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1.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(2): 139-151, Apr.-June 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514434

ABSTRACT

Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) refers to a growth disorder characterized by glycoprotein neoplasm in the peritoneum, where mucin oversecretion occurs. The tumors of the appendix region are well associated with PMP; however, ovarian, colon, stomach, pancreas, and urachus tumors have also been linked to PMP. Other mucinous tumors in the pelvis, paracolic gutters, greater omentum, retrohepatic space, and Treitz ligament can be the reason for PMP. Despite being rare and having a slow growth rate, PMP can be lethal without treatment. It is treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy with the option of cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy. In the current study, we hypothesize that there may be novel gentle ways to inhibit or eliminate the mucin. Dr. David Morris has used mucolytics - such as bromelain and N-acetyl cysteine to solubilize mucin. In the present review, we aimed to study the regulation of mucin expression by promoter methylation, and drugs that can inhibit mucin, such as boldine, amiloride, naltrexone, dexamethasone, and retinoid acid receptors antagonist. This review also explored some possible pathways, such as inhibition of Na + , Ca2+ channels and induction of DNA methyltransferase along with inhibition of ten-eleven translocation enzymes, which can be good targets to control mucin. Mucins are strong adhesive molecules that play great roles in clinging to cells or cell to cell. Besides, they have been greatly involved in metastasis and also act as disease markers for cancers. Diagnostic markers may have exclusive roles in disease initiation and progression. Therefore, the present review explores various drugs to control and target mucin in various diseases, specifically cancers. (AU)


Subject(s)
Pseudomyxoma Peritonei/drug therapy , Aporphines/therapeutic use , Retinoids/therapeutic use , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Calcium , Amiloride/therapeutic use , Methylation/drug effects , Mucins/drug effects , Naltrexone/therapeutic use
2.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e19544, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429970

ABSTRACT

Abstract A new series of N-Mannich bases of 2-Phenyl-5-benzimidazole sulfonic acid have been synthesized through amino methylation reaction with secondary amines. The two moieties were held together through a methylene bridge, which comes from formaldehyde (Formalin Solution 37%) used in the reaction. Chemical structures of the newly synthesized compounds have been confirmed using FT-IR, 1HNMR and 13CNMR. Different in vitro assays including Anti-oxidant, Enzyme inhibition, Anti-microbial and Cytotoxicity assay were performed to evaluate the biological potential with reference to the standard drug. Among the synthesized library, compound 3a shows maximum alpha-glucosidase inhibition with an IC50 value of 66.66 µg/ml, compound 3d was found most toxic with LC50 value of 10.17 µg/ml. ADME evaluation studies were performed with the help of Molinspiration online software. Docking calculations were also performed. Given the importance of the nucleus involved, the synthesized compound might find extensive medicinal applications as reported in the literature.


Subject(s)
Benzimidazoles/agonists , Mannich Bases/analysis , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Sulfonic Acids/adverse effects , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , alpha-Glucosidases/adverse effects , Molecular Docking Simulation/instrumentation , Methylation
3.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 405-409, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981283

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the relationship between scavenger receptor class B member 1 (SCARB1) gene promoter methylation and the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. Methods A total of 120 patients with coronary heart disease treated in Renji Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine from December 2018 to May 2020 were selected as the case group,while 140 gender and age matched healthy participants were randomly selected as the control group for a case-control study.The methylation status was detected by high-throughput target sequencing after bisulfite converting,and the methylation of CpG sites in the promoter region of SCARB1 gene was compared between the two groups. Results The case group showed higher methylation level of SCARB1+67 and lower methylation level of SCARB1+134 than the control group (both P<0.001),and the differences remained statistically significant in men (both P<0.001) and women (both P<0.001).The overall methylation level in the case group was lower than that in the control group [(80.27±2.14)% vs.(81.11±1.27)%;P=0.006],while this trend was statistically significant only in men (P=0.002). Conclusion The methylation of SCARB1 gene promotor is associated with the pathogenesis and may participate in the occurrence and development of coronary heart disease.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Female , Methylation , Case-Control Studies , China , Coronary Artery Disease/genetics , Promoter Regions, Genetic , DNA Methylation , Scavenger Receptors, Class B/genetics
4.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 439-450, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981019

ABSTRACT

Lipid metabolism is a complex physiological process, which is closely related to nutrient regulation, hormone balance and endocrine function. It involves the interactions of multiple factors and signal transduction pathways. Lipid metabolism disorder is one of the main mechanisms to induce a variety of diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, hepatitis, hepatocellular carcinoma and their complications. At present, more and more studies have found that the "dynamic modification" of N6-adenylate methylation (m6A) on RNA represents a new "post-transcriptional" regulation mode. m6A methylation modification can occur in mRNA, tRNA, ncRNA, etc. Its abnormal modification can regulate gene expression changes and alternative splicing events. Many latest references have reported that m6A RNA modification is involved in the epigenetic regulation of lipid metabolism disorder. Based on the major diseases induced by lipid metabolism disorders, we reviewed the regulatory roles of m6A modification in the occurrence and development of those diseases. These overall findings inform further in-depth investigations of the underlying molecular mechanisms regarding the pathogenesis of lipid metabolism disorders from the perspective of epigenetics, and provide reference for health prevention, molecular diagnosis and treatment of related diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Methylation , Epigenesis, Genetic , Lipid Metabolism/genetics , Lipid Metabolism Disorders/genetics , Liver Neoplasms , RNA
5.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 116-120, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-988879

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Recent advances in epigenetic studies continue to reveal novel mechanisms of gene regulation and control, however little is known on the role of epigenetics in sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in humans. We aimed to investigate the methylation patterns of two regions, one in RB1 and another in GJB2 in Filipino patients with SNHL compared to hearing control individuals. @*Methods@#We investigated an RB1 promoter region that was previously identified as differentially methylated in children with SNHL and lead exposure. Additionally, we investigated a sequence in an enhancer-like region within GJB2 that contains four CpGs in close proximity. Bisulfite conversion was performed on salivary DNA samples from 15 children with SNHL and 45 unrelated ethnically-matched individuals. We then performed methylation-specific real-time PCR analysis (qMSP) using TaqMan® probes to determine percentage methylation of the two regions. @*Results@#Using qMSP, both our cases and controls had zero methylation at the targeted GJB2 and RB1 regions. @*Conclusion@#Our study showed no changes in methylation at the selected CpG regions in RB1 and GJB2 in the two comparison groups with or without SNHL. This may be due to a lack of environmental exposures to these target regions. Other epigenetic marks may be present around these regions as well as those of other HL-associated genes.


Subject(s)
Hearing Loss , Methylation
6.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 606-611, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985740

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of RNA m6A demethylase ALKBH5 gene deficiency on cerebellar morphology and function in the aged mice, and to explore the role of ALKBH5 in cerebellar degeneration. Methods: Western blot was performed to detect the protein level of ALKBH5 in the cerebellum of wild-type mice of various ages. The expression of NeuN, Calbindin-D28K, MAP2, GFAP and other proteins in the cerebella of middle-aged (12-month-old) and aged (18-month-old) wild-type mice and ALKBH5-/- mice was examined using immunohistochemistry. The balance beam test and gait analysis were performed to test the balance ability and motor coordination of the mice. Results: With aging of the mice, the expression of ALKBH5 in the cerebellum increased gradually in an age-dependent manner. In the aged mice, but not middle-aged mice, the body weight, whole brain weight and cerebellum weight of ALKBH5-/- mice decreased by 15%, 10% and 21%, respectively (P<0.05). The expression of ALKBH5 in the Purkinje cells was much higher than that in other types of neural cells. Correspondingly, ALKBH5-deficiency caused 40% reduction in the number of Purkinje cells, as well as the length and density of neuronal dendrites in the aged mice (P<0.01). In addition, the time for the aged ALKBH5-/- mice to pass the balance beam was 70% longer than that of the wild type mice of the same age, with unstable gaits (P<0.01). Conclusions: Gene deficiency of RNA m6A demethylase ALKBH5 causes cerebellar atrophy, Purkinje neuron loss and damage in the aged mice. These changes eventually affect mice's motor coordination and balance ability. These results suggest that imbalanced RNA m6A methylation may lead to neurodegenerative lesions in the cerebellum of mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , AlkB Homolog 5, RNA Demethylase/metabolism , Cerebellum/metabolism , Methylation , RNA/metabolism
7.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 166-170, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971020

ABSTRACT

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is a ubiquitous RNA modification in mammals. This modification is "written" by methyltransferases and then "read" by m6A-binding proteins, followed by a series of regulation, such as alternative splicing, translation, RNA stability, and RNA translocation. At last, the modification is "erased" by demethylases. m6A modification is essential for normal physiological processes in mammals and is also a very important epigenetic modification in the development of cancer. In recent years, cancer-related m6A regulation has been widely studied, and various mechanisms of m6A regulation in cancer have also been recognized. In this review, we summarize the changes of m6A modification in prostate cancer and discuss the effect of m6A regulation on prostate cancer progression, aiming to profile the potential relevance between m6A regulation and prostate cancer development. Intensive studies on m6A regulation in prostate cancer may uncover the potential role of m6A methylation in the cancer diagnosis and cancer therapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Humans , Methylation , Adenosine/metabolism , RNA/metabolism , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Prostatic Neoplasms , Mammals
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 45-59, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970358

ABSTRACT

There are a variety of post-transcriptional modifications in mRNA, which regulate the stability, splicing, translation, transport and other processes of mRNA, followed by affecting cell development, body immunity, learning and cognition and other important physiological functions. m6A modification is one of the most abundant post-transcriptional modifications widely existing in mRNA, regulating the metabolic activities of RNA and affecting gene expression. m6A modified homeostasis is critical for the development and maintenance of the nervous system. In recent years, m6A modification has been found in neurodegenerative diseases, mental diseases and brain tumors. This review summarizes the role of m6A methylation modification in the development, function and related diseases of the central nervous system in recent years, providing potential clinical therapeutic targets for neurological diseases.


Subject(s)
Methylation , Central Nervous System/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA
9.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 208-214, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969868

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the role of methylation of placental glucocorticoid response gene in the association between pregnancy-related anxiety in the third trimester and birth outcomes. Methods: Based on a prospective cohort study, singleton live births and their mothers from the Ma'anshan Birth Cohort Study (MABC) were included as participants in this study. The maternal pregnancy-related anxiety symptoms in the third trimester of pregnancy were evaluated by using the Pregnancy-related Anxiety Questionnaire. The neonatal birth outcomes were collected from medical records. The placental tissues from 300 pregnant women with pregnancy-related anxiety and 300 without pregnancy-related anxiety were collected to detect the methylation of FKBP5, NR3C1 and HSD11B2 genes using the Methyl Target approach. The methylation factors were extracted by exploratory factor analysis. Linear regression or logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between pregnancy-related anxiety in the third trimester, methylation factor scores, and birth outcomes. The mediating role of methylation factors in the association between pregnancy-related anxiety in the third trimester and birth outcomes was analyzed by using the Process procedure. Results: The mean age of 2 833 pregnant women was (26.60±3.60) years old. After adjusting for confounding factors, pregnancy-related anxiety in the third trimester increased the risk of small-for-gestational-age (OR=1.32, 95%CI:1.00-1.74). A total of 5 methylation factors were extracted, and the factor 5 was loaded with FKBP5 CpGs 18-21. Pregnancy-related anxiety in the third trimester was negatively correlated with the factor 5 (β=-0.24,95%CI:-0.44--0.05). The factor 5 was positively correlated with the gestational age (β=0.17, 95%CI:0.06-0.27). In addition, the factor 2 (β=0.02,95%CI:0.00-0.04) and factor 3 (β=0.03,95%CI:0.01-0.05) were positively correlated with 5-min Apgar score after delivery. However, this study did not found the mediating role of the scores of the factor characterized by FKBP5 in the relationship between pregnancy-related anxiety and birth outcomes. Conclusion: Pregnancy-related anxiety in the third trimester may reduce the methylation level of FKBP5 CpGs 18-21 in placental tissues and is associated with the risk of small-for-gestational-age.


Subject(s)
Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Placenta , Glucocorticoids/metabolism , Cohort Studies , Prospective Studies , Methylation , Factor V/metabolism , Anxiety/genetics
10.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 165-179, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982538

ABSTRACT

Histone lysine methyltransferases (HKMTs) deposit methyl groups onto lysine residues on histones and play important roles in regulating chromatin structure and gene expression. The structures and functions of HKMTs have been extensively investigated in recent decades, significantly advancing our understanding of the dynamic regulation of histone methylation. Here, we review the recent progress in structural studies of representative HKMTs in complex with nucleosomes (H3K4, H3K27, H3K36, H3K79, and H4K20 methyltransferases), with emphasis on the molecular mechanisms of nucleosome recognition and trans-histone crosstalk by these HKMTs. These structural studies inform HKMTs' roles in tumorigenesis and provide the foundations for developing new therapeutic approaches targeting HKMTs in cancers.


Subject(s)
Nucleosomes , Histones/metabolism , Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase/metabolism , Lysine/metabolism , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Methylation
11.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 902-906, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982148

ABSTRACT

Obesity-associated protein (FTO) is an important m6A demethylase that regulates RNA methylation modification and can promote the proliferation of acute myeloid leukemia(AML) cells. FTO regulates the methylation level of AML through multiple cellular signaling pathways such as FTO/RARA/ASB2, FTO/m6A/CEBPA, and PDGFRB/ERK, and participates in the occurrence, development, treatment and prognosis of AML. At present, studies have found that a variety of inhibitors targeting FTO have shown good anti-leukemia effects, and the study of FTO will provide new ideas for the treatment of AML. This review focus on the mechanism of action of FTO in AML and the research progress of FTO inhibitors in AML.


Subject(s)
Humans , Methylation , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics , Prognosis , Alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase FTO/metabolism
12.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 311-322, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928814

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#m6A RNA methylation modification plays an important role in the occurrence and progression of lung cancer and regulates tumor immunity. Current studies mostly focus on the differential expression of some specific m6A effectors and infiltrating immune cell. m6A methylation modification is the result of mutual adjustment and balance between effectors, and changes in the expression of one or two effectors are far from enough to reflect the panorama of m6A methylation. The role of m6A in the immune microenvironment of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is still poorly understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of different m6A modification patterns in immune microenvironment of LUAD.@*METHODS@#LUAD data was obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), University of California Santa Cruz Xena (UCSC Xena) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases. Gene mutation, differential expression and survival analysis were performed for 24 m6A effectors. The m6A modification pattern was constructed by unsupervised clustering method, and the m6A clusters survival analysis, gene set variation analysis, immune score and immune cell infiltration analysis were performed. The association between LRPPRC protein expression levels and infiltration of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes and CD68+ macrophages in the tumor microenvironment was validated by immunohistochemistry in LUAD tissue microarray with 68 cases.@*RESULTS@#The mutations of m6A effector were found in 150 of 567 LUAD cases with a frequency of 26.46%. 6 readers and 3 writers were significantly up regulated in LUAD tissues compared with normal tissues. IGF2BP1 and HNRNPC are the independent risk factors for prognosis of LUAD. Abundant cross-talks among writers, erasers and readers were demonstrated. Three m6A modification patterns with different immune cell infiltration characteristics and clinical prognosis were established. Among m6A effectors, LRPPRC was found to be inversely associated with the infiltration of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes and CD68+ macrophages, and was validated in 68 LUAD tissues.@*CONCLUSIONS@#m6A modification patterns play non-negligible roles in regulating the immune microenvironment. LRPPRC has potential to be a new biomarker for checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenocarcinoma/genetics , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/pathology , Adenosine/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Methylation , Tumor Microenvironment/genetics
13.
Chinese Medical Sciences Journal ; (4): 52-59, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928247

ABSTRACT

Objective This study was designed to determine the methylation profile of four CpGs and the genotypes of two CpG-SNPs located in promoter region of DIO2 in patients with Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). We also analyzed the interaction between the CpGs methylations and CpG-SNPs. Methods Whole blood specimens were collected from 16 KBD patients and 16 healthy subjects. Four CpGs and two CpG-SNPs in the promoter regions of DIO2 were detected using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The CpGs methylation levels were compared between samples from KBD patients and healthy subjects. The methylation levels were also analyzed in KBD patients with different CpG-SNP genotypes. Results The mRNA expression of DIO2 in whole blood of KBD patients was significnatly lower than in healthy controls (P <0.05). The methylation levels of DIO2-1_CpG_3 in KBD patients were significantly higher than those in healthy controls (P <0.05). The methylation levels of four CpGs were not significantly different between KBD patients and healthy controls. The methylation level of DIO2-1_CpG_3 in the promoter region of DIO2 in KBD patients with GA/AA genotype was significantly higher than that of KBD patients with GG genotype (P <0.05). Conclusion The methylation level of DIO2 increases in KBD patients. Similar trends exist in KBD carriers of variant genotypes of CpG-SNPs DIO2 rs955849187.


Subject(s)
Humans , Case-Control Studies , Iodide Peroxidase/genetics , Kashin-Beck Disease/genetics , Methylation , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Promoter Regions, Genetic
14.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 957-965, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941028

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the transcriptional regulation mechanism and biological function of low expression of vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1 (VIPR1) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).@*METHODS@#We constructed plasmids carrying wild-type VIPR1 promoter or two mutant VIPR1 promoter sequences for transfection of the HCC cell lines Hep3B and Huh7, and examined the effect of AP-2α expression on VIPR1 promoter activity using dual-luciferase reporter assay. Pyrosequencing was performed to detect the changes in VIPR1 promoter methylation level in HCC cells treated with a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor (DAC). Chromatin immunoprecipitation was used to evaluate the binding ability of AP-2α to VIPR1 promoter. Western blotting was used to assess the effect of AP-2α knockdown on VIPR1 expression and examine the differential expression of VIPR1 in the two cell lines. The effects of VIPR1 overexpression and knockdown on the proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of HCC cells were analyzed using CCK8 assay and flow cytometry. We also observed the growth of HCC xenograft with lentivirus-mediated over-expression of VIPR1 in nude mice.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the wild-type VIPR1 promoter group, co-transfection with the vector carrying two promoter mutations and the AP-2α-over-expressing plasmid obviously restored the luciferase activity in HCC cells (P < 0.05). DAC treatment of the cells significantly decreased the methylation level of VIPR1 promoter and inhibited the binding of AP-2α to VIPR1 promoter (P < 0.01). The HCC cells with AP-2α knockdown showed increased VIPR1 expression, which was lower in Huh7 cells than in Hep3B cells. VIPR1 overexpression in HCC cells caused significant cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase (P < 0.01), promoted cell apoptosis (P < 0.001), and inhibited cell proliferation (P < 0.001), while VIPR1 knockdown produced the opposite effects. In the tumor-bearing nude mice, VIPR1 overexpression in the HCC cells significantly suppressed the increase of tumor volume (P < 0.001) and weight (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#VIPR1 promoter methylation in HCC promotes the binding of AP-2α and inhibits VIPR1 expression, while VIPR1 overexpression causes cell cycle arrest, promotes cell apoptosis, and inhibits cell proliferation and tumor growth.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Luciferases/genetics , Methylation , Mice, Nude , Receptors, Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide, Type I/metabolism , Transcription Factor AP-2/metabolism
15.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 461-468, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939580

ABSTRACT

Histone methylation is one of the key post-translational modifications that plays a critical role in various heart diseases, including diabetic cardiomyopathy. A great deal of evidence has shown that histone methylation is closely related to hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, lipid and advanced glycation end products deposition, inflammatory and oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress and cell apoptosis, and these pathological factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. In order to provide a novel theoretical basis and potential targets for the treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy from the perspective of epigenetics, this review discussed and elucidated the association between histone methylation and the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy in details.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Cardiomyopathies/pathology , Histones , Methylation , Oxidative Stress , Protein Processing, Post-Translational
16.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 240-250, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929208

ABSTRACT

The continuing discoveries of novel classes of RNA modifications in various organisms have raised the need for improving sensitive, convenient, and reliable methods for quantifying RNA modifications. In particular, a subset of small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), are modified at their 3'-terminal nucleotides via 2'-O-methylation. However, quantifying the levels of these small RNAs is difficult because 2'-O-methylation at the RNA 3'-terminus inhibits the activity of polyadenylate polymerase and T4 RNA ligase. These two enzymes are indispensable for RNA labeling or ligation in conventional miRNA quantification assays. In this study, we profiled 3'-terminal 2'-O-methyl plant miRNAs in the livers of rice-fed mice by oxidative deep sequencing and detected increasing amounts of plant miRNAs with prolonged oxidation treatment. We further compared the efficiency of stem-loop and poly(A)-tailed RT-qPCR in quantifying plant miRNAs in animal tissues and identified stem-loop RT-qPCR as the only suitable approach. Likewise, stem-loop RT-qPCR was superior to poly(A)-tailed RT-qPCR in quantifying 3'-terminal 2'-O-methyl piRNAs in human seminal plasma. In summary, this study established a standard procedure for quantifying the levels of 3'-terminal 2'-O-methyl miRNAs in plants and piRNAs. Accurate measurement of the 3'-terminal 2'-O-methylation of small RNAs has profound implications for understanding their pathophysiologic roles in biological systems.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Methylation , MicroRNAs/genetics , Oxidative Stress , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
17.
International Journal of Oral Science ; (4): 26-26, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929154

ABSTRACT

The dorsal lingual epithelium, which is composed of taste buds and keratinocytes differentiated from K14+ basal cells, discriminates taste compounds and maintains the epithelial barrier. N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most abundant mRNA modification in eukaryotic cells. How METTL3-mediated m6A modification regulates K14+ basal cell fate during dorsal lingual epithelium formation and regeneration remains unclear. Here we show knockout of Mettl3 in K14+ cells reduced the taste buds and enhanced keratinocytes. Deletion of Mettl3 led to increased basal cell proliferation and decreased cell division in taste buds. Conditional Mettl3 knock-in mice showed little impact on taste buds or keratinization, but displayed increased proliferation of cells around taste buds in a protective manner during post-irradiation recovery. Mechanically, we revealed that the most frequent m6A modifications were enriched in Hippo and Wnt signaling, and specific peaks were observed near the stop codons of Lats1 and FZD7. Our study elucidates that METTL3 is essential for taste bud formation and could promote the quantity recovery of taste bud after radiation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Epithelium/metabolism , Homeostasis , Methylation , Methyltransferases/metabolism , RNA , Taste Buds/metabolism
18.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 109-115, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929012

ABSTRACT

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) methylation modification is one of the most common epigenetic modifications for eukaryotic mRNA. Under the catalytic regulation of relevant enzymes, m6A participates in the body's pathophysiological processes via mediating RNA transcription, splicing, translation, and decay. In the past, we mainly focused on the regulation of m6A in tumors such as hematological tumors, cervical cancer, breast cancer. In recent years, it has been found that m6A is enriched in mRNAs of neurogenesis, cell cycle, and neuron differentiation. Its regulation in the nervous system is gradually being recognized. When the level of m6A modification and the expression levels of relevant enzyme proteins are changed, it will cause neurological dysfunction and participate in the occurrence and conversion of neurological diseases. Recent studies have found that the m6A modification and its associated enzymes were involved in major depressive disorder, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Fragile X syndrome, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and traumatic brain injury, and they also play a key role in the development of neurological diseases and many other neurological diseases. This paper mainly reviewed the recent progress of m6A modification-related enzymes, focusing on the impact of m6A modification and related enzyme-mediated regulation of gene expression on the central nervous system diseases, so as to provide potential targets for the prevention of neurological diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenosine/metabolism , Depressive Disorder, Major , Epigenesis, Genetic , Methylation , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
19.
Biol. Res ; 54: 25-25, 2021. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1505814

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR), and the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Aim of this work was to investigate the mechanism of PPARα in DR. METHODS: Human retinal capillary pericytes (HRCPs) were treated with high glucose (HG) to induce DR cell model. DR mouse model was established by streptozotocin injection, and then received 5-Aza-2-deoxycytidine (DAC; DNA methyltransferase inhibitor) treatment. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was performed to assess retinal tissue damage. PPARα methylation was examined by Methylation-Specific PCR. Flow cytometry and DCFH-DA fluorescent probe was used to estimate apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The interaction between DNA methyltransferase-1 (DNMT1) and PPARα promoter was examined by Chromatin Immunoprecipitation. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot were performed to assess gene and protein expression. RESULTS: HG treatment enhanced the methylation levels of PPARα, and repressed PPARα expression in HRCPs. The levels of apoptotic cells and ROS were significantly increased in HRCPs in the presence of HG. Moreover, DNMT1 was highly expressed in HG-treated HRCPs, and DNMT1 interacted with PPARα promoter. PPARα overexpression suppressed apoptosis and ROS levels of HRCPs, which was rescued by DNMT1 up-regulation. In DR mice, DAC treatment inhibited PPARα methylation and reduced damage of retinal tissues. CONCLUSION: DNMT1-mediated PPARα methylation promotes apoptosis and ROS levels of HRCPs and aggravates damage of retinal tissues in DR mice. Thus, this study may highlight novel insights into DR pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Retina/pathology , PPAR alpha/genetics , Diabetic Retinopathy , DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferase 1/metabolism , Retina/cytology , Cells, Cultured , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Apoptosis , DNA Methylation , Diabetes Mellitus , Disease Models, Animal , Methylation
20.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1972-1976, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922234

ABSTRACT

There are more than 150 types of chemical modifications in RNA, mainly methylation, which are widely distributed in all kinds of RNA, including messenger RNA, transfer RNA, ribosomal RNA, non-coding small RNA and long non-coding RNA. In recent years, the identification of RNA methylation modification enzymes and the development of high-throughput sequencing technology at transcriptome level laid a foundation for revealing the expression and function of genes regulated by chemical modification of RNA. In this review, the most recent advances of RNA methylation, especially N6-methyladenosine (m


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenosine/metabolism , Hematopoiesis , Methylation , RNA/metabolism
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