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1.
International Journal of Oral Science ; (4): 1-1, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010714

ABSTRACT

The reduction of nitrate to nitrite by the oral microbiota has been proposed to be important for oral health and results in nitric oxide formation that can improve cardiometabolic conditions. Studies of bacterial composition in subgingival plaque suggest that nitrate-reducing bacteria are associated with periodontal health, but the impact of periodontitis on nitrate-reducing capacity (NRC) and, therefore, nitric oxide availability has not been evaluated. The current study aimed to evaluate how periodontitis affects the NRC of the oral microbiota. First, 16S rRNA sequencing data from five different countries were analyzed, revealing that nitrate-reducing bacteria were significantly lower in subgingival plaque of periodontitis patients compared with healthy individuals (P < 0.05 in all five datasets with n = 20-82 samples per dataset). Secondly, subgingival plaque, saliva, and plasma samples were obtained from 42 periodontitis patients before and after periodontal treatment. The oral NRC was determined in vitro by incubating saliva with 8 mmol/L nitrate (a concentration found in saliva after nitrate-rich vegetable intake) and compared with the NRC of 15 healthy individuals. Salivary NRC was found to be diminished in periodontal patients before treatment (P < 0.05) but recovered to healthy levels 90 days post-treatment. Additionally, the subgingival levels of nitrate-reducing bacteria increased after treatment and correlated negatively with periodontitis-associated bacteria (P < 0.01). No significant effect of periodontal treatment on the baseline saliva and plasma nitrate and nitrite levels was found, indicating that differences in the NRC may only be revealed after nitrate intake. Our results suggest that an impaired NRC in periodontitis could limit dietary nitrate-derived nitric oxide levels, and the effect on systemic health should be explored in future studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nitrates , Nitric Oxide , Nitrites , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Periodontitis/microbiology , Bacteria , Dental Plaque/microbiology , Saliva/microbiology , Microbiota/genetics
2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 162-171, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007632

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Links between alterations in gut microbiota composition and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have previously been reported. This study aimed to examine the microbiota in the nasal cavity of ALS.@*METHODS@#Sixty-six ALS patients and 40 healthy caregivers who live in close proximity with patients were enrolled. High throughput metagenomic sequencing of the 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) gene V3-V4 region of nasal microbiota was used to characterize the alpha and beta diversity and relative abundance of bacterial taxa, predict function, and conduct correlation analysis between specific taxa and clinical features.@*RESULTS@#The nasal microbiome of ALS patients showed lower alpha diversity than that of corresponding healthy family members. Genera Gaiella , Sphingomonas , Polaribacter _1, Lachnospiraceae _NK4A136_group, Klebsiella , and Alistipes were differentially enriched in ALS patients compared to controls. Nasal microbiota composition in ALS patients significantly differed from that in healthy subjects (unweighted UniFrac P = 0.001), while Linear discriminant analysis Effect Size (LEfSe) analysis indicated that Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes dominated healthy nasal communities at the phylum level, whereas Actinobacteria was the predominant phylum and Thermoleophilia was the predominant class in ALS patients. Genus Faecalibacterium and Alistipes were positively correlated with ALS functional rating scale revised (ALSFRS-R; rs = 0.349, P = 0.020 and rs = 0.393, P = 0.008), while Prevotella -9 and Bacteroides operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were positively associated with lung function (FVC) in ALS patients ( rs = 0.304, P = 0.045, and rs = 0.300, P = 0.048, respectively). Prevotella -1 was positively correlated with white blood cell counts (WBC, rs = 0.347, P = 0.021), neutrophil percentage (Neu%, rs = 0.428, P = 0.004), and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR, rs = 0.411, P = 0.006), but negatively correlated with lymphocyte percentage (Lym%, rs = -0.408, P = 0.006). In contrast, Streptococcus was negatively associated with Neu% ( rs = -0.445, P = 0.003) and NLR ( rs = -0.436, P = 0.003), while positively associated with Lym% ( rs = 0.437, P = 0.003). No significant differences in nasal microbiota richness and evenness were detected among the severe and mild ALS patients.@*CONCLUSIONS@#ALS is accompanied by altered nasal microbial community composition and diversity. The findings presented here highlight the need to understand how dysbiosis of nasal microbiota may contribute to the development of ALS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/microbiology , Feces/microbiology , Microbiota/genetics , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , Bacteria/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
3.
Chinese Journal of Stomatology ; (12): 131-142, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970766

ABSTRACT

Objective: To detect and analyze the characteristics of oral microbiota in species composition, function and metabolism among caries, periodontitis and oral healthy individuals, hunting for the microbiome-derived biomarkers with specificity and sensitivity to estimate the occurrence of these two diseases. Methods: Saliva samples were collected from 10 patients with high caries risk [decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT)≥6, HC group] in Department of Endodontics, 10 patients with periodontitis of grade Ⅱ A-Ⅲ C (PG group) in Department of Periodontology and 10 oral healthy individuals (HH group) from School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University during from March 2022 to June 2022. A baseline examination was conducted on all participants, including their oral conditions of caries and periodontal health. Metagenomic sequencing (Illumina PE150 platform) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to detect microorganisms and their metabolites in the samples respectively. The sequencing data were analyzed to obtain the information of microbial taxonomic composition, functional genes and metabolites in each group of samples. The basic oral conditions and saliva samples of subjects in each group were evaluated and collected by the same professional endodontist. Results: There were no significant difference in baseline characteristics such as age and sex among the subjects in each group (P>0.05). DMFT in HC group (9.0±1.7) was significantly higher than that in HH group (0) and PG group (0) (F=243.00, P<0.001). Sequencing data analysis showed that the taxonomic compositions of salivary microbiota in each group were mainly Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria at the phylum level, and Streptococcus, Neisseria, Rothia, Prevotella at the genus level. Differential analysis showed that, compared with the HH group, HC group and PG group had significant differences in taxonomic composition (P<0.05), and the most significant among them was Prevotella. At the species level, Prevotella pallens was the most significant change in HC group, and Porphyromonas gingivalis in PG group. Metabolite analysis showed that there were significant differences in metabolites between HC group and PG group. The results showed that, compared with the HH group, the most significant metabolite change was 3-hydroxy-1, 5-diphenylpentan-1-one in HC group (P=0.001) and N1 acetylspermine in PG group (P=0.002) respectively. Compared with the PG group, the metabolite of HC group with the most significant difference is D-glucosamine 6-phosphate (P=0.006). The metabolism gene function analysis showed that, the enrichment of carbohydrate metabolism related genes was highest in HC group, followed with HH group, and it was lowest in PG group. In addition, compared with the HH group, the abundance of functional genes related to glucose metabolism, such as ABC transporter and phosphotransferase system, were significantly decreased in PG group (P<0.05), but significantly increased in HC group (P<0.05). Conclusions: There is a significant correlation between the alternation of carbohydrate metabolism of salivary microbiota with the occurrence of caries and periodontitis. In the future, Prevotella pallens and 3-hydroxy-1, 5-diphenylpentan-1-one may be the potential biomarkers of caries; while Porphyromonas gingivalis and N1 acetylspermine work in the predictions of periodontitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Saliva/microbiology , Dental Caries Susceptibility , Periodontitis/microbiology , Microbiota/genetics , Porphyromonas gingivalis/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
4.
West China Journal of Stomatology ; (6): 208-217, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981114

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#This study aimed to analyze the bacteria in dental caries and establish an optimized dental-ca-ries diagnosis model based on 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) data of oral flora.@*METHODS@#We searched the public databa-ses of microbiomes including NCBI, MG-RAST, EMBL-EBI, and QIITA and collected data involved in the relevant research on human oral microbiomes worldwide. The samples in the caries dataset (1 703) were compared with healthy ones (20 540) by using the microbial search engine (MSE) to obtain the microbiome novelty score (MNS) and construct a caries diagnosis model based on this index. Nonparametric multivariate ANOVA was used to analyze and compare the impact of different host factors on the oral flora MNS, and the model was optimized by controlling related factors. Finally, the effect of the model was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis.@*RESULTS@#1) The oral microbiota distribution obviously differed among people with various oral-health statuses, and the species richness and species diversity index decreased. 2) ROC curve was used to evaluate the caries data set, and the area under ROC curve was AUC=0.67. 3) Among the five hosts' factors including caries status, country, age, decayed missing filled tooth (DMFT) indices, and sampling site displayed the strongest effect on MNS of samples (P=0.001). 4) The AUC of the model was 0.87, 0.74, 0.74, and 0.75 in high caries, medium caries, low caries samples in Chinese children, and mixed dental plaque samples after controlling host factors, respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The model based on the analysis of 16S rRNA data of oral flora had good diagnostic efficiency.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Bacteria/genetics , Dental Caries/microbiology , Dental Caries Susceptibility , Microbiota/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
5.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 172-178, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969863

ABSTRACT

In recent years, many studies have found that vaginal microbiota is closely related to female reproductive tract diseases. However, traditional microbial culture technology has the defects of long culture cycle and most microorganisms cannot be cultured. The development of metagenomics technique has broken the limitations of culture technology, and has been gradually applied to the study of vaginal microorganisms with the characteristics of high throughput, short time, identification of microbial population structure and gene function. It also provides technical support for elucidating the relationship between vaginal microbiota and female reproductive tract diseases. This article mainly introduces the metagenomics techniques and their applications in prevention, screening and diagnosis of common female reproductive tract diseases, and discusses their promising development and limitations to be overcome.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Microbiota/genetics , Vagina , Metagenomics/methods
6.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 974-981, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985622

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the changes in bacterial community structure, antibiotic resistance genome, and pathogen virulence genome in river water before and after the river flowing through Haikou City and their transmission and dispersal patterns and to reveal anthropogenic disturbance's effects on microorganisms and resistance genes in the aquatic environment. Methods: The Nandu River was divided into three study areas: the front, middle and rear sections from the upstream before it flowed through Haikou City to the estuary. Three sampling sites were selected in each area, and six copies of the sample were collected in parallel at each site and mixed for 3 L per sample. Microbial community structure, antibiotic resistance, virulence factors, and mobile genetic elements were analyzed through bioinformatic data obtained by metagenomic sequencing and full-length sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Variations in the distribution of bacterial communities between samples and correlation of transmission patterns were analyzed by principal co-ordinates analysis, procrustes analysis, and Mantel test. Results: As the river flowed through Haikou City, microbes' alpha diversity gradually decreased. Among them, Proteobacteria dominates in the bacterial community in the front, middle, and rear sections, and the relative abundance of Proteobacteria in the middle and rear sections was higher than that in the front segment. The diversity and abundance of antibiotic resistance genes, virulence factors, and mobile genetic elements were all at low levels in the front section and all increased significantly after flow through Haikou City. At the same time, horizontal transmission mediated by mobile genetic elements played a more significant role in the spread of antibiotic-resistance genes and virulence factors. Conclusions: Urbanization significantly impacts river bacteria and the resistance genes, virulence factors, and mobile genetic elements they carry. The Nandu River in Haikou flows through the city, receiving antibiotic-resistant and pathogen-associated bacteria excreted by the population. In contrast, antibiotic-resistant genes and virulence factors are enriched in bacteria, which indicates a threat to environmental health and public health. Comparison of river microbiomes and antibiotic resistance genomes before and after flow through cities is a valuable early warning indicator for monitoring the spread of antibiotic resistance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rivers , Virulence Factors/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Microbiota/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics
7.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 557-563, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009387

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To explore the possibility of using human skin and oral microorganisms to estimate the geographic origin of an individual through the sequencing analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene.@*METHODS@#Microbial DNA was extracted from the palm and oral microorganisms of the Han population in Shanghai and Chifeng, Inner Mongolia, and the composition and diversity of the microbiota were analyzed by full-length 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Then, differential species were screened and a geographic location prediction model was constructed.@*RESULTS@#The compositions of palm and oral microorganisms between Shanghai and Chifeng samples were both different. The abundance and uniformity of palm side skin microorganisms were higher in Chifeng samples than in Shanghai samples, while there was no significant difference in oral microorganisms. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) confirmed that th e β -diversity between the samples from the two places were statistically significant, and the coefficients of determination (R2) for skin and oral samples were 0.129 and 0.102, respectively. Through principal co-ordinates analysis (PCoA), the samples from the two places could be preliminarily distinguished. The predictive model had the accuracies of 0.90 and 0.83 for the geographic origin using the skin and oral samples, respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#There are differences in the compositions of palm and oral microbiota between Han populations in Shanghai and Chifeng. The prediction model constructed by the random forest algorithm can trace the unknown individuals from the above two places.


Subject(s)
Humans , China , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Microbiota/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Skin/microbiology , Forensic Genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Mouth/microbiology
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-12, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468876

ABSTRACT

Organo-mineral fertilizers supplemented with biological additives are an alternative to chemical fertilizers. In this study, thermoresistant microorganisms from composting mass were isolated by two-step procedures. First, samples taken at different time points and temperatures (33 days at 52 ºC, 60 days at 63 ºC, and over 365 days at 26 ºC) were pre-incubated at 80 oC for 30 minutes. Second, the microbial selection by in vitro culture-based methods and heat shock at 60 oC and 100 oC for 2h and 4h. Forty-one isolates were able to grow at 60 °C for 4h; twenty-seven at 100 °C for 2h, and two at 100 °C for 4h. The molecular identification by partial sequencing of the 16S ribosomal gene using universal primers revealed that thirty-five isolates were from eight Bacillus species, one Brevibacillus borstelensis, three Streptomyces thermogriseus, and two fungi (Thermomyces lanuginosus and T. dupontii). Data from amylase, phytase, and cellulase activity assays and the enzymatic index (EI) showed that 38 of 41 thermo-resistant isolates produce at least one enzyme. For amylase activity, the highest EI value was observed in Bacillus licheniformis (isolate 21C2, EI= 4.11), followed by Brevibacillus borstelensis (isolate 6C2, EI= 3.66), Bacillus cereus (isolate 18C2, EI= 3.52), and Bacillus paralicheniformis (isolate 20C2, EI= 3.34). For phytase, the highest EI values were observed for Bacillus cereus (isolate 18C2, EI= 2.30) and Bacillus licheniformis (isolate 3C1, EI= 2.15). Concerning cellulose production, B. altitudinis (isolate 6C1) was the most efficient (EI= 6.40), followed by three Bacillus subtilis (isolates 9C1, 16C2, and 19C2) with EI values of 5.66, 5.84, and 5.88, respectively, and one B. pumilus (isolate 27C2, EI= 5.78). The selected microorganisms are potentially useful as a biological additive in organo-mineral fertilizers and other biotechnological processes.


Os fertilizantes organo-minerais suplementados com aditivos biológicos são uma alternativa aos adubos químicos. Neste estudo, microrganismos termoresistentes foram isolados de compostagem por procedimentos de duas etapas. Inicialmente, as amostras tomadas em diferentes períodos e temperaturas (33 dias a 52 ºC, 60 dias a 63 ºC e mais de 365 dias a 26 ºC) foram pré-incubadas a 80 oC por 30 minutos. Posteriormente, a seleção microbiana foi conduzida por métodos baseados em cultura in vitro e choque térmico a 60 oC e 100 oC por 2h e 4h. Quarenta e um isolados foram capazes de crescer a 60 °C por 4h; vinte e sete a 100 °C por 2h e dois a 100 °C por 4h. A identificação molecular por sequenciamento parcial do gene ribossomal 16S usando primers universais revelou que trinta e cinco isolados eram de oito espécies de Bacillus, um Brevibacillus borstelensis, três Streptomyces thermogriseus e dois fungos (Thermomyces lanuginosus e T. dupontii). Os dados dos ensaios de atividade de amilase, fitase e celulase e o índice enzimático (IE) mostraram que 38 dos 41 isolados termorresistentes produziram pelo menos uma enzima. Para a atividade da amilase, o maior valor de IE foi observado em Bacillus licheniformis (isolado 21C2, IE = 4,11), seguido por Brevibacillus borstelensis (isolado 6C2, IE = 3,66), Bacillus cereus (isolado 18C2, IE = 3,52) e Bacillus paralicheniformis (isolado 20C2, IE = 3,34). Para a fitase, os maiores valores de IE foram observados para B. cereus (isolado 18C2, IE = 2,30) e B. licheniformis (isolado 3C1, IE = 2,15). Em relação à produção de celulose, B. altitudinis (isolado 6C1) foi o mais eficiente (IE = 6,40), seguido por três Bacillus subtilis (isolados 9C1, 16C2 e 19C2) com valores de IE de 5,66, 5,84 e 5,88, respectivamente, e um B. pumilus (isolado 27C2, IE = 5,78). Pode-se inferir que os microrganismos selecionados são potencialmente úteis como aditivos biológicos em fertilizantes organo-minerais e outros processos biotecnológicos.


Subject(s)
Bacillus , Brevibacillus/enzymology , Organic Chemicals , Fungi/enzymology , Microbiota/genetics , /ultrastructure , Streptomyces/enzymology
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-9, 2023. map, ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468908

ABSTRACT

Isla Arena is located in the coordinate 20° 70´ N - 90° 45´ W, from Campeche, Mexico. In these estuaries, the ocean mixes with fresh water, and ecosystems are concentrated where petenes and pink flamingos proliferate. Crustaceans and mollusks abound in the sea. Despite its enormous marine wealth, there are no studies carried out on which halophilic microorganisms are present in these waters. In this work, the diversity and structure of the microbial community was investigated through a metagenomics approach and corroborated for sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. It was found that the phylum Fimicutes predominates with more than 50%, in almost the same proportion of the class Bacilli and with almost 41% of relative abundance of the order Bacillales. The sequencing results showed that one of the samples presented a high percentage of similarity (99.75%) using the Nucleotide BLAST program with a peculiar microorganism: Bacillus subtilis. This microorganism is one of the best characterized bacteria among the gram-positive ones. Our results demonstrate that B. subtilis can be an efficient source of proteases, lipases and cellulases, from halophilic microbial communities located in poorly explored areas.


Isla Arena está localizada na coordenada 20°70’N - 90°45’W, de Campeche, México. Nesses estuários, o oceano se mistura com a água doce e os ecossistemas se concentram onde proliferam petenos e flamingos rosa. Crustáceos e moluscos abundam no mar. Apesar de sua enorme riqueza marinha, não há estudos realizados sobre a presença de microrganismos halofílicos nessas águas. Neste trabalho, a diversidade e estrutura da comunidade microbiana foram investigadas através de uma abordagem metagenômica e corroboradas para o sequenciamento de genes 16S rRNA. Verificou-se que o filo Fimicutes predomina com mais de 50%, quase na mesma proporção da classe Bacilli e com quase 41% de abundância relativa da ordem Bacillales. Os resultados do sequenciamento mostraram que uma das amostras apresentou alto percentual de similaridade (99,75%) pelo programa Nucleotide BLAST com um microrganismo peculiar: Bacillus subtilis. Nossos resultados demonstram que B. subtilis pode ser uma fonte eficiente de proteases, lipases e celulases, provenientes de comunidades microbianas halofílicas localizadas em áreas pouco exploradas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacillales/isolation & purification , Bacillus subtilis/growth & development , Ecosystem , Microbiota/genetics , /analysis
10.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 381-392, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927677

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases are an enormous public health burden and a growing threat to human health worldwide. Emerging or classic recurrent pathogens, or pathogens with resistant traits, challenge our ability to diagnose and control infectious diseases. Nanopore sequencing technology has the potential to enhance our ability to diagnose, interrogate, and track infectious diseases due to the unrestricted read length and system portability. This review focuses on the application of nanopore sequencing technology in the clinical diagnosis of infectious diseases and includes the following: (i) a brief introduction to nanopore sequencing technology and Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) sequencing platforms; (ii) strategies for nanopore-based sequencing technologies; and (iii) applications of nanopore sequencing technology in monitoring emerging pathogenic microorganisms, molecular detection of clinically relevant drug-resistance genes, and characterization of disease-related microbial communities. Finally, we discuss the current challenges, potential opportunities, and future outlook for applying nanopore sequencing technology in the diagnosis of infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Microbiota/genetics , Nanopore Sequencing , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Technology
11.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 389-402, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939873

ABSTRACT

Few studies have described the key features and prognostic roles of lung microbiota in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia (SCAP). We prospectively enrolled consecutive SCAP patients admitted to ICU. Bronchoscopy was performed at bedside within 48 h of ICU admission, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was applied to the collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The primary outcome was clinical improvements defined as a decrease of 2 categories and above on a 7-category ordinal scale within 14 days following bronchoscopy. Sixty-seven patients were included. Multivariable permutational multivariate analysis of variance found that positive bacteria lab test results had the strongest independent association with lung microbiota (R2 = 0.033; P = 0.018), followed by acute kidney injury (AKI; R2 = 0.032; P = 0.011) and plasma MIP-1β level (R2 = 0.027; P = 0.044). Random forest identified that the families Prevotellaceae, Moraxellaceae, and Staphylococcaceae were the biomarkers related to the positive bacteria lab test results. Multivariable Cox regression showed that the increase in α-diversity and the abundance of the families Prevotellaceae and Actinomycetaceae were associated with clinical improvements. The positive bacteria lab test results, AKI, and plasma MIP-1β level were associated with patients' lung microbiota composition on ICU admission. The families Prevotellaceae and Actinomycetaceae on admission predicted clinical improvements.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Bacteria/classification , Chemokine CCL4/blood , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Lung , Microbiota/genetics , Pneumonia, Bacterial/diagnosis , Prognosis , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
12.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 625-639, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984157

ABSTRACT

The succession of microbiota is closely associated with several essential factors, including race, sex, health condition, lifestyle, postmortem interval, etc., and it has great potential application value in forensic medicine. This paper summarizes recent studies on the forensic applications of the microbiome, including individual identification, geographical feature identification, origin identification of the tissue or body fluid, and postmortem interval estimation, and introduces the current machine learning algorithms for microbiology research based on next-generation sequencing data. In addition, the current problems facing forensic microbiomics such as the extraction and preservation of samples, construction of standardization and database, ethical review and practical applicability are discussed. Future multi-omics studies are expected to explore micro ecosystems from a comprehensive and dynamic perspective, to promote the development of forensic microbiomics application.


Subject(s)
Humans , Forensic Medicine , Autopsy , Microbiota/genetics , Algorithms , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Postmortem Changes
13.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 621-626, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984063

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To explore the correlation between intestinal microbiota and postmortem interval(PMI) in rats by using 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing technology.@*METHODS@#Rats were killed by anesthesia and placed at 16 ℃, and DNA was extracted in caecum at 14 time points of 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27 and 30 d after death. The 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing technology was used to detect intestinal microbiota in rat cecal contents, and the results were used to analyze the rat intestinal microbiota diversity and differences.@*RESULTS@#The total number of intestinal microbial communities did not change significantly within 30 days after death, but the diversity showed an upward trend. A total of 119 bacterial communities were significantly changed at 13 time points after death. The models for PMI estimation were established by using partial least squares (PLS) regression at all time points, before 9 days and after 12 days, reaching an R2 of 0.795, 0.767 and 0.445, respectively; and the root mean square errors (RMSEs) were 6.57, 1.96 and 5.37 d, respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Using 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing technology, the composition and structure of intestinal microbiota changed significantly within 30 d after death. In addition, the established PLS regression model suggested that the PMI was highly correlated with intestinal microbiota composition, showing a certain time series change.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Microbiota/genetics , Postmortem Changes , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Technology
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3106-3115, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888050

ABSTRACT

To obtain the difference of the fungal and bacterial community diversity between wild Cordyceps sinensis, artificial C. sinensis and their habitat soil, Illmina Hiseq high-throughput sequencing technology was applied. The results show that Proteobacteria was the dominant bacterial phylum in C. sinensis, Actinobacteria was the dominant bacterial phylum in soil microhabitat, Ophiocordyceps sinensis was the predominant dominant fungus of C. sinensis. The α diversity analysis showed that the fungal diversity of stroma was lower than other parts, and the fungal diversity of wild C. sinensis was lower than that of artificial C. sinensis. The β diversity analysis showed that the fungal and bacterial community diversity of soil microhabitat samples was significantly different from that of C. sinensis. The fungal community diversity was less different between wild and artificial C. sinensis, especially in sclerotia. LEfSe analysis showed a lot of species diversity between wild and artificial C. sinensis. Those different species between wild C. sinensis, artificial C. sinensis and their habitat soil provide ideas for further research on breed and components of C. sinensis.


Subject(s)
Cordyceps/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Microbiota/genetics , Soil , Soil Microbiology
15.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 45: 30-37, May 15, 2020. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177412

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Traditionally, microbial genome sequencing has been restrained to the species grown in pure culture. The development of culture-independent techniques over the last decade allows scientists to sequence microbial communities directly from environmental samples. Metagenomics is the study of complex genome by the isolation of DNA of the whole community. Next generation sequencing (NGS) of metagenomic DNA gives information about the microbial and taxonomical characterization of a particular niche. The objective of the present research is to study the microbial and taxonomical characterization of the metagenomic DNA, isolated from the frozen soil sample of a glacier in the north western Himalayas through NGS. RESULTS: The glacier community comprised of 16 phyla with the representation of members belonging to Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria. The number of genes annotated through the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), GO, Pfam, Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs), and FIG databases were generated by COGNIZER. The annotation of genes assigned in each group from the metagenomics data through COG database and the number of genes annotated in different pathways through KEGG database were reported. CONCLUSION: Results indicate that the glacier soil taken in the present study, harbors taxonomically and metabolically diverse communities. The major bacterial group present in the niche is Proteobacteria followed by Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria, etc. Different genes were annotated through COG and KEGG databases that integrate genomic, chemical, and systemic functional information.


Subject(s)
Soil Microbiology , Bacteria/classification , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Microbiota/genetics , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Cold Climate , Computational Biology , Ice Cover , Metagenomics , Genome, Microbial , India
16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2610-2621, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878515

ABSTRACT

Strain is the fundamental unit in microbial taxonomy. The functional diversity among strains has great influence on host phenotypes. With the development of microbiome research, knowing the composition and functional capacities of complex microbial communities at the strain level has become increasingly valuable in scientific research and clinical applications. This review introduces the principles of bioinformatics algorithms for strain analysis based on metagenomic data, the applications in microbiome research and directions of future development.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Computational Biology , Metagenome , Metagenomics , Microbiota/genetics
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2566-2581, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878512

ABSTRACT

Virome is the collective term for the viral collection or viral metagenomes that are distributed in various environments. Viruses can be found in bodies of water, glaciers, plants, animals, and even some viruses, which are classified as eukaryotes, prokaryotes and subviruses. Viruses play very important role in maintaining environmental homeostasis and ecosystem balance, and are especially closely related to human health. In recent years, with the advancement of sequencing technology and data analysis, we are able to gain more insights into the virome and explore its potential role in the ecological niche by metagenomic sequencing. A large amount of viral data have been obtained from glaciers, oceans, and various plants and animals, and numerous unknown viruses have been discovered. Virome has been studied mainly through metagenomic data mining, as well as virus-like particles separation and enrichment. To date, several different methods for viral isolation and enrichment exist, and numerous bioinformatic analyses of the virome have been performed. However, there is a lack of specific and complete reviews on the enrichment and data analysis methods for the virome. Thus, our review will summarize viral isolation and enrichment methods and data analysis, and present some of the landmark research conducted by the enrichment method, to provide a reference for researchers of interest and further advance the field of virome research.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Metagenome , Metagenomics , Microbiota/genetics , Virome , Viruses/genetics
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2556-2565, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878511

ABSTRACT

The important role of intestinal microorganisms in human health has been widely confirmed. At present, most of the studies on intestinal microorganisms are based on amplification of the V3-V4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA gene, and little attention has been paid to archaea. In this study, a primer set which can amplify 16S rRNA gene of both bacteria and archaea at the same time was used. By comparing the community changes before and after probiotics intake, it showed that this primer set is suitable for analyzing the changes of human intestinal bacteria and archaea communities. The fecal samples of volunteers were collected, and the amplification and high-throughput sequencing were carried out by using bacterial primer set (B primer) and bacterial and archaeal universal primer (AB primer); several commonly used rRNA databases were used to determine the amplification ability of the primer set to bacteria and archaea. The results showed that AB primer could display the bacterial community amplified by B primer, and could obtain the sequence of common methanogenic archaea in intestinal tract. AB primer set can analyze the bacteria and archaea in the intestinal tract at the same time by only one amplification and sequencing, which can show the structure of intestinal microbial community more comprehensively, which is suitable for the research of intestinal microorganisms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Archaea/genetics , Bacteria/genetics , DNA Primers , DNA, Bacterial , Microbiota/genetics , Phylogeny , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2511-2515, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878506

ABSTRACT

Microbes are the most important commensal organisms in humans, animals and plants, and are the major habitants in soil, sediment, water, air and other habitats. The analysis of microbiome in these habitats has become a basic research technique. As a fast developing technology in recent years, microbiome sequencing and analysis have been widely used in human health, environmental pollution control, food industry, agriculture and animal husbandry and other fields. In order to sort out and summarize the current status, development and application prospects of microbiome sequencing and analysis technologies, this special issue has prepared a collection of 16 papers in this field, that comprise sample preservation and processing, single microbe genome sequencing and analysis, and microbiome feature analysis in special habitats, microbiome related databases and algorithms, and microbiome sequencing and analysis expert consensus. It also introduced in detail the development trend of the microbiome sequencing and analysis, in order to promote the rapid development of the microbiome sequencing and analysis industry and scientific research in China, and provide necessary reference for the healthy development of related industries.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Bacteria/genetics , China , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Metagenome , Microbiota/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
20.
Biol. Res ; 53: 29, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124216

ABSTRACT

Abstract Arid environments are defined by the lack of water availability, which is directly related to the mean annual precipitation (MAP), and high values of solar irradiation, which impacts the community composition of animals, plants, and the microbial structure of the soil. Recent advances in NGS technologies have expanded our ability to characterize micro- biomes, allowing environmental microbiologists to explore the complete microbial structure. Intending to identify and describe the state-of-the-art of bacterial communities in arid soils at a global scale, and to address the effect that some environmental features may have on them, we performed a systematic review based on the PRISMA guideline. Using a combination of keywords, we identified a collection of 66 studies, including 327 sampled sites, reporting the arid soil bacterial community composition by 16S rDNA gene high-throughput sequencing. To identify factors that can modulate bacterial communities, we extracted the geographical, environmental, and physicochemical data. The results indicate that even though each sampled site was catalogued as arid, they show wide variability in altitude, mean annual temperature (MAT), soil pH and electric conductivity, within and between arid environments. We show that arid soils display a higher abundance of Actinobacteria and lower abundance of Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, and Planctomycetes, compared with non-arid soil microbiomes, revealing that microbial structure seems to be strongly modulated by MAP and MAT and not by pH in arid soils. We observed that environmental and physicochemical features were scarcely described among studies, hence, we propose a reporting guideline for further analysis, which will allow deepening the knowledge of the relationship between the microbiome and abiotic factors in arid soil. Finally, to understand the academic collaborations landscape, we developed an analysis of the author's network, corroborating a low degree of connectivity and collaborations in this research topic. Considering that it is crucial to understand how microbial processes develop and change in arid soils, our analysis emphasizes the need to increase collaborations between research groups worldwide.


Subject(s)
Animals , Soil Microbiology , Microbiota/genetics , Plants , Soil , Proteobacteria
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