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Prensa méd. argent ; 107(5): 276-281, 20210000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1359360


La lesión del nervio laríngeo recurrente (NLR) es una de las complicaciones más severas en las tiroidectomías. La lesión unilateral genera trastornos disfónicos que se manifiesta por voz débil y una posición paramedial de la cuerda vocal afectada, mientas que la bilateral genera trastornos respiratorios, incluyendo la asfixia. Se ha estimado que la lesión del NLR en las tiroidectomías se encuentra entre un rango de 0.3%- 18.9%. Se ha visto que con el neuromonitoreo intraoperatorio ha disminuido la incidencia de lesión, aunque debemos tener en cuenta un factor muy importante a la hora de solicitarlo y utilizarlo, el económico. La tasa de lesión permanente del nervio laríngeo recurrente debe permanecer por debajo de 1 a 2 %. Sin embargo, existen circunstancias en las cuales los nervios están expuestos a un mayor riesgo y son muchos los factores involucrados en su mecanismo de lesión. Este artículo pretende hacer una revisión del tema enfatizando en la importancia de la preservación de la funcionalidad e integridad de ambos nervios laríngeos recurrentes.

Recurrent laryngeal nerve injury (RLN) is one of the most severe complications in thyroidectomies. Unilateral injury generates dysphonic disorders manifested by weak voice and a paramedial position of the affected vocal cord, while bilateral injury generates respiratory disorders, including suffocation. RLN injury in thyroidectomies has been estimated to be in the range of 0.3% - 18.9%. It has been seen that with intraoperative neuromonitoring the incidence of injury has decreased, although we must take into account a very important factor when requesting and using it, the economic one. The rate of permanent injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve should remain below 1% to 2%. However, there are circumstances in which the nerves are exposed to greater risk and many factors are involved in their mechanism of injury. This article aims to review the subject, emphasizing the importance of preserving the functionality and integrity of both recurrent laryngeal nerves

Humans , Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve/pathology , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/complications , Monitoring, Intraoperative
Rev. argent. cir ; 113(1): 125-130, abr. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1288183


RESUMEN La vesícula izquierda (VI) es una rara anomalía de la vía biliar que, cuando enferma, no suele dar sín tomas diferentes de aquella normoposicionada, haciendo infrecuente su diagnóstico preoperatorio. Presentamos el caso de una colecistitis aguda en un paciente con VI, resuelto en forma segura por vía laparoscópica. Un paciente ingresa por un cuadro típico de colecistitis aguda. Como hallazgo in traoperatorio se constata una vesícula biliar inflamada, ubicada en posición siniestra. Se modificó la ubicación de los puertos de trabajo y se realizó colangiografía transvesicular por punción, antes de iniciar la disección del hilio vesicular. Luego de identificar el conducto cístico, se realizó colangiografía transcística que confirmó la anatomía de la vía biliar completa y expedita. Se completó la colecistec tomía laparoscópica en forma segura. El hallazgo de una VI obliga al cirujano a cambiar la técnica de una colecistectomía laparoscópica. Esta anomalía incrementa el riesgo de lesiones de la vía biliar. La disección cuidadosa del hilio vesicular logrando una visión crítica de seguridad y el uso de colangiogra fía intraoperatoria son de extrema importancia para una colecistectomía segura.

ABSTRACT Left-sided gallbladder (LSGB) is a rare bile duct abnormality, usually found during a cholecystectomy. Symptoms usually do not differ from those of a normally positioned gallbladder, making the preoperative diagnosis extremely uncommon. We report the case of an acute cholecystitis in a patient whit LSGB, safely managed with laparoscopic surgery. A 24-year-old male patient was admitted to our institution with clinical and radiological signs of acute cholecystitis. The intraoperative finding of an acute cholecystitis in a LSGB made us modify ports positioning and a cholangiograhy was done by direct puncture of the gallbladder before hilum dissection. After the cystic duct was identified, a transcystic cholangiography was performed which confirmed a complete and clear bile duct anatomy and laparoscopic cholecystectomy was safely completed. The intraoperative finding of a LSGB makes the surgeon change some aspects of the usual technique to perform a safe cholecystectomy as LSGB significantly increases the risk of common bile duct injuries. Meticulous dissection of the gallbladder hilum to achieve a critical view of safety and the systematic use of intraoperative cholangiography are extremely important to perform a safe laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

Humans , Male , Adult , Cholecystitis, Acute/diagnostic imaging , Gallbladder , Cholangiography , Monitoring, Intraoperative , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic , Laparoscopy
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(3): 256-261, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137172


Abstract Objective: To observe the effects of preoperative right stellate ganglion block on perioperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing lung lobectomy. Methods: Two hundred patients who underwent a scheduled lobectomy were randomly divided into the S and C groups. The S group was injected with 4 mL of 0.2% ropivacaine under ultrasound guidance, and the C group did not receive stellate ganglion block. The patients underwent continuous ECG monitoring, and the incidences of atrial fibrillation and other types of arrhythmias were recorded from the start of surgery to 24 hours after surgery. Results: The respective incidences of atrial fibrillation in the S group and the C group were 3% and 10% (p = 0.045); other atrial arrhythmias were 20% and 38% (p = 0.005); and ventricular arrhythmia were 28% and 39% (p = 0.09). Conclusions: The results of the study indicated that preoperative right stellate ganglion block can effectively reduce the incidence of intraoperative and postoperative atrial fibrillation.

Resumo Objetivo: Observar os efeitos do bloqueio do gânglio estrelado na fibrilação atrial no período perioperatório em pacientes submetidos a lobectomia pulmonar. Método: Duzentos pacientes programados para lobectomia foram divididos aleatoriamente nos grupos S e C. O grupo S recebeu infusão de 4 mL de ropivacaína a 0,2% orientada por ultrassom e o grupo C não foi submetido a bloqueio do gânglio estrelado. Os pacientes foram submetidos à monitoração contínua de ECG, e as incidências de fibrilação atrial e outros tipos de arritmias foram registradas do início da cirurgia até 24 horas depois da cirurgia. Resultados: As incidências de fibrilação atrial no grupo S e no grupo C foram 3% e 10%, respectivamente (p = 0,045); as de outras arritmias atriais foram 20% e 38% (p = 0,005); e de arritmias ventriculares, 28% e 39% (p = 0,09). Conclusões: Os resultados do estudo indicaram que o bloqueio do gânglio estrelado no pré-operatório pode ser efetivo na redução da incidência de fibrilação atrial nos períodos intra- e pós-operatório.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Pneumonectomy , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Autonomic Nerve Block/methods , Stellate Ganglion , Ultrasonography, Interventional , Intraoperative Complications/epidemiology , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnosis , Incidence , Monitoring, Intraoperative , Electrocardiography , Intraoperative Complications/diagnosis , Middle Aged
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 24(1): 11-17, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090557


Abstract Introduction Local anesthesia with sedation has been employed for an increasingly number of otolaryngology procedures, and might be associated with lower surgical morbidity and costs. Facial nerve monitoring is often advisable in otology to minimize the risks of injuries to this cranial nerve, but the principles, techniques and parameters involved have only been studied for procedures under general anesthesia. Objective To report the preliminary outcomes of intraoperative facial nerve moni- toring during otologic procedures under sedation and local anesthesia. Methods A total of five procedures and their respective intraoperative electrophysi- ological main findings were described. Facial neuromonitoring was performed using the same device by an electrophysiologist. The monitor sensitivity was set at 100 mV, and a stimulating probe was used whenever needed. Results Progressively decreasing low-amplitude baseline values were usually obtained as the level of anesthesia increased, with isolated oscillations possibly related to some degree of voluntary muscular activity. These oscillations could be easily distinguished from those of the surgical manipulation or electrical stimulation of the nerve, which tended to be of much greater amplitude and shorter latency, occurring during specific surgical steps. Conclusion With a surgical team with proper procedural knowledge and broad expertise regarding the technique, intraoperative facial nerve monitoring under local anesthesia with sedation seemed both feasible and reliable. Thus, the need for intraoperative neuromonitoring should not be an obstacle for otologic procedures under less aggressive anesthetic management.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Otologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Monitoring, Intraoperative/methods , Facial Nerve/physiology , Anesthesia, Local , Treatment Outcome , Electric Stimulation , Electromyography
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 47(4): 211-218, Oct-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1042731


Abstract Background: Sugammadex has made it possible to reverse any type of rocuronium-induced block quickly and safely. The most frequent neuromuscular blockade is the moderate one where doses smaller than those recommended by the industry could get a full reversal. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of half the industry recommended dose of sugammadex to reverse a moderate neuromuscular block. Methods: Unicenter phase IV clinical trial that included 34 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Intravenous general anesthesia was induced, with acceleromyographic monitoring of the neuromuscular block. After the intervention, the block was reversed with all or half the dose of sugammadex recommended for moderate blocks, using a blinded syringe. Results: Patient characteristics of the 2 groups were similar. Mean time to recovery was 3.6± 1.7minutes for the study group and 3.1 ± 1.7minutes for the control group (P=0.42). Reversal of the block was complete with a single dose of sugammadex in all patients. There was an important linear correlation between depth of block and time to recovery. Conclusion: Intraoperative monitoring is essential to allow us to individualize the dose of the neuromuscular blocking agent. To reverse a moderate block under neuromuscular monitoring, a dose of 1 mg/kg is sufficient in most cases and is equally safe and effective.

Resumen Introducción: El sugammadex permite revertir cualquier tipo de bloqueo inducido por rocuronio de forma rápida y segura. El bloqueo neuromuscular más frecuente es el moderado, en el cual dosis inferiores a las recomendadas por la industria podrían revertirlo completamente. Objetivo: Evaluar la efectividad de la mitad de la dosis de sugammadex recomendada por la industria para revertir un bloqueo neuromuscular moderado. Métodos: Ensayo clínico de fase IV en un unico centro que incluyó a 34 pacientes intervenidos de colecistectomía laparoscópica. Se realizó anestesia general intravenosa con monitoreo aceleromiográfico del bloqueo neuromuscular. Tras la intervención, el bloqueo se revirtió con la totalidad o con la mitad de la dosis de sugammadex recomendada para bloqueos moderados, utilizando una jeringa ciega. Resultados: Las características de los pacientes de los dos grupos fueron similares. La media de tiempo de recuperación fue de 3,6 ± 1,7 minutos para el grupo de estudio y de 3,1 ± 1,7 minutos para el grupo de control (p = 0,42). La reversión del bloqueo se completó con una dosis única de sugammadex en todos los pacientes. Hubo una correlación lineal importante entre la profundidad del bloqueo y el tiempo de recuperación. Conclusión: El monitoreo transquirúrgico es esencial para individualizar la dosis del agente de bloqueo neuromuscular. Para revertir un bloqueo moderado bajo monitoreo neuromuscular, una dosis de 1mg/kg es suficiente e igualmente segura y efectiva.

Humans , Sugammadex , Rocuronium , Anesthesia, General , Neuromuscular Blocking Agents , Monitoring, Intraoperative , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic , Neuromuscular Blockade , Dosage , Neuromuscular Monitoring
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(5): 477-483, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057453


Abstract Background and objectives: Dilated cardiomyopathy is a state of progressive enlargement of cardiac chambers mainly left ventricle which leads to decreased cardiac output and ultimately cardiac failure. Although it has multifactorial etiology, it is quite common in patients with end stage renal disease who require renal transplant surgery for their cure. Both conditions go side by side and anesthetic management of such cases poses real challenge to anesthesiologist. Strict monitoring and control of cardiac physiology is of utmost importance besides meticulous fluid management, thus preserving renal blood flow on one hand and preventing cardiac failure on other hand. This is the basis of achieving good outcome of the renal transplant surgery. Methods: This is a retrospective observational study done by analysing electronic database of 31 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy who underwent renal transplant surgery. Data was studied in terms of demographics, duration of renal disease, comorbidities mainly hypertension, cardiac echo graphic findings including ejection fraction, medications and post-operative outcome. Results: Most common perioperative complication in this patient population was hypotension (51.61%) followed by pulmonary complications postoperative mechanical ventilation (12.9%) and pulmonary edema (6.45%). High incidence of hypotension may be a causative factor to increased rate of delayed graft functioning (12.9%) and acute tubular necrosis (2.23%) in these patients. Conclusion: Strict monitoring and control of hemodynamic parameters as well as meticulous fluid therapy is the cornerstone in improving outcome in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy undergoing renal transplant surgery.

Resumo Justificativa e objetivos A cardiomiopatia dilatada é um estado de aumento progressivo das câmaras cardíacas, principalmente do ventrículo esquerdo, que leva à diminuição do débito cardíaco e, por fim, à insuficiência cardíaca. Embora tenha etiologia multifatorial, é bastante comum em pacientes com doença renal terminal que precisam de transplante renal para sua cura. Ambas as condições andam lado a lado e o manejo anestésico de tais casos é um verdadeiro desafio para o anestesiologista. A monitoração e o controle rigoroso da fisiologia cardíaca são de extrema importância, além de um meticuloso manejo dos líquidos, o que por um lado preserva o fluxo sanguíneo renal, por outro previne a insuficiência cardíaca. Essa é a base para alcançar o bom resultado da cirurgia de transplante renal. Métodos Este estudo observacional retrospectivo foi feito mediante a análise de prontuários eletrônicos de 31 pacientes com cardiomiopatia dilatada submetidos à cirurgia de transplante renal. Os dados foram avaliados em termos demográficos, duração da doença renal, comorbidades (principalmente hipertensão), achados ecocardiográficos (inclusive fração de ejeção), medicamentos e resultados no pós-operatório. Resultados A complicação perioperatória mais comum nessa população de pacientes foi hipotensão (51,61%), seguida de complicações pulmonares, como ventilação mecânica pós-operatória (12,9%) e edema pulmonar (6,45%). A alta incidência de hipotensão pode ser um fator causador do aumento da incidência de atraso no funcionamento do enxerto (12,9%) e necrose tubular aguda (2,23%) nesses pacientes. Conclusão A monitoração rigorosa e o controle dos parâmetros hemodinâmicos, bem como a fluidoterapia criteriosa, são a pedra angular na melhoria dos resultados em pacientes com cardiomiopatia dilatada submetidos à cirurgia de transplante renal.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/complications , Kidney Transplantation , Anesthesia , Kidney Failure, Chronic/surgery , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Monitoring, Intraoperative
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(4): 377-382, July-Aug. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041994


Abstract Background and objectives According to the manufacturer, the Bispectral Index (BIS) has a processing time delay of 5-10 s. Studies addressing this have suggested longer delays. We evaluated the time delay in the Bispectral Index response. Methods Based on clinical data from 45 patients, using the difference between the predicted and the real BIS, calculated during a fixed 3 minutes period after the moment the Bispectral Index dropped below 80 during the induction of general anesthesia with propofol and remifentanil. Results The difference between the predicted and the real BIS was in average 30.09 ± 18.73 s. Conclusion Our results may be another indication that the delay in BIS processing may be much longer than stated by the manufacture, a fact with clinical implications.

Resumo Justificativa e objetivos De acordo com o fabricante, o índice bispectral (BIS) tem um tempo de processamento de cinco a dez segundos. Estudos que avaliaram esse tempo de processamento sugeriram atrasos mais longos. Nós avaliamos o tempo de atraso na resposta do BIS. Métodos Com base em dados clínicos de 45 pacientes, calculamos a diferença entre o tempo de atraso previsto e real do índice bispectral durante um período fixo de três minutos após o momento em que o BIS caiu abaixo de 80 durante a indução da anestesia geral com propofol e remifentanil. Resultados A diferença entre o BIS previsto e real foi em média 30,09 ± 18,73 segundos. Conclusão Nossos resultados sugerem que o atraso no processamento do índice bispectral pode ser muito maior do que o declarado pelo fabricante, um fato com implicações clínicas.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Propofol/administration & dosage , Consciousness Monitors , Remifentanil/administration & dosage , Anesthesia, General/methods , Time Factors , Monitoring, Intraoperative/methods , Anesthetics, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Middle Aged
Med. infant ; 26(2): 139-141, Junio 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015939


El control ecocardiográfico al momento de la reparación de las cardiopatías congénitas es una estrategia cardiológica para mejorar los resultados quirúrgicos de nuestros pacientes. En este artículo les contamos cómo es el método, qué información nos brinda y cómo influye en la toma de decisiones en el quirófano y en el manejo posoperatorio (AU)

Echocardiographic monitoring at the time of congenital heart defects repair is a strategy to improve the surgical outcomes of our patients. In this article we discuss the method, what information it provides, and how it influences decision-making in the operating room and postoperative management (AU)

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Monitoring, Intraoperative/methods , Echocardiography, Transesophageal/adverse effects , Echocardiography, Transesophageal/methods , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Heart Defects, Congenital/diagnostic imaging , Extracorporeal Circulation , Intraoperative Care
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719404


Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is a progressive and degenerative chromosomal disorder of the central nervous system caused by defective myelin production. Few case reports have been issued on the anesthetic management of PMD, because of its extremely low incidence. We anesthetized a 13-year-old female patient diagnosed with PMD for ophthalmic surgery because of intermittent exotropia. General anesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol and sevoflurane in air and oxygen. Rocuronium was administered to facilitate orotracheal intubation, and residual neuromuscular blockage was reversed with pyridostigmine. Between emergence to 24 hours postoperatively, her muscle power completely recovered and no unpredictable events occurred. Summarizing, anesthesiologists should be concerned about the high possibility of aspiration, spasticity, and seizure during the perioperative period in patients with even mild PMD. Appropriate preoperative evaluation, intraoperative monitoring, and choice of proper anesthetic drugs enable safe anesthesia in patients with PMD.

Adolescent , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, General , Anesthetics , Central Nervous System , Chromosome Disorders , Exotropia , Female , Humans , Incidence , Intubation , Monitoring, Intraoperative , Muscle Spasticity , Myelin Sheath , Oxygen , Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease , Perioperative Period , Propofol , Pyridostigmine Bromide , Seizures
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785730


Intraoperative parathyroid hormone monitoring (IPM) has been shown to be a useful adjunct during parathyroidectomy to ensure operative success at many specialized medical centers worldwide. Using the Miami or “>50% intraoperative PTH drop” criterion, IPM confirms the complete excision of all hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue before the operation is finished, and helps guide the surgeon to identify additional hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands that may necessitate further extensive neck exploration when intraoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels do not drop sufficiently. The intraoperative PTH assay is also used to differentiate parathyroid from non-parathyroid tissues during operations using fine needle aspiration samples and to lateralize the side of the neck harboring the hypersecreting parathyroid through differential jugular venous sampling when preoperative localization studies are negative or equivocal. The use of IPM underscores the recognition and understanding of sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism (SPHPT) as a disease of function rather than form, where the surgeon is better equipped to treat such patients with quantitative instead of qualitative information for durable long-term operative success. There has been a significant paradigm shift over the last 2 decades from conventional to focused parathyroidectomy guided by IPM. This approach has proven to be a safe and rapid operation requiring minimal dissection performed in an ambulatory setting for the treatment of SPHPT.

Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Humans , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Monitoring, Intraoperative , Neck , Parathyroid Glands , Parathyroid Hormone , Parathyroidectomy , Surgeons
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785372


Nociception monitoring devices using changes in autonomic nervous system activity have been developed in numerous ways. Although there have been few studies conducted on children, compared to the relatively higher number of studies on adults, most of the nociception monitors in children, as in adults, appear to be more useful than the standard clinical practice that uses hemodynamic parameters in the evaluation and treatment of intraoperative nociception (pain) during general anesthesia. Particularly, when monitoring the surgical pleth index (SPI) in anesthetized children, the application of a new target range of SPI values (≤ 40) to the SPI monitoring criteria seems to be necessary for providing a more proper intraoperative analgesia. The analgesia nociception index (ANI) shows promising results in anesthetized adults, and recently, positive results along with cardiorespiratory coherence have been reported in pediatric patients. Newborn infant parasympathetic evaluation (NIPE) could be useful for providing adequate analgesia in newborns, infants, and children under 2 years of age in anesthetized or awake states. In cases of skin conductance and pupillometry, further studies are needed. Understanding the pros, cons, and limitations of these nociception monitoring tools will provide more effective and safe intraoperative analgesia to pediatric patients undergoing general anesthesia, and it may also help to plan and conduct promising research on the use of perioperative nociception monitoring in pediatric patients in the future.

Adult , Analgesia , Anesthesia, General , Autonomic Nervous System , Child , Hemodynamics , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Monitoring, Intraoperative , Nociception , Pain Measurement , Skin
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764347


BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to determine the effectiveness of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring focused on the transcranial motor-evoked potential (MEP) in patients with medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). METHODS: We compared postoperative neurological deficits in patients who underwent TLE surgery with or without transcranial MEPs combined with somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) monitoring between January 1995 and June 2018. Transcranial motor stimulation was performed using subdermal electrodes, and MEP responses were recorded in the four extremity muscles. A decrease of more than 50% in the MEP or the SSEP amplitudes compared with baseline was used as a warning criterion. RESULTS: In the TLE surgery group without MEP monitoring, postoperative permanent motor deficits newly developed in 7 of 613 patients. In contrast, no permanent motor deficit occurred in 279 patients who received transcranial MEP and SSEP monitoring. Ten patients who exhibited decreases of more than 50% in the MEP amplitude recovered completely, although two cases showed transient motor deficits that recovered within 3 months postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative transcranial MEP monitoring during TLE surgery allowed the prompt detection and appropriate correction of injuries to the motor nervous system or ischemic stroke. Intraoperative transcranial MEP monitoring is a reliable modality for minimizing motor deficits in TLE surgery.

Electrodes , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe , Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory , Extremities , Humans , Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring , Monitoring, Intraoperative , Muscles , Nervous System , Stroke , Temporal Lobe
In. Barbato, Marcelo; Blanco, Raúl; Godino, Mario; Olivera Pertusso, Eduardo; Rodríguez, Ana María. Seguridad del paciente en áreas críticas. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2019. p.207-224, tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1342587
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 22(4): 382-386, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975609


Abstract Introduction Intraoperative parathyroid hormone (ioPTH) testing is a widely accepted standard for assessing the parathyroid gland function. A decline of preoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels by more than 50% is one accepted measure of parathyroid surgery adequacy. However, there may be a variation between preoperative PTH levels obtained at a clinic visit and pre-excisional ioPTH. Objective Our study explores the differences between preoperative PTH and pre-excisional ioPTH levels, and the potential impact this difference has on determining the adequacy of parathyroid surgery. Methods A retrospective study that consisted of 33 patients that had undergone parathyroid resection between September 2009 and March 2016 at a tertiary academic center was performed. Each subject's preoperative PTH levels were obtained from clinic visits and pre-excisional ioPTH levels were recorded along with the time interval between the measurements. Results There was a significant difference between the mean preoperative PTH and the pre-excisional ioPTH levels of 147 pg/mL (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.43 to 284.47; p= 0.0396). The exclusion of four outliers revealed a further significant difference with a mean of 35.09 pg/mL (95% CI 20.27 to 49.92; p< 0.0001). The average time interval between blood draws was 48 days + 32 days. A weak correlation between the change in PTH values and the time interval between preoperative and pre-excision blood draws was noted (r2 = 0.15). Conclusion Our study reveals a significant difference between the preoperative PTH levels obtained at clinic visits and the pre-excisional intraoperative PTH levels. We recommend routine pre-excisional intraoperative PTH levels, despite evidence of elevated preoperative PTH levels, in order to more accurately assess the adequacy of surgical resection.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Parathyroid Hormone/blood , Monitoring, Intraoperative , Parathyroidectomy , Parathyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Immunoassay , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Preoperative Period , Hyperparathyroidism/surgery , Intraoperative Period
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 68(6): 645-649, Nov.-Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977409


Abstract Introduction: Advanced hepatic disease may - in addition to the widely recognized hemorrhagic complications - occur with thrombotic events. We describe the case of a cirrhotic patient taking warfarin and whose coagulation management during liver transplantation was guided by thromboelastometry (ROTEM®). Case report: A 56 year-old male patient diagnosed with alcohol cirrhosis using warfarin (2.5−1) for partial portal vein thrombosis with the International Normalized Ratio (INR) of 2.14. At the beginning of surgery, the ROTEM® parameters were all normal. In the anhepatic phase, EXTEM and INTEM remained normal, but FIBTEM showed reduction of amplitude after 10 min and maximum clot firmness. Finally, in the neohepatic phase, there was a slight alteration in the hypocoagulability of most of the parameters of the EXTEM, INTEM and FIBTEM, besides a notable correction of the Coagulation Time (CT) in HEPTEM compared to the CT of the INTEM. Therefore, the patient did not receive any transfusion of blood products during surgery and in the postoperative period, being discharged on the 8th postoperative day. Discussion: Coagulation deficit resulting from cirrhosis distorts INR as a parameter of anticoagulation adequacy and as a determinant of the need for blood transfusion. Thus, thromboelastometry can provide important information for patient management.

Resumo Introdução: A doença hepática avançada pode, além das complicações hemorrágicas amplamente reconhecidas, ocorrer com eventos trombóticos. Descrevemos o caso de um paciente cirrótico em uso de varfarina, cujo manejo da coagulação durante o transplante de fígado foi guiado por tromboelastometria (ROTEM®). Relato de caso: Paciente do sexo masculino, 56 anos, diagnosticado com cirrose alcoólica, recebendo varfarina (2,5 mg.dia−1) para trombose parcial da veia porta, com razão normalizada internacional (INR) de 2,14. No início da cirurgia, os parâmetros ROTEM® estavam todos normais. Na fase não hepática, EXTEM e INTEM permaneceram normais, mas FIBTEM mostrou redução da amplitude após 10 min e firmeza máxima do coágulo. Por fim, na fase neo-hepática houve uma ligeira alteração da hipocoagulabilidade na maioria dos parâmetros de EXTEM, INTEM e FIBTEM, além de uma correção notável do tempo de coagulação (CT) de HEPTEM em comparação com o CT de INTEM. Portanto, o paciente não recebeu transfusão de hemoderivados durante a cirurgia e no período pós-operatório, obteve alta no oitavo dia de pós-operatório. Discussão: O déficit de coagulação resultante da cirrose distorce o INR como um parâmetro da adequação da anticoagulação e como um determinante da necessidade de transfusão de sangue. Portanto, a tromboelastometria pode fornecer informações importantes para o manejo do paciente.

Humans , Male , Thrombelastography , Warfarin/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation , Monitoring, Intraoperative/methods , Liver Transplantation , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Liver Cirrhosis/surgery , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/blood , Middle Aged
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(5): 469-475, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977461


Abstract Objective: To evaluate the sequential changes of hemodynamic and metabolic parameters in patients who underwent aorta no-touch off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB). Methods: Prospective study involving twenty-seven consecutive patients who underwent aorta no-touch OPCAB. The FloTrac/PreSep/Vigileo™ system (Edwards Lifesciences) was used to continuously record heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), central venous pressure (CVP), continuous cardiac index (FCI), stroke volume (SV), stroke volume variation (SVV), and central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2). The parameters were assessed 5 min before, during and 5 min after each anastomosis (left anterior descending [LAD], posterior descending [PD], obtuse marginal [OM] and diagonal [Dg]). Postoperative lactate was also evaluated. Results: There was no significant change in HR and MABP for all anastomoses, except for MABP during PD grafting (-10.1±2.7 mmHg, P=0.03). There was a significant decrease in ScvO2 only during PD and OM anastomoses (-9.4±0.4, P=0.03; -4.4±0.4, P=0.02; respectively). CVP drop after PD manipulation was strongly associated with a higher lactate during the first hours after surgery (r=-0.82; P=0.001). These hemodynamic changes were transient and entirely recovered after the heart was returned to its anatomical position. No significant differences were observed in FCI, SVV, or the systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) during all anastomoses, except for a drop in SVRI during PD grafting (-8.03±2.3, P=0.007). SV tended to decrease during the procedure in all territories, but with statistically significant drop only in PD and OM grafting (-10.4±1.2, P=0.02; -13.6±5.1, P=0.007; respectively). Conclusion: Heart displacement for performing aorta no-touch OPCAB is well tolerated, with transient and endurable hemodynamic variations.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Stroke Volume/physiology , Blood Pressure/physiology , Anastomosis, Surgical/methods , Coronary Disease/surgery , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Monitoring, Intraoperative , Treatment Outcome , Coronary Disease/physiopathology , Hemodynamics
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 68(2): 142-148, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897828


Abstract Background and objectives: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction is common after cardiac surgery. Adequate cerebral perfusion is essential and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can measure cerebral oxygenation. Aim of this study is to compare incidence of early and late postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients treated with conventional or near infrared spectroscopy monitoring. Methods: Patients undergoing coronary surgery above 60 years, were included and randomized to 2 groups; control and NIRS groups. Peroperative management was NIRS guided in GN; and with conventional approach in control group. Test battery was performed before surgery, at first week and 3rd month postoperatively. The battery comprised clock drawing, memory, word list generation, digit spam and visuospatial skills subtests. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction was defined as drop of 1 SD (standard deviation) from baseline on two or more tests. Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of quantitative measurements; Chi-square exact test to compare quantitative data. Results: Twenty-one patients in control group and 19 in NIRS group completed study. Demographic and operative data were similar. At first week postoperative cognitive dysfunction were present in 9 (45%) and 7 (41%) of patients in control group and NIRS group respectively. At third month 10 patients (50%) were assessed as postoperative cognitive dysfunction; incidence was 4 (24%) in NIRS group (p:0.055). Early and late postoperative cognitive dysfunction group had significantly longer ICU stay (1.74 + 0.56 vs. 2.94 + 0.95; p < 0.001; 1.91 + 0.7 vs. 2.79 + 1.05; p < 0.01) and longer hospital stay (9.19 + 2.8 vs. 11.88 + 1.7; p < 0.01; 9.48 + 2.6 vs. 11.36 + 2.4; p < 0.05). Conclusion: In this pilot study conventional monitoring and near infrared spectroscopy resulted in similar rates of early postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Late cognitive dysfunction tended to ameliorate with near infrared spectroscopy. Early and late cognitive declines were associated with prolonged ICU and hospital stays.

Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: A disfunção cognitiva no pós-operatório é comum após cirurgia cardíaca. A perfusão cerebral adequada é essencial e a espectroscopia no infravermelho próximo (NIRS) pode medir a oxigenação cerebral. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a incidência de disfunção cognitiva no pós-operatório, precoce e tardio, em pacientes idosos tratados com monitoração convencional ou espectroscopia no infravermelho próximo. Métodos: Os pacientes submetidos à cirurgia coronariana, acima de 60 anos, foram incluídos e randomicamente alocados em dois grupos: grupo controle e grupo NIRS. O manejo dos pacientes no período perioperatório foi feito com NIRS no grupo NH e com abordagem convencional no grupo controle A bateria de testes foi feita antes da cirurgia, na primeira semana e no terceiro mês de pós-operatório. A bateria incluiu o desenho do relógio, a memória, a geração de uma lista de palavras, a sequência de dígitos e subtestes que exigem habilidades visuoespaciais.Disfunção cognitiva no pós-operatório foi definida como queda de um DP (desvio-padrão) da fase basal em dois ou mais testes. O teste U de Mann Whitney foi usado para comparação de medidas quantitativa e o teste exato do qui-quadrado para comparar dados quantitativos. Resultados: Vinte e um pacientes do grupo controle e 19 do grupo NIRS concluíram o estudo. Os dados demográficos e operacionais foram semelhantes. Na primeira semana, nove pacientes (45%) do GC e sete pacientes (41%) do grupo NIRS apresentaram disfunção cognitiva no pós-operatório. No terceiro mês, 10 pacientes (50%) foram avaliados como disfunção cognitiva no pós-operatório; a incidência foi de quatro (24%) no grupo NIRS (p = 0,055). O grupo que apresentou disfunção cognitiva no pós-operatório precoce e tardio teve uma permanência significativamente maior na UTI (1,74 + 0,56 vs. 2,94 + 0,95; p < 0,001; 1,91 + 0,7 vs. 2,79 + 1,05; p < 0,01) e permanência hospitalar mais longa (9,19 + 2,8 vs. 11,88 + 1,7; p < 0,01; 9,48 + 2,6 vs. 11,36 + 2,4; p < 0,05). Conclusão: Neste estudo piloto, a monitoração convencional e a espectroscopia no infravermelho próximo resultaram em taxas semelhantes de disfunção cognitiva no pós-operatório precoce. A disfunção cognitiva tardia tende a melhorar com espectroscopia no infravermelho próximo. Os declínios cognitivos precoces e tardios foram associados a internações prolongadas tanto em UTI quanto hospitalares.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Oxygen/metabolism , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Brain/metabolism , Coronary Artery Bypass , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/therapy , Time Factors , Pilot Projects , Incidence , Monitoring, Intraoperative , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Cognitive Dysfunction/therapy , Middle Aged
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 94(1): 76-81, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894093


Abstract Objective: Several reports claim that blood pressure (BP) in the radial artery may underestimate the accurate BP in critically ill patients. Here, the authors evaluated differences in mean blood pressure (MBP) between the radial and femoral artery during pediatric cardiac surgery to determine the effectiveness of femoral arterial BP monitoring. Method: The medical records of children under 1 year of age who underwent open-heart surgery between 2007 and 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Radial and femoral BP were measured simultaneously, and the differences between these values were analyzed at various times: after catheter insertion, after the initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB-on), after aortic cross clamping (ACC), after the release of ACC, after weaning from CPB, at arrival in the intensive care unit (ICU), and every 6 h during the first day in the ICU. Results: A total of 121 patients who underwent open-heart surgery met the inclusion criteria. During the intraoperative period, from the beginning to the end of CPB, radial MBPs were significantly lower than femoral MBPs at each time-point measured (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that longer CPB time (>60 min, odds ratio: 7.47) was a risk factor for lower radial pressure. However, discrepancies between these two values disappeared after arrival in the ICU. There was no incidence of ischemic complications associated with the catheterization of both arteries. Conclusion: The authors suggest that femoral arterial pressure monitoring can be safely performed, even in neonates, and provides more accurate BP values during CPB-on periods, and immediately after weaning from CPB, especially when CPB time was greater than 60 min.

Resumo Objetivo: Diversos relatos alegam que a pressão arterial (PA) na artéria radial poderá subestimar a PA precisa em pacientes gravemente doentes. Aqui, avaliamos diferenças na pressão arterial média (PAM) entre a artéria radial e femoral durante cirurgia cardíaca pediátrica para determinar a eficácia do monitoramento da PA da artéria femoral. Método: Realizamos uma análise retrospectiva de prontuários médicos de crianças com menos de 1 ano de idade submetidas a cirurgia de coração aberto entre 2007 e 2013. As PAs radial e femoral foram auferidas simultaneamente, as diferenças entre esses valores foram analisadas diversas vezes: após a inserção do cateter, após o início do bypass cardiopulmonar (CPB-on), após pinçamento cruzado da aorta (ACC), após a liberação do ACC, após desmame do CPB, na entrada na unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI) e a cada 6 horas durante o primeiro dia na unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI). Resultados: Um total de 121 pacientes submetidos a cirurgia de coração aberto atenderam aos nossos critérios de inclusão. Durante o transoperatório, do início ao término do CPB, as PAMs da artéria radial foram significativamente menores do que as PAMs da artéria femoral em cada ponto de medição (p < 0,05). A análise multivariada mostrou que a duração mais longa do CPB (> 60 minutos, Razão de Chance = 7,47) representou um fator de risco de pressão radial mais baixa. Contudo, as diferenças entre esses dois valores desapareceram após a entrada na UTI. Não houve incidência de complicações isquêmicas associadas à cateterização de ambas as artérias. Conclusão: Sugerimos que o monitoramento da pressão arterial femoral pode ser realizado com segurança, mesmo em neonatos, e fornece valores da PA mais precisos durante períodos de CPBon e imediatamente após o desmame do CPB, principalmente nos casos em que a duração do CPB foi superior a 60 minutos.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Cardiopulmonary Bypass , Monitoring, Intraoperative/methods , Radial Artery/physiology , Femoral Artery/physiology , Arterial Pressure/physiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Retrospective Studies