attend psychiatric care and to voluntarily accept participation. The audio-recorded material was fully transcribed and converted into narratives for subsequent categorization and content analysis. Results: Seven interviews were analyzed, and the experiences reported pointed to mental suffering that accentuated throughout the medical course. Receiving the diagnosis of mental disorder and undergoing psychiatric and psychological care were described as moments of relief and greater self-understanding. However, the students' own prejudices about mental problems and the perception of this stigma in their surroundings were recognized as a reason for not seeking help earlier. Conclusion: The experiences of medical students who face mental suffering shed light on the degree of stigma even among students of a course in which greater knowledge and openness regarding the subject are expected. This remains a challenge to be overcome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Students, Medical/psychology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Self Report , Guilt
9.
Estud. psicol. (Natal) ; 25(3): 284-293, jul.-set. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1339889

ABSTRACT

Workers, who work on the front line to combat the COVID-19 pandemic, in special health professionals, are exposed to more risks of mental health problems. The objective of this article was to identify clinical and epidemiological aspects of the mental health of health workers, without facing COVID-19. A systematic literature review of articles published between January 1 and May 14, 2020, was carried out in the Web of Science, Scopus, Pubmed and Medline databases. 58 studies were selected, of which 10 empirical articles met all inclusion requirements. The research models involved, on the one hand, demographic and occupational variables and, on the other, mental health problems, as dependent variables, highlighting: depression, anxiety, fear, insomnia and medical symptoms. In the discussion, the main consequences for the mental health of the professionals stand out, as well as the coping and application strategies.


Os trabalhadores, que atuam na linha de frente de combate à pandemia da COVID-19, em especial profissionais de saúde, estão expostos a mais riscos de agravos à saúde mental. O objetivo desse artigo foi identificar aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos da saúde mental de trabalhadores da saúde, no enfrentamento à COVID-19. Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática de literatura de artigos publicados entre 1 de janeiro a 14 de maio de 2020, nas bases de dados Web of Science, Scopus, Pubmed e Medline. Foram identificados 58 estudos, dos quais 10 artigos empíricos preencheram todos os critérios de inclusão definidos. Os modelos de pesquisa envolviam, de um lado, variáveis demográficas e ocupacionais e, de outro, agravos à saúde mental, como variáveis dependentes, destacando: depressão, ansiedade, medo, insônia e sintomas físicos. Na discussão destacam-se as principais consequências à saúde mental destes profissionais, bem como estratégias de enfrentamento e intervenções.


Los trabajadores que trabajan en la primera línea para combatir la pandemia de COVID-19, en profesionales de la salud especiales, están expuestos a más riesgos de problemas de salud mental. El objetivo de este artículo fue identificar aspectos clínicos y epidemiológicos de la salud mental de los trabajadores de la salud, sin enfrentar COVID-19. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura de los artículos publicados entre el 1 de enero y el 14 de mayo de 2020 en las bases de datos de Web of Science, Scopus, Pubmed y Medline. Se seleccionaron 58 estudios, de los cuales 10 artículos empíricos cumplieron con todos los requisitos de inclusión. Los modelos de investigación incluyeron, por un lado, variables demográficas y ocupacionales y, por otro, problemas de salud mental, como variables dependientes, destacando: depresión, ansiedad, miedo, insomnio y síntomas médicos . En la discusión se destacan las principales consecuencias para la salud mental de los profesionales, así como las estrategias de afrontamiento y aplicación.


Subject(s)
Mental Health , Health Personnel/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Research , Brazil , Health Strategies , Database , Periodical
10.
Aval. psicol ; 19(3): 254-267, jul.-set. 2020. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1131871

ABSTRACT

O estigma da doença mental (EDM) é apontado como um agravante dos quadros de transtorno mental, sendo recomendada pelo ministério da saúde a realização de pesquisas que auxiliem na identificação e intervenção a esse fenômeno. Este estudo teve como objetivo realizar a adaptação transcultural da The Stigma Scale, para o português brasileiro e verificar seus parâmetros psicométricos preliminares. O método deste estudo foi estruturado em cinco etapas: 1) obtenção da permissão para adaptação; 2) tradução do instrumento; 3) síntese e avaliação por especialistas; 4) retrotradução e avaliação por especialistas; 5) estudo piloto. A versão brasileira da The Stigma Scale foi aplicada em 23 pacientes psiquiátricos. O instrumento apresentou boas evidências de validade de conteúdo (k = 0,81) e consistência interna (α = 0,87). Os participantes do estudo piloto não reportaram dificuldades relacionadas à compreensão dos itens. Os autores originais da The Stigma Scale aprovaram a versão brasileira do instrumento. (AU)


Mental illness stigma (MIS) has been indicated to be an aggravating factor for mental disorders, therefore, the national department of health recommends the performance of research that seeks to assist in the identification of this condition and suggest intervention strategies. This study aimed to perform the transcultural adaption to Brazilian Portuguese of the Stigma Scale and to verify its preliminary psychometric parameters. The methodology used was structured in five steps: 1) obtaining permission to adapt; 2) translation of the instrument; 3) synthesis and evaluation by specialists; 4) back-translation and specialist evaluation; and 5) a pilot study. The Brazilian version of The Stigma Scale presented good content validity (k=0.81) and internal consistency (α=0.87). The pilot study sample did not report difficulties related to the understanding of the items. The original authors of the Stigma Scale approved the Brazilian version of the instrument. (AU)


El estigma de la enfermedad mental es considerado un agravante de los trastornos mentales, de tal manera que el ministerio de la salud recomienda la realización de investigaciones que contribuyan a la identificación y tratamiento de dicho fenómeno. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo realizar una adaptación transcultural de la Escala de Estigma para el portugués brasileño y verificar sus parámetros psicométricos preliminares. El método fue estructurado en cinco etapas: 1) obtención del permiso para adaptación; 2) traducción del instrumento; 3) síntesis y evaluación por especialistas; 4) retrotraducción y evaluación por especialistas; 5) estudio piloto. La versión brasileña de la Escala de Estigma fue aplicada a 23 pacientes psiquiátricos. El instrumento presentó buenas evidencias de validez de contenido (k = 0,81) y consistencia interna (α = 0,87). Los participantes del estudio piloto no reportaron dificultades de comprensión de los ítems. Aparte, los autores originales de la Escala de Estigma aprobaron la versión brasileña del instrumento. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Stereotyping , Mental Disorders/psychology , Translations , Pilot Projects , Reproducibility of Results
11.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(4): 360-366, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132108

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate associations between the percentage and severity of mental disorders (MD) and three different primary health care (PHC) strategies in Brazil: traditional care (TC), the Family Health Strategy (FHS), and FHS with shared mental health care (FHS+SC). Methods: Random samples were selected from three different areas of a Brazilian city. Each area was served by a different PHC strategy (TC, FHS, or FHS+SC). Five mental health professionals, blinded to the type of PHC strategy delivered in each area, conducted interviews using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and other specific instruments to assess the prevalence and severity of MD. Results: 530 subjects were interviewed. The TC strategy was significantly associated with a higher percentage of MD when compared to FHS and FHS+SC. These results were not affected by adjustment for sociodemographic variables. The difference in prevalence of MD between the two FHS areas (with and without SC) was not statistically significant. No significant differences in MD severity were observed across the three PHC strategies. Conclusion: Areas covered by FHS showed a lower percentage of MD than those covered by TC. Presence of SC did not influence the prevalence of MD, suggesting that mental-health training of FHS teams may have minimized the influence of SC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Mental Disorders/therapy , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil , Family Health , Mental Disorders/psychology
14.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(3): 271-277, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132076

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this study was to understand the knowledge, beliefs, barriers, and behaviors of mental health professionals about physical activity and exercise for people with mental illness. Methods: The Portuguese version of The Exercise in Mental Illness Questionnaire was used to assess knowledge, beliefs, barriers, and behaviors about exercise prescription for people with mental illness in a sample of 73 mental health professionals (68.5% women, mean age = 37.0 years) from 10 Psychosocial Care Units (Centros de Atenção Psicossocial) in Porto Alegre and Canoas, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Results: Most of respondents had received no formal training in exercise prescription. Exercise ranked fifth as the most important treatment, and most of the sample never or occasionally prescribed exercise. The most frequently reported barriers were lack of training in physical activity and exercise prescription and social stigma related to mental illness. Professionals who themselves met recommended physical activity levels found fewer barriers to prescribing physical activity and did so with greater frequency. Conclusion: Exercise is underrated and underused as a treatment. It is necessary to include physical activity and exercise training in mental health curricula. Physically active professionals are more likely to prescribe exercise and are less likely to encounter barriers to doing so. Interventions to increase physical activity levels among mental health professionals are necessary to decrease barriers to and increase the prescription of physical activity and exercise for mental health patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Exercise/psychology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Exercise Therapy/psychology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Culture , Social Stigma , Mental Disorders/psychology , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests
17.
Estud. psicol. (Natal) ; 25(2): 157-166, Apr.-June 2020.
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1249843

ABSTRACT

Social distancing strategies have been used to mitigate pathogen transmission rates during pandemics. Such mitigation measures can lead to psychosocial and economic impacts that negatively affect the mental health of populations and, consequently, increase suicide risk, especially in people who were already vulnerable. Based on a reflection on mental health and pandemics, this study aimed to present the negative implications of the COVID-19 pandemic for mental health and articulate them to suicide risk in the general population. We emphasized the importance of adopting proactive mental health care measures combined with sanitary measures. We concluded that large-scale governmental actions are necessary to improve and expand the Brazilian Psychosocial Care System, in addition to cross-sector measures aimed at improving protective factors and mitigating risk factors, especially regarding socioeconomic and relational vulnerability.


Estratégias de distanciamento social têm sido utilizadas para mitigar a taxa de transmissão dos patógenos durante pandemias. Essas medidas podem gerar impactos psicossociais e econômicos que afetam negativamente a saúde mental das populações e, consequentemente, aumentar o risco de suicídio, especialmente em pessoas que já apresentavam vulnerabilidade. A partir de uma reflexão sobre saúde mental e pandemias, este trabalho objetivou apresentar as implicações negativas da pandemia de COVID-19 para a saúde mental e articulá-las ao risco de suicídio na população geral. Explicitamos a necessidade de se adotar medidas proativas no cuidado em saúde mental articuladas com estratégias sanitárias. Concluímos que ações governamentais massivas para o fortalecimento e a ampliação da Rede de Atenção Psicossocial são necessárias no Brasil, além de medidas intersetoriais que visem o fortalecimento dos fatores de proteção e a atenuação dos fatores de risco, especialmente no que se refere à vulnerabilidade socioeconômica e relacional.


En pandemias, se han utilizado estrategias de distanciamiento social para mitigar la tasa de transmisión. Estas medidas pueden generar impactos psicosociales y económicos que afectan negativamente la salud mental de las poblaciones y, en consecuencia, aumentan el riesgo de suicidio, especialmente en personas que ya tenían vulnerabilidad. Apoyado en una reflexión sobre salud mental y pandemias, este estudio tiene como objetivo presentar las implicaciones negativas de la pandemia de COVID-19 para la salud mental y articularlas con el riesgo de suicidio. Son explicitadas la necesidad de adoptar medidas proactivas en la atención de salud mental que se articulen con estrategias sanitarias. Se concluye que en Brasil es necesaria una acción gubernamental masiva con respecto al fortalecimiento y expansión de la Red de Atención Psicosocial, además de las medidas intersectoriales destinadas a fortalecer factores de protección y mitigar factores de riesgo, especialmente con respecto a la vulnerabilidad socioeconómica y relacional.


Subject(s)
Suicide/prevention & control , Suicide/psychology , Mental Health , Psychosocial Impact , Physical Distancing , COVID-19/psychology , Brazil , Mental Disorders/psychology
18.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 31(2): 169-173, mar.-abr. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223509

ABSTRACT

Las personas que padecen patologías de salud mental con frecuencia sufren estigma y exclusión por parte de la sociedad. El desconocimiento y el temor a ser discriminado evita el acercamiento de las personas a los servicios de salud, provocando latencias y abandono del tratamiento. La psicoeducación es una herramienta que busca que pacientes y familias conozcan la naturaleza de la enfermedad, promoviendo la autonomía, el empoderamiento y la reintegración social. El siguiente artículo recoge evidencia en torno a esta temática, discutiendo sobre la aplicabilidad de sus resultados, la importancia de replicar métodos y sistematizar experiencias.


Mental health illness are often related with social stigma. The unknowledge and the generalization of conducts of people with mental health illness, impacts the approach to social or medical services and sometimes quit the treatment. Psychoeducation as a tool in this area, persuits that patients and family know the nature of the illness, his ethiology, course, therapeutic approaches and outcomes. This article takes evidence sorround psychoeducation in mental health illness, discuss the appliance of the results and the importance of replying and systematization of experiences.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mental Health , Patient Education as Topic/methods , Mental Disorders/therapy , Family , Health Education/methods , Mental Disorders/psychology
19.
Medwave ; 20(2): e7853, 31-03-2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095856

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La Unidad de Corta Estadía Infanto-juvenil del Hospital Psiquiátrico del Salvador (Valparaíso, Chile) y sus pacientes poseen características clínicas y sociales diferentes a las reportadas por la escasa literatura nacional al respecto. OBJETIVOS: Describir el funcionamiento la unidad, las características sociofamiliares y clínicas de sus pacientes y analizar los factores asociados a su evolución clínica. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal que describió el universo de pacientes hospitalizados durante tres años. Las variables se recogieron desde una base de datos anonimizada. Se evaluó la evolución clínica dentro del año posterior al egreso hospitalario. RESULTADOS: El modelo de atención de la unidad presenta los componentes biomédico, psicodinámico y ecológico. Se analizaron 98 pacientes, 70,4% hombres, con edad promedio de 11,5 ± 2,3 años. Un 82,6% perteneció al nivel socioeconómico bajo y 35,7% estaba desescolarizado; 98,9% presentó disfunción familiar y 91,8% de los padres portaba alguna psicopatología. Los motivos de ingreso más frecuente fueron riesgo de hetero y autoagresión. Los diagnósticos de egreso más frecuente fueron trastornos de conducta, depresivos y del desarrollo de la personalidad. El tiempo de estadía promedio fue de 41,8 ± 31,1 días. Los fármacos más utilizados fueron antipsicóticos y estabilizadores del ánimo. Un 47% tuvo una buena evolución clínica, 27% regular y 26% insatisfactoria. El único factor que se asoció a esta última fue haber tenido prescrito un antidepresivo durante la hospitalización. El factor que consistentemente se vinculó al reingreso a lo largo de un año, fue el haber presentado trastorno por consumo de sustancias. El abandono a tratamiento se relacionó con haber presentado un trastorno de conducta al egreso hospitalario y a tener padres con antecedente de suicidio o suicidio consumado. CONCLUSIONES: El perfil de pacientes de esta unidad corresponde a pacientes de nivel socioeconómico bajo, psicopatología severa, conducta desadaptativa, disfunción familiar y frecuente psicopatología parental. El trastorno por consumo de sustancias es un factor significativamente asociado al reingreso hospitalario.


INTRODUCTION: Patients of the Short-stay Child and Adolescent Unit of the Del Salvador Psychiatric Hospital (Valparaíso, Chile) exhibit different clinical and social characteristics compared to literature reports of other national centers, although published data are scarce. OBJECTIVES: To describe the operation of the Unit, the socio-familial and clinical characteristics of its patients and analyze factors associated with their clinical evolution. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study to describe the patients hospitalized over a three-year period. Variables were registered in an anonymized database. Clinical evolution was evaluated over the year following hospital discharge. RESULTS: The Unit's model of care can be described as involving biomedical, psychodynamic, and ecological components. We included 98 patients, of which 70.4% were male, and the average age was 11.5 ± 2.3 years. 82.6% were of low socioeconomic status, and 35.7% did not attend school; 98.9% presented family dysfunction, and 91.8% of parents had a history of psychopathology. The most frequent reason for admission was the risk of harm to self or others. The most frequent discharge diagnoses were behavioral, depressive, and personality development disorders. The average length of stay was 41.8 ± 31.1 days. The most commonly used pharmacological agents were antipsychotics and mood stabilizers. Regarding clinical evolution in the first year post-discharge, 47% were evaluated as positive, 27% regular, and 26% unsatisfactory. The factor associated with an unsatisfactory clinical course was having had in-patient antidepressants. Re-admission during the first year post-discharge was associated with comorbid substance use disorder. Treatment noncompliance was associated with a history of behavioral disorder at hospital discharge and having parents with a history of suicide or consummated suicide. CONCLUSIONS: The patient profile is one of low socioeconomic status, severe psychopathology, maladaptive behavior, family dysfunction, and parental psychopathology. Substance use disorder is also associated with readmission.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Hospitalization , Mental Disorders/complications , Mental Disorders/psychology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Patient Readmission , Suicide , Antipsychotic Agents , Family , Chile , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals, Psychiatric
20.
Salud bienestar colect ; 4(1): 10-23, ene.-abr. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1179904

ABSTRACT

Este trabajo intenta una aproximación crítico ­hermenéutica a la noción de bienestar colectivo prevalente en el Chile del 2019, utilizando como analizador los criterios diagnósticos generalmente aceptados para el Síndrome de Estocolmo, entendido éste como condición necesaria para la implantación de Políticas Públicas neoliberales y, el sostenimiento pacífico de la desigualdad, en una relación y vínculo positivo de aceptación e identificación víctima-victimario, que pareció caracterizar el estado de equilibrio y tranquilidad social de Chile hasta octubre de 2019, en el marco del modelo de sociedad de mercado establecido en la Constitución de 1980, un cuasi estudio de caso. Tomamos como referencia el discurso de instancias de gobierno y organismos nacionales e internacionales expresada en medios de comunicación, acerca de los acontecimientos que se inician en octubre 2019, y que se encuentran en pleno desarrollo. La contrastación logra evidenciar lo que puede interpretarse como fallas sorpresivas en el comportamiento clínico colectivo respecto a la noción de bienestar, entendido como éxito-consumo-conformidad, propio del modelo neoliberal, fundado en el individualismo y la competencia de mercado; y que mostrarían en el discurso colectivo de octubre 2019, algunas condiciones de posibilidad para la emergencia o re-emergencia de modelos alternos de sociedad y relacionamiento caracterizados por el bien común y los Derechos Sociales, con un bienestar identificándose progresivamente en el imaginario colectivo como, justicia social, equidad e igualdad.


This work attempts a critical-hermeneutic approach to the notion of collective well-being prevalent in Chile in 2019, using as an analyzer the generally accepted diagnostic criteria for Stockholm Syndrome, understood as a necessary condition for the implementation of neoliberal public policies and, the peaceful support of inequality, in a positive relationship and link of acceptance and victim-victim identification, which seemed to characterize the state of equilibrium and tranquility Chile until October 2019, within the framework of the market society model established in the 1980 Constitution, a quasi-case study. We refer to the discourse of national and international government bodies expressed in the media, on the events that begin in October 2019, and which are in full development. The contrast succeeds in demonstrating what can be interpreted as surprise failures in collective clinical behavior regarding the notion of well-being, understood as success-consumption-conformity, typical of the neoliberal model, based on individualism and market competition; and which would show in the collective discourse of October 2019,some conditions of possibility for the emergence or re-emergence of alternative models of society and relationship; characterized by the common good and social rights, with a well-being gradually identifying in the collective imagination as, social justice, equity and equality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Capitalism , Policy , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/psychology , Social Class , Social Welfare/psychology , Syndrome , Chile , Crime Victims/psychology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL