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1.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(2): 1-12, jun. 2021. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284445

ABSTRACT

Background/aim: Autophagic cell death and apoptosis of tumor cells has become one of the main objectives in cancer treatment, whereas tumor cell lines are mainly used in studies for providing important data for the evaluation of potential anti cancer substances. In this study, our objective was to evaluate morphological and biochemical changes including rate of apoptosis and Alpha Fetoprotein (AFP) levels at different concentrations of Carnosic Acid (CA) on Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells.Materials and methods: Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma (7th passage HepG2 cells) Cell lines were cultured on 11 µM D263M schott glass coverslips placed in 12-well plates and were treated with DMSO, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 µM concentrations of CA for 24, 48 and 72 hours. Morphological and biochemical data were recorded daily including apoptosis rates demonstrated by Caspase 3, Annexin V expressions under inverted light and Immunofluorescence microscopy, then data were analyzed for statistical significance. AFP, albumin and total protein levels were analyzed spectrophotometricaly for biochemical evaluation.Results: Our results showed that CA significantly inhibited HepG2 cell proliferation in a dose and time dependant manner and significantly caused the formation of autophagic vacuoles starting from 5µM and reaching significance at 10 µM concentrations. Significant decrease was observed in AFP when 48 and 72 hours expressions were examined, with the lowest level reached at 72 hours in the 10 µM CA group. Additionally, increase in albumin levels reached significance only in the 48 h group whereas non-significant increases were also observed in 24 h and 72 h groups.Conclusion: Our current study demonstrates significant increase in apoptosis rates by Carnosic Acid mainly at 10µM concentrations, supporting its anticancer effect on HepG2 cells. These findings are also supported by changes in biochemical analyses of Albumin and AFP levels at 10 µM concentrations.


Antecedentes / objetivos: La muerte celular autofágica y la apoptosis de células tumorales se ha convertido en uno de los principales objetivos en el tratamiento del cáncer, mientras que las líneas celulares tumorales se utilizan principalmente en estudios para proporcionar datos importantes para la evaluación de posibles sustancias anticancerígenas. En este estudio, nuestro objetivo fue evaluar los cambios morfológicos y bioquímicos, incluida la tasa de apoptosis y los niveles de alfa fetoproteína (AFP) a diferentes concentraciones de ácido carnósico (CA) en células de carcinoma hepatocelular humano HepG2.Materiales y métodos: Carcinoma hepatocelular humano (HepG2).Las líneas celulares se cultivaron en cubreobjetos de vidrio Schott D263M de 11 µM colocados en placas de 12 pocillos y se trataron con DMSO, concentraciones de CA 1, 2,5, 5 y 10 µM durante 24, 48 y 72 horas. Los datos morfológicos y bioquímicos se registraron diariamente, incluidas las tasas de apoptosis demostradas por Caspasa 3, las expresiones de Anexina V bajo luz invertida y microscopía de inmunofluorescencia, luego se analizaron los datos para determinar la significación estadística. Los niveles de AFP, albúmina y proteínas totales se analizaron espectrofotométricamente para evaluación bioquímica.Resultados: Nuestros resultados mostraron que CA inhibió significativamente la proliferación de células HepG2 de una manera dependiente de la dosis y el tiempo y causó significativamente la formación de vacuolas autofágicas comenzando desde 5 µM y alcanzando significancia a concentraciones de 10 µM. Se observó una disminución significativa en la AFP cuando se examinaron las expresiones de 48 y 72 horas, alcanzando el nivel más bajo a las 72 horas en el grupo de CA 10 µM. Además, el aumento en los niveles de albúmina alcanzó significación solo en el grupo de 48 h, mientras que también se observaron aumentos no significativos en los grupos de 24 hy 72 h.Conclusión: Nuestro estudio demuestra un aumento significativo en las tasas de apoptosis por el ácido carnósico principalmente a concentraciones de 10 µM, lo que respalda su efecto anticancerígeno en las células HepG2. Estos hallazgos también están respaldados por cambios en los análisis bioquímicos de los niveles de albúmina y AFP a concentraciones de 10 µM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Abietanes/administration & dosage , Hep G2 Cells/drug effects , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cell Survival , Cells, Cultured , Apoptosis/drug effects , Microscopy, Fluorescence
2.
Electron J Biotechnol ; 49: 5-13, Jan. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291618

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Opsonization, is the molecular mechanism by which target molecules promote interactions with phagocyte cell surface receptors to remove unwanted cells by induced phagocytosis. We designed an in vitro system to demonstrate that this procedure could be driven to eliminate adipocytes, using peptides mimicking regions of the complement protein C3b to promote opsonization and enhance phagocytosis. Two cell lines were used: (1) THP-1 monocytes differentiated to macrophages, expressing the C3b opsonin receptor CR1 in charge of the removal of unwanted coated complexes; (2) 3T3-L1 fibroblasts differentiated to adipocytes, expressing AQP7, to evaluate the potential of peptides to stimulate opsonization. (3) A co-culture of the two cell lines to demonstrate that phagocytosis could be driven to cell withdrawal with high efficiency and specificity. RESULTS: An array of peptides were designed and chemically synthesized p3691 and p3931 joined bound to the CR1 receptor activating phagocytosis (p < 0.033) while p3727 joined the AQP7 protein (p < 0.001) suggesting that opsonization of adipocytes could occur. In the co-culture system p3980 and p3981 increased lipid uptake to 91.2% and 89.0%, respectively, as an indicator of potential adipocyte phagocytosis. CONCLUSIONS: This in vitro model could help understand the receptor­ligand interaction in the withdrawal of unwanted macromolecules in vivo. The adipocyte-phagocytosis discussed may help to control obesity, since peptides of C3b stimulated the CR1 receptor, promoting opsonisation and phagocytosis of lipidcontaining structures, and recognition of AQP7 in the differentiated adipocytes, favored the phagocytic activity of macrophages, robustly supported by the co-culture strategy.


Subject(s)
Phagocytosis , Complement System Proteins , Adipocytes , In Vitro Techniques , Opsonin Proteins , Coculture Techniques , Foam Cells , Macrophages , Microscopy, Fluorescence
3.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1250451

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate genotoxicity of zinc oxide, P. A. calcium hydroxide, mineral trioxide aggregate and an iodoform paste using comet assay on human lymphocytes. Material and Methods: Two positive controls were used: methyl-methanesulfonate for the P.A. calcium hydroxide and mineral trioxide aggregate; and doxorubicin for the iodoform paste and zinc oxide. There were also two negative controls: distilled water for the P.A. calcium hydroxide and mineral trioxide aggregate; and DMSO for the iodoform paste and zinc oxide. Comets were identified using fluorescence microscopy and 100 of them were counted on each of the three slides analyzed per drug test. A damage index was established, taking into consideration the score pattern that had previously been determined from the size and intensity of the comet tail. Analysis of variance, followed by Tukey's test, was used to compare the means of the DNA damage indices. Results: The DNA damage index observed for mineral trioxide aggregate (7.08 to 8.58) and P.A. calcium hydroxide (6.50 to 8.33), which were similar to negative control index. On the other hand, damage index for zinc oxide (104.7 to 218.50) and iodoform paste (115.7 to 210.7) were similar to positive control index. Conclusion: Iodoform paste and zinc oxide showed genotoxicity at all concentrations used.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth, Deciduous , Zinc Oxide , Comet Assay , Genotoxicity , Mutagenicity Tests/instrumentation , Zinc Oxide , Brazil , Calcium Hydroxide , Analysis of Variance , Microscopy, Fluorescence
4.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(3): 332-335, May-June 2020. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130874

ABSTRACT

Abstract Tinea capitis comprising of tinea favosa and kerion is mostly seen in school-aged children. Some tinea capitis often presented with insignificant findings under the naked eyes are easily overlooked. The authors describe an unusual case of tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton violaceum. The patient was an 8-year-old girl, with a history of pruritus on the scalp for more than one year. A diagnosis of tinea capitis was confirmed by clinical examination aided by dermoscopy, calcium fluorescent microscopy and culture. Comma and corkscrew hairs are two specific dermoscopic patterns of tinea capitis. The patient was treated with systemic itraconazole, topical application with 1% naftifine 0.25% ketoconazole cream followed after daily hair wash with 2% ketoconazole shampoo for 8 weeks.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Tinea Capitis/diagnostic imaging , Calcium , Microscopy, Fluorescence/methods , Tinea Capitis/pathology , Trichophyton/isolation & purification , Reproducibility of Results , Dermoscopy/methods
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 165-175, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056416

ABSTRACT

An alternative hyper-ovulator inducer to replace clomiphene citrate (CC) is needed as it is unsuitable for women with polycystic ovarian syndrome and is associated with low pregnancy rates. Anastrozole is an effective hyper-ovulator inducer, but has not been well researched. In order to determine the effectiveness of anastrozole as a hyper-ovulator inducer and to an extent compare it with CC in similar situations, this study ascertained the effects of these drugs on the expression of the focal adhesion proteins, paxillin and FAK, which are uterine receptivity markers in the surface luminal uterine epithelial cells of day 1 and day 6 pregnant Wistar rats. The results show that paxillin is localized in focal adhesions at the base of the uterine epithelial cells at day 1 of pregnancy whereas at day 6, paxillin disassembles from the basal focal adhesions and localizes and increases its expression apically. FAK is faintly expressed at the basal aspect of the uterine epithelial cells while moderately expressed at the cell-to-cell contact at day 1 in all groups from where it disassembles and relocates apically and becomes more intensely expressed at day 6 of pregnancy in untreated and anastrozole treated rats. Although paxillin is localized apically at day 6, its expression is significantly down-regulated with CC treatment suggesting its interference with the implantation process. These findings seem to suggest that anastrozole could favor implantation.


Para reemplazar el citrato de clomifeno (CC) es necesario un inductor de hiperovulación alternativo, ya que no es adecuado para mujeres con síndrome de ovario poliquístico y está asociado con tasas bajas de embarazo. El anastrozol es un inductor eficaz del hiper-ovulador, pero no se ha investigado adecuadamente. Con el fin de determinar la efectividad del anastrozol como inductor del hiper-ovulador y, en cierta medida, compararlo con CC en situaciones similares, este estudio determinó los efectos de estos fármacos en la expresión de las proteínas de adhesión focal, paxillin y FAK, uterinas marcadores de receptividad en la superficie luminal de células uterinas epiteliales, del día 1 y día 6 en ratas Wistar preñadas. Los resultados muestran que la paxilina se localiza en adherencias focales en la base de las células epiteliales uterinas en el día 1 del embarazo, mientras que en el día 6, la paxilina se desmonta de las adherencias focales basales y localiza y aumenta su expresión apicalmente. FAK se expresa débilmente en el aspecto basal de las células epiteliales uterinas, mientras que se expresa moderadamente en el contacto de célula a célula en el día 1 en todos los grupos, donde se separa y se reubica apicalmente y se expresa con mayor intensidad el día 6 de la preñez, en pacientes no tratados y tratados. ratas tratadas con anastrozol. Aunque la paxillina se localiza apicalmente en el día 6, su expresión está significativamente disminuida con el tratamiento con CC, lo que sugiere su interferencia con el proceso de implantación. Estos hallazgos sugieren que el anastrozol podría favorecer el proceso de implantación.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Uterus/drug effects , Anastrozole/pharmacology , Ovulation/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Focal Adhesions/drug effects , Epithelium/drug effects , Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/drug effects , Paxillin/drug effects , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Microscopy, Fluorescence
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190357, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1091235

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Viruses can modulate intracellular signalling pathways to complete their infectious cycle. Among these, the PI3K/Akt pathway allows prolonged survival of infected cells that favours viral replication. GSK3β, a protein kinase downstream of PI3K/Akt, gets inactivated upon activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, and its association with viral infections has been recently established. In this study, the role of GSK3β during Dengue virus-2 (DENV-2) infection was investigated. METHODS GSK3β participation in the DENV-2 replication process was evaluated with pharmacological and genetic inhibition during early [0-12 h post-infection (hpi)], late (12-24 hpi), and 24 hpi in Huh7 and Vero cells. We assessed the viral and cellular processes by calculating the viral titre in the supernatants, In-Cell Western, western blotting and fluorescence microscopy. RESULTS Phosphorylation of GSK3β-Ser9 was observed at the early stages of infection; neither did treatment with small molecule inhibitors nor pre-treatment prior to viral infection of GSK3β reduce viral titres of the supernatant at these time points. However, a decrease in viral titres was observed in cells infected and treated with the inhibitors much later during viral infection. Consistently, the infected cells at this stage displayed plasma membrane damage. Nonetheless, these effects were not elicited with the use of genetic inhibitors of GSK3β. CONCLUSIONS The results suggest that GSK3β participates at the late stages of the DENV replication cycle, where viral activation may promote apoptosis and release of viral particles.


Subject(s)
Animals , Virus Replication/physiology , Dengue Virus/enzymology , Glycogen Synthase Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Glycogen Synthase Kinases/physiology , Phosphorylation/physiology , Signal Transduction , Blotting, Western , Apoptosis/physiology , Aedes/cytology , Cell Line, Tumor , Microscopy, Fluorescence
7.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 71(2): e245, mayo.-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093569

ABSTRACT

La fiebre Q aguda es una zoonosis ubicua, que habitualmente se presenta con cuadros febriles autolimitados. En presencia de un cuadro séptico con manifestaciones de disfunción multiórgano, hepatitis colestásica, distres respiratorio o la insuficiencia renal como semiología dominante y cultivos negativos se piensa habitualmente en leptospirosis. La alta prevalencia de fiebre Q en el Servicio de Medicina Interna del Hospital Universitario de Gran Canaria Doctor Negrín, que ha requerido evaluación hospitalaria -unos 50 casos al año en un área de 400 000 habitantes-, motivó la realización de serología para fiebre Q y leptospirosis en presencia de cuadros sépticos con cultivos negativos. De manera que se han encontrado durante los seis últimos años, tres casos de fiebre Q simulando leptospirosis. La rápida respuesta a la asociación de esteroides y doxiciclina ha sido el común denominador de estos tres casos. El contexto global con la rápida respuesta al tratamiento expuesto es el motivo de esta presentación(AU)


Acute Q fever is a ubiquitous zoonosis which often presents with self-limited febrile episodes. In the presence of a septic episode with manifestations of multiple organ dysfunction, cholestatic hepatitis, respiratory distress or renal failure as the prevailing semiology, and negative culture results, leptospirosis is usually suspected. The high prevalence of Q fever cases requiring evaluation at the Internal Medicine Service of Doctor Negrín University Hospital in Gran Canaria -about 50 cases per year in an area of 400 000 inhabitants- led to the indication of serological tests for Q fever and leptospirosis in septic cases with negative culture results. In the last six years, three cases have been found of Q fever simulating leptospirosis. A rapid response to the association of steroids and doxycycline was the common feature of these three cases. The study was aimed at describing the global context of the rapid response to the treatment indicated(AU)


Subject(s)
Male , Middle Aged , Q Fever/diagnosis , Q Fever/epidemiology , Liver/pathology , Microscopy, Fluorescence/methods
8.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(2): 191-196, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019453

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is one of the most prevalent pathologies. Its prognosis is linked to the early detection and treatment. Currently diagnosis is performed by histological analysis from polyp biopsies, followed by morphological classification. Kudo's pit pattern classification is frequently used for the differentiation of neoplastic colorectal lesions using hematoxylin-eosin stained samples. Few articles have reported this classification with image software processing, using exogenous markers over the samples. The processing of autofluorescence images is an alternative that could allow the characterization of the pits from the crypts of Lieberkühn, bypassing staining techniques. OBJECTIVE: Processing and analysis of widefield autofluorescence microscopy images obtained by fresh colon tissue samples from a murine model of colorectal cancer in order to quantify and characterize the pits morphology by measuring morphology parameters and shape descriptors. METHODS: Adult male BALB/cCmedc strain mice (n=27), ranging from 20 to 30 g, were randomly assigned to four and five groups of treated and control animals. Colon samples were collected at day zero and at fourth, eighth, sixteenth and twentieth weeks after treatmentwith azoxymethane. Two-dimensional (2D) segmentation, quantification and morphological characterization of pits by image processing applied using macro programming from FIJI. RESULTS: Type I is the pit morphology prevailing between 53 and 81% in control group weeks. III-L and III-S types were detected in reduced percentages. Between the 33 and 56% of type I was stated as the prevailing morphology for the 4th, 8th and 20th weeks of treated groups, followed by III-L type. For the 16th week, the 39% of the pits was characterized as III-L type, followed by type I. Further, pattern types as IV, III-S and II were also found mainly in that order for almost all of the treated weeks. CONCLUSION: These preliminaries outcomes could be considered an advance in two-dimensional pit characterization as the whole image processing, comparing to the conventional procedure, takes a few seconds to quantify and characterize non-pathological colon pits as well as to estimate early pathological stages of colorectal cancer.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: O câncer colorretal é uma das patologias mais prevalentes. Seu prognóstico é ligado à detenção e ao tratamento precoces. Atualmente o diagnóstico é realizado por análise histológica de biópsias de pólipo, seguida de classificação morfológica. A classificação de padrões de Kudo é frequentemente utilizada para a diferenciação de lesões colorretais neoplásicas usando amostras coradas por hematoxilina-eosina. Poucos artigos relatam esta classificação com utilização de processamento por software de imagem, utilizando marcadores exógenos sobre as amostras. O processamento de imagens de autofluorescência é uma alternativa que pode permitir a caracterização do padrão das criptas de Lieberkühn, contornando técnicas de coloração. OBJETIVO: Analisar, quantificar e caracterizar a morfologia do padrão das criptas medindo os parâmetros morfológicos e descritores de forma, através do processamento e análise de imagens de microscopia de autofluorescência de campo de Widefield obtidas em amostras de tecido de cólon fresco a partir de um modelo murino de câncer colorretal. MÉTODOS: Camundongos machos adultos BALB/cCmedc (n=27), variando de 20 a 30 g, foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em quatro e cinco grupos de animais tratados e de controle. As amostras de cólon foram coletadas no dia zero e na 4ª, 8ª, 16ª e 20ª semanas após o tratamento com azoxometano. Segmentação bidimensional (2D), quantificação e caracterização morfológica do padrão das criptas por processamento de imagem aplicados utilizando programação macro de FIJI. RESULTADOS: O tipo I é a morfologia da cripta prevalente entre 53% e 81% semanas do grupo controle. Os tipos III-L e III-S foram detectados em porcentagens reduzidas. A morfologia do tipo I entre os 33% e 56% foi constatada como a predominante para as 4ª, 8ª e 20ª semanas de grupos tratados, seguidos pelo tipo III-L. Para a 16ª semana, os 39% dos padrões das criptas foram caracterizados como tipo III-L, seguidos pelo tipo I. Além disso, os tipos de padrão como IV, III-S e II também foram encontrados principalmente nessa ordem para quase todas as semanas tratadas. CONCLUSÃO: Estes resultados preliminares podem ser considerados um avanço na caracterização bidimensional da cripta como um processamento integral da imagem, comparando-se ao procedimento convencional; demora-se alguns segundos a mais para quantificar e caracterizar pontos não-patológicos, bem como para estimar estágios patológicos precoces do câncer colorretal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Colonic Polyps/diagnostic imaging , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Colonic Polyps/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Mice, Inbred BALB C
9.
Biol. Res ; 52: 36, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019501

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent evidences indicated that some local anaesthetic agents played a role in inhibiting the proliferation of cancer cells; Whether ropivacaine is able to promote apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ropivacaine on the apoptosis of HCC cells. METHODS: In the present study, we treated the HCC cell lines, Bel7402 and HLE with ropivacaine. MTT, DAPI stain, trypan blue exclusion dye assay, flow cytometry, electron microscopy, computational simulation, laser confocal microscope, Western blotting, and enzyme activity analysis of caspase-3 were applied to detect the growth and apoptosis of HCC cells and to explore the role mechanism of ropivacaine. RESULTS: Ropivacaine was able to inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis of HCC cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Ropivacaine also has a trait to inhibit the migration of HCC cells; ropivacaine damaged the mitochondria of HCC cells. The results also indicated that ropivacaine was able to interact with caspase-3, promote cytoplasmic caspase-3 migration into the nucleus, stimulate cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP-1, caspase-9 proteins, inhibit the expression of Bcl-2, promote expression of Apaf-1 and mitochondria release cytochrome C, and activate the activity of caspase-3. CONCLUSIONS: Ropivacaine has a novel role in promoting apoptosis of HCC cells; The role mechanism of ropivacaine maybe involve in damaging the function of mitochondria and activating the caspase-3 signalling pathway in HCC cells. Our findings provide novel insights into the local anaesthetic agents in the therapy of HCC patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis/drug effects , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Caspase 3/metabolism , Ropivacaine/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Local/pharmacology , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Apoptosis/physiology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/metabolism , Microscopy, Confocal , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Flow Cytometry , Liver Neoplasms/metabolism , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Mitochondria/drug effects
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(1): e7914, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974273

ABSTRACT

Yes-associated protein (YAP) is an important regulator of cellular proliferation and transdifferentiation. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying myofibroblast transdifferentiation in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). We investigated the role of YAP in the pathological process of cardiac matrix remodeling. A classic model of DCM was established in BALB/c mice by immunization with porcine cardiac myosin. Cardiac fibroblasts were isolated from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats by density gradient centrifugation. The expression levels of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen volume fraction (CVF) were significantly increased in DCM mice. Angiotensin II (Ang II)-mediated YAP activation promoted the proliferation and transdifferentiation of neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts, and this effect was significantly suppressed in the shRNA YAP + Ang II group compared with the shRNA Control + Ang II group in vitro (2.98±0.34 ×105 vs 5.52±0.82 ×105, P<0.01). Inhibition of endogenous Ang II-stimulated YAP improved the cardiac function by targeting myofibroblast transdifferentiation to attenuate matrix remodeling in vivo. In the valsartan group, left ventricular ejection fraction and fractional shortening were significantly increased compared with the DCM group (52.72±5.51% vs 44.46±3.01%, P<0.05; 34.84±3.85% vs 26.65±3.12%, P<0.01). Our study demonstrated that YAP was a regulator of cardiac myofibroblast differentiation, and regulation of YAP signaling pathway contributed to improve cardiac function of DCM mice, possibly in part by decreasing myofibroblast transdifferentiation to inhibit matrix remodeling.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Angiotensin II/pharmacology , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/physiopathology , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/drug effects , Cell Transdifferentiation/drug effects , Myofibroblasts/drug effects , Phosphoproteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Phosphoproteins/physiology , Swine , Echocardiography , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/pathology , Cell Differentiation , Blotting, Western , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Cell Cycle Proteins , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/antagonists & inhibitors , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/physiology , Disease Models, Animal , Myofibroblasts/physiology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Microscopy, Fluorescence
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(3): e8281, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989461

ABSTRACT

It has been hypothesized that the therapeutic effects of artepillin C, a natural compound derived from Brazilian green propolis, are likely related to its partition in the lipid bilayer component of biological membranes. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of the major compound of green propolis, artepillin C, on model membranes (small and giant unilamelar vesicles) composed of ternary lipid mixtures containing cholesterol, which display liquid-ordered (lo) and liquid-disordered (ld) phase coexistence. Specifically, we explored potential changes in relevant membrane parameters upon addition of artepillin C presenting both neutral and deprotonated states by means of small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and confocal and multiphoton excitation fluorescence microscopy. Thermotropic analysis obtained from DSC experiments indicated a loss in the lipid cooperativity of lo phase at equilibrium conditions, while at similar conditions spontaneous formation of unilamellar vesicles from SAXS experiments showed that deprotonated artepillin C preferentially located at the surface of the membrane. Time-resolved experiments using fluorescence microscopy showed that at doses above 100 µM, artepillin C in its neutral state interacted with both liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases, inducing curvature stress and promoting dehydration at the membrane interface.


Subject(s)
Phenylpropionates/chemistry , Lipid Bilayers/chemistry , Liposomes/chemistry , Reference Values , Temperature , Time Factors , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning , Cholesterol/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Microscopy, Confocal , Scattering, Small Angle , Laurates , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Models, Chemical , 2-Naphthylamine/analogs & derivatives
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764721

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in the composition of artificial cariogenic biofilms using a Streptococcus mutans biofilm model over a period of time. METHODS: We analyzed the dry weight, colony forming unit (CFU) number, extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) biovolume, and acid production rate of S. mutans biofilms formed on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite discs after 26 h, 50 h, 74 h, 98 h, 171 h, and 195 h. In addition, we performed a laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy to determine the bacterial volume, EPS biovolume, and biofilm thickness. We calculated the biofilm density using dry weight and EPS biovolume. RESULTS: Over a period of time, there was no change in the CFU number and acid production rate of S. mutans biofilms, but there was an increase in the dry weight and EPS biovolume of S. mutans biofilms. The bacterial volume, EPS biovolume, and biofilm thickness only increased in the 50-h-old biofilm; however, no change was observed in 50-195-h-old biofilms. In addition, an increase in the biofilm density was observed over time. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the acid production ability of cariogenic biofilms does not change, but the biofilm density increases over time. However, due to scientific information, further research needs to be conducted in the field of dentistry to get further insights on the progression of cariogenic biofilms over time.


Subject(s)
Biofilms , Dentistry , Durapatite , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Stem Cells , Streptococcus mutans
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785578

ABSTRACT

C3 glomerulopathy is a renal disorder involving dysregulation of alternative pathway complement activation. In most instances, a membranoproliferative pattern of glomerular injury with a prevalence of C3 deposition is observed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Dense deposit disease (DDD) and C3 glomerulonephritis (C3GN) are subclasses of C3 glomerulopathy that are distinguishable by electron microscopy. Highly electron-dense transformation of glomerular basement membrane is characteristic of DDD. C3GN should be differentiated from post-infectious glomerulonephritis and other immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritides showing C3 deposits.


Subject(s)
Complement Activation , Complement Pathway, Alternative , Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane , Glomerular Basement Membrane , Glomerulonephritis , Glomerulonephritis, Membranoproliferative , Microscopy, Electron , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Pathology , Prevalence
14.
Biomedical Engineering Letters ; (4): 293-310, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785522

ABSTRACT

Two photon fluorescence microscopy and the numerous technical advances to it have served as valuable tools in biomedical research. The fluorophores (exogenous or endogenous) absorb light and emit lower energy photons than the absorption energy and the emission (fluorescence) signal is measured using a fluorescence decay graph. Additionally, high spatial resolution images can be acquired in two photon fluorescence lifetime imaging (2P-FLIM) with improved penetration depth which helps in detection of fluorescence signal in vivo. 2P-FLIM is a non-invasive imaging technique in order to visualize cellular metabolic, by tracking intrinsic fluorophores present in it, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, flavin adenine dinucleotide and tryptophan etc. 2P-FLIM of these molecules enable the visualization of metabolic alterations, non-invasively. This comprehensive review discusses the numerous applications of 2P-FLIM towards cancer, neuro-degenerative, infectious diseases, and wound healing.


Subject(s)
Absorption , Communicable Diseases , Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide , Fluorescence , Microscopy, Fluorescence , NAD , Photons , Tryptophan , Wound Healing
15.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 734-741, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773350

ABSTRACT

Microsatellite instability (MSI) which resulted from the deficiency of DNA mismatch repair (MMR), is an important clinical significance in the related solid tumors, such as colorectal cancer and endometrial cancer. There are several methods to detect MSI status, including immunohistochemistry for MMR protein, multiplex fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for microsatellite site and MSI algorithm based on next generation sequencing (NGS). The consensus elaborates the definition and clinical significance of MSI as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the three detection methods. Through this expert consensus, we hope to promote the screening which based on MSI status in malignant tumors and improve the acknowledge of clinicians about various testing methods. Thereby, they could interpret the results more accurately and provide better clinical services to patients.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Therapeutic Uses , China , Colorectal Neoplasms , Genetics , Pathology , Consensus , DNA Mismatch Repair , DNA Sequence, Unstable , Delivery of Health Care , Reference Standards , Endometrial Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Microsatellite Instability , Microsatellite Repeats , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Practice Guidelines as Topic
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765658

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 anti-malarial drugs, chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), on inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation both in vivo and in vitro via Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. METHODS: Protein and mRNA levels were determined by western blot analysis and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in primary rat VSMCs treated with CQ and HCQ, respectively. Cell proliferation was measured by flow cytometry and cell counting. Mice carotid arteries were ligated and treated with CQ or HCQ every other day for 3 weeks. Pathological changes of carotid arteries were visualized by both microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. RESULTS: CQ and HCQ increase AMPK phosphorylation in VSMCs. Both CQ and HCQ decrease platelet-derived growth factor-induced VSMC proliferation and cell cycle progression in an AMPK-dependent manner. In addition, CQ and HCQ inhibit Smad3 phosphorylation and VSMC proliferation induced by transforming growth factor-β1. Moreover, CQ and HCQ diminished neointimal proliferation in a mouse model of carotid artery ligation-induced neointima formation. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated that CQ and HCQ inhibit cell proliferation and cell cycle progression in VSMCs via the AMPK-dependent signaling pathway. Carotid artery ligation-induced intima thickness was reduced in mouse arteries treated with CQ or HCQ, suggesting a role for antimalarial drugs in treating atherosclerosis and restenosis.


Subject(s)
Adenosine , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Animals , Antimalarials , Arteries , Atherosclerosis , Blotting, Western , Carotid Arteries , Cell Count , Cell Cycle , Cell Proliferation , Chloroquine , Flow Cytometry , Hydroxychloroquine , In Vitro Techniques , Mice , Microscopy , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Neointima , Phosphorylation , Protein Kinases , Rats , RNA, Messenger
17.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 842-853, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762122

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 665 (LINC00665) plays a vital role in the development of cancer. Its function in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), however, remains largely unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expressions of LINC00665, miR-186-5p, and MAP4K3 were determined by qRT-PCR. Cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated by MTT and flow cytometry, respectively. Autophagic puncta formation was observed by fluorescence microscopy. Bioinformatics analysis, luciferase reporter assay, RNA immunoprecipitation, and RNA pulldown were performed to identify associations among LINC00665, miR-186-5p, and MAP4K3. Western blot was utilized to examine the expressions of MAP4K3, Beclin-1, and LC3. Tumor growth was evaluated in a xenograft model. RESULTS: Elevations in LINC00665 were observed in HCC tissues and cells. The overall survival of HCC patients with high levels of LINC00665 was shorter than those with low levels. In vitro, LINC00665 depletion inhibited viability and induced apoptosis and autophagy. miR-186-5p interacted with LINC00665 and was downregulated in HCC tissues and cells. Upregulation of miR-186-5p inhibited viability and induced apoptosis and autophagy, which were attenuated by upregulation of LINC00665. MAP4K3 was found to possess binding sites with miR-186-5p and was upregulated in HCC tissues and cells. MAP4K3 depletion inhibited viability and induced apoptosis and autophagy, which were attenuated by miR-186-5p inhibitor. In vivo, miR-186-5p expression was negatively correlated with LINC00665 or MAP4K3 in HCC tissues, while LINC00665 was positively correlated with MAP4K3. LINC00665 knockdown suppressed tumor growth. CONCLUSION: LINC00665 was involved in cell viability, apoptosis, and autophagy in HCC via miR-186-5p/MAP4K3 axis, which may provide a new approach for HCC treatment.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Autophagy , Binding Sites , Blotting, Western , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Cell Survival , Computational Biology , Flow Cytometry , Heterografts , Humans , Immunoprecipitation , In Vitro Techniques , Luciferases , Microscopy, Fluorescence , RNA , RNA, Long Noncoding , Up-Regulation
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761894

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lonocyte-derived multipotential cells (MOMCs) include progenitors capable of differentiation into multiple cell lineages and thus represent an ideal autologous transplantable cell source for regenerative medicine. In this study, we cultured MOMCs, generated from mononuclear cells of peripheral blood, on the surface of nanocomposite thin films. METHODS: For this purpose, nanocomposite Poly(e-caprolactone) (PCL)-based thin films containing either 2.5 wt% silica nanotubes (SiO2ntbs) or strontium hydroxyapatite nanorods (SrHAnrds), were prepared using the spin-coating method. The induced differentiation capacity of MOMCs, towards bone and endothelium, was estimated using flow cytometry, real-time polymerase chain reaction, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy after cells' genetic modification using the Sleeping Beauty Transposon System aiming their observation onto the scaffolds. Moreover, Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal Stromal Cells were cultivated as a control cell line, while Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells were used to strengthen and accelerate the differentiation procedure in semi-permeable culture systems. Finally, the cytotoxicity of the studied materials was checked with MTT assay. RESULTS: The highest differentiation capacity of MOMCs was observed on PCL/SiO2ntbs 2.5 wt% nanocomposite film, as they progressively lost their native markers and gained endothelial lineage, in both protein and transcriptional level. In addition, the presence of SrHAnrds in the PCL matrix triggered processes related to osteoblast bone formation. CONCLUSION: To conclude, the differentiation of MOMCs was selectively guided by incorporating SiO2ntbs or SrHAnrds into a polymeric matrix, for the first time.


Subject(s)
Autografts , Beauty , Cell Line , Cell Lineage , Durapatite , Endothelium , Flow Cytometry , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Methods , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Nanocomposites , Nanotubes , Osteoblasts , Osteogenesis , Polymers , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Regenerative Medicine , Silicon Dioxide , Strontium , Wharton Jelly
19.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 555-561, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777156

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to establish a cell model of volume-regulated anion channel subunit LRRC8A and investigate the physiological characteristics of LRRC8A. The eukaryotic expression vectors of LRRC8A and YFP-H148Q/I152L were constructed and transfected into Fischer rat thyroid (FRT) cells by Lipofectamine 2000. The FRT cell lines co-expressing LRRC8A and YFP-H148Q/I152L were obtained by antibiotic screening. The expression of LRRC8A and YFP-H148Q/I152L in FRT cells was detected by the inverted fluorescence microscope. The fluorescence quenching kinetic experiment was done to verify the function and effectiveness of the cell model. Then the cell model was utilized to study the physiological characteristics of LRRC8A, such as the characteristics of anion transport, the opening of LRRC8A by osmotic pressure, the effect of anion transport velocity, and the effect of chloride channel inhibitors on LRRC8A anion channel. The results of the inverted fluorescence microscope showed that LRRC8A was expressed on the cell membrane and YFP-H148Q/I152L was expressed in the cytoplasm. The results of fluorescence quenching kinetic test showed that under the condition of low osmotic state, LRRC8A could transport some kinds of anions, such as iodine and chloride ions. Osmotic pressure played a key role in the regulation of LRRC8A volume-regulated anion channel opening. Chloride channel inhibitors inhibited ion transport of LRRC8A channel in a dose-dependent manner. It is suggested that LRRC8A has the characteristics of classic volume-regulated anion channels by using the cell model of FRT cells co-expressing LRRC8A and YFP-H148Q/I152L.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anions , Cells, Cultured , Chloride Channels , Ion Transport , Membrane Proteins , Physiology , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Rats , Rats, Inbred F344 , Thyroid Gland , Cell Biology , Transfection
20.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 419-424, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776486

ABSTRACT

The complex spatial and temporal organization of neural activity in the brain is important for information-processing that guides behavior. Hence, revealing the real-time neural dynamics in freely-moving animals is fundamental to elucidating brain function. Miniature fluorescence microscopes have been developed to fulfil this requirement. With the help of GRadient INdex (GRIN) lenses that relay optical images from deep brain regions to the surface, investigators can visualize neural activity during behavioral tasks in freely-moving animals. However, the application of GRIN lenses to deep brain imaging is severely limited by their availability. Here, we describe a protocol for GRIN lens coating that ensures successful long-term intravital imaging with commercially-available GRIN lenses.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biocompatible Materials , Brain , Physiology , Hippocampus , Cell Biology , Lenses , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Methods , Neuroimaging , Methods , Neurons , Physiology
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