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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254234, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364499

ABSTRACT

Due to the severe side effects revealed by most of the currently used antidiabetic medicines, search for finding new and safe drugs to manage diabetes is continued. Naphthoquinones possessing strong antioxidant properties have been employed as candidates for diabetes therapy. Present study is aimed at finding the antioxidant and hypoglycaemic potential of some novel derivatives of 2-phenylamino-1,4-naphthoquinones (PAN) including chloro, nitro, methyl and bromo (5a-d) derivatives synthesized by single pot experiment. Product crystals were purified by TLC and characterized by FT-IR. The antioxidant potential of the compounds was assayed through DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power activities noted as UV-vis. absorbance. The DPPH assay has showed the powerful antioxidant activity of nitro and bromo derivatives, while the nitro derivative showed the significant reduction potential towards FRAP assay. Hypoglycaemic potential of the compounds was studied in rat animal model. All synthesized compounds revealed better hypoglycaemic activity; however, the chloro-derivative exhibited the more potent hypoglycaemic activity showing about 43% reduction in the mean blood glucose levels of the treated animals. As the bioreduction of naphthoquinones may be influenced by changing its redox properties, it has been noticed that the e-donating resonance effect (+R) of 'chloro' group has shown the significant effects on biological activity through stabalization of its imine form which limits the potential of generation of free radicals during bioreduction of quinones and thus has been proposed as the reason of its hypoglycaemic activity. Future studies employing the properties of e-donating groups of PAN may optimize the drug-receptor interaction for better drug designing and drug development strategies against diabetes and also for the clinical trials.


Em razão dos graves efeitos colaterais causados pela maioria dos medicamentos antidiabéticos atualmente utilizados, continua a busca por novos medicamentos seguros para o controle do diabetes. As naftoquinonas, que possuem fortes propriedades antioxidantes, têm sido empregadas como candidatas à terapia do diabetes. O presente estudo visa encontrar o potencial antioxidante e hipoglicemiante de alguns novos derivados de 2-fenilamino-1,4-naftoquinonas (PAN), incluindo derivados de cloro, nitro, metil e bromo (5a-d) sintetizados por experimento em pote único. Os cristais do produto foram purificados por TLC e caracterizados por FT-IR. O potencial antioxidante dos compostos foi testado por meio de atividades de sequestro de radicais DPPH e redução de energia observada como absorção no UV-vis. O ensaio DPPH mostrou a poderosa atividade antioxidante dos derivados nitro e bromo, enquanto o derivado nitro mostrou o potencial de redução significativo para o ensaio FRAP. O potencial hipoglicêmico dos compostos foi estudado em modelo animal de rato. Todos os compostos sintetizados revelaram melhor atividade hipoglicemiante; no entanto, o derivado cloro apresentou atividade hipoglicêmica mais potente, com redução de 43% nos níveis médios de glicose no sangue dos animais tratados. Como a biorredução de naftoquinonas pode ser influenciada pela alteração de suas propriedades redox, notou-se que o efeito da doação eletrônica por ressonância (+R) do grupo "cloro" tem sido significativo na atividade biológica por meio da estabilização de sua forma imina, que limita o potencial de geração de radicais livres durante a biorredução de quinonas, e, portanto, tem sido proposto como a razão de sua atividade hipoglicemiante. Estudos futuros empregando as propriedades de grupos de doação eletrônica de PAN podem otimizar a interação droga-receptor para melhor planejamento de medicamentos e estratégias de desenvolvimento de medicamentos contra o diabetes e também para os ensaios clínicos.


Subject(s)
Rats , Models, Animal , Diabetes Mellitus , Drug Development , Hypoglycemic Agents , Antioxidants
2.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 58(5): 798-807, Sept.-Oct. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529933

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To reproduce in an animal model the surgical technique of Masquelet used in the treatment of critical bone defects and to analyze the characteristics of the membrane formed around the bone cement. Methods A 10mm critical defect was created in the femoral shaft of 21 Sprague-Dawley rats. After resection of the central portion of the diaphysis, the defect was stabilized with a Kirschner wire introduced through the medullary canal and with the interposition of a bone cement spacer. After 2, 4, and 6 weeks of the surgical procedure, the animals were euthanized and evaluated on radiographs of the posterior limb regarding the size of the defect, alignment and stability of the osteosynthesis. The membranes formed around the spacer were subjected to histological analysis to assess thickness, connective tissue maturation and vascular density. Results Over time, the membranes initially made up of loose connective tissue were replaced by membranes represented by dense connective tissue, rich in thick collagen fibers. At six weeks, membrane thickness was greater (565 ± 208μm) than at four (186.9 ± 70.21μm, p = 0.0002) and two weeks (252.2 ± 55.1μm, p = 0.001). All membranes from the initial time showed foci of osteogenic differentiation that progressively reduced over time. Conclusion In addition to the structural and protective function of the membrane, its intrinsic biological characteristics can actively contribute to bone regeneration. The biological activity attributed by the presence of foci of osteogenesis confers to the membrane the potential of osteoinduction that favors the local conditions for the integration of the bone graft.


Resumo Objetivo Reproduzir em modelo animal a técnica cirúrgica de Masquelet utilizada no tratamento de defeitos ósseos críticos e analisar as características da membrana formada em torno do cimento ósseo. Métodos Um defeito crítico de 10mm foi realizado na diáfise femoral de 21 ratos Sprague-Dawley. Após a ressecção da porção central da diáfise o defeito foi estabilizado com fio de Kirschner introduzido pelo canal medular e com a interposição de espaçador de cimento ósseo. Após 2, 4, e 6 semanas do procedimento cirúrgico os animais foram eutanasiados e avaliados em radiografias do membro posterior quanto ao tamanho do defeito, o alinhamento e a estabilidade da osteossíntese. As membranas formadas em torno do espaçador foram submetidas a análise histológica para avaliação da espessura, da maturação do tecido conjuntivo e da densidade vascular. Resultados Ao longo do tempo as membranas inicialmente constituídas por tecido conjuntivo frouxo foram substituídas por membranas representadas por tecido conjuntivo denso, rico em fibras colágenas espessas. Com seis semanas a espessura das membranas foi maior (565 ± 208μm) do que com quatro (186,9 ± 70,21μm, p = 0,0002) e duas semanas (252,2 ± 55,1μm, p = 0,001). Todas as membranas do tempo inicial apresentaram focos de diferenciação osteogênica que reduziram progressivamente ao longo do tempo. Conclusão Além da função estrutural e protetora da membrana, suas características biológicas intrínsecas podem contribuir ativamente para a regeneração óssea. A atividade biológica atribuída pela presença de focos de osteogênese confere à membrana potencial de osteoindução que favorece as condições locais para a integração do enxerto ósseo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone Regeneration , Models, Animal
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1053-1057, ago. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514347

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Experimental healing studies in humans are complex and difficult to replicate in vitro. Hence, animal models are needed to study the different stages involved. The guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is a model close to human physiology, including the lack of vitamin C synthesis, a precursor of collagen fibers for healing. The thermal injury in this animal makes it possible to study all the stages of healing, taking few days to show tissue repair in the processes with and without localized infection. The aim of this work was to systematize an experimental guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) animal model protocol for studies on healing with and without localized infection.


Los estudios experimentales de cicatrización en humanos son complejos, difícilmente replicables in vitro, por lo que se hace necesarias modelos animales que permitan el estudio de las distintas etapas que ella implica. El cobayo (Cavia porcellus) resulta ser un modelo cercano a la fisiología humana, incluyendo la falta síntesis de vitamina C precursora de fibras colágenas para la cicatrización. La lesión térmica en este animal, permite estudiar todas las etapas de la cicatrización, mostrando pocos días en la reparación tisular, tanto en proceso con y sin infección localizada. El objetivo de este trabajo fue sistematizar un protocolo de modelo animal experimental en cobayo (Cavia porcellus) para estudios de cicatrización con y sin infección localizada.


Subject(s)
Animals , Guinea Pigs , Wound Healing , Burns , Models, Animal , Wound Infection
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(3): 825-830, jun. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514291

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The cerebellum is a crucial area of the hindbrain that plays an essential role in balancing, excitement control, and subtle and accurate functions. Studies have shown that long-term use of D-galactose in mice, as with the symptoms of aging, causes morphological and functional disorders in the brain. This study was performed to evaluate the changes in the cerebellum cortex tissue and the measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cerebellum following the induction of aging in mice by D-galactose. Accordingly, subjects were randomly assigned into two groups: Normal saline group and Aging group (D-galactose). To create an aging model, D- galactose, and saline solution (sodium chloride 0.9 %) were used. After completing the preparation and passage of the tissue, the cerebellum specimens were cut in 5 microns thickness and then stained with hematoxylin-eosin stain and finally examined under a Nikon microscope. Quantitative variables were analyzed by SPSS software using T-test. In the observations of cerebellum tissue samples, in the aged induced group by D-galactose, the most changes were observed in the Neuron purkinjense (Purkinje cells) layer. In the observations of the cerebellum tissue samples of aging group induced by D-galactose, the most changes were observed in the Neuron purkinjense, and the arrangement and placement of these cells were disorientated. The nucleus positioning was not central, and the Neuron purkinjense induced by aging were seen in different morphological forms. Necrosis, Chromatolysis, and Pyknosis were found. Based on the results, D-galactose (induction of aging) causes pathological changes in the cerebellar cortex, especially in the Neuron purkinjense layer.


El cerebelo es un área crucial del rombencéfalo que desempeña un papel esencial en el equilibrio, el control de la excitación y las funciones sutiles y precisas. Los estudios han demostrado que el uso a largo plazo de D-galactosa en ratones, al igual que con los síntomas del envejecimiento, provoca trastornos morfológicos y funcionales en el cerebro. Este estudio se realizó para evaluar los cambios en el tejido de la corteza del cerebelo y la medición de especies reactivas de oxígeno (ROS) en el cerebelo luego de la inducción del envejecimiento en ratones por D-galactosa. En consecuencia, los sujetos fueron asignados aleatoriamente a dos grupos: grupo de solución salina normal y grupo de envejecimiento (D-galactosa). Para crear un modelo de envejecimiento, se utilizaron D-galactosa y solución salina (cloruro de sodio al 0,9 %). Después de completar la preparación y el paso del tejido, las muestras de cerebelo se cortaron en un grosor de 5 µm y luego se tiñeron con tinción de hematoxilina-eosina y finalmente se examinaron bajo un microscopio Nikon. Las variables cuantitativas se analizaron mediante el software SPSS utilizando la prueba T. En las observaciones de muestras de tejido de cerebelo, en el grupo envejecido inducido por D-galactosa, la mayoría de los cambios se observaron en la capa de neuronas purkinjenses (células de Purkinje). En las observaciones de las muestras de tejido del cerebelo del grupo de envejecimiento inducidas por D-galactosa, la mayoría de los cambios se observaron en las neuronas purkinjenses, y la disposición y ubicación de estas células estaban desorientadas. El posicionamiento del núcleo no era central y las neuronas purkinjenses inducidas por el envejecimiento se observaban en diferentes formas morfológicas. Se encontró necrosis, cromatólisis y picnosis. Según los resultados, la D-galactosa (inducción del envejecimiento) provoca cambios patológicos en la corteza cerebelosa, especialmente en la capa de neuronas purkinjenses.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Aging , Cerebellum/pathology , Galactose/administration & dosage , Purkinje Cells , Cerebellum/cytology , Reactive Oxygen Species , Models, Animal , Mice, Inbred BALB C
5.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 27(1)mar. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440505

ABSTRACT

Las Ciencias Médicas y Biológicas requieren, prioritariamente, que la investigación y la experimentación sean desarrolladas sobre organismos completos (los modelos animales). Su utilización ha permitido desarrollar innumerables ensayos preclínicos para evaluar los mecanismos patógenos y terapéuticos de diversas enfermedades, así como el estudio de las causas, naturaleza y cura de múltiples desórdenes de la salud humana. En este trabajo se muestra una panorámica general de los biomodelos de hipertensión arterial donde se describen: conceptos, características, origen, importancia, utilidad y procedimientos experimentales durante su fase de inducción. También se pondera la justificación de los biomodelos empleados en los estudios preclínicos de esta enfermedad. De igual forma, se describen los antecedentes para medir las alteraciones, las técnicas y los métodos directos e indirectos de medición de la presión arterial, la cual fue provocada experimentalmente en los animales de laboratorio para realizar los estudios de hipertensión humana.


Medical and biological sciences require, as a priority, that research and experimentation be carried out on complete organisms (animal models). Its use has allowed the development of innumerable preclinical tests to evaluate pathogenic and therapeutic mechanisms of various diseases, as well as to study the causes, nature and cure of multiple human health disorders. In this work, we show a general overview of arterial hypertension biomodels where concepts, characteristics, origin, importance, utility and experimental procedures during their induction phase are described. The justification of the biomodels used in preclinical studies of this disease is also considered. Antecedents are also described to measure alterations, techniques and direct and indirect methods of measurement of arterial pressure, which was provoked experimentally in the laboratory animals to carry out the studies of human hypertension.


Subject(s)
Rats , Models, Animal , Animal Experimentation , Hypertension , Animals, Laboratory
6.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 929-934, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985498

ABSTRACT

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is an opportunistic pathogenic bacterium with complex pathogenesis and drug resistance mechanisms. It has high morbidity and mortality and can cause acute and chronic infections in immunocompromised individuals, with lung infections, wound infections, and bloodstream infections being the most common. The animal infection model of P. aeruginosa is of great value for in-depth research on the pathogenicity, drug resistance, and therapeutic measures of P. aeruginosa by simulating the pathways of human bacterial infections. This article firstly summarizes the selection, anesthesia, and disposal of experimental animals in the construction of animal models of P. aeruginosa infection, and then reviews the methods of construction, model evaluation, and applications of animal models of P. aeruginosa pulmonary infection, wound infection, and bloodstream infection, in order to provide a reference for scientific research related to P. aeruginosa infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology , Models, Animal , Virulence , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Disease Models, Animal
7.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 465-474, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981021

ABSTRACT

Primary dysmenorrhea (PDM), cyclic menstrual pain in the absence of pelvic anomalies, is characterized by acute and chronic gynecological pain disorders in childbearing age women. PDM strongly affects the quality of life of patients and leads to economic losses. PDM generally do not receive radical treatment and often develop into other chronic pain disorders later in life. The clinical treatment status of PDM, the epidemiology of PDM and chronic pain comorbidities, and the abnormal physiological and psychological characteristics of patients with PDM suggest that PDM not only is related to the inflammation around the uterus, but also may be related to the abnormal pain processing and regulation function of patients' central system. Therefore, exploring the brain neural mechanism of PDM is indispensable and important to understand the pathological mechanism of PDM, and is also a hotspot of brain science research in recent years, which will bring new inspiration to explore the target of PDM intervention. Based on the progress of the neural mechanism of PDM, this paper systematically summarizes the evidence from neuroimaging and animal model studies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Female , Dysmenorrhea , Brain Mapping , Chronic Pain , Quality of Life , Neuroimaging , Models, Animal
8.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 594-600, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982326

ABSTRACT

Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) refers to acute kidney injury that occurs after intravascular contrast media is applied. It is the third most common cause for acute renal failure in hospitalized patients and can cause severe renal impairment and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. In severe cases, it can even lead to the death of the patient. Due to its complicated pathogenesis, the pathogenesis of CI-AKI has not yet been elucidated. Therefore, it is of great significance to further study the pathogenesis for the prevention of CI-AKI. Moreover, a good animal model of CI-AKI is an important tool for in-depth research on the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury induced by contrast agents.


Subject(s)
Animals , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Contrast Media/adverse effects , Models, Animal
9.
Chinese Journal of Medical Instrumentation ; (6): 428-432, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982258

ABSTRACT

Animal study plays a key role to evaluate the safety and effectivity of medical devices. This study aims to share evaluated consideration on the role, general principles, necessity, study design and quality management system of animal study, in order to improve the quality of animal study and reduce unnecessary study.


Subject(s)
Animals , Equipment and Supplies , Models, Animal
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-10, 2023. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469019

ABSTRACT

Only few studies have focus on animals that received Pilocarpine (Pilo) and did not develop behavioral status epilepticus (SE) and, whether they may become epileptic in the model's chronic phase. Previews works observed mossy fiber sprouting in the hippocampus of Non-SE (NSE) rats, while others observed spontaneous and recurrent seizures (SRS) 6 - 8 months after animals received Pilo. It is known that neuronal excitability is influenced by female hormones, as well as, the occurrence of SE in castrated and non-castrated female rats. However, it is not known whether females that received Pilo and did not show SE, may have SRS. The aim of this work was to investigate whether castrated and non-castrated female rats that did not show behavioral SE after Pilo, will develop SRS in the following one-year. For that, animals received 360 mg/kg of Pilo and were video monitored for 12 months. SE females from castrated and non-castrated groups became epileptic since the first month after drug injection. Epileptic behaviors were identified watching video monitoring recordings in the fast speed. Castrated and Non castrated NSE animals showed behaviors resembling seizures described by Racine Scale stages 1 - 3. Motor alterations showed by NSE groups could be observed only when recordings were analyzed in slow speed. In addition, behavioral manifestations as, rhythmic head movements, sudden head movements, whole body movements and immobility were also observed in both, SE and NSE groups. We concluded that NSE female rats may have become epileptic. Adding to it, slow speed analysis of motor alterations was essential for the observation of NSE findings, which suggests that possibly many motor alterations have been underestimated in epilepsy experimental research.


Poucos são os estudos com foco em animais que receberam Pilocarpina (Pilo) e não desenvolveram status epilepticus (SE) comportamental e, se os mesmos se tornarão epilépticos na fase crônica do modelo. Autores observaram o brotamento das fibras musgosas no hipocampo de ratos Não-SE (NSE), enquanto outros observaram crises espontâneas e recorrentes (CER) 6 - 8 meses após receberam a droga. A excitabilidade neuronal é influenciada pelos hormônios femininos e, da mesma forma, a ocorrência de SE em ratas castradas e não-castradas. Entretanto, não é sabido se as fêmeas que não apresentam SE terão CER. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar se fêmeas castradas e não castradas que não tiveram SE comportamental após a injeção de Pilo desenvolverão CER dentro de um ano. Para isto, os animais receberam 360 mg/kg de Pilo e foram videomonitorados por 12 meses. As fêmeas SE castradas e não-castradas se tornaram epilépticas desde o primeiro mês pós Pilo. O comportamento epiléptico foi identificado assistindo as gravações na velocidade rápida. As fêmeas NSE castradas e não-castradas apresentaram comportamentos similares aos estágios 1 - 3 da Escala de Racine. As alterações motoras nestes grupos (NSE) foram observadas apenas quando as videomonitoração foi analisada na velocidade lenta. Além destas, manifestações comportamentais como movimentos rítmicos da cabeça, movimentos súbitos da cabeça, movimentos de todo o corpo e imobilidade também foram observadas em ambos grupos, SE e NSE. Concluímos que as fêmeas NE podem ter se tornado epilépticas. Adicionado a isto, a análise das alterações motoras na velocidade lenta foi essencial para a observação dos achados das fêmeas NSE, o que sugere que possivelmente muitas alterações motoras têm sido subestimados na pesquisa em epilepsia experimental.


Subject(s)
Female , Animals , Rats , Epilepsy/chemically induced , Epilepsy/veterinary , Models, Animal , Pilocarpine/administration & dosage , Pilocarpine/adverse effects , Pilocarpine/pharmacology
11.
Acta cir. bras ; 38: e385923, 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1519876

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To conduct a systematic review of nanoparticles' use in the treatment of prostate cancer in animals. Methods: A systematic review was conducted in the databases PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), Cochrane Library, and EMBASE, and the descriptors were chosen based on terms indexed in Health Sciences Descriptors (DeCS)/Medical Subject Headings (MESH), which are: nanoparticles, nanomedicine, and prostate cancer. The systematic review protocol was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) with ID CRD42021271008. Results: A total of 3,897 articles was chosen; after reading the inclusion and exclusion criteria, six scientific articles with themes involving nanoparticles carrying medications were reached. Among the nanoparticles found, there were carboxymethylcellulose polymer, micellar casein nanoparticles, liquid crystal nanoparticles, serum albumin nanoparticles, and poly(ethylene glycol)-block-polylactide (mPEG-PLA) conjugated nanoparticles encapsulating cabazitaxel, docetaxel, and flutamide, which were nanoparticles used to treat prostate cancer in animals. Conclusions: Through using nanoparticles to encapsulate medications for treating prostate cancer in animals, studies show a decrease in weight and tumor reduction, with nanoparticles resulting in greater survival time than free medications. The improved permeability and retention effect of nanoparticles in the bloodstream contribute to their effectiveness.


Subject(s)
Prostatic Neoplasms/therapy , Models, Animal , Nanoparticles , Systematic Review
12.
Acta cir. bras ; 38: e384923, 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1519874

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of resistance and aerobic exercise on colorectal cancer (CRC) development in mice induced by azoxymethane (AOM) coupled with colitis. Methods: Forty animals induced with CRC were used, divided into five groups of eight animals each: sedentary; continuous aerobics; continuous anaerobic; aerobic PI; and anaerobic PI. AOM was administered to the animals in two doses of 10 mg/kg each over the course of two weeks, the first dose administered in the third week and the second administered in the fourth. For the colitis, three cycles of dextran sodium sulfate were administered for five days, separated by two weeks of water. The 14th week of the experiment saw the euthanasia, the removal of their colons, and the creation of microscopy slides for histological analysis. Results: Preneoplastic lesions developed in all five groups; there were no significant differences between them. However, in terms of inflammatory symptoms, mucosal ulceration was much more frequently in the exercise groups than in the sedentary group (p = 0.016). The number of polyps overall (p = 0.002), the distal region's polyp development (p = 0.003), and the proximal region's polyp development (p = 0.04) were all statistically different than sedentary group. Conclusions: The study discovered no significant difference in disease activity index scores between groups, but there was a significant difference in the number of polyps and the presence of mucosal ulceration in the colon.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Azoxymethane/administration & dosage , Colorectal Neoplasms , Exercise , Models, Animal , Colitis-Associated Neoplasms
13.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 82: e0058, 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521784

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Descrever e validar um modelo oftalmológico para treinamento de transplante e microssutura de córnea utilizando globo ocular bovino. Métodos Para a montagem do modelo de treinamento, o globo ocular foi disposto sob o campo cirúrgico, apoiado sobre um recipiente plástico cilíndrico comum de 3,5cm de diâmetro, para a retirada da córnea. Foi realizada uma incisão circular superficial, e, posteriormente, uma tesoura Castroviejo curva de 9 cm foi utilizada para remoção completa da córnea, que foi recolocada em sua posição original, para que, em seguida, fossem confeccionados nove pontos equidistantes, usando fio de nylon 10-0. Por fim, foram avaliados os seguintes critérios: tempo de realização das suturas; evolução do tempo e da qualidade a cada teste; e destreza e aperfeiçoamento da realização das suturas. Resultados O modelo descrito demonstrou-se viável e adequado para o treinamento de microssuturas na córnea, possibilitando aperfeiçoamento e ganho de habilidades cirúrgicas. Conclusão O modelo de treinamento microcirúrgico apresentado possui alta viabilidade para a simulação de cirurgias oftalmológicas e textura semelhante à do olho humano real, o que o torna próximo à realidade.


ABSTRACT Objective To describe and validate an ophthalmic model for corneal transplantation and micro suture training using a bovine eyeball as a model. Methods For the training model, the eyeball was placed under the sanitary field placed on the ends of a common 3.5cm diameter cylindrical plastic container for corneal removal. A superficial circular incision was made, then 9cm curved Castroviejo scissors were used for complete corneal removal. The cornea was replaced in its original position, and 10-0 nylon thread was used to perform the sutures, with 9 equidistant stitches. Finally, the following criteria were evaluated: suturing time, time and quality progression in each attempt, dexterity and suturing improvement. Results The described model proved to be feasible and suitable for corneal micro suture training, allowing improvement and gain of dexterity in the sport. Conclusion The presented microsurgical training model has a high feasibility for the simulation of ophthalmic surgeries, in addition to a texture similar to the real human eye, which makes it close to reality.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ophthalmology/education , Corneal Transplantation/education , Models, Animal , Simulation Training/methods , Microsurgery/education , Teaching Materials , Cattle , Suture Techniques/education , Education, Medical , Models, Anatomic
14.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 41-47, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970970

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#To develop animal models of penetrating thoracic injuries and to observe the effects of the animal model-based training on improving the trainees' performance for emergent and urgent thoracic surgeries.@*METHODS@#With a homemade machine, animal models of lung injuries and penetrating heart injuries were produced in porcine and used for training of chest tube drainage, urgent sternotomy, and emergent thoracotomy. Coefficient of variation of abbreviated injury scale and blood loss was calculated to judge the reproducibility of animal models. Five operation teams from basic-level hospitals (group A) and five operation teams from level III hospitals (group B) were included to be trained and tested. Testing standards for the operations were established after thorough literature review, and expert questionnaires were employed to evaluate the scientificity and feasibility of the testing standards. Tests were carried out after the training. Pre- and post-training performances were compared. Post-training survey using 7-point Likert scale was taken to evaluate the feelings of the trainees to these training approaches.@*RESULTS@#Animal models of the three kinds of penetrating chest injuries were successfully established and the coefficient of variation of abbreviated injury scale and blood loss were all less than 25%. After literature review, testing standards were established, and expert questionnaire results showed that the scientific score was 7.30 ± 1.49, and the feasibility score was 7.50 ± 0.89. Post-training performance was significantly higher in both group A and group B than pre-training performance. Post-training survey showed that all the trainees felt confident in applying the operations and were generally agreed that the training procedure were very helpful in improving operation skills for thoracic penetrating injury.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Animal model-based simulation training established in the current study could improve the trainees' performance for emergent and urgent thoracic surgeries, especially of the surgical teams from basic-level hospitals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine , Reproducibility of Results , Wounds, Penetrating/surgery , Thoracotomy , Thoracic Injuries/surgery , Hemorrhage , Models, Animal
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1438-1445, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970615

ABSTRACT

As an important model animal, fruit fly is characterized by outstanding genetic characteristics, relatively perfect nervous system, rapid reproduction, and low cost. Thus, it has been applied in the research on neuropsychiatric disorders in recent years, showing great potential in life science. The incidence of neuropsychiatric disorders has been on the rise, and the disorders have high disability rate and low case fatality rate. The global drug demand for such diseases is second only to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. At the moment, the demand of the drugs for the diseases have been rising, and it is an urgent task to develop related drugs. However, the research and development of the drugs are time-intensive and have a high failure rate. A suitable animal model can help shorten the time for drug screening and development, thereby reducing the cost and failure rate. This study reviews the application of fruit flies in several common neuropsychiatric disorders, which is expected to provide new ideas for the research and application of the model animals in traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Models, Animal , Cerebrovascular Disorders
16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 614-624, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970530

ABSTRACT

Chronic heart failure(CHF) is a series of clinical syndromes in which various heart diseases progress to their end stage. Its morbidity and mortality are increasing year by year, which seriously threatens people's life and health. The diseases causing CHF are complex and varied, such as coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, cardiomyopathy and so on. It is of great significance to establish animal models of CHF according to different etiologies to explore the pathogenesis of CHF and develop drugs to prevent and treat CHF induced by different diseases. Therefore, based on the classification of the etiology of CHF, this paper summarizes the animal models of CHF widely used in recent 10 years, and the application of these animal models in traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) research, in order to provide ideas and strategies for studying the pathogenesis and treatment of CHF, and provide ideas for TCM modernization research.


Subject(s)
Animals , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Heart Failure , Heart Diseases , Chronic Disease , Models, Animal
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(6): 1420-1425, dic. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421797

ABSTRACT

La mandíbula de rata es una de las estructuras anatómicas de mayor interés en la investigación en las ciencias odontológicas, esto debido a su similitud con la mandíbula humana. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar morfometricamente la mandíbula de ratas mediante CBCT. Se analizó el examen cone beam de 20 ratas hembras, adultas sanas. Mediante el software del examen, fue posible aislar la mandíbula derecha e izquierda de las otras estructuras y realizar adecuadamente las medidas morfométricas de interés. En la comparación de ambos lados, sólo dos medidas presentaron diferencias significativas. La distancia entre el punto más profundo de la escotadura sigmoidea hasta el punto más profundo de la escotadura en el margen inferior de la mandíbula, fue mayor en el lado izquierdo que en el derecho. Y la distancia entre el punto más superior del cóndilo hasta la base mandibular, en la proyección perpendicular del plano mandibular fue mayor en el lado izquierdo que en el derecho. De acuerdo a las medidas obtenidas, podemos determinar que la mandíbula de la rata es una estructura alargada, con dimensiones mayores en sentido anteroposterior en comparación con las medidas verticales. El conocimiento de la anatomía de la mandíbula de rata y sus variaciones por lado permite a los investigado- res tener referencias adecuadas para los estudios que involucren esta estructura, como por ejemplo, investigaciones que requieran la aplicación de técnicas anestésicas, estudio del dolor orofacial, estudio patofisiológico de la ATM, estudio del crecimiento óseo, testeo de biomateriales dentales o en el estudio de procesos fisiopatológicos relacionados con los tejidos dentales o periodontales. La mandíbula de la rata es un buen modelo animal debido a su reproducibilidad y bajo costo. La mandíbula derecha e izquierda son similares en sus dimensiones anteroposteriores, pero no las verticales.


SUMMARY: The rat jaw is one of the most interesting anatomical structures in dental science research, due to its similarity to the human jaw. The aim of this study was to morphometrically characterize the mandible of rats by CBCT. The cone beam examination of 20 healthy adult female rats was analyzed. Using the examination software, it was possible to isolate the right and left mandible from the other structures and adequately perform the morphometric measurements of interest. In the comparison of both sides, only two measures presented significant differences. The distance from the deepest point of the sigmoid notch to the deepest point of the notch at the lower margin of the mandible was greater on the left side than on the right. And the distance between the most superior point of the condyle to the mandibular base, in the perpendicular projection of the mandibular plane, was greater on the left side than on the right. According to the measurements obtained, we can determine that the rat jaw is an elongated structure, with larger dimensions in the anteroposterior direction compared to the vertical measurements. Knowledge of the anatomy of the rat mandible and its variations per side allows researchers to have adequate references for studies involving this structure, such as research that requires the application of anesthetic techniques, study of orofacial pain, pathophysiological study of the TMJ, study of bone growth, testing of dental biomaterials or in the study of pathophysiological processes related to den- tal or periodontal tissues. The rat mandible is a good animal model due to its reproducibility and low cost. The right and left mandible are similar in their anteroposterior dimensions, but not the vertical ones.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Models, Animal , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
18.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3)set-dez. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399147

ABSTRACT

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a non-melanoma skin cancer, with chronic sun exposure as the main risk factor. Excisional surgery is the most indicated treatment; however, patients can suffer functional, aesthetic, and psychological damage depending on the lesion site. Topical administration of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13- acetate (TPA) induce to the appearance of benign skin tumors in mice, some of which develop into SCC. This protocol has been used to analyze the effects of many chemopreventive agents that may block or inhibit the mechanisms of action of chemical carcinogenesis. We compared the effects of chemopreventive agents in an induced skin carcinogenesis animal model. In the Scopus, PubMed, and EMBASE databases, we searched for manuscripts published between June 16, 2011, and June 16, 2021. We excluded studies conducted in vitro or on transgenic mice; in addition, studies without drug dosage, route of administration, or tumor incidence were excluded. We selected 26 studies and analyzed their main characteristics and the outcomes of tumorigenesis analysis. Most chemopreventive agents have shown excellent potential to inhibit the development of skin tumors. This review also discusses the standardization of studies in animal models to ensure better responses and future randomized clinical trials for cancer treatment and prevention.


O carcinoma espinocelular cutâneo (CEC) é um câncer de pele não melanoma, com a exposição solar crônica como o principal fator de risco. A cirurgia excisional é o tratamento mais indicado; entretanto, os pacientes podem sofrer danos funcionais, estéticos e psicológicos dependendo do local da lesão. A administração tópica de 7,12-dimetilbenz[a]antraceno (DMBA) e 12-O- Tetradecanoilforbol-13-acetato (TPA) induz ao aparecimento de tumores cutâneos benignos em camundongos, alguns dos quais evoluíram para CEC. Este protocolo tem sido utilizado para analisar os efeitos de muitos agentes quimiopreventivos que podem bloquear ou inibir os mecanismos de ação da carcinogênese química. Comparamos os efeitos de agentes quimiopreventivos em um modelo animal que foi induzido à carcinogênese de pele. Nas bases de dados Scopus, PubMed e EMBASE, buscamos manuscritos publicados entre 16 de junho de 2011 e 16 de junho de 2021. Excluímos estudos realizados in vitro ou em camundongos transgênicos; além disso, estudos sem dosagem de drogas, via de administração ou incidência de tumores foram excluídos. Selecionamos 26 estudos e analisamos suas principais características e os resultados da análise da tumorigênese. A maioria dos agentes quimiopreventivos tem demonstrado excelente potencial para inibir o desenvolvimento de tumores cutâneos. Esta revisão também discute a padronização de estudos em modelos animais para garantir melhores respostas e futuros ensaios clínicos randomizados para tratamento e prevenção do câncer.


El carcinoma de células escamosas (CCE) es un cáncer de piel no melanoma, cuyo principal factor de riesgo es la exposición crónica al sol. La cirugía de escisión es el tratamiento más indicado; sin embargo, los pacientes pueden sufrir daños funcionales, estéticos y psicológicos dependiendo de la localización de la lesión. La administración tópica de 7,12-dimetilbenz[a]antraceno (DMBA) y 12-O-Tetradecanoilforbol-13-acetato (TPA) inducen a la aparición de tumores cutáneos benignos en ratones, algunos de los cuales se convierten en CCE. Este protocolo se ha utilizado para analizar los efectos de muchos agentes quimiopreventivos que pueden bloquear o inhibir los mecanismos de acción de la carcinogénesis química. Comparamos los efectos de los agentes quimiopreventivos en un modelo animal de carcinogénesis cutánea inducida. En las bases de datos Scopus, PubMed y EMBASE, se buscaron los manuscritos publicados entre el 16 de junio de 2011 y el 16 de junio de 2021. Se excluyeron los estudios realizados in vitro o en ratones transgénicos; además, se excluyeron los estudios sin dosis de fármacos, vía de administración o incidencia tumoral. Se seleccionaron 26 estudios y se analizaron sus características principales y los resultados del análisis de la tumorigénesis. La mayoría de los agentes quimiopreventivos han mostrado un excelente potencial para inhibir el desarrollo de tumores cutáneos. Esta revisión también analiza la estandarización de los estudios en modelos animales para garantizar mejores respuestas y futuros ensayos clínicos aleatorios para el tratamiento y la prevención del cáncer.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Skin Neoplasms/drug therapy , Chemoprevention , Antineoplastic Agents , Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate , Models, Animal , 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene/analysis , Carcinogenesis , Phytochemicals
19.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 29(3): 1-8, 2022-08-18. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1393176

ABSTRACT

Background: Medicinal plants are part of traditional medicine and should be considered a therapeutic alternative for mental diseases. Several plants belonging to the Verbenaceae family have proved useful in treating general anxiety disorders, the most prevalent psychiatric disorders. Objective: This research aimed to verify the extract's safety, the effect on general behavior, and the effect on sleeping time, as well as to evaluate the anxiolytic-like effect of the methanol extract of Aloysia virgata var. platyphylla (Avp), in mice. Methodology: The toxicity test was done according to the OECD guide (mice groups n=5), and general behavior was observed during the assay. Sleeping time was assessed using the pentobarbital-induced hypnosis method (n=8). Male Swiss albino mice (n=6) were treated with 50 to 400 mg/kg of Avp extract and diazepam as a control. The anxiolytic-like effect was tested through the hole board and elevated plus-maze test. Results: The Avp extract has no side effects in tested doses, and no central nervous system depressant activity was noted. A. virgatavar. platyphyllaincreased exploration (number and time) in the hole board. In the elevated plus-maze, increased number and time into open arms were evidenced compared to the control group. Conclusion: With all these results, we concluded that the Avp extract is safe and has a potential anxiolytic-like activity in the animal model used


Antecedentes: Las plantas medicinales forman parte de la medicina tradicional y deben ser consideradas una alternativa terapéutica para las enfermedades mentales. Varias plantas pertenecientes a la familia Verbenaceae han demostrado su utilidad en el tratamiento de los trastornos de ansiedad, uno de los trastornos psiquiátricos más prevalentes. Objetivo: Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo verificar la seguridad del extracto, el efecto sobre el comportamiento general y el efecto sobre el tiempo de sueño, así como evaluar el efecto tipo ansiolítico del extracto metanólico de Aloysia virgata var. platyphylla(Avp), en ratones. Metodología: La prueba de toxicidad se realizó de acuerdo con la guía de la OCDE (grupos de ratones n=5), y se observó el comportamiento general durante el ensayo. El tiempo de sueño se evaluó mediante el método de hipnosis inducida por pentobarbital (n=8). Se trataron ratones albinos suizos macho (n=6) con 50 a 400 mg/kg de extracto de Avp y diazepam como control. El efecto ansiolítico se probó a través de la placa perforada y prueba del laberinto en cruz elevado. Resultados: El extracto de Avp no tiene efectos secundarios en las dosis probadas y no se observó actividad depresora del sistema nervioso central. A. virgata var. platyphylla aumentó la exploración (número y tiempo) en el tablero de agujeros. En el laberinto en cruz elevado, se evidenció un mayor número y tiempo en los brazos abiertos en comparación con el grupo de control. Conclusión: Con todos estos resultados, concluimos que el extracto de Avp es seguro y tiene una potencial actividad ansiolítica en el modelo animal utilizado


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Sleep/drug effects , Anti-Anxiety Agents , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Verbenaceae/chemistry , Models, Animal
20.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 11(4): 1-13, jul. 21, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1427176

ABSTRACT

Introduction: DMBA is a chemical carcinogen that induces carcinomas within a few weeks of its application. We developed an experimental model of carcinogenesis induced by DMBA dissolved in 0,5% paraffin oil (DMBA-PO), verifying the inhibitory effect of the carcinogenicity of phenyl isothiocyanate (PhITC), phenethyl (PhnITC) and benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC). Material and Methods: For this, 88 hamsters were distributed into three groups: one exposed to DMBA-PO (Group 1, n=12), three subgroups (n=12) exposed to PhITC, PhnITC, BITC and DMBA-PO (Group 2, n=36) and four control subgroups (n=10) that were not exposed to the carcinogen in which PO (paraffin oil) and isothiocyanates were applied (Group 3, n=40). Results: The experiment had a duration of 20 weeks, at the end of which the inhibitory effect was established by comparing the lesions developed in the groups that received isothiocyanates with the group that was only treated with DMBA-PO. The carcinogenic effect of DMBA-PO is 100% (35 carcinomas) and the inhibitory effect was 0, whereas in the presence of isothiocyanates the carcinogenic effect decreases, with an inhibitory effect of 86% for BITC (5 carcinomas) and 74% for PhITC (9 carcinomas). Conclusion: The inhibitory effect for PhnITC is 80% in relation to invasive OSCC (1 carcinoma).


Introducción: El DMBA es un carcinógeno químico que induce carcinomas a las pocas semanas de su aplicación. Desarrollamos un modelo experimental de carcinogénesis inducida por DMBA disuelto en aceite de parafina al 0,5% (DMBA-Ap) comprobando el efecto inhibidor de la carcinogénesis de los isotiocianatos fenil (PhITC), fenetil (PhnITC) y bencil isotiocianato (BITC). Material y Métodos: Para ello, se distribuyeron 88 hámsteres en 3 grupos: uno expuesto al DMBA-Ap (Grupo 1, n=12), tres subgrupos (n=12) expuestos a PhITC, PhnITC, BITC y DMBA-Ap (Grupo 2, n=36) y cuatro subgrupos controles (n=10), no expuestos al carcinógeno en el que se aplicaron Ap e isotiocianatos (Grupo 3, n=40). Resultados:El experimento tuvo una duración de 20 semanas, al final de la cual se establece de forma comparativa el efecto inhibidor comparando las lesiones desarrolladas en los grupos que recibieron isotiocianatos con respecto al grupo tratado sólo con DMBA-Ap. El efecto carcinógeno del DMBA-Ap es del 100% (35 carcinomas) y el efecto inhibidor 0, mientras que en presencia de isotiocianatos el efecto carcinógeno disminuye, con un efecto inhibidor del 86% para BITC (5 carcinomas) y del 74% para el PhITC (9 carcinomas). Conclusión:El efecto inhibidor del PhnITC es del 80% en relación con el COCE invasivo (1 carcinoma).


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Anticarcinogenic Agents/therapeutic use , 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene/toxicity , Carcinogens , Isothiocyanates , Models, Animal , Carcinogenesis , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck
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