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1.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 27(supl.1): 145-164, Sept. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134088

ABSTRACT

Abstract From its inception, in 1948, the World Health Organization made control of malaria a high priority. Early successes led many to believe that eradication was possible, although there were serious doubts concerning the continent of Africa. As evidence mounted that eradicating malaria was not a simple matter, the malaria eradication programme was downgraded to a unit in 1980. Revived interest in malaria followed the Roll Back Malaria Initiative adopted in 1998. This article presents an historical account of the globally changing ideas on control and elimination of the disease and argues that insufficient attention was paid to strengthening health services and specialized human resources.


Resumo Desde sua origem, em 1948, a Organização Mundial da Saúde priorizou o controle da malária. Os primeiros êxitos induziram à crença na viabilidade da erradicação, apesar de sérias dúvidas quanto ao continente africano. À medida que se somavam comprovações de que a erradicação da malária não seria simples, o projeto com essa finalidade foi rebaixado a uma unidade em 1980. O reavivamento do interesse na malária ocorreu após a iniciativa Roll Back Malaria, criada em 1998. Este artigo apresenta um panorama histórico das mudanças nas ideias, em âmbito global, ligadas ao controle e à eliminação da doença e defende a tese de que a atenção dada ao fortalecimento dos serviços de saúde e a recursos humanos especializados foi insuficiente.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , World Health Organization/history , Communicable Disease Control/history , Mosquito Control/history , Malaria/history , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Mosquito Control/methods , Africa , Disease Eradication/history , Goals , Malaria/prevention & control
2.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(2): 665-672, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055817

ABSTRACT

Resumo A dengue ocorre no Timor-Leste desde 2005, porém não existe um programa de monitoramento e controle do "Aedes aegypti". O objetivo deste estudo foi de avaliar a armadilha ovitrampa iscada com atraente natural como uma possível ferramenta para monitorar o vetor das arboviroses: Dengue (DENV), Chikungunya (CHIKV) e Zika (ZIKV). O estudo foi realizado na cidade de Dili, capital do Timor-Leste, entre as semanas epidemiológicas 32 (02/08) a 48 (02/12) de 2016. Foram instaladas 70 armadilhas Ovitrampa, em residências de 15 sucos (ruas), de quatro Postos Administrativos (bairros) da cidade. Para as analises dos dados utilizou-se os indicadores entomológicos: Índice de Positividade de Ovitrampa (IPO), Índice de Densidade Vetorial (IDV) e Índice de Densidade de Ovos (IDO). Durante o experimento foram coletados 158.904 ovos de Aedes spp.. O IPO demonstrou que todas as áreas tiveram 98% a 100% de armadilhas contendo ovos de Aedes spp.. Os indicadores IDO e IPO apresentaram correlações positivas e significativa com a temperatura. A defasagem de duas e três semanas para precipitação indicou correlação positiva significativa para IDV e IDO. Portanto, a armadilha ovitrampa é uma ferramenta que pode integrar as ações de um programa de monitoramento e controle de Aedes spp. no Timor-Leste.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Mosquito Control/methods , Aedes/virology , Mosquito Vectors/virology , Oviposition , Chikungunya virus/isolation & purification , Aedes/physiology , Dengue/prevention & control , Dengue/transmission , Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Timor-Leste , Chikungunya Fever/prevention & control , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Zika Virus/isolation & purification , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Zika Virus Infection/transmission
3.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200271, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135271

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Aedes aegypti is the primary transmitter of several arbovirus with great impact in human health. Controlling vector mosquitoes is an essential and complex task. One promising control method is to use mosquitoes as a vehicle to disseminate tiny particles of juvenile-killing insecticides, such as pyriproxyfen (PPF), to breeding sites. OBJECTIVES We aimed to investigate the capacity of Ae. aegypti to disseminate two new formulations of PPF in two sites of Rio de Janeiro city for assessment of the efficacy of these products. METHODS Dissemination stations impregnated with powder and liquid new formulations of PPF were installed in two test sites. Ovitraps were used in the test sites and in a control site for monitoring the presence of Ae. aegypti throughout eggs collection. FINDINGS Entomological indices indicated that the new formulations of PPF were efficient in reducing eggs abundance. Liquid formulation performed better than powder formulation. Ready-to-use formulations of PPF can be quickly applied in the field and can be replaced after a few months. MAIN CONCLUSIONS New formulations of PPF associated with mosquito dissemination approach make a valuable vector control strategy, managing to cover places of difficult access for whatever reason. New formulations application requires less labour, being economically attractive.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Adolescent , Pyridines/pharmacology , Mosquito Control/methods , Aedes/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva/drug effects , Cities , Mosquito Vectors/growth & development , Mosquito Vectors/drug effects , Larva/growth & development
4.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190431, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135241

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Long lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) may be effective for vector control of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Their efficacy, however, has not been sufficiently evaluated. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the large-scale efficacy of LLINs on Lutzomyia longiflocosa entomological parameters up to two years post-intervention in the sub-Andean region of Colombia. METHODS A matched-triplet cluster-randomised study of 21 rural settlements, matched by pre-intervention L. longiflocosa indoor density was used to compare three interventions: dip it yourself (DIY) lambda-cyhalothrin LLIN, deltamethrin LLIN, and untreated nets (control). Sand fly indoor density, feeding success, and parity were recorded using CDC light trap collections at 1, 6, 12, and 24 months post-intervention. FINDINGS Both LLINs reduced significantly (74-76%) the indoor density and the proportion of fully engorged sand flies up to two years post-intervention without differences between them. Residual lethal effects of both LLINs and the use of all nets remained high throughout the two-year evaluation period. CONCLUSIONS Both LLINs demonstrated high efficacy against L. longiflocosa indoors. Therefore, the deployment of these LLINs could have a significant impact on the reduction of CL transmission in the sub-Andean region. The DIY lambda-cyhalothrin kit may be used to convert untreated nets to LLINs increasing coverage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mosquito Control/methods , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/prevention & control , Insecticide-Treated Bednets , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Anopheles/drug effects , Rural Population , Insecticide Resistance , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/parasitology , Colombia , Mosquito Vectors
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200313, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154867

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Aedes aegypti is the sole vector of urban arboviruses in French Guiana. Overtime, the species has been responsible for the transmission of viruses during yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya and Zika outbreaks. Decades of vector control have produced resistant populations to deltamethrin, the sole molecule available to control adult mosquitoes in this French Territory. OBJECTIVES Our surveillance aimed to provide public health authorities with data on insecticide resistance in Ae. aegypti populations and other species of interest in French Guiana. Monitoring resistance to the insecticide used for vector control and to other molecule is a key component to develop an insecticide resistance management plan. METHODS In 2009, we started to monitor resistance phenotypes to deltamethrin and target-site mechanisms in Ae. aegypti populations across the territory using the WHO impregnated paper test and allelic discrimination assay. FINDINGS Eight years surveillance revealed well-installed resistance and the dramatic increase of alleles on the sodium voltage-gated gene, known to confer resistance to pyrethroids (PY). In addition, we observed that populations were resistant to malathion (organophosphorous, OP) and alpha-cypermethrin (PY). Some resistance was also detected to molecules from the carbamate family. Finally, those populations somehow recovered susceptibility against fenitrothion (OP). In addition, other species distributed in urban areas revealed to be also resistant to pyrethroids. CONCLUSION The resistance level can jeopardize the efficiency of chemical adult control in absence of other alternatives and conducts to strongly rely on larval control measures to reduce mosquito burden. Vector control strategies need to evolve to maintain or regain efficacy during epidemics.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pyrethrins/pharmacology , Insecticide Resistance/drug effects , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Aedes/drug effects , Mosquito Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Mosquito Control/methods , Aedes/genetics , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Mosquito Vectors/virology , French Guiana , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insect Vectors/genetics
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190043, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057273

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Aedes aegypti is the main vector responsible for the transmission of numerous arboviruses. Adultrap® has been developed to catch these insects. METHODS: We tested the effectiveness of capturing adults with and without one of the components of Adultrap®. RESULTS: The mean number of insects caught by the original trap was 1.25 (standard deviation = 1.28), while the average obtained with the modified trap was 8.88 (standard deviation = 3.44). The medians were statistically different (p = 0.001) according to the Mann-Whitney test. CONCLUSIONS: The modification of Adultrap® increased the average catch of Ae. aegypti by up to seven times.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mosquito Control/instrumentation , Aedes/classification , Equipment Design , Mosquito Vectors/classification , Mosquito Control/methods
9.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 71(3): e409, sept.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093578

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La identificación de las especies de mosquitos a nivel de cada municipio forma parte del Programa de Vigilancia y Control de Aedes aegypti y Aedes albopictus vigente en Cuba. Objetivo: Identificar las especies de mosquitos en sitios de crías artificiales y naturales y relacionarlo con el papel de la comunidad en el control de sus poblaciones en la provincia La Habana. Métodos: Se identificaron las muestras larvarias de mosquitos enviadas al laboratorio provincial de Entomología, colectadas en depósitos artificiales y en sitios naturales en los municipios de La Habana desde enero del 2000 hasta el 2016. Resultados: En el estudio se identificaron un total de 48 especies de mosquitos. Aedes aegypti, Gymnometopa mediovittata, Culex quinquefasciatus y Culex nigripalpus, estuvieron presentes en todos los municipios de La Habana. Los depósitos abandonados en los alrededores de las viviendas y terrenos baldíos como: latas, bebederos, chatarra metálica, neumáticos de autos usados, entre otros, relacionados con actividades humanas, aportaron la mayor riqueza de especies al ecosistema urbano, seguido por los huecos de árboles y sitios de cría naturales. Los depósitos artificiales de almacenamiento de agua con fines domésticos en las viviendas, tales como: tanques, cisternas, cubos, entre otros, fueron los de menor riqueza, pero fundamentales para la presencia de Ae. aegypti. Conclusiones: Disponer de datos actualizados sobre la distribución de las especies de mosquitos y sus sitios de cría en La Habana constituyen una información valiosa para fomentar la participación de la comunidad en la eliminación de estos en momentos de epidemias en que se involucren estos vectores(AU)


Introduction: Identification of the mosquito species present in each municipality is part of the Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Surveillance and Control Program currently in place in Cuba. Objective: Identify the mosquito species in artificial and natural breeding sites and relate that information to the role played by the community in the control of their populations in the province of Havana. Methods: Identification was performed of mosquito larval samples submitted to the Provincial Entomology Laboratory and collected from artificial containers and natural breeding sites in Havana municipalities from January 2000 to 2016. Results: A total 48 mosquito species were identified in the study. Aedes aegypti, Gymnometopa mediovittata, Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex nigripalpus were found to be present in all Havana municipalities. Unused containers scattered around households and in uncultivated fields, such as cans, troughs, scrap metal and used car tires, among other items related to human activities, contribute the greatest species richness to the urban ecosystem, followed by tree holes and natural breeding sites. Artificial water storage containers in households, such as elevated and underground water tanks and buckets, among others, contributed lesser richness, but were fundamental for the presence of A. aegypti. Conclusions: Updated data about the distribution of mosquito species and their breeding sites in Havana is valuable information to foster community participation in their elimination in the event of epidemics involving these vectors(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Mosquito Control/methods , Mosquito Control/ethics , Community Participation/methods , Public Health , Cuba
10.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 26(3): 823-839, jul.-set. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039955

ABSTRACT

Resumo O artigo analisa a chegada e identificação do mosquito africano Anopheles gambiae no Brasil em 1930 e as primeiras reações de cientistas e autoridades de saúde pública contra as epidemias de malária causadas por essa espécie. Apesar de ter sido reconhecido como perigoso vetor da malária, sua presença em território nacional foi negligenciada a partir de 1932, após ações emergenciais na capital do Rio Grande do Norte, favorecendo um alastramento silencioso que resultou em uma grande epidemia de malária em 1938. São abordadas questões científicas e políticas que contribuíram para que o combate ao mosquito fosse colocado em segundo plano nas articulações entre a Divisão Sanitária Internacional da Fundação Rockefeller e autoridades brasileiras até 1937.


Abstract The article analyzes the arrival and identification of the African mosquito Anopheles gambiae in Brazil in 1930, and the initial reactions of scientists and public health authorities against the epidemics of malaria caused by this species. Although this mosquito was recognized as a dangerous vector of malaria, its presence in Brazil was neglected after initial emergency actions in the city of Natal in 1932; this encouraged it to spread silently, resulting in a major malaria epidemic in 1938. This article examines scientific and political issues which caused the fight against mosquitoes to be pushed into the background until 1937 in cooperative efforts between the Rockefeller Foundation's International Health Division and the Brazilian authorities.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 20th Century , Mosquito Control/history , Epidemics/history , Mosquito Vectors , Malaria/history , Anopheles , Brazil/epidemiology , Mosquito Control/methods , Federal Government/history , Epidemics/prevention & control , Foundations/history , Malaria/epidemiology
11.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(8): 2983-2992, ago. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011893

ABSTRACT

Resumo O Aedes aegypti é um importante agente transmissor de afecções na atualidade, sendo o responsável por enfermidades como Zika, Chikungunya e os quatro sorotipos do Dengue. Por ocasião da relevância desse mosquito para o corpo social atual, investigações em Ecossaúde se tornam prementes, já que essa abordagem visa articular diferentes campos teóricos para entender as conexões históricas entre a natureza, a sociedade e a saúde. Partindo de uma premissa etnográfica, este estudo considerou as condições de desigualdade e injustiça que tornam vulneráveis a saúde de mulheres em torno do dengue, analisando práticas e percepções destas acerca dos potencias criadouros existentes no espaço público. Para compor o estudo, utilizou-se a entrevista semiestruturada e a observação participante, com uso de diário de campo. A pesquisa contou com a participação de dez mulheres moradoras de um bairro periférico da cidade de Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil, tendo ocorrido no período de janeiro a agosto de 2014. Da Análise de Conteúdo emergiu a categoria "Iniquidade social, contexto e práticas no espaço público". A partir das narrativas, constatou-se que condições precárias de vida e evidente iniquidade social poderão influenciar em um contexto permeado por lixo, com grande potencial para a proliferação do mosquito causador da dengue.


Abstract Aedes aegypti is currently a critical disease agent and is responsible for viruses such as Zika, Chikungunya and Dengue's four serotypes. This mosquito's relevance to the current social body has come to the fore and triggered urgent EcoHealth investigations since this approach aims to articulate different theoretical fields to understand the historical linkages between nature, society and health. Based on an ethnographic premise, this study considered the unequal and unfair conditions that make women's health vulnerable to dengue, analyzing their practices and perceptions about the potential breeding grounds in the public space. A semi-structured interview and participant observation, as well as a field diary, were used to compose the study. The research included the participation of ten women living in the outskirts of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, from January to August 2014. The category "Social inequality, context and practices in the public space" emerged from the content analysis. The narratives revealed that unstable living conditions and evident social inequality might influence in a context permeated by waste, with great potential for dengue's mosquito proliferation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Mosquito Control/methods , Dengue/prevention & control , Chikungunya Fever/prevention & control , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Interviews as Topic , Aedes/virology , Dengue/transmission , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Zika Virus Infection/transmission , Mosquito Vectors/virology , Middle Aged
12.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 53: 29, jan. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-991645

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether sites with large amount of potential breeding sites for immature forms of Aedes aegypti, called strategic points, influence in the active vector's dispersion into properties in their surroundings. METHODS: We selected four areas in the municipality of Campinas, three of them with strategic points classified as high, moderate, and low risk according to infestation and a control area, without strategic points. Between October 2015 and September 2016, we monthly installed oviposition traps and evaluated the infestation by Ae. aegypti in all properties of each selected area. To verify if there was vector dispersion from each strategic point, based on its location, we investigated the formation of clusters with excess of eggs or larvae or pupae containers, using the Gi spatial statistics. RESULTS: The amount of eggs collected in the ovitraps and the number of positive containers for Ae. aegypti did not show clusters of high values concerning its distance from the strategic point. Both presented random distribution not spatially associated with the positioning of strategic points in the area. CONCLUSIONS: Strategic points are not confirmed as responsible for the vector's dispersion for properties in their surroundings. We highlight the importance of reviewing the current strategy of the vector control program in Brazil, seeking a balance from the technical, operational, and economic point of view, without disregarding the role of strategic points as major producers of mosquitoes and their importance in the dissemination of arboviruses in periods of transmission.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: Avaliar se locais com grande quantidade de potenciais criadouros de formas imaturas de Aedes aegypti, denominados pontos estratégicos, influenciam a dispersão ativa do vetor aos imóveis no seu entorno. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas quatro áreas no município de Campinas, três delas com pontos estratégicos classificados como alto, médio e baixo risco segundo a infestação e uma área controle, sem ponto estratégico. Entre outubro de 2015 e setembro de 2016, instalaram-se mensalmente armadilhas de oviposição e avaliou-se a infestação por Ae. aegypti em todos os imóveis de cada área selecionada. Para verificar se houve dispersão do vetor a partir de cada ponto estratégico, com base em sua localização, investigou-se a formação de aglomerados com excesso de ovos ou de recipientes com larvas ou pupas, utilizando a estatística espacial Gi. RESULTADOS: o número de ovos coletados nas ovitrampas e o número de recipientes positivos para Ae. aegypti não apresentaram aglomerados de altos valores relativos à sua distância do ponto estratégico. Ambos apresentaram distribuição aleatória não associada espacialmente com o posicionamento dos pontos estratégicos na área. CONCLUSÕES: Pontos estratégicos não se confirmaram como responsáveis pela dispersão do vetor para os imóveis no seu entorno. Destaca-se a importância de rever a estratégia atual do programa de controle de vetores do Brasil, buscando um equilíbrio do ponto de vista técnico, operacional e econômico, sem desconsiderar o papel dos pontos estratégicos como grandes produtores de mosquitos e sua importância na disseminação de arboviroses em momentos de transmissão.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Oviposition/physiology , Pupa/growth & development , Mosquito Control/methods , Aedes/growth & development , Dengue/prevention & control , Mosquito Vectors/growth & development , Urban Population , Brazil , Environmental Monitoring , Mosquito Control/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , Aedes/virology , Dengue/transmission , Spatial Analysis , Animal Distribution/physiology , Mosquito Vectors/virology
13.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(5): e00092618, 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001661

ABSTRACT

El objetivo fue describir experiencias, barreras y facilitadores en la implementación de intervenciones de control del Aedes aegypti en América Latina y Caribe. Fue realizado un abordaje cualitativo con entrevistas en profundidad semiestructuradas a expertos en implementación de programas (19 participantes de nueve países). Se utilizó un software para la codificar los datos y se confeccionaron matrices para su comparación. En base a los hallazgos desarrollamos una representación gráfica de dimensiones teóricas que agrupan las barreras y facilitadores para la implementación de intervenciones. A nivel global, el ambiente natural y construido contribuye a la reproducción del mosquito. En el sistema de salud, la falta de priorización del problema y la escasez de recursos materiales y humanos representan los obstáculos más importantes. Se necesita que otros sectores diferentes al de salud se responsabilicen de las acciones para mejorar los determinantes sociales de la salud. Existen barreras transversales relacionadas con la gobernanza, como la descoordinación entre los niveles centrales y locales, falta de continuidad de las intervenciones y de los grupos técnicos. La comunidad enfrenta problemas como la falta de información, pobreza o resistencias a recomendaciones. La opinión pública puede tener un impacto positivo o negativo, influyendo indirectamente en las decisiones políticas. Este estudio propone un marco de dimensiones de análisis construido desde los hallazgos; describe factores influyentes en la implementación de políticas que pueden orientar las acciones futuras desde un enfoque integrado.


This study sought to describe experiences, barriers and facilitators to the implementation of interventions for controlling Aedes aegypti in Latin America and the Caribbean. A qualitative approach with semi-structured in-depth interviews with program implementation experts (19 participants in nine countries) was carried out. We used a software to codify the data and created matrices to compare them. Based on our findings, we developed a graphic representation of the theoretical dimensions that encompass the barriers and facilitators to the implementation of interventions. At the global level, the natural and built environment contributed to the mosquito's reproduction. In the health system, the lack of priority given to the problem and the scarcity of material and human resources are the most important obstacles. Sectors other than health must take responsibility for actions directed at improving social determinants of health. There are transversal barriers related to governance, lack of coordination between central and local levels, lack of continuity in terms of interventions and technical groups. The community faces problems such as lack of information, poverty or resistance to recommendations. Public opinion can have a positive or negative impact, indirectly influencing political decisions. This study proposes a framework of analytical dimensions based on our findings; describes factors that influence policy implementation, which can guide future actions from an integrated perspective.


O objetivo foi descrever experiências, barreiras e facilitadores na implementação de intervenções de controle do Aedes aegypti na América Latina e no Caribe. Uma abordagem qualitativa foi realizada com entrevistas semiestruturadas em profundidade com especialistas na implementação do programa (19 participantes de nove países). Foi usado um software para codificar os dados e foram feitas matrizes para comparação. Com base nos resultados, desenvolvemos uma representação gráfica das dimensões teóricas que agruparam as barreiras e facilitadores para a implementação das intervenções. Em nível global, o ambiente natural e construído contribui para a reprodução do mosquito. No sistema de saúde, a falta de priorização do problema e a escassez de recursos materiais e humanos representam os obstáculos mais importantes. É necessário que outros setores, além do setor saúde, assumam ações de melhoria dos determinantes sociais da saúde. Existem barreiras transversais relacionadas à governança, como a falta de coordenação entre os níveis central e local e a falta de continuidade das intervenções e dos grupos técnicos. A comunidade enfrenta problemas como falta de informação, pobreza ou resistência a recomendações. A opinião pública pode ter um impacto positivo ou negativo, influenciando indiretamente as decisões políticas. Este estudo propõe um quadro de dimensões de análise construído a partir dos resultados; descreve fatores influentes na implementação de políticas que podem orientar ações futuras a partir de uma abordagem integrada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Mosquito Control/methods , Aedes , Dengue/prevention & control , Chikungunya Fever/prevention & control , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Public Opinion , Health Personnel , Caribbean Region , Community Participation , Qualitative Research , Latin America
14.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 28(1): e2017316, 2019. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-984375

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: avaliar, em condições simuladas de campo, a eficácia do pyriproxyfen (hormônio juvenil), do novaluron (inibidor de quitina) e do spinosad (biolarvicida) no controle do Aedes aegypti. Métodos: exposição periódica de larvas de Ae. aeypti obtidas em Itabuna a recipientes tratados com os larvicidas, e comparação do efeito residual do tratamento com cepa Rockfeller. Resultados: o efeito inibitório na emergência de adultos, após 60 dias, foi de 89,5% spinosad, 96,5% novaluron e 75,4% pyriproxifen para larvas de Itabuna, não havendo diferença estatística (p=0,412) entre os tratamentos; spinosad e novaluron apresentaram maior percentual de mortalidade na fase larval, 98,8% e 97,9% respectivamente; pyriproxifen apresentou mortalidade maior na fase pupal, 95,1%. Conclusão: os três larvicidas apresentaram controle semelhante; no entanto, o pyriproxifen pode deixar a falsa impressão de positividade dos criadouros, por agir em fase pupal, comprometendo os indicadores de infestação que são parâmetros estratégicos para as ações de controle.


Objetivo: evaluar en condiciones simuladas de campo la eficacia del piriproxifén (hormona juvenil), novaluron (inhibidor de quitina) y spinosad (biolarvicida) en el control del Ae. Aegypti. Métodos: exposición periódica de larvas obtenidas de Itabuna, BA, Brasil, a recipientes tratados con larvicida y comparación del efecto residual con cepa Rockefeller. Resultados: el efecto inhibidor en la emergencia de adultos, después de 60 días, fue de 89,5% spinosad, 96,5% novaluron y 75,4% piriproxifén para larvas de Itabuna, no habiendo diferencia estadística (p=0,412) entre los tratamientos; spinosad y novaluron presentaron mayor mortalidad en la fase larval, 98,8% y 97,9% respectivamente; piriproxifén presentó mayor mortalidad en la fase de pupa, 95,1%. Conclusión: los tres larvicidas fueron eficaces en el control de larvas de Ae. Aegypti; sin embargo, piriproxifén puede dejar falsa positividad de los criaderos, por actuar en fase de pupa, comprometiendo los indicadores de infestación, parámetros estratégicos para las acciones de control.


Objective: to evaluate, under simulated field conditions, the efficacy of pyriproxyfen (juvenile hormone), novaluron (chitin inhibitor) and spinosad (biolarvicide) in controlling Aedes aegypti. Methods: periodic exposition of Ae. aegypti larvae collected in Itabuna, BA, Brazil, to recipients treated with larvicides and comparison of residual effect of treatment with the Rockefeller strain. Results: the inhibitory effect on adult emergence after 60 days was spinosad 89.5%, novaluron 96.5% and pyriproxifen 75.4% for Itabuna larvae, with no statistical difference (p=0.412) between treatments; spinosad and novaluron had a higher percentage of mortality in the larval stage, 98.8% and 97.9% respectively; pyriproxyfen showed higher mortality (95.1%) in the pupal stage. Conclusion: the three larvicides demonstrated similar control; however, pyriprofyxen might give a false impression of breeding ground positivity as it acts at the pupal stage, compromising the indicators of infestation that are strategic parameters for control actions.


Subject(s)
Mosquito Control/methods , Epidemiology, Experimental , Aedes/growth & development , Aedes/drug effects , Larvicides , Larva/drug effects , Survival Analysis , Mosquito Vectors/growth & development , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva/growth & development
15.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020899

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the adherence of pregnant women to personal protective measures against mosquito bites, recommended by the Ministry of Health, and to investigate the factors associated with the non-adoption of these measures. METHODS We interviewed 177 pregnant women between November 2016 and February 2017 in the 10 basic health units of the municipality of Propriá, state of Sergipe, two located in the rural area and eight in the urban area, during prenatal appointments, to raise information about the use of preventive measures against the vector transmission of Zika virus. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistical methods, chi-square test or Fisher's exact test, and the odds ratio was calculated. The independent variables were grouped by the analysis of principal components, and the dependents (the use of repellent, mosquito nets, garments, screens and insecticides) were analyzed using the logistic regression method. RESULTS Among the measures recommended by the Ministry of Health, mosquito nets were the most used by pregnant women living in rural areas and with low education level, while the repellents were more used by women in the urban area and with higher education level. Women in a vulnerable socio-economic situation presented a risk 2.4 times higher for not using screens in their homes, 1.9 times higher for not changing clothes and 2.5 times higher for not using repellent than pregnant women in better economic conditions. CONCLUSIONS The socioeconomic status of pregnant women, especially among the less privileged, influenced the use of protective measures against Zika virus, from the purchase of repellent, clothing, insecticides to other resources in the municipality of Propriá, SE.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar a adesão de gestantes às medidas de proteção individual contra picadas de mosquitos, recomendadas pelo Ministério da Saúde e investigar os fatores associados à não adoção dessas medidas. MÉTODOS Foram entrevistadas 177 gestantes entre novembro de 2016 e fevereiro de 2017 nas 10 unidades básicas de saúde da cidade de Propriá, SE, duas localizadas na zona rural e oito na zona urbana, durante as consultas de pré-natal, para levantar informações sobre o uso de medidas preventivas contra a transmissão vetorial do zika vírus. Os dados foram analisados utilizando métodos de estatística descritiva, teste do qui-quadrado ou teste exato de Fisher, e foi calculado o odds ratio . As variáveis independentes foram agrupadas por meio da análise de componentes principais, e as dependentes (uso de repelentes, mosquiteiros, vestimentas, telas e inseticidas) foram analisadas pelo método de regressão logística. RESULTADOS Entre as medidas recomendadas pelo Ministério da Saúde, o uso de mosquiteiros foi a mais utilizada por gestantes residentes na zona rural e de baixa escolaridade, enquanto os repelentes foram mais utilizados por mulheres da zona urbana e com maior tempo de estudo. Mulheres com situação socioeconômica vulnerável apresentaram risco 2,4 vezes maior de não utilizar telas em suas residências, 1,9 vezes maior de não mudar o modo de se vestir e 2,5 vezes maior de não usar repelentes do que gestantes em melhores condições econômicas. CONCLUSÕES A condição socioeconômica das gestantes, especialmente entre as mulheres menos favorecidas, influenciou o uso das medidas de proteção contra o zika vírus, desde a compra de repelentes, vestimentas, inseticidas até outros recursos na cidade de Propriá, SE.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Mosquito Control/methods , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pregnant Women , Mosquito Nets/statistics & numerical data , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Insect Repellents/administration & dosage , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Middle Aged
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180341, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041576

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Areas at risk of transmission of arboviruses have been monitored using ovitraps. This study aimed to evaluate the spatial distribution of Aedes aegypti in vulnerable areas for the transmission of arboviruses and assess the influence of climatic conditions on the infestation of these culicids. METHODS: Ovitraps were installed in Agrestina, Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. RESULTS: Overall, 44,936 eggs were collected, and the indexes of infestation varied. Relative humidity was significantly associated with the infestations. CONCLUSIONS: Using ovitraps, entomologic indexes and analysis of climatic factors might be good strategies for monitoring vulnerable areas for the transmission of arboviruses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Oviposition , Mosquito Control/methods , Dengue/prevention & control , Flavivirus , Chikungunya Fever/prevention & control , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Rain , Seasons , Temperature , Brazil , Residence Characteristics , Aedes/physiology , Dengue/transmission , Spatial Analysis , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Zika Virus Infection/transmission , Mosquito Vectors/physiology , Humidity
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180542, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990438

ABSTRACT

Abstract In Brazil, malaria is an important public health problem first reported in 1560. Historically, fluctuations in malaria cases in Brazil are attributed to waves of economic development; construction of railroads, highways, and hydroelectric dams; and population displacement and land occupation policies. Vector control measures have been widely used with an important role in reducing malaria cases. In this review article, we reviewed the vector control measures established in the Brazilian territory and aspects associated with such measures for malaria. Although some vector control measures are routinely used in Brazil, many entomological and effectiveness information still need better evidence in endemic areas where Plasmodium vivax predominates. Herein, we outlined some of the needs and priorities for future research: a) update of the cartography of malaria vectors in Brazil, adding molecular techniques for the correct identification of species and complexes of species; b) evaluation of vector competence of anophelines in Brazil; c) strengthening of local entomology teams to perform vector control measures and interpret results; d) evaluation of vector control measures, especially use of insecticide-treated nets and long-lasting insecticidal nets, estimating their effectiveness, cost-benefit, and population acceptance; e) establishment of colonies of malaria vectors in Brazil, i.e., Anopheles darlingi, to understand parasite-vector interactions better; f) study of new vector control strategies with impacts on non-endophilic vectors; g) estimation of the impact of insecticide resistance in different geographical areas; and h) identification of the relative contribution of natural and artificial breeding sites in different epidemiological contexts for transmission.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mosquito Control/methods , Mosquito Vectors , Malaria/prevention & control , Malaria/transmission , Brazil/epidemiology , Insecticide Resistance , Insecticides/pharmacology , Anopheles
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(3): 297-303, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957417

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Culex quinquefasciatus is a mosquito of importance to public health, as it represents a real and/or potential risk for the transmission of pathogens to humans, such as some arthropod-borne viruses and nematodes that cause filariasis. In Brazil, three municipalities in the Metropolitan Region of Recife (RMR) that are endemic for lymphatic filariasis conducted control actions targeting this vector. With the goal of contributing novel C. quinquefasciatus collection strategies, a sticky trap capable of collecting eggs and imprisoning mosquitoes was investigated. METHODS: To evaluate the performance of the sticky BR-OVT trap, tests were carried out in the neighborhoods of Caixa d'Água and Passarinho (Olinda-PE-Brasil) between August 2011 and June 2012. Sixty traps were installed in the indoor areas of residences in the two districts. RESULTS: During the 11-month study, 0.52 [standard deviation (SD) = 1.52] Culex egg rafts, 2.16 (SD = 4.78) C. quinquefasciatus/trap/month, and 0.55 (SD = 1.28) Aedes/trap/month were caught. Female specimens predominated the traps (59% of C. quinquefasciatus and 96% of Aedes spp.). CONCLUSIONS The results demonstrated that the sticky BR-OVT trap is a useful tool for the collection of adult culicids of medical importance and offers an innovative way to collect C. quinquefasciatus eggs and adults in a single trap.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oviposition , Mosquito Control/instrumentation , Culex/classification , Mosquito Vectors/classification , Mosquito Control/methods
19.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 70(1): 0-0, ene.-abr. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-960606

ABSTRACT

El mosquito Aedes aegypti presenta características biológicas que lo convierten en un vector importante en el ciclo de transmisión de diferentes patógenos, en especial arbovirus. Durante la última década, la carga de dengue y otras enfermedades tales como la fiebre del zika o fiebre chikungunya se han incrementado, y nueva información acerca del papel de Ae. aegypti en la transmisión de estas enfermedades ha sido publicada. Este trabajo se enfocó en revisar mediante una estrategia de búsqueda sistemática de la información, el conocimiento actual de la historia evolutiva y otros aspectos biológicos de Ae. aegypti relacionados con la dinámica de transmisión de los principales arbovirus de importancia médica. Factores intrínsecos de Ae. aegypti y extrínsecos han contribuido a la emergencia o reemergencia y expansión mundial de patógenos en el ciclo urbano. El diseño de estrategias costo-efectivas para controlar Ae. aegypti es requerido para interrumpir los ciclos de transmisión de los patógenos y prevenir la aparición de nuevas epidemias(AU)


Due to its biological characteristics, the mosquito Aedes aegypti is an important vector in the transmission cycle of various pathogens, especially of arboviruses. The burden of dengue and other diseases such as Zika virus infection or chikungunya fever has increased in the last decade, and new information has been published about the role of A. aegypti in the transmission of these diseases. Applying a strategy for systematic search of information, the study focused on reviewing current knowledge about the evolutionary history and other biological aspects of A. aegypti associated with the dynamics of transmission of the main arboviruses of medical importance. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors related to A. aegypti have contributed to the emergence or re-emergence and worldwide spread of pathogens in the urban cycle. Cost-effective A. aegypti control strategies should be designed to interrupt the transmission cycles of pathogens and prevent the emergence of new epidemics(AU)


Subject(s)
Aedes/pathogenicity , Disease Vectors , Mosquito Control/methods
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