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Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1512-1532, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010641


The histone methyltransferase enhancer of zeste 2 polycomb repressive complex 2 subunit (EZH2)-mediated trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) regulates neural stem cell proliferation and fate specificity through silencing different gene sets in the central nervous system. Here, we explored the function of EZH2 in early post-mitotic neurons by generating a neuron-specific Ezh2 conditional knockout mouse line. The results showed that a lack of neuronal EZH2 led to delayed neuronal migration, more complex dendritic arborization, and increased dendritic spine density. Transcriptome analysis revealed that neuronal EZH2-regulated genes are related to neuronal morphogenesis. In particular, the gene encoding p21-activated kinase 3 (Pak3) was identified as a target gene suppressed by EZH2 and H3K27me3, and expression of the dominant negative Pak3 reversed Ezh2 knockout-induced higher dendritic spine density. Finally, the lack of neuronal EZH2 resulted in impaired memory behaviors in adult mice. Our results demonstrated that neuronal EZH2 acts to control multiple steps of neuronal morphogenesis during development, and has long-lasting effects on cognitive function in adult mice.

Animals , Mice , Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 Protein/metabolism , Histone Methyltransferases/metabolism , Histones/genetics , Morphogenesis , Neuronal Plasticity , Neurons/metabolism
Biol. Res ; 56: 10-10, 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429911


BACKGROUND: The biological tube is a basal biology structure distributed in all multicellular animals, from worms to humans, and has diverse biological functions. Formation of tubular system is crucial for embryogenesis and adult metabolism. Ascidian Ciona notochord lumen is an excellent in vivo model for tubulogenesis. Exocytosis has been known to be essential for tubular lumen formation and expansion. The roles of endocytosis in tubular lumen expansion remain largely unclear. RESULTS: In this study, we first identified a dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1 (DYRK1), the protein kinase, which was upregulated and required for ascidian notochord extracellular lumen expansion. We demonstrated that DYRK1 interacted with and phosphorylated one of the endocytic components endophilin at Ser263 that was essential for notochord lumen expansion. Moreover, through phosphoproteomic sequencing, we revealed that in addition to endophilin, the phosphorylation of other endocytic components was also regulated by DYRK1. The loss of function of DYRK1 disturbed endocytosis. Then, we demonstrated that clathrin-mediated endocytosis existed and was required for notochord lumen expansion. In the meantime, the results showed that the secretion of noto-chord cells is vigorous in the apical membrane. CONCLUSIONS: We found the co-existence of endocytosis and exocytosis activities in apical membrane during lumen formation and expansion in Ciona notochord. A novel signaling pathway is revealed that DYRK1 regulates the endocytosis by phosphorylation that is required for lumen expansion. Our finding thus indicates a dynamic balance between endocytosis and exocytosis is crucial to maintain apical membrane homeostasis that is essential for lumen growth and expansion in tubular organogenesis.

Humans , Animals , Ciona intestinalis/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Embryonic Development , Morphogenesis , Notochord/metabolism
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 422023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1536303


Introducción: Pese al incremento en conocimientos de la morfogénesis cardiaca humana, se conoce poco sobre los detalles cuantitativos en ello. Objetivo: Describir cuantitativamente el desarrollo del miocardio ventricular compacto y no compacto y su correlación con la longitud cráneo rabadilla. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, transversal en 18 embriones humanos de los estadios 17 al 23 de Carnegie, pertenecientes a la Embrioteca de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Villa Clara. Se midió la longitud del embrión, el grosor del miocardio compacto, trabecular y total en la pared lateral de ambos ventrículos y del vértice cardiaco. Resultados: El grosor de la pared lateral del miocardio compacto aumenta en ambos ventrículos desde los estadios 17 al 23 de Carnegie, de 0,06 mm hasta 0,17 mm en el derecho y de 0,09 mm hasta 0,23 mm en el izquierdo. El grosor de la pared lateral trabeculada disminuye con el avance de los estadios, de 0,43 mm a 0,34 mm en el derecho y de 0,45 mm a 0,37 mm en el izquierdo. El grosor de la pared lateral total aumenta de 0,48 mm a 0,51 mm en el ventrículo derecho y de 0,52 mm a 0,62 mm en el izquierdo. El grosor de la pared del vértice compacto aumenta de 0,19 mm a 0,25 mm. Conclusiones: La compactación de la pared ventricular aumenta con el desarrollo; la longitud cráneo raquis se relaciona con el grosor del miocardio ventricular(AU)

Introduction: Despite the increase in knowledge of human morphogenesis, especially cardiogenesis and the processes by which the morphology of the ventricular myocardium is defined, little is known about the quantitative details in it. Objectives: To quantitatively describe the development of compact and non-compact ventricular myocardium and its correlation with cranio-rump length. Methods: descriptive, cross-sectional study in 18 human embryos from Carnegie stages 17 to 23, belonging to the Embryoteca of the Villa Clara University of Medical Sciences. The length of the embryo, the thickness of the compact, trabecular and total myocardium were measured in the lateral wall of both ventricles and the cardiac apex. Results: The thickness of the lateral wall of the compact myocardium increases in both ventricles from Carnegie stages 17 to 23, from 0.06 mm to 0.17 mm in the right and from 0.09 to 0.23 mm in the left ventricles. The thickness of the trabeculated lateral wall decreases with the advancement of the stages, from 0.43 mm to 0.34 mm in the right and from 0.45 mm to 0.37 mm in the left. The total lateral wall thickness increases from 0.48 mm to 0.51 mm in the right ventricle and from 0.52 mm to 0.62 mm in the left. The wall thickness of the compact vertex increases from 0.19 mm to 0.25 mm. Conclusions: Ventricular wall compaction increases with development; the cranio-spinal length is related to the thickness of the ventricular myocardium(AU)

Humans , Embryonic Structures/embryology , Heart Ventricles/embryology , Morphogenesis/physiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(6): 1413-1421, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355684


The objective this study was to identify differences in the morphogenic patterns of four Urochloa brizantha cultivars (marandu, piatã, xaraés and paiaguás grasses) during the stockpiling period. A completely randomized design was used, with three replications, in experimental plots of 9m². The evaluations took place over 2 years. The grasses were stockpiled for 92 (Year 1) and 95 (Year 2) days. The leaf appearance rate of paiaguás grass was higher, compared to other grasses. In Year 1, the stem elongation rate of xaraés grass was higher than other grasses. At the end of stockpiling period of Year 1, the tiller population density (TPD) was higher in the paiaguás grass, intermediate in the xaraés and marandu grasses and lower in the piatã grass. At the end of the stockpiling period in Year 2, TPD was higher in the paiaguás grass canopy, intermediate in the marandu and piatã grasses canopies, and lower in the xaraés grass canopy. Paiaguás grass has greater leaf growth during the stockpiling period and is therefore suitable for use under stockpiled grazing. Xaraés grass has high stem elongation during the stockpiling period, which is why its use under stockpiled grazing must be accompanied by adjustments in pasture management.(AU)

O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar diferenças nos padrões morfogênicos de quatro cultivares de Urochloa brizantha (marandu, piatã, xaraés e paiaguás) durante o período de diferimento. Foi utilizado o delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com três repetições, em parcelas experimentais de 9m². As avaliações ocorreram por dois anos. Os capins foram diferidos por 92 (Ano 1) e 95 (Ano 2) dias. A taxa de aparecimento foliar do capim-paiaguás foi maior, em comparação aos demais capins. No Ano 1, a taxa de alongamento do colmo do capim-xaraés foi superior aos demais capins. No final do diferimento do Ano 1, a densidade populacional de perfilho (DPP) foi maior no capim-paiaguás, intermediária nos capins xaraés e marandu e inferior no capim-piatã. No fim do período de diferimento do Ano 2, a DPP foi superior no dossel de capim-paiaguás, intermediária nos dosséis dos capins marandu e piatã, e menor no dossel de capim-xaraés. O capim-paiaguás tem maior crescimento foliar durante o período de diferimento, sendo, portanto, apropriado para uso sob pastejo diferido. O capim-xaraés apresenta elevado alongamento de colmo durante o período de diferimento, razão pela qual seu uso sob pastejo diferido deve vir acompanhado de ajustes no manejo da pastagem.(AU)

Plant Stems , Brachiaria/growth & development , Morphogenesis/physiology
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 27(1): 92-95, ene.-jun. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280498


Resumen Las malformaciones venosas son lesiones vasculares benignas infrecuentes que se presentan en el útero. Están conformadas por venas anormales, de diferentes tamaños y proporciones, con configuración espongiforme y disposición al azar. En la literatura, han sido previamente reportados algunos casos, usando el término "hemangioma cavernoso", pero según los cambios recientes en la terminología, aprobados por Sociedad Internacional para el Estudio de las Anormalidades Vasculares (ISSVA), se desaconseja el uso de este término y se sugiere el de "Malformación venosa", si se cumplen los hallazgos histopatológicos al momento de hacer el diagnóstico. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 44 años, con cuadro de hemorragia vaginal anormal y diagnóstico clínico de miomatosis y mioma abortado por el orificio cervical interno, el estudio histopatológico reveló la presencia de una malformación venosa que comprometía el miometrio y endometrio, con formación subsecuente de un pólipo.

Abstract Venous malformations are benign vascular lesions that rarely appear in the uterus. They are made up of abnormal veins, of different sizes and proportions, with spongiform configuration and random disposition. In the literature, some cases have been previously reported, using the term "cavernous hemangioma", but according to recent changes in terminology, approved by the International Society for the Study of Vascular Abnormalities (ISSVA), the use of this term is discouraged, and the diagnosis of Venous malformation is suggested, if the histopathological findings are met. We present the case of a 44-year-old woman, with abnormal vaginal bleeding and a clinical diagnosis of myomatosis and myoma aborted by the internal cervical orifice, in whom the histopathological study revealed the presence of a venous malformation that compromised the myometrium and endometrium, with subsequent formation of a polyp.

Humans , Female , Adult , Uterus , Vascular Malformations , Hemangioma, Cavernous , Uterus/pathology , Vascular System Injuries , Hemangioma , Morphogenesis
Int. j. morphol ; 39(1): 95-101, feb. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385331


RESUMEN: El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar los efectos de la actividad locomotriz voluntaria gestacional, como un tipo de entrenamiento físico, sobre la morfología de la bomba cardíaca de la cría, en modelo murino de la cepa CF-1. 12 hembras gestantes fueron divididas aleatoriamente en un grupo control y un grupo que realizó actividad locomotriz voluntaria, accediendo a una rueda de actividad durante los primero 12 días de gestación. Se evaluó la morfología cardiaca mediante cortes transversales, midiendo espesor y área de las paredes del ventrículo derecho, ventrículo izquierdo y septum, tanto en valores absolutos como en valores relativos a la masa corporal del individuo. Se observó que la masa corporal de las crías control (GC) fue significativamente mayor que las del grupo cuyas hembras accedieron a la rueda de actividad (GE) (p<0.01). Solo hubo diferencias en los valores absolutos de espesores y áreas miocárdicas de ventrículo derecho, entre el grupo GE y GC (p<0.05), pero al evaluar los espesores y áreas relativos a la masa corporal se observó que las crías del grupo GE presentaron espesores y áreas significativamente mayores que las que grupo GC (p<0.01). En conclusión, la actividad física gestacional altera el desarrollo morfológico de la bomba cardíaca en ratones CF-1, aumentando significativamente el espesor y área de las paredes miocárdicas en relación a la masa corporal total de la cría.

SUMMARY: The objective of the present study is to analyze the effects of gestational voluntary locomotor activity, as a type of physical training, on the morphology of the offspring´s heart pump, in a murine model of the CF-1 strain. Twelve (12) pregnant females were randomly divided in a control group and a group performing voluntary locomotor activity, by accessing an activity wheel during the first 12 days of gestation. Cardiac morphology was evaluated using cross sections, measuring thickness and area of the walls of the right ventricle, left ventricle, and septum, both in absolute values and values relative to the individual's body mass. It was observed that the body mass of the control pups (CG) was significantly higher than those of the group whose females accessed the activity wheel (GE) (p <0.01). Differences were observed only in absolute values of thickness and myocardial areas of the right ventricle, between the GE and GC group (p <0.05). However, when evaluating the thickness and areas relative to body mass, it was observed that the offspring of the GE group presented thicknesses and areas significantly larger than those in the GC group (p <0.01). In conclusion, gestational physical activity alters the morphological development of the heart pump in CF-1 mice, significantly increasing the thickness and area of the myocardial walls in relation to offspring total body mass.

Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Mice , Exercise/physiology , Heart Ventricles/anatomy & histology , Heart Ventricles/growth & development , Heart/anatomy & histology , Heart/growth & development , Locomotion/physiology , Morphogenesis
International Journal of Oral Science ; (4): 7-7, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880861


Tooth root morphogenesis involves two biological processes, root elongation and dentinogenesis, which are guaranteed by downgrowth of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) and normal odontoblast differentiation. Ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation has been reported to precisely regulate various physiological processes, while its role in tooth development is still elusive. Here we show ubiquitin-specific protease 34 (USP34) plays a pivotal role in root formation. Deletion of Usp34 in dental mesenchymal cells leads to short root anomaly, characterized by truncated roots and thin root dentin. The USP34-deficient dental pulp cells (DPCs) exhibit decreased odontogenic differentiation with downregulation of nuclear factor I/C (NFIC). Overexpression of NFIC partially restores the impaired odontogenic potential of DPCs. These findings indicate that USP34-dependent deubiquitination is critical for root morphogenesis by stabilizing NFIC.

Female , Cell Differentiation , Morphogenesis , NFI Transcription Factors , Odontogenesis , Tooth Root
International Journal of Oral Science ; (4): 4-4, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880858


During embryonic development, organs undergo distinct and programmed morphological changes as they develop into their functional forms. While genetics and biochemical signals are well recognized regulators of morphogenesis, mechanical forces and the physical properties of tissues are now emerging as integral parts of this process as well. These physical factors drive coordinated cell movements and reorganizations, shape and size changes, proliferation and differentiation, as well as gene expression changes, and ultimately sculpt any developing structure by guiding correct cellular architectures and compositions. In this review we focus on several craniofacial structures, including the tooth, the mandible, the palate, and the cranium. We discuss the spatiotemporal regulation of different mechanical cues at both the cellular and tissue scales during craniofacial development and examine how tissue mechanics control various aspects of cell biology and signaling to shape a developing craniofacial organ.

Cell Differentiation , Morphogenesis , Signal Transduction , Skull , Tooth
Biol. Res ; 54: 17-17, 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1505810


BACKGROUND: The MVD gene mutations are identified in porokeratosis, which is considered a skin-specific autoin- flammatory keratinization disease. However, the biological function of MVD gene remains largely unknown. Therefore, we analyzed the function of mvda gene, orthologous to the human MVD gene, in developing zebrafish. METHODS: Morpholino antisense oligonucleotide technique was used to generate mvda loss-of-function phenotypes. Knockdown of mvda was confirmed by RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were performed to analyze the morphology of the epidermis. Angiogenesis study was presented using the Tg(fli1a:EGFP)yl transgenic strain. In addition, acridine orange staining was used to examine the apoptotic cells in vivo. RESULTS: As expected, the mvda morphants showed abnormal morphology of the epidermis. Moreover, we observed ectopic sprouts in trunk angiogenesis and impaired formation of the caudal vein plexus in the mvda-deficient zebrafish. Besides, increased apoptosis was found throughout the tail, heart, and eyes in mvda zebrafish morphants. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicated the essential role of mvda in the early development of zebrafish. This was the first in vivo knockdown study of the zebrafish mvda gene, which might offer insight into the biological function of the human MVD gene.

Humans , Animals , Zebrafish/genetics , Phenotype , Animals, Genetically Modified , Cell Differentiation , Morphogenesis/genetics
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 90-99, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828531


Neurons are the structural and functional unit of the nervous system. Precisely regulated dendrite morphogenesis is the basis of neural circuit assembly. Numerous studies have been conducted to explore the regulatory mechanisms of dendritic morphogenesis. According to their action regions, we divide them into two categories: the intrinsic and extrinsic regulators of neuronal dendritic morphogenesis. Intrinsic factors are cell type-specific transcription factors, actin polymerization or depolymerization regulators and regulators of the secretion or endocytic pathways. These intrinsic factors are produced by neuron itself and play an important role in regulating the development of dendrites. The extrinsic regulators are either secreted proteins or transmembrane domain containing cell adhesion molecules. They often form receptor-ligand pairs to mediate attractive or repulsive dendritic guidance. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the intrinsic and external molecular mechanisms of dendrite morphogenesis from multiple model organisms, including , and mice. These studies will provide a better understanding on how defective dendrite development and maintenance are associated with neurological diseases.

Animals , Mice , Caenorhabditis elegans , Cell Biology , Dendrites , Morphogenesis , Nervous System Diseases , Neurons , Cell Biology , Transcription Factors , Metabolism
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190578, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | BBO, LILACS | ID: biblio-1101256


Abstract Objective This study sought to analyze the gene expression of Candida albicans in sound root surface and root caries lesions, exploring its role in root caries pathogenesis. Methodology The differential gene expression of C. albicans and the specific genes related to cariogenic traits were studied in association with samples of biofilm collected from exposed sound root surface (SRS, n=10) and from biofilm and carious dentin of active root carious lesions (RC, n=9). The total microbial RNA was extracted, and the cDNA libraries were prepared and sequenced on the Illumina Hi-Seq2500. Unique reads were mapped to 163 oral microbial reference genomes including two chromosomes of C. albicans SC5314 (14,217 genes). The putative presence of C. albicans was estimated (sum of reads/total number of genes≥1) in each sample. Count data were normalized (using the DESeq method package) to analyze differential gene expression (using the DESeq2R package) applying the Benjamini-Hochberg correction (FDR<0.05). Results Two genes (CaO19.610, FDR=0.009; CaO19.2506, FDR=0.018) were up-regulated on SRS, and their functions are related to biofilm formation. Seven genes ( UTP20 , FDR=0.018; ITR1 , FDR=0.036; DHN6 , FDR=0.046; CaO19.7197 , FDR=0.046; CaO19.7838 , FDR=0.046; STT4 , FDR=0.046; GUT1 , FDR=0.046) were up-regulated on RC and their functions are related to metabolic activity, sugar transport, stress tolerance, invasion and pH regulation. The use of alternative carbon sources, including lactate, and the ability to form hypha may be a unique trait of C. albicans influencing biofilm virulence. Conclusions C. albicans is metabolically active in SRS and RC biofilm, with different roles in health and disease.

Humans , Tooth Root/microbiology , Candida albicans/genetics , DNA, Fungal/genetics , Root Caries/microbiology , Biofilms/growth & development , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Candida albicans/growth & development , Gene Expression , Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal , Up-Regulation , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Transcriptome , Morphogenesis
CorSalud ; 11(4): 307-316, oct.-dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124629


RESUMEN Las cardiopatías congénitas son los defectos congénitos más frecuentes en los seres humanos. Se realizó una revisión de la literatura médica con el objetivo de identificar los avances más recientes en el conocimiento de las bases moleculares y celulares de las cardiopatías congénitas. La información obtenida se dividió en dos partes: en la primera se dirigió la atención a los genes y a la morfogénesis cardíaca, y esta segunda parte la complementa, haciendo hincapié en las cardiopatías congénitas propiamente dichas.

ABSTRACT Congenital heart defect is the most common birth defect in humans. We conducted a review of the medical literature with the aim of identifying the most recent advances in the knowledge of its molecular and cellular bases. The information obtained was divided into two parts: the first one emphasized on genes and cardiac morphogenesis, and this second part complements the previous one, with special focus on congenital heart defects.

Transcription Factors , Signal Transduction , DNA Methylation , Heart Defects, Congenital , Morphogenesis
CorSalud ; 11(3): 233-240, jul.-set. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089742


RESUMEN Las cardiopatías congénitas son los defectos congénitos más frecuentes en humanos. Muchos estudios indican que el desarrollo cardíaco está estrechamente regulado por diferentes vías de señalización celular y eventos morfológicos, genéticamente controlados. La identificación de nuevos genes que intervienen en el proceso de cardiogénesis es de gran utilidad para conocer los mecanismos moleculares y celulares por el que se genera el amplio espectro fenotípico de las cardiopatías congénitas. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica, con el objetivo de identificar los avances más recientes en el conocimiento de las bases moleculares y celulares de las cardiopatías congénitas; lo que permite una clasificación más efectiva de estos defectos congénitos y una futura optimización del tratamiento individualizado para cada paciente, además de ofrecer posibles puntos específicos y susceptibles de intervención que posibilitarían la prevención de algunos de los defectos congénitos más frecuentes en los seres humanos.

ABSTARACT Congenital heart diseases are the most common congenital defect in humans. Many studies indicate that the cardiac development is tightly regulated by different cell signaling pathways and genetically controlled morphological events. The identification of new genes involved in the cardiogenesis process is very useful in order to know the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which the broad phenotypic spectrum of congenital heart disease is generated. An updated bibliographic review was carried out, with the aim of identifying the most recent advances in the knowledge of the molecular and cellular bases of congenital heart disease. This knowledge allows a more effective classification of these congenital defects and a future optimization of the individualized treatment for each patient, in addition to offering possible specific and susceptible points of intervention that would allow the prevention of some of these more frequent congenital defects in humans.

Heart Defects, Congenital , Transcription Factors , Signal Transduction , DNA Methylation , Morphogenesis
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4402, 01 Fevereiro 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-998038


Objective: To evaluate of the microstructure of the salivary glands of experimental animals born from of females rats, who were subjected to different modes of motor activity during the pregnancy: limited and compensated by regular moderate training. Material and Methods: The sample was composed 84 three-month-old descendants of Wistar rats which were divided into three groups: G1 (n = 27): posterity of female rats, who during gestation were in standard conditions; G2 (n = 25): posterity of female rats, who during pregnancy were in hypokinesia conditions; G3 (n = 32): which stayed in conditions of hypokinesia, but had running load in running wheel regularly 5 times a week. Results: In adult descendants of G2, morphological structure of the submandibular salivary glands was characterized by decrease size and number of glandular cells; reduction of their cytoplasm; increase in heterochromatin amount and decrease in the intensity of fuchsinophilia. Microstructure of the submandibular salivary glands of the offspring of G3 indicates positive effect of regular short-term physical activity on the morphofunctional state of the specified glands. An increased number of tissue basophils in their stroma is also in favor of greater functional activity of salivary glands. Conclusion: This study indicates deceleration of the metabolic processes in salivary glands of animals under the influence of hypokinesia of their mothers during pregnancy. It was also confirmed that regular physical activity completely eliminates the negative effect of mothers' hypokinesia on morphology the salivary glands of the descendant.

Animals , Pregnancy , Rats , Salivary Glands , Submandibular Gland , Morphological and Microscopic Findings , Morphogenesis , Motor Activity , Ukraine , Pregnancy , Rats, Wistar , Hypokinesia , Animal Experimentation
Int. j. morphol ; 37(1): 221-226, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-990030


RESUMEN: Para que se desarrolle el iris, se requiere una especificación de la capa periférica de la copa óptica a un destino no neuronal y además la migración de células mesenquimales perioculares. Nuestro objetivo fue reconocer los cambios histológicos de los derivados periféricos de la copa óptica y mesénquima periocular, como también reconocer la presencia del morfógeno Sonic hedgehog (Shh) en las capas que constituyen el esbozo de iris. Se utilizaron 15 ratones hembras (Mus musculus) adultas jóvenes gestantes. Se realizó eutanasia con tiopental sódico. Los embriones y fetos de 12, 14,5 y 17 días post-coital (dpc) fueron procesados con técnica histológica e inmunohistoquímica con anticuerpo anti-Shh (scbt, H-160, conejo) con dilución 1:100 en PBS. A los 12 dpc, se observa una cópa óptica que presenta capas retinianas interna y externa, y el iris no se observa. Entre el cristalino y el ectodermo superficial se identifican 4 capas de células mesenquimales. A los 14,5 dpc, el iris contiene dos capas epiteliales (interna y externa) que se continúan con las capas neural y pigmentaria de la retina. Se observan 8 capas de células mesenquimales. A los 17 dpc, la capa epitelial interna del iris presenta un segmento más elongado con inmunotinción positiva a Shh y otra parte que constituye un epitelio de células cilíndricas simples negativas a este anticuerpo. La capa epitelial externa presenta el mismo epitelio inmunonegativo. Las capas de la retina también son positivas, como también la periferia del cristalino. No esta formado el iris ni tampoco el cuerpo ciliar. La inmunopositividad en el cristalino, en el primer segmento de la capa interna del esbozo del iris y en la capa ganglionar retinal a los 17 dpc, se relaciona con la diferenciación tardía del iris y con los ojos cerrados de las crías al nacimiento.

SUMMARY: In order for the iris to develop, a specification of the peripheral layer of the optic cup to a non-neuronal target is required, as well as the migration of periocular mesenchymal cells. Our aim was to recognize the histological changes of peripheral derivatives of the optic cup and periocular mesenchyme, as well as recognize the presence of the morphogen Sonic hedgehog (Shh) in the layers constituting the outline of the iris. 15 female mice (Mus musculus) pregnant young adults were used. Euthanasia was performed with sodium thiopental. Embryos and fetuses of 12, 14.5 and 17 days post-coital (dpc) were processed with histological and immunohistochemical technique with anti-Shh antibody (scbt, H 160, rabbit) with dilution 1:100 in PBS. At 12 dpc, an optic cup showing internal and external retinal layers is observed, and the iris is not observed. Between the lens and the superficial ectoderm, 4 layers of mesenchymal cells are identified. At 14.5 dpc, the iris contains two epithelial layers (internal and external) that are continued with the neural and pigmentary layers of the retina. 8 layers of mesenchymal cells are observed. At 17 dpc, the inner epithelial layer of the iris presents a more elongated segment with positive immunostaining to Shh and another part that constitutes an epithelium of simple cylindrical cells negative to this antibody. The outer epithelial layer presents the same immunonegative epithelium. The layers of the retina are also positive, as well as the periphery of the lens. The iris is not formed nor is the ciliary body.The immunopositivity in the lens, in the first segment of the inner layer of the iris outline and in the retinal ganglion layer at 17 dpc, is related to the late differentiation of the iris and the closed eyes of the offspring at birth.

Animals , Female , Mice , Iris/embryology , Eye/embryology , Hedgehog Proteins , Iris/anatomy & histology , Eye/anatomy & histology , Morphogenesis
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine ; (6): 631-643, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786673


BACKGROUND: Stem cell engineering is appealing consideration for regenerating damaged endothelial cells (ECs) because stem cells can differentiate into EC-like cells. In this study, we demonstrate that tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells (TMSCs) can differentiate into EC-like cells under optimal physiochemical microenvironments.METHODS: TMSCs were preconditioned with Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) or EC growth medium (EGM) for 4 days and then replating them on Matrigel to observe the formation of a capillary-like network under light microscope. Microarray, quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and immunofluorescence analyses were used to evaluate the expression of gene and protein of EC-related markers.RESULTS: Preconditioning TMSCs in EGM for 4 days and then replating them on Matrigel induced the formation of a capillary-like network in 3 h, but TMSCs preconditioned with DMEM did not form such a network. Genome analyses confirmed that EGM preconditioning significantly affected the expression of genes related to angiogenesis, blood vessel morphogenesis and development, and vascular development. Western blot analyses revealed that EGM preconditioning with gelatin coating induced the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), a mature EC-specific marker, as well as phosphorylated Akt at serine 473, a signaling molecule related to eNOS activation. Gelatin-coating during EGM preconditioning further enhanced the stability of the capillary-like network, and also resulted in the network more closely resembled to those observed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.CONCLUSION: This study suggests that under specific conditions, i.e., EGM preconditioning with gelatin coating for 4 days followed by Matrigel, TMSCs could be a source of generating endothelial cells for treating vascular dysfunction.

Blood Vessels , Blotting, Western , Eagles , Endothelial Cells , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Gelatin , Genome , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Morphogenesis , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Palatine Tonsil , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Serine , Stem Cells
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 17(1): e170168, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-990194


Morphological characters of species are essential for assessing the functional structure of a fish assemblage, since differences between them, for example in body shape, are related to many functional and ecological traits (e.g., swimming, search for food, striking and capturing prey, evading predators, spawning). Globally, tidal flats are relevant to fish assemblages by offering feeding, refuge, and reproduction grounds. To analyze the morphofunctional structure of the fish assemblage from a tidal flat on the Brazilian coast, we conducted standardized sampling using nine different fishing gears. The geometric morphometric method was applied to describe the fish shapes and verify the morphological structure of the assemblage. Here, we present the influence/susceptibility of each gear type on the morphological diversity of the fish assemblage. The results indicated that beach seine, otter trawl, marginal encircling gillnet, and fish traps, together, were the most effective gears to represent the maximum morphological variability of fish inhabiting that tidal flat. Moreover, the assemblage showed high morphological redundancy considered as a resistance of the ecosystem for avoiding functional diversity loss, emphasizing the importance of complementary gear use when determining fish assemblages in a conservation context.(AU)

Os caracteres morfológicos das espécies são essenciais para avaliar a estrutura funcional de uma assembleia de peixes, uma vez que as diferenças entre elas são indicativas de distintas características ecológicas. De forma geral, as planícies de maré são importantes para assembleias de peixes por oferecerem áreas para alimentação, refúgio e reprodução. Para analisar a estrutura morfofuncional da assembleia de peixes de uma planície de maré na costa brasileira, realizamos amostragens utilizando nove diferentes artes de pesca. Para descrever as formas dos peixes e verificar a diversidade morfológica da assembleia foi aplicado o método de morfometria geométrica. Aqui, apresentamos a influência/suscetibilidade de cada arte de pesca na composição morfológica da assembleia de peixes, uma vez que a forma do corpo está relacionada a diversos aspectos funcionais e ecológicos (como por exemplo nadar, procurar ativamente por comida, atacar e capturar presas, evadir de predadores, se reproduzir). Os resultados indicaram que o arrasto de praia, o arrasto de fundo, a rede de emalhar marginal e as armadilhas, em conjunto, foram os apetrechos mais efetivos para representar a máxima diversidade morfológica dos peixes que habitam esta planície de maré. Além disso, a assembleia apresentou elevada redundância morfológica, fato que indica resistência deste ecossistema para evitar a perda de diversidade funcional.(AU)

Animals , Fishes/anatomy & histology , Morphogenesis , Fishing Industry
Journal of Dental Anesthesia and Pain Medicine ; : 11-19, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739999


Hyaluronic acid (HA) has long been studied in diverse applications. It is a naturally occurring linear polysaccharide in a family of unbranched glycosaminoglycans, which consists of repeating di-saccharide units of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid. It is almost ubiquitous in humans and other vertebrates, where it participates in many key processes, including cell signaling, tissue regeneration, wound healing, morphogenesis, matrix organization, and pathobiology. HA is biocompatible, biodegradable, muco-adhesive, hygroscopic, and viscoelastic. These unique physico-chemical properties have been exploited for several medicinal purposes, including recent uses in the adjuvant treatment for chronic inflammatory disease and to reduce pain and accelerate healing after third molar intervention. This review focuses on the post-operative effect of HA after third molar intervention along with its various physio-chemical, biochemical, and pharmaco-therapeutic uses.

Humans , Acetylglucosamine , Biocompatible Materials , Glycosaminoglycans , Hyaluronic Acid , Molar, Third , Morphogenesis , Regeneration , Vertebrates , Wound Healing