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1.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 27(1)mar. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440504

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La hipertensión arterial constituye una de las enfermedades más frecuentes en la población general. En la actualidad llega a una prevalencia global del 30 al 45 %. La microcirculación retiniana puede considerarse como una representación anatómica de las características fisiológicas y funcionales de la circulación coronaria y cerebral. Objetivos: Profundizar en la relación existente entre los niveles de presión arterial y el daño del órgano diana, específicamente a través del fondo de ojo, así como de las posibles complicaciones oftalmológicas derivadas de la hipertensión arterial, y la comparación de algunas de las clasificaciones existentes sobre los cambios oftalmológicos que esta provoca. Métodos: Se emplearon los métodos de análisis-síntesis y análisis bibliográfico y documental. Los motores de búsqueda utilizados fueron: Google y Google Académico, y las bases de datos Hinari, SciELO Cuba, Pubmed, entre otras. Conclusiones: La retinopatía hipertensiva es una de las complicaciones adversas de la hipertensión arterial aguda o crónica. Por su parte, las oclusiones venosas y la formación de macroaneurismas, constituyen otras de gran envergadura. Mientras más eficaz sea el diagnóstico y seguimiento de los pacientes hipertensos, menos recursos se necesitarán para su tratamiento, y se evitarán así las complicaciones de otros órganos diana como el cerebro y el riñón, lo que provocaría en los pacientes una mayor discapacidad.


Introduction: arterial hypertension is one the most frequent diseases in general population. Nowadays, it reaches a global prevalence of 30 to 45 %. Retinal microcirculation can be considered as an anatomical representation of the physiological and functional characteristics of the coronary and cerebral circulation. Objectives: to delve into the relationship between blood pressure levels and target organ damage, specifically through the fundus, as well as the possible ophthalmological complications derived from arterial hypertension, and the comparison of some of the existing classifications on the ophthalmological changes that it causes. Methods: analysis - synthesis and bibliographic- documentary analyses were the used methods. Google and Google Scholar as well as Hinari, SciELO Cuba, Pubmed and others databases were the search engines. Conclusions: hypertensive retinopathy is one of the adverse complications of acute or chronic arterial hypertension. On the other hand, venous occlusions and the formation of macroaneurysms constitute other serious ones to consider. The more effective the diagnosis and follow-up of hypertensive patients, the fewer resources will be needed for their treatment, thus avoiding complications in other target organs such as the brain and kidney, which would cause greater disability in patients.


Subject(s)
Microvessels , Hypertensive Retinopathy , Fundus Oculi
2.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 127-135, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971667

ABSTRACT

Stigmasterol is a plant sterol with anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effect through multiple mechanisms. In this study, we further assessed whether it exerts protective effect on human brain microvessel endothelial cells (HBMECs) against ischemia-reperfusion injury and explored the underlying mechanisms. HBMECs were used to establish an in vitro oxygen and glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) model, while a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of rats were constructed. The interaction between stigmasterol and EPHA2 was detected by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and cellular thermal shift assay (CETSA). The results showed that 10 μmol·L-1 stigmasterol significantly protected cell viability, alleviated the loss of tight junction proteins and attenuated the blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage induced by OGD/R in thein vitro model. Subsequent molecular docking showed that stigmasterol might interact with EPHA2 at multiple sites, including T692, a critical gatekeep residue of this receptor. Exogenous ephrin-A1 (an EPHA2 ligand) exacerbated OGD/R-induced EPHA2 phosphorylation at S897, facilitated ZO-1/claudin-5 loss, and promoted BBB leakage in vitro, which were significantly attenuated after stigmasterol treatment. The rat MCAO model confirmed these protective effects in vivo. In summary, these findings suggest that stigmasterol protects HBMECs against ischemia-reperfusion injury by maintaining cell viability, reducing the loss of tight junction proteins, and attenuating the BBB damage. These protective effects are at least meditated by its interaction with EPHA2 and inhibitory effect on EPHA2 phosphorylation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rats , Stigmasterol , Phosphorylation , Endothelial Cells , Molecular Docking Simulation , Reperfusion Injury , Blood-Brain Barrier , Glucose , Microvessels , Oxygen
3.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 107-114, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927640

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#We wanted to investigate the radial peripapillary capillary (RPC) network in patients with Bietti crystalline dystrophy (BCD).@*METHODS@#We compared RPC densities in the disk and different peripapillary regions, obtained using optical coherence tomography angiography in 22 patients with BCD (37 eyes) and 22 healthy subjects (37 eyes). The BCD group was then divided into Stage 2 and Stage 3 subgroups based on Yuzawa staging, comparing the RPC densities of the two.@*RESULTS@#The disk area RPC density was 38.8% ± 6.3% in the BCD group and 49.2% ± 6.1% in the control group ( P < 0.001), and peripapillary region RPC density was significantly lower in the BCD group than in the control group (49.1% ± 4.7% and 54.1% ± 3.0%, respectively, P < 0.001). There were no significant RPC density differences between the tempo quadrant and inside disk of Stages 2 and 3 subgroups; the other areas showed a significantly lower RPC density in Stage 3 than in Stage 2 BCD.@*CONCLUSION@#The BCD group RPC density was significantly lower than the control group. The reduction of RPC density in the tempo quadrant occurred mainly in the Stage 1 BCD. In contrast, the reduction of RPC density in superior, inferior, and nasal quadrants occurred mainly in Stage 2.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Angiography , Corneal Dystrophies, Hereditary/physiopathology , Microvascular Density , Microvessels/physiopathology , Retinal Diseases/physiopathology , Retinal Vessels/physiopathology , Tomography, Optical Coherence
4.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 33(6): 686-696, Nov.-Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143117

ABSTRACT

Abstract Several different imaging methods can be used to evaluate patients with Chagas heart disease (CHD) for diagnostic and prognostic purposes, including plain chest radiography; echocardiography; myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, for detection of ischemia and fibrosis; radionuclide gated-angiography, for evaluation of biventricular function; 123I-MIBG labeling of sympathetic myocardial innervation; MRI, for detection and quantitation of myocardial fibrosis; and coronary angiography. This study aims to review the contributions of these nuclear medicine methods to understanding of the pathophysiology of chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC). Careful analysis and integration of findings provided by these imaging methods in patients with CCC at different stages has contributed significantly to improving understanding of several peculiarities of the disease. Clinical and experimental studies in animal models show that perfusion abnormalities detected in association with dysfunctional but viable myocardium are a common finding in CCC patients and correspond to areas of cardiac sympathetic denervation, as assessed by 123I-MIBG imaging. Furthermore, recent reports have demonstrated a close relationship between coronary microvascular disturbances and myocardial inflammation. Thus, ongoing research, mainly focused on refinements of 18F-FDF -PET techniques and further exploration of nuclear methods, such as SPECT, have the potential to contribute to detection and monitoring of early subclinical myocardial damage thereby enabling evaluation of therapeutic strategies targeting inflammation and microvascular ischemia that could result in better prognostic stratification of patients with CHD.


Subject(s)
Radionuclide Ventriculography , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging , Prognosis , Echocardiography , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Radiography , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/physiopathology , Coronary Angiography , Microvessels/pathology
5.
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(2): e20180299, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090803

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo A morte cerebral (MC) desencadeia alterações hemodinâmicas e inflamatórias importantes, comprometendo a viabilidade dos órgãos empregados em transplantes. Para compreender melhor as alterações microcirculatórias nos pulmões de doadores com MC, o presente estudo investigou a microcirculação pulmonar em um modelo de roedor com MC via microscopia intravital. Métodos Ratos Wistar machos foram anestesiados e ventilados mecanicamente. Eles foram submetidos a trepanação e a MC induzida por meio do aumento da pressão intracraniana. Os ratos do grupo Sham (SH), utilizado como controle, foram submetidos apenas à trepanação. Em ambos os grupos, foram monitorados o O2 expiratório e o CO2, e, após 3 horas, foi realizada a toracotomia e criada uma janela para observar a superfície pulmonar usando o sistema de microscopia intravital. As expressões pulmonares das moléculas de adesão intercelular (ICAM)-1 e da óxido nítrico-sintase endotelial (eNOS) foram avaliadas por imuno-histoquímica, e as citocinas foram medidas em amostras pulmonares. Resultados Três horas após os procedimentos cirúrgicos, a perfusão pulmonar foi de 73% no grupo SH. Por outro lado, os animais com MC apresentaram uma importante diminuição na perfusão do órgão para 28% (p = 0,036). O comprometimento microcirculatório pulmonar após a indução de MC foi associado a um aumento do número de leucócitos recrutados para o tecido pulmonar, além de uma redução na expressão de eNOS e um aumento na expressão de ICAM-1 nas células endoteliais do pulmão. Os ratos com MC apresentaram valores mais elevados de O2 expiratório e valores mais baixos de CO2 em comparação com os animais SH após 3 horas de monitorização. Conclusões Os dados apresentados demonstraram que a MC desencadeia uma importante hipoperfusão e inflamação nos pulmões, comprometendo a microcirculação pulmonar do doador.


ABSTRACT Objective Brain death (BD) triggers important hemodynamic and inflammatory alterations, compromising the viability of organs suitable for transplantation. To better understand the microcirculatory alterations in donor lungs caused by BD. The present study investigated the pulmonary microcirculation in a rodent model of BD via intravital microscopy. Methods Male Wistar rats were anaesthetized and mechanically ventilated. They were trepanned and BD was induced through the increase in intracranial pressure. As control group, sham-operated (SH) rats were trepanned only. In both groups, expiratory O2 and CO2 were monitored and after three hours, a thoracotomy was performed, and a window was created to observe the lung surface using an epi-fluorescence intravital microscopy. Lung expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, and cytokines were measured in lung samples. Results Three hours after the surgical procedures, pulmonary perfusion was 73% in the SH group. On the other hand, BD animals showed an important decrease in organ perfusion to 28% (p = 0.036). Lung microcirculatory compromise after BD induction was associated with an augmentation of the number of leukocytes recruited to lung tissue, and with a reduction in eNOS expression and an increase in ICAM-1 expression on lung endothelial cells. BD rats showed higher values of expiratory O2 and lower values of CO2 in comparison with SH animals after three hours of monitoring. Conclusion Data presented showed that BD triggers an important hypoperfusion and inflammation in the lungs, compromising the donor pulmonary microcirculation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Tissue Donors , Brain Death/physiopathology , Endothelial Cells , Lung/blood supply , Microcirculation/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Microvessels , Models, Theoretical
7.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(1): e20190010000006, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983690

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate whether hirudin exerts its antithrombin action to decrease the ratio of Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells (HMVECs) apoptosis. Methods: Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) cultured in the third and fifth generations were used. HMVECs were divided into normal group, thrombin group (T group), natrual hirudin group (H group), thrombin + natrual hirudin group (T + H group), AG490 group, thrombin + AG490 group (T + AG490 group), natrual hirudin + AG490 group (H + AG490 group), thrombin + natural hirudin + AG490 (T + H + AG490 group).Apart from the normal group, the other groups were exposed to the relevant drugs for 24 hours.HMVEC apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometric and double Immunofluorescence of phosphorylation of JAK (P-JAK2) and TUNEL assay. Results: Compared with the normal group, in thrombin group the HMVECs apoptosis rate were significantly increased (P<0.05).The results indicated that the index of apoptosis and the apoptosis rate were improved in cultures treated by natural hirudin (T + H group), relative to cultures with thrombin only (T group). We found that the index of apoptosis and the apoptosis rate in the AG490 + thrombin group were higher than that in the hirudin + thrombin group (P<0.05). Double Immunofluorescence of p-JAK2 and TUNEL assays showed that cells were double positive for P-JAK2 uptake and TUNEL detection liquid binding. Conclusion: The natural hirudin and JAK2/STATs signal inhibitor AG490 could block the effects of thrombin. Natural hirudin could attenuate HMVECs apoptosis via antagonizing thrombin and it is suggested that this effect may occur by blocking the JAK2/STATs signaling pathway and this signaling pathways appears to be not the only pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thrombin/drug effects , Antithrombins/pharmacology , Hirudins/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Microvessels/drug effects , Microvessels/metabolism
8.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 280-288, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766042

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In this study, we investigate the expression of markers of angiogenesis and microvessel density (MVD) in cases of microcystic, elongated and fragmented (MELF) pattern, with its prognostic role in the survival of endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinomas (EA) patients. METHODS: In this study, 100 cases of EA, 49 cases with MELF pattern and 51 without, were immunohistochemically stained for galectin-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and MVD. Morphometry and statistical (univariate and multivariate) analyses were performed to assess overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival. RESULTS: The expression of VEGF (p<.001) and galectin-1 (p<.001), as well as MVD area (p<.001) and number of vessels/mm² (p<.050), were significantly higher in the +MELF pattern group compared to the –MELF group. A low negative correlation between MELF-pattern and the number of days of survival (p<.001, r=–0.47) was also found. A low positive correlation of MELF-pattern with galectin-1 expression (p<.001, r=0.39), area of vessels/mm² (p<.001, r=0.36), outcome of EA (p<.001, r=0.42) and VEGF expression (p<.001, r=0.39) suggests potential pathological relevance of these factors in the prognosis of EA. A univariate survival analysis indicated a role for all parameters of survival. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis revealed that only area of vessels/mm² (hazard ratio [HR], 1.018; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.002 to 1.033), galectin-1 (HR, 1.049; 95% CI, 1.025 to 1.074) and VEGF (HR, 1.049; 95% CI, 1.022 to 1.077) play key roles in OS. CONCLUSIONS: This study reports an increase in MVD, VEGF and galectin-1 expression in EA with MELF pattern and suggests that MELF pattern, along with the angiogenic profile, may be a prognostic factor in EA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenocarcinoma , Disease-Free Survival , Galectin 1 , Microvessels , Prognosis , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
9.
Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing ; : 317-328, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764671

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of ghrelin on memory impairment in a rat model of vascular dementia induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. METHODS: Randomized controlled groups and the posttest design were used. We established the representative animal model of vascular dementia caused by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion and administered 80 µg/kg ghrelin intraperitoneally for 4 weeks. First, behavioral studies were performed to evaluate spatial memory. Second, we used molecular biology techniques to determine whether ghrelin ameliorates the damage to the structure and function of the white matter and hippocampus, which are crucial to learning and memory. RESULTS: Ghrelin improved the spatial memory impairment in the Y-maze and Morris water maze test. In the white matter, demyelination and atrophy of the corpus callosum were significantly decreased in the ghrelin-treated group. In the hippocampus, ghrelin increased the length of hippocampal microvessels and reduced the microvessels pathology. Further, we confirmed angiogenesis enhancement through the fact that ghrelin treatment increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-related protein levels, which are the most powerful mediators of angiogenesis in the hippocampus. CONCLUSION: We found that ghrelin affected the damaged myelin sheaths and microvessels by increasing angiogenesis, which then led to neuroprotection and improved memory function. We suggest that further studies continue to accumulate evidence of the effect of ghrelin. Further, we believe that the development of therapeutic interventions that increase ghrelin may contribute to memory improvement in patients with vascular dementia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Rats , Atrophy , Carotid Artery, Common , Corpus Callosum , Dementia , Dementia, Vascular , Demyelinating Diseases , Ghrelin , Hippocampus , Learning , Memory Disorders , Memory , Microvessels , Models, Animal , Molecular Biology , Myelin Sheath , Neuroprotection , Pathology , Spatial Memory , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Water , White Matter
10.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 225-233, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764484

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Gastric adenocarcinoma of the fundic gland type (chief cell predominant type) (GA-FG-CCP) was first reported as a rare adenocarcinoma found in the normal fundic mucosa. Recent studies have proposed the possibility that GA-FG-CCPs were also generated in the atrophic mucosa after Helicobacter pylori (HP) eradication therapy. However, little is known on the endoscopic findings of GA-FG-CCP generated in the atrophic mucosa due to its extreme rarity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 8 patients who underwent endoscopic submucosal resection and were diagnosed with GA-FG-CCP generated in the HP-uninfected mucosa (4 cases, HP-uninfected group) or HP-eradicated atrophic mucosa (4 cases, HP-eradicated group) were retrospectively analyzed, and their endoscopic findings, including magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging (M-NBI), and pathological features were compared. RESULTS: While GA-FG-CCPs in the 2 groups displayed similar macroscopic appearance, M-NBI demonstrated that characteristic microvessels (tapered microvessels like withered branches) were specifically identified in the HP-eradicated group. Pathological investigation revealed that a decreasing number of fundic glands and thinned foveolar epithelium covering tumor ducts were thought to lower the thickness of the covering layer over tumor ducts in the HP-eradicated group. Moreover, dilation of vessels just under the surface of the lesions contributed to the visualization of microvessels by M-NBI. CONCLUSIONS: The change in background mucosa due to HP infection influenced the thickness of the covering layer over the tumor ducts and M-NBI finding of GA-FG-CCP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenocarcinoma , Endoscopy , Epithelium , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Microvessels , Mucous Membrane , Narrow Band Imaging , Retrospective Studies , Stomach Neoplasms
11.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 1010-1018, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759413

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Microvascular damage due to distal embolization during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is an important cause of periprocedural myocardial infarction. We assessed the lipid-core plaque using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and microvascular dysfunction invasively with the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) and evaluated their relationship. METHODS: This study is pilot retrospective observational study. We analyzed 39 patients who performed NIRS before and after PCI, while fractional flow reserve, thermo-dilution coronary flow reserve (CFR) and IMR were measured after PCI. The maximum value of lipid core burden index (LCBI) for any of the 4-mm segments at the culprit lesion (culprit LCBI(4mm)) was calculated at the culprit lesion. We divided the patients into 2 groups using a cutoff of culprit LCBI(4mm) ≥500. RESULTS: Mean pre-PCI LCBI was 333±196 and mean post-PCI IMR was 20±14 U. Post-PCI IMR was higher (15.6±7.3 vs. 42.6±17.6 U, p<0.001) and post-PCI CFR was lower (3.7±2.2 vs. 2.1±1.0, p=0.029) in the high LCBI group. Pre-PCI LCBI was positively correlated with post-PCI IMR (ρ=0.358, p=0.025) and negatively correlated with post-PCI CFR (ρ=−0.494, p=0.001). The incidence of microvascular dysfunction (IMR ≥25 U) was higher in the high LCBI group (9.4% vs. 85.7%, p<0.001). However, there were no significant differences in the incidences of creatine Kinase-MB (9.4% vs. 14.3%, p=0.563) and troponin-I elevation (12.5% vs. 14.3%, p=1.000). CONCLUSIONS: A large lipid-core plaque at the ‘culprit’ lesion is observed higher incidence of post-PCI microvascular dysfunction after PCI. Prospective study with adequate subject numbers will be needed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Artery Disease , Creatine , Incidence , Microvessels , Myocardial Infarction , Observational Study , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Troponin I
12.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1179-1184, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775745

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical significance of bone marrow microvessel density(MVD) and angiogenesis related factors in multipic myeloma(MM).@*METHODS@#Twenty cases of MM and 20 cases of simple fracture were selected and enrolled in MM group and control group respectively. The clinical data and results of laboratorial tests were collected; the bone marrow MVD of patients was detected by using the modified plastic-embedded pathologic sections of bone marrow tissue and histochemistry staining, the expression levels of amgiogenesis-related factors including VEGF, TNF-α, HGF, TGF-α, TGF-β1, bFGF, Ang-Ⅰ, Ang-Ⅱ in bone marrow supernatant were detected by ELISA; the mRNA expression levels of above-mentioned cytokines in bone marrow mononuclear cells were detected by real time-PCR; the pearson correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation of MVD with VEGF, HGF and bFGF levels.@*RESULTS@#The MVD in MM group was significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.001); the mRNA expression of VEGF, TGF-α, TGF-β1 and HGF in bone marrow mononuclear cells of MM group was higher than that of control group(P<0.001); the levels of VEGF, HGF, bFGF and THF-α in bone marrow supernatant of MM group were higher than those in control group(P<0.05), moreover, the MVD positively correlated with levels of VEGF, HGF and bFGF in bone marrow(r=0.488, 0.472 and 0.457).@*CONCLUSION@#The MVD and levels vessel-related factors in bone marrow supernatant of MM patients increase, among which the levels of VEGF and HGF in bone marrow supernatant are consistant with those mRNA expression level in bone marrow mononuclear cells, moreover, the MVD possitively cerrelates with levels of VEGF, HGF and bFGF in bone marrow supernatant, suggesting that the changes of bone marrow microenvironment vassel-related factors play an important role in angiogenesis and pathogenesis of multiple myeloma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bone Marrow , Bone Marrow Cells , Microvessels , Multiple Myeloma , Neovascularization, Pathologic , Tumor Microenvironment
13.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 759-772, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741456

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of ultrasound (US) microflow assessment in distinguishing malignant from benign solid breast masses as well as the association between US parameters and histologic microvessel density (MVD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-eight breast masses (57 benign and 41 malignant) were examined using Superb Microvascular Imaging (SMI) and contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) before biopsy. Two radiologists evaluated the quantitative and qualitative vascular parameters on SMI (vascular index, morphology, distribution, and penetration) and CEUS (time-intensity curve analysis and enhancement characteristics). US parameters were compared between benign and malignant masses and the diagnostic performance was compared between SMI and CEUS. Subgroup analysis was performed according to lesion size. The effect of vascular parameters on downgrading Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category 4A masses was evaluated. The association between histologic MVD and US parameters was analyzed. RESULTS: Malignant masses were associated with a higher vascular index (15.1 ± 7.3 vs. 5.9 ± 5.6), complex vessel morphology (82.9% vs. 42.1%), central vascularity (95.1% vs. 59.6%), penetrating vessels (80.5% vs. 31.6%) on SMI (all, p < 0.001), as well as higher peak intensity (37.1 ± 25.7 vs. 17.0 ± 15.8, p < 0.001), slope (10.6 ± 11.2 vs. 3.9 ± 4.2, p = 0.001), area (1035.7 ± 726.9 vs. 458.2 ± 410.2, p < 0.001), hyperenhancement (95.1% vs. 70.2%, p = 0.005), centripetal enhancement (70.7% vs. 45.6%, p = 0.023), penetrating vessels (65.9% vs. 22.8%, p < 0.001), and perfusion defects (31.7% vs. 3.5%, p < 0.001) on CEUS (p ≤ 0.023). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) of SMI and CEUS were 0.853 and 0.841, respectively (p = 0.803). In 19 masses measuring < 10 mm, central vascularity on SMI was associated with malignancy (100% vs. 38.5%, p = 0.018). Considering all benign SMI parameters on the BI-RADS assessment, unnecessary biopsies could be avoided in 12 category 4A masses with improved AUCs (0.500 vs. 0.605, p < 0.001). US vascular parameters associated with malignancy showed higher MVD (p ≤ 0.016). MVD was higher in malignant masses than in benign masses, and malignant masses negative for estrogen receptor or positive for Ki67 had higher MVD (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: US microflow assessment using SMI and CEUS is valuable in distinguishing malignant from benign solid breast masses, and US vascular parameters are associated with histologic MVD.


Subject(s)
Area Under Curve , Biopsy , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Estrogens , Information Systems , Microvessels , Perfusion , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Ultrasonography
14.
Archives of Plastic Surgery ; : 504-511, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718064

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acellular dermal matrix (ADM) helps wound healing by stimulating angiogenesis, acting as a chemoattractant for endothelial cells, providing growth factors, and permitting a substrate for fibroblasts to attach. The current standard for using paste-type ADM (CG Paste) in wound healing is direct application over the wounds. The major concerns regarding this method are unpredictable separation from the wounds and absorption into negative-pressure wound therapy devices. This study aimed to investigate the effects of subcutaneous injection of paste-type ADM on wound healing in rats. METHODS: Full-thickness skin defects were created on the dorsal skin of rats. Eighteen rats were randomly divided into three groups and treated using different wound coverage methods: group A, with a saline dressing; group B, standard application of CG Paste; and group C, injection of CG Paste. On postoperative days 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14, the wound areas were analyzed morphologically. Histological and immunohistochemical tissue analyses were performed on postoperative days 3 and 7. RESULTS: Groups B and C had significantly less raw surface than group A on postoperative days 10 and 14. Collagen fiber deposition and microvessel density were significantly higher in group C than in groups A and B on postoperative days 3 and 7. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed comparable effectiveness between subcutaneous injection and the conventional dressing method of paste-type ADM. Moreover, the injection of CG Paste led to improved wound healing quality through the accumulation of collagen fibers and an increase in microvessel density.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Absorption , Acellular Dermis , Bandages , Collagen , Endothelial Cells , Fibroblasts , Injections, Subcutaneous , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Methods , Microvessels , Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy , Ointments , Skin , Wound Healing , Wounds and Injuries
15.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 513-526, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717978

ABSTRACT

White light imaging (WLI) may not reveal early upper gastrointestinal cancers. Linked color imaging (LCI) produces bright images in the distant view and is performed for the same screening indications as WLI. LCI and blue laser imaging (BLI) provide excellent visibility of gastric cancers in high color contrast with respect to the surrounding tissue. The characteristic purple and green color of metaplasias on LCI and BLI, respectively, serve to increase the contrast while visualizing gastric cancers regardless of a history of Helicobacter pylori eradication. LCI facilitates color-based recognition of early gastric cancers of all morphological types, including flat lesions or those in an H. pylori-negative normal background mucosa as well as the diagnosis of inflamed mucosae including erosions. LCI reveals changes in mucosal color before the appearance of morphological changes in various gastric lesions. BLI is superior to LCI in the detection of early esophageal cancers and abnormal findings of microstructure and microvasculature in close-up views of upper gastrointestinal cancers. Excellent images can also be obtained with transnasal endoscopy. Using a combination of these modalities allows one to obtain images useful for establishing a diagnosis. It is important to observe esophageal cancers (brown) using BLI and gastric cancers (orange) surrounded by intestinal metaplasia (purple) and duodenal cancers (orange) by LCI.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Endoscopy , Esophageal Neoplasms , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms , Helicobacter pylori , Mass Screening , Metaplasia , Microvessels , Mucous Membrane , Stomach Neoplasms
16.
Intestinal Research ; : 628-634, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717941

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the magnified endoscopic findings in the diagnosis of follicular lymphoma in the small intestine in comparison with those of intestinal follicular lymphoma and lymphangiectasia. Four patients with follicular lymphoma and 3 with lymphangiectasia in the small intestine were retrospectively analyzed. A prototype magnifying singleballoon enteroscope was used. The findings of the intestinal follicular lymphoma and lymphangiectasia were retrospectively analyzed to determine the magnified endoscopic findings of follicular lymphoma in the small intestine. Opaque white granules were observed in 3 of the 4 patients with follicular lymphoma. Magnified narrow-band imaging (NBI) of the opaque white granules showed stretched microvessels, which had a diminutive tree-like appearance. The remaining patient had no opaque white granules and only displayed whitish villi. Magnified NBI observation of the whitish villi revealed the absence of marginal villus epithelium, which was confirmed by histology. The magnified NBI enteroscopy revealed the diminutive tree-like appearance on the opaque white granules and the absence of marginal villus epithelium of the whitish villi in intestinal follicular lymphoma. These findings may be useful in diagnosing follicular lymphoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diagnosis , Epithelium , Intestine, Small , Lymphoma, Follicular , Microvessels , Narrow Band Imaging , Retrospective Studies
17.
Archives of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery ; : 128-133, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717923

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the survival of grafted fat requires successful revascularization, we hypothesized that local delivery of erythropoietin (EPO), a hemangiogenic and antiapoptotic factor, might enhance the survival of fat grafts in a nude mouse model. METHODS: Our experiment consisted of 2 parts. The first involved direct injection of EPO or saline at the grafting site before fat grafting and for 4 days afterwards. In the second part, EPO or saline was delivered continuously for 1 week via an osmotic pump device, and a group without an implantable pump represented the control group. After 16 weeks, the surviving fat grafts were weighed and subjected to histomorphometry. RESULTS: In the first experiment, fat graft survival was higher in the EPO-injected group, but not statistically significant (69.2% vs. 59.2%; P=0.21). Histomorphometry showed significantly higher levels of microvessel formation and less cystic degeneration in the EPO-injected group. In the second experiment, the survival rate was significantly lower in both pump groups than in the control group (40.7% in the EPO pump group, 7.7% in the saline pump group, and 66.7% in the control group). CONCLUSIONS: Local injection of EPO into the fat graft site appeared to improve graft survival, with increased angiogenesis, suppressed inflammation, and decreased degeneration. However, the insertion of an osmotic pump exerted detrimental effects on graft survival and the histomorphometric profiles of the fat graft compared with the control group due to the overwhelming foreign body reaction.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Adipose Tissue , Erythropoietin , Foreign Bodies , Foreign-Body Reaction , Graft Survival , Inflammation , Injections, Subcutaneous , Mice, Nude , Microvessels , Survival Rate , Transplants
18.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 80-88, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739688

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recent studies have revealed that contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasonography (CEH-EUS) is beneficial in the differential diagnosis of malignant neoplasms of the pancreas and gallbladder from benign masses, in terms of the evaluation of microvasculature and real-time perfusion. In this study, we aimed to prove the clinical value of CEH-EUS in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic and gallbladder masses by direct comparison with that of conventional EUS. METHODS: We reviewed the sonographic images and medical information of 471 patients who underwent conventional EUS and CEH-EUS for the diagnosis of pancreatic and gallbladder masses at a single medical center (Severance Hospital, Seoul, Korea) between March 2010 and March 2016. RESULTS: The enhancement pattern of CEH-EUS of the pancreatic solid masses showed higher sensitivity and specificity in differentiating pancreatic adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine tumors (82.0% and 87.9% for pancreatic adenocarcinoma and 81.1% and 90.9% for neuroendocrine tumors, respectively), and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves was higher than that of conventional EUS. The enhancement texture of CEH-EUS of the gallbladder masses showed a higher sensitivity in differentiating malignant masses than that of conventional EUS; however, the difference between the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: CEH-EUS can complement conventional EUS in the diagnosis of pancreatic and gallbladder masses, in terms of the limitations of the latter.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenocarcinoma , Complement System Proteins , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Endosonography , Gallbladder , Microvessels , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Pancreas , Perfusion , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seoul , Ultrasonography
19.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 495-497, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716585

ABSTRACT

Ectopic sebaceous glands are found very rarely in the esophagus; heretofore, several cases have been reported. The sebaceous gland is originally a source of an endodermal origin; however, there have been controversies regarding whether the origin of the esophageal ectopic sebaceous gland is ectodermal or endodermal. Ectopic sebaceous glands of the esophagus usually do not cause symptoms; thus, they are often found incidentally on endoscopy for routine health screening. Endoscopic findings are characterized by single or multiple yellow patches or nodular lesions of various sizes, sometimes with small central openings. We report two cases of esophageal ectopic sebaceous glands found incidentally during endoscopy with magnifying endoscopic findings. The lesions were in the mid-esophagus and lower esophagus, respectively, and both endoscopic findings were similar as multiple yellowish patches or plaques. Magnifying endoscopy revealed the openings of the excretory ducts surrounded by circular microvessels in both cases.


Subject(s)
Ectoderm , Endoderm , Endoscopy , Esophagus , Mass Screening , Microvessels , Sebaceous Glands
20.
Ultrasonography ; : 98-106, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-730997

ABSTRACT

Ultrasonographic Doppler techniques have improved greatly over the years, allowing more sophisticated evaluation of breast tumor vascularity. Superb microvascular imaging (SMI) and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) with second-generation contrast agents are two representative up-to-date techniques. SMI is a sensitive Doppler technique that adopts an intelligent filter system to separate low-flow signals from artifacts. With the development of second-generation contrast agents, CEUS has also emerged as a useful Doppler technique for evaluating tumor microcirculation. Both techniques can improve the diagnostic performance of gray-scale ultrasonography by providing vascular information useful not only for the morphologic assessment of microvessels, but also for the quantitative analysis of perfusion. In this review, we explain the imaging principles and previous research underlying these two vascular techniques, and describe our clinical experiences.


Subject(s)
Artifacts , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Contrast Media , Microcirculation , Microvessels , Perfusion , Ultrasonography , Ultrasonography, Doppler
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