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Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e191086, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394042


Abstract Fluoroquinolones are an important class of antimicrobial agents to manage infectious diseases. However, knowledge about how host bile acids are modified by fluoroquinolones is limited. We investigated and compared the impact of fluoroquinolones on circulating bile acid profiles and gut microbiota from in vivo studies. We administered ciprofloxacin (100 mg/kg/day) or moxifloxacin (40 mg/kg/day) orally to male Wistar rats for seven days. Fifteen bile acids (BAs) from the serum and large intestine were quantified by HPLC-MS/MS. The diversity of gut microbiota after ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin treatment was analyzed using high-throughput, next-generation sequencing technology. The two fluoroquinolone-treated groups had different BA profiles. Ciprofloxacin significantly reduced the hydrophobicity index of the BA pool, reduced secondary BAs, and increased taurine-conjugated primary BAs in both the serum and large intestine as compared with moxifloxacin. Besides, ciprofloxacin treatment altered intestinal microbiota with a remarkable increase in Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio, while moxifloxacin exerted no effect. What we found suggests that different fluoroquinolones have a distinct effect on the host BAs metabolism and intestinal bacteria, and therefore provide guidance on the selection of fluoroquinolones to treat infectious diseases.

Animals , Male , Rats , Bile Acids and Salts , Comparative Study , Ciprofloxacin/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Moxifloxacin/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Intestine, Large/abnormalities , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology
Philippine Journal of Ophthalmology ; : 15-22, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-978901


Purpose@#This study compared the safety outcomes of two intracameral fluoroquinolone antibiotics, moxifloxacin and levofloxacin, as prophylaxis treatment in eyes that underwent uncomplicated cataract surgery. @*Methods@#This is a prospective, double-masked, randomized, interventional, single-center clinical trial. Eyes with visually-significant cataracts underwent phacoemulsification and received preservative-free intracameral 0.5% moxifloxacin [58 eyes (M group)] or 0.5% levofloxacin [56 eyes (L group)] at the end of the surgery as antibiotic prophylaxis. The following safety parameters were evaluated postoperatively at Day 1, Week 1 and Month 1: central retinal thickness (CRT), macular volume (MV), central corneal thickness (CCT), and endothelial cell density (ECD). In-between group comparison was made at each of the 4 study visits using Student’s t-test. @*Results@#Both M and L groups had similar baseline characteristics. There were no significant differences in CRT, MV, CCT and ECD between the 2 groups at each time point in the study. There were no significant differences in the mean changes in CRT, MV, CCT and ECD from baseline to final visit between the 2 groups. No study-related adverse events were observed during the study period. @*Conclusion@#Intracameral application of preservative-free 0.5% moxifloxacin and 0.5% levofloxacin appear to have similar safety outcomes when used as antibacterial prophylaxis among eyes undergoing cataract surgery. Based on the results, both fluoroquinolone agents are potentially suitable options for endophthalmitis chemoprophylaxis.

Levofloxacin , Moxifloxacin , Fluoroquinolones
Brasília; s.n; 19 jun. 2020. 24 p.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | BRISA, LILACS, PIE | ID: biblio-1100432


O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referente ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática. Foram encontrados 9 artigos e 6 protocolos.

Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Heparin/therapeutic use , Cefoperazone/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Moxifloxacin/therapeutic use , Thymalfasin/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 350-358, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829006


Objective@#Moxifloxacin (MFX) shows good activity against and can be a possible antibiotic therapy to treat infection; however, other studies have shown a lower or no activity. We aimed to evaluate MFX activity against using zebrafish (ZF) model .@*Methods@#A formulation of labeled with CM-Dil was micro-injected into ZF. Survival curves were determined by recording dead ZF every day. ZF were lysed, and colony-forming units (CFUs) were enumerated. Bacteria dissemination and fluorescence intensity in ZF were analyzed. Inhibition rates of MFX and azithromycin (AZM, positive control) were determined and compared.@*Results@#Significantly increased survival rate was observed with different AZM concentrations. However, increasing MFX concentration did not result in a significant decrease in ZF survival curve. No significant differences in bacterial burdens by CFU loads were observed between AZM and MFX groups at various concentrations. Bacterial fluorescence intensity in ZF was significantly correlated with AZM concentration. However, with increasing MFX concentration, fluorescence intensity decreased slightly when observed under fluorescence microscope. Transferring rates at various concentrations were comparable between the MFX and AZM groups, with no significant difference.@*Conclusion@#MFX showed limited efficacy against using ZF model. Its activity needs to be confirmed.

Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Moxifloxacin , Pharmacology , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous , Drug Therapy , Mycobacterium abscessus , Zebrafish
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(1): 25-31, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973871


ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare effects of 5% topical povidone iodine with prophylactic topical azithromycin and moxifloxacin on bacterial flora in patients undergoing intravitreal injection. Methods: A total of 132 patients were randomly assigned to receive treatment with azithromycin or moxifloxacin, or no treatment (control group). In total, 528 specimens were obtained at the time of admission, 4 days before intravitreal injection, 4 days after intravitreal injection, and 8 days after intravitreal injection. Samples were immediately sent to the microbiology laboratory for incubation. Results: The microorganism observed most frequently was coagulasenegative Staphylococcus (23.8%). When the results of samples obtained on Day 4 before injection were assessed, growth of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was significantly lower in the moxifloxacin group, compared with controls (p=0.049). Acinetobacter baumannii continued to grow after administration of azithromycin (p=0.033). When the results of four days after intravitreal injection were evaluated, growth of coagulase-ne gative Staphylococcus was higher in controls, compared with patients who received azithromycin or moxifloxacin (p=0.004). Eradication rate was significantly higher in the moxifloxacin group than in the control group (p=0.001). Samples obtained on Day 8 after intravitreal injection showed similar levels of bacterial growth in all groups (p=0.217). Conclusion: Moxifloxacin was more effective than 5% povidone iodine in controlling the growth of conjunctival bacterial flora. Use of moxifloxacin in combination with 5% povidone iodine resulted in a synergistic effect.

RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar os efeitos de iodopovidona tópico a 5% com azitromicina e moxifloxacina profiláticas sobre a flora bacteriana em pacientes submetidos à injeção intravítrea. Métodos: Um total de 132 pacientes foram aleatoriamente designados para receber tratamento com azitromicina ou moxifloxacina ou nenhum tratamento (grupo controle). No total, 528 amostras foram obtidas no momento na admissão, 4 dias antes da injeção intravítrea, 4 dias após a injeção intravítrea e 8 dias após a injeção intravítrea. As amostras foram imediatamente enviadas para o laboratório de microbiologia para incubação. Resultados: O microorganismo mais frequentemente observado foi o Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo (23,8%). Quando os resultados das amostras obtidas no dia 4 antes da injeção foram avaliados, o crescimento do Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo foi significativamente menor no grupo mo xifloxacina, em comparação com os controles (p=0,049). Acinetobacter baumannii continuou a crescer após a administração de azitromicina (p=0,033). Quando os resultados de 4 dias após a injeção intravítrea foram avaliados, o crescimento do Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo foi maior no controle, em comparação com pacientes que receberam azitromicina ou moxifloxacina (p=0,004). A taxa de erradicação também foi significativamente maior no grupo moxifloxacina do que no grupo controle (p=0,001). As amostras obtidas no dia 8 após injeção intravítrea mostraram níveis semelhantes de crescimento bacteriano em todos os grupos (p=0,217). Conclusão: A moxifloxacina foi mais eficaz do que 5% de iodopovidona no controle do crescimento da flora bacteriana conjuntival. O uso de moxifloxacina em combinação com 5% de iodopovidona resultou em um efeito sinérgico.

Humans , Povidone-Iodine/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , Conjunctiva/microbiology , Intravitreal Injections/methods , Moxifloxacin/administration & dosage , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Acinetobacter/isolation & purification , Acinetobacter/drug effects , Conjunctivitis, Bacterial/microbiology , Conjunctivitis, Bacterial/prevention & control , Endophthalmitis/microbiology , Endophthalmitis/prevention & control , Treatment Outcome , Conjunctiva/drug effects , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli/drug effects
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1272793


Background: Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common, medically prominent infection worldwide and one of the major causative factor of peptic ulcer disease. So, eradication of H. pylori is effective in healing ulcers, reducing the ulcer recurrence and eliminating the need for maintenance therapy.Objective: The aim of the work was to compare between the efficacy of traditional triple therapy and Moxifloxacin-based triple therapy in treatment of H. pylori infection and to evaluate the efficacy of moxifloxacin-based regimens as a rescue regimen for H. pylori eradication in resistant patients. Patients and methods: This study was carried out on 100 Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-infected patients (within the period between septemper, 2018 to May, 2019) who were enrolled from Hepatology, Gastroenterology & Tropical Medicine Department, Al Azhar University Hospitals (El-Hussein and BAB El-Shaarea). Results: Helicobacter pylori eradication results in group III as evaluated by monoclonal H. Pylori stool Ag, 6 weeks post therapeutic regimens reported that eradication rate was 76.9% (20 patients). Regarding post treatment clinical data in group III, 42.3% of patients remained having symptoms and 57.7% had acheived symptomatic improvement. Also, the best results were recorded for H.pylori eradication (90%) in group II who received moxifloxacin based triple therapy compared to group I (with eradication rate 62.9%) who received traditional triple therapy regimen. Thus the better results (76.9%) were achieved in group III (resistant patients from group I). Conclusion: The present results could state that moxifloxacin can overcome traditional triple therapy resistance

Bacterial Infections , Disease Eradication , Drug Therapy, Combination , Egypt , Helicobacter Infections/drug therapy , Moxifloxacin
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 81(6): 510-513, Nov.-Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973857


ABSTRACT Purpose: To determine the release profile of moxifloxacin encapsulated in liposomes in the aqueous humor as a controlled release system for intracameral application. Methods: Liposomes containing moxifloxacin were obtained using the lipid film hydration method and were characterized by particle size and encapsulation efficiency. Female rabbits were used for the in vivo profile release study. Liposomes containing moxifloxacin was injected into the anterior chamber of the right eye of each animal. The rabbits were divided into five groups, and a sample of aqueous humor was collected 2, 4, 8, 24, and 48 h after administration of liposomes containing moxifloxacin administration. Moxifloxacin concentrations in the aqueous humor were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: The average size of the liposomes containing moxifloxacin was 60.5 ± 0.72 nm with a particle size distribution of 0.307. The encapsulation efficiency of moxifloxacin in liposomes was 92.24 ± 0.24%. The results of an in vivo release study of liposomes containing moxifloxacin, showed that the maximum moxifloxacin concentration was achieved within the first 2 h after administration (5.27 ± 1.09 mg/mL) and was followed by a decrease in intracameral concentration (0.35 ± 0.05 mg/mL) until the 24 h mark. Conclusions: The in vivo experiments resulted in liposomes containing moxifloxacin that were homogenous in size and exhibited high drug encapsulation efficiency. The results indicate that liposomes containing moxifloxacin offers a satisfactory aqueous humor release profile after intracameral application.

RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar o perfil de liberação, no humor aquoso, de moxifloxacino encapsulado em lipossomas como um sistema de liberação controlada para aplicação intracameral. Métodos: Lipossomas contendo moxifloxacino foram obtidos através do método de hidratação do filme lipídico e caracterizados por tamanho da partícula e eficiência de encapsulação. Utilizaram-se coelhos fêmeas foram para o estudo do perfil de liberação in vivo. Lipossomas contendo moxifloxacino foram injetados na câmara anterior do olho direito de cada animal. Os coelhos foram divididos em cinco grupos, e uma amostra de humor aquoso foi coletada 2, 4, 8, 24 e 48 h após a administração de lipossomas contendo moxifloxacino. As concentrações de moxifloxacino no humor aquoso foram analisadas usando cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Resultados: O tamanho médio dos lipossomas contendo moxifloxacino foi de 60,5 ± 0,72 nm com uma distribuição de tamanho de partícula de 0,307. A eficiência de encapsulação de moxifloxacino nos lipossomas foi de 92,24 ± 0,24. Os resultados de um estudo de liberação in vivo de lipossomas contendo moxifloxacino, mostraram que a concentração máxima de moxifloxacino foi atingida dentro das primeiras 2 h após sua administração (5,27 ± 1,09 mg/mL) e foi seguida de um decréscimo na concentração intracameral (0,35 ± 0,05 mg/mL) até a marca de 24 h. Conclusão: Os experimentos in vivo resultaram em lipossomas contendo moxifloxacino que eram homogêneos em tamanho e exibiam alta eficiência de encapsulação do fármaco. Os resultados indicam que lipossomas contendo moxifloxacino oferecem um perfil de liberação de humor aquoso satisfatório após a aplicação intracameral.

Animals , Female , Rats , Aqueous Humor , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Moxifloxacin/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Biological Availability , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Models, Animal , Injections, Intraocular , Moxifloxacin/analysis , Moxifloxacin/pharmacokinetics , Liposomes , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacokinetics
Acta cir. bras ; 33(9): 744-752, Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973504


Abstract Purpose: To investigate cardiac changes in young rats, whose mothers underwent autogenic fecal peritonitis, during organogenesis phase and to evaluate the role of intravenous administration of moxifloxacin and dexamethasone in preventing infection-related cardiac changes. Methods: A prospective histomorphometric study was performed on 29 hearts of Wistar four-month old rats. Animals were divided into three groups: Negative Control Group (NCG) included 9 subjects from healthy mothers; Positive Control Group (PCG) included 10 subjects from mothers with fecal peritonitis (intra-abdominal injection of 10% autogenic fecal suspension in the gestational period) and did not receive any treatment; and Intervention Group (IG), with 10 animals whose infected mothers received moxifloxacin and dexamethasone treatment 24 hours after induction of fecal peritonitis. Results: Nuclear count was higher in the IG group as compared to PCG (p = 0.0016) and in NCG as compared to PCG (p = 0.0380). There was no significant difference in nuclear counts between NCG and IG. Conclusion: Induced autogenic fecal peritonitis in pregnant Wistar rats determined myocardial changes in young rats that could be avoided by the early administration of intravenous moxifloxacin and dexamethasone.

Animals , Pregnancy , Rats , Peritonitis/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Fluoroquinolones/administration & dosage , Myocardium/pathology , Peritonitis/complications , Peritonitis/pathology , Pregnancy Complications , Prospective Studies , Rats, Wistar , Organogenesis , Disease Models, Animal , Moxifloxacin , Heart/drug effects , Animals, Newborn
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 81(2): 92-94, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950441


ABSTRACT Objective: To study the safety parameters associated with intracameral moxifloxacin application five weeks after cataract surgery. Methods: The study was a prospective case series set in a private hospital in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. A consecutive sample of 1,016 cataract surgeries was evaluated. The inclusion criteria were patients with indications for cataract surgery, a minimum of 55 years of age, and no history of allergy to quinolones. Patients were prepared for surgery using a 5% povidone solution diluted as a topical antiseptic agent. The operative technique was phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation. A 0.3-mL syringe was partially filled with moxifloxacin and 150 µg/0.03 mL of moxifloxacin was administered through the surgical incision at the end of the surgery. Postoperatively, patients were prescribed: (1) 0.5% moxifloxacin eyedrops 5 times daily for 1 week, and (2) 1% prednisolone acetate eyedrops 5 times daily for 1 week, followed by 4 times daily for 1 week and, subsequently, 2 times daily for 3 weeks. The outcomes were incidence of acute endophthalmitis, mean changes from baseline to 5 postoperative weeks in corneal endothelial cell density, corrected distance visual acuity and intraocular pressure. Results: The mean age was 67 ± 5 years, and 56.2% of the patients were female. There were no cases of endophthalmitis. The mean preoperative corrected distance visual acuity was 58 letters ± 10 (SD), and the mean postoperative corrected distance visual acuity was 80 letters ± 4 (SD). The mean change in corneal endothelial cell density was 249 cells/mm (-10.3%). There was almost no difference in intraocular pressure. No study-related adverse events were observed. Conclusion: The results suggest moxifloxacin is a safe option for intracameral use after cataract surgery.

RESUMO Objetivo: Estudar alguns parâmetros de segurança da moxifloxacino intracameral nas cinco semanas após a cirurgia de catarata. Métodos: O estudo foi uma série de casos prospectivos. O cenário era um hospital privado em Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil. Foi considerada uma amostra consecutiva de 1.016 cirurgias de catarata. Os critérios de inclusão foram pacientes com indicação para cirurgia de catarata, com pelo menos 55 anos de idade e sem história de alergia a quinolonas. Os pacientes foram preparados para cirurgia usando uma solução de povidona a 5% diluída como agente anti-séptico tópico. A técnica operatória foi a facoemulsificação com implante de lente intraocular. Uma seringa de 0,3 mL foi parcialmente preenchida com moxifloxacino. Os pacientes receberam 150 µg/0,03 mL de moxifloxacino através da incisão cirúrgica no final da cirurgia. No pós-operatório, os pacientes foram prescritos: (1) moxifloxacino 0,5% 5 vezes ao dia durante 1 semana e (2) colírio de acetato de prednisolona a 1% 5 vezes ao dia durante 1 semana, seguido de 4 vezes ao dia durante 1 semana e, posteriormente, 2 vezes diariamente por 3 semanas. Os desfechos foram a incidência de endoftalmite aguda, variações entre os valores basais e os na 5ª semana pós-operatória referente à densidade celular endotelial corneana, acuidade visual corrigida para longe e pressão intraocular. Resultados: A média da idade foi de 67 ± 5 anos, e 56,2% dos pacientes eram do sexo feminino. Não houve casos de endoftalmite. A acuidade visual corrigida para longe préoperatório médio foi de 58 letras ± 10 (SD), e a acuidade visual corrigida para longe pósoperatório médio foi de 80 letras ± 4 (SD). A alteração média na densidade celular endotelial corneana foi de 249 células/mm (10,3%). Não houve diferença na pressão intraocular. Não foram observados eventos adversos relacionados ao estudo. Conclusão: Os resultados sugerem que o moxifloxacino é uma opção segura para o uso intracameral após a cirurgia de catarata.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Endophthalmitis/prevention & control , Phacoemulsification/adverse effects , Fluoroquinolones/administration & dosage , Injections, Intraocular/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Visual Acuity/physiology , Endophthalmitis/physiopathology , Prospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Lens Implantation, Intraocular/adverse effects , Moxifloxacin , Intraocular Pressure/physiology
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 76(6): 312-315, nov.-dez. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899098


Abstract We report a case of a middle-aged woman who developed acute, bilateral, symmetrical, slightly transilluminating depigmentation of the iris and pigment discharge into the anterior chamber following the use of oral moxifloxacin for bacterial sinusitis. She had been misdiagnosed as having autoimmune uveitis, treated with steroids and tropicamide, and underwent severe ocular hypertension and glaucoma despite posterior correct diagnosis.

Resumo Relato de um caso de uma paciente do sexo feminino de meia idade que desenvolveu despigmentação bilateral simultânea aguda com dispersão de pigmentos na câmara anterior e discreta transiluminação após o uso de moxifloxacino oral para tratamento de sinusite bacteriana. Ela Havia sido diagnosticada com uveite autoimune e tratada com corticosteroide tópico e tropicamida e evoluiu com hipertensão ocular grave e glaucoma apesar de ,posteriormente, o diagnóstico ter sido correto.

Humans , Female , Adult , Glaucoma/etiology , Ocular Hypertension/etiology , Iris Diseases/complications , Pigment Epithelium of Eye/diagnostic imaging , Pigmentation Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Trabecular Meshwork/pathology , Transillumination , Iridocyclitis/diagnosis , Glaucoma/drug therapy , Glaucoma/diagnostic imaging , Iris/diagnostic imaging , Ocular Hypertension/drug therapy , Ocular Hypertension/diagnostic imaging , Acute Disease , Photophobia , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Visual Field Tests , Brimonidine Tartrate/administration & dosage , Slit Lamp Microscopy , Moxifloxacin/adverse effects , Gonioscopy , Iris Diseases/chemically induced , Iris Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Anterior Chamber/pathology , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 80(5): 300-303, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888140


ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare the aqueous humor (AH) concentrations of moxifloxacin 0.5% and gatifloxacin 0.3% solutions alone or when treatment was combined with steroids, and to correlate these concentrations with the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for the most common endophthalmitis-causing organisms. Methods: Patients undergoing phacoemulsification were enrolled to receive one drop of one of the following solutions: moxifloxacin (G1), moxifloxacin + dexamethasone (G2), gatifloxacin (G3), or gatifloxacin + c (G4), every 15 min, 1h before surgery. AH samples were collected before surgery and analyzed using HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry. Results: The mean antibiotic concentrations in the AH were: G1= 1280.8 ng/mL; G2= 1644.3 ng/mL; G3= 433.7 ng/mL; and G4= 308.1 ng/mL. The mean concentrations statistically differed between G1 and G2 (p=0.01), and G3 and G4 (p=0.008). All samples achieved the MIC for Staphylococcus epidermidis; 100% of the samples from G1 and G2, and 97% from G3 and G4 reached the MIC for fluoroquinolone-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus; 100% of the samples from G1 and G2, 88% from G3, and 72% from G4 reached the MIC for enterococci (p<0.001); and 100% of samples from G1 and G2, 59% from G3, and 36% from G4 reached the MIC for Streptococcus pneumoniae (p<0.001). For fluoroquinolone-resistant S. aureus, 23% from G1, 44% from G2, and no samples from G3 or G4 achieved the MIC (p<0.001). Conclusions: Moxifloxacin + dexamethasone demonstrated a higher concen­tration in the AH than the moxifloxacin alone. Gatifloxacin + steroids demonstrated less penetration into the anterior chamber than gatifloxacin alone. Moxifloxacin was superior to gatifloxacin considering the MIC for enterococci, S. pneumoniae, and fluoroquinolone-resistant S. aureus.

RESUMO Objetivos: Comparar a concentração no humor aquoso entre as soluções de moxifloxacina 0,5% e gatifloxacina 0,3% sozinhas ou combinadas com corticosteroides, e correlacionar a concentração com a concentração inibitória mínima (MIC) para os agentes microbianos mais comumente relacionados a endoftalmites. Métodos: Pacientes que seriam submetidos a cirurgia de catarata foram selecionados para receber 1 gota a cada 15 min, 1 hora antes do procedimento de uma das seguintes soluções: moxifloxacina (G1), moxifloxacina + dexametasona (G2), gatifloxacina (G3) ou gatifloxacina + prednisolona (G4). Amostras do humor aquoso foram coletadas antes do início da cirurgia. Espectrofotometria de massa por HPLC determinou a concentração do antibiótico nas amostras. Resultados: A concentração media de antibiótico nas amostras foram: G1= 1280,8 ng/mL; G2= 1644,3 ng/mL; G3= 433,7 ng/mL; G4= 308,1 ng/mL. Concentração média entre G1 e 2 (p=0,01), e G3 e 4 (p=0,008). Todas as amostras alcançaram MIC para S. epidermidis; 100% das amostras do G1 e 2, e 97% do G3 e 4 atingiram o MIC para S. aureus fluoroquinolona-sensível; 100% das amostras do G1 e 2, 88% do G3 e 72% do G4 atingiram o MIC para Enterococci (p<0,001); e 100% das amostras do G1 e 2, 59% do G3 e 36% do G4 atingiram o MIC para S. pneumoniae (p<0,001). Para o S. aureus resistente a fluoroquinolona, 23% do G1, 44% do G2, e nenhuma das amostras G3 e 4 atingiram o MIC (p<0,001). Conclusão: Moxifloxacina + dexamethasona demonstrou maior concentração no humor aquoso comparado com a moxifloxacina sozinha. Gatifloxacina + esteróide demonstrou menor penetração na câmara anterior comparado a solução de ga­ti­floxacin sem corticóide. A moxifloxacina foi superior a gatifloxacina considerando o MIC para Enterococci, S. pneumoniae e S. aureus fluorquinolona resistente.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aqueous Humor/chemistry , Steroids/analysis , Fluoroquinolones/analysis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Reference Values , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Enterococcus/isolation & purification , Enterococcus/drug effects , Fluoroquinolones/pharmacology , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Moxifloxacin , Gatifloxacin , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 80(3): 165-167, May-June 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888110


ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of 0.05 mL intracameral injection of moxifloxacin in patients who underwent phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL) implant. Methods: Retrospective study comprising patients who underwent phacoemulsification and IOL implant between January 2009 and December 2013. Patients were divided into two groups. Group A followed standard endophthalmitis prevention protocol and group B followed the same protocol plus intracameral injection of 0.05 mL of moxifloxacin hydrochloride at 5.45 mg/mL, immediately after IOL implant. Results: Medical records from 7,195 eyes of 3,751 patients (median age: 67.8 ± 8.96, range: 48-83 years, 53.8% female) were evaluated. Group A included 3,515 eyes of 1,838 patients and group B included 3,680 eyes of 1,913 patients. The incidence of endophthalmitis in group A was 0.22% (8:3,515 eyes) and in group B was 0.03% (1:3,680 eyes, p=0.0198, Fischer's exact test). No toxicity or inflammation related to the use of moxifloxacin was observed. Conclusions: There was a 7.3-fold lower ratio of endophthalmitis in the group that received moxifloxacin intracameral injection. This study provides further evidence that moxifloxacin is an effective intracameral prophylactic antibiotic.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a segurança e a eficácia da injeção intracameral de 0,05 mL de moxifloxacina em pacientes que realizaram facoemulsificação e implante de lente intraocular. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo envolvendo pacientes submetidos a facoemulsificação e implante de lente intraocular entre janeiro de 2009 a dezembro de 2013. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos. O grupo A seguiu o protocolo padrão de prevenção de endoftalmite e o grupo B seguiu o mesmo protocolo associado à injeção intracameral de 0,05 mL de cloridrato de moxifloxacino a 5,45 mg/mL, imediatamente após o implante de lentes intra-oculares (LIO). Resultados: Foram avaliados registros clínicos de 7.195 olhos de 3.751 pacientes (mediana de idade de 67,8 ± 8,96, faixa de 48-83 anos, 53,8% de mulheres). O grupo A incluiu 3.515 olhos de 1.838 pacientes e o grupo B incluiu 3.680 olhos de 1.913 pacientes. A incidência de endoftalmite no grupo A foi de 0,22% (8:3.515 olhos) e no grupo B de 0,03% (1:3.680 olhos, p=0,0198, teste exato de Fischer). Não foi observada toxicidade ou inflamação relacionada com o uso de moxifloxacino intracameral. Conclusões: Houve uma proporção 7,3 vezes menor de endoftalmite no grupo que recebeu injeção de moxifloxacino. Este estudo fornece mais evidências que o moxifloxacino intracameral é um antibiótico profilático intracameral eficaz.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Endophthalmitis/prevention & control , Phacoemulsification/adverse effects , Fluoroquinolones/administration & dosage , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Time Factors , Aged, 80 and over , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Injections, Intraocular/methods , Moxifloxacin , Anterior Chamber/drug effects
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(7): e5901, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951703


We aimed to quantify the penetration of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and moxifloxacin into the cornea and aqueous humor of cadaver eyes. A total of 60 enucleated eyes, not eligible for corneal transplantation, were divided into three groups and immersed in commercial solutions of 0.3% ciprofloxacin, 0.3% ofloxacin, or 0.5% moxifloxacin for 10 min. Whole corneas and samples of aqueous humor were then harvested and frozen, and drug concentrations analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The mean corneal concentration of moxifloxacin was twice as high as ofloxacin, and the latter was twice as high as ciprofloxacin. The mean concentration of moxifloxacin in the aqueous humor was four times higher than the other antibiotics, and the mean concentrations of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin were statistically similar. The amount of drug that penetrated the anterior chamber after a 10-min immersion was far below the safe limit of endothelial toxicity of each preparation. Moxifloxacin demonstrated far superior penetration into the cornea and anterior chamber of cadaver eyes compared to ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin. One should not expect endothelial toxicity with the commercial eye drops of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and moxifloxacin that reach the anterior chamber through the cornea.

Humans , Aqueous Humor/drug effects , Ofloxacin/pharmacokinetics , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacokinetics , Cornea/drug effects , Fluoroquinolones/pharmacokinetics , Cadaver , Eye Enucleation , Bayes Theorem , Moxifloxacin
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 20(5): 476-481, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828149


Abstract Clostridium difficile is a leading cause of diarrhea in hospitalized patients worldwide. While metronidazole and vancomycin are the most prescribed antibiotics for the treatment of this infection, teicoplanin, tigecycline and nitazoxanide are alternatives drugs. Knowledge on the antibiotic susceptibility profiles is a basic step to differentiate recurrence from treatment failure due to antimicrobial resistance. Because C. difficile antimicrobial susceptibility is largely unknown in Brazil, we aimed to determine the profile of C. difficile strains cultivated from stool samples of inpatients with diarrhea and a positive toxin A/B test using both agar dilution and disk diffusion methods. All 50 strains tested were sensitive to metronidazole according to CLSI and EUCAST breakpoints with an MIC90 value of 2 μg/mL. Nitazoxanide and tigecycline were highly active in vitro against these strains with an MIC90 value of 0.125 μg/mL for both antimicrobials. The MIC90 were 4 μg/mL and 2 μg/mL for vancomycin and teicoplanin, respectively. A resistance rate of 8% was observed for moxifloxacin. Disk diffusion can be used as an alternative to screen for moxifloxacin resistance, nitazoxanide, tigecycline and metronidazole susceptibility, but it cannot be used for testing glycopeptides. Our results suggest that C. difficile strains from São Paulo city, Brazil, are susceptible to metronidazole and have low MIC90 values for most of the current therapeutic options available in Brazil.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Reference Values , Thiazoles/pharmacology , Brazil , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Vancomycin/pharmacology , Colony Count, Microbial/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Clostridium Infections/microbiology , Teicoplanin/pharmacology , Fluoroquinolones/pharmacology , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests/methods , Bacterial Load , Moxifloxacin , Tigecycline , Metronidazole/pharmacology , Minocycline/analogs & derivatives , Minocycline/pharmacology
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 75(4): 322-324, July-Aug. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794863


ABSTRACT We describe an unusual case of Nocardia spp scleritis in a health girl resistant to topical fourth-generation fluoroquinolones. Clinically, there was only partial response of the scleritis to initial therapy. Treatment was changed to meropenem intravenously and topical amikacin. Following several weeks of antibiotic treatment, the patient's infection resolved but her vision was reduced to no light perception. Nocardia asteroides must be considered as a possible agent in cases of necrotizing scleritis in patients without a clear source. Antibiotic sensitivity testing has a definitive role in view of the resistance to these new medications.

RESUMO Nós descrevemos um raro caso de esclerite por Nocardia spp em uma criança sadia resistente a utilização tópica de fluorquinolona de quarta-geração. Clinicamente, a paciente apresentou apenas uma resposta parcial do quadro de esclerite a terapêutica inicial. O tratamento foi então modificado para meropenem intravenoso e amicacina tópica. Após várias semanas de tratamento com antibiótico, o quadro infeccioso regrediu porém a visao da pacientes evoluiu para perda da percepção luminosa. Em casos de esclerite necrotizante em pacientes sem fatores de risco aparente é necessário considerer a Nocardia Asteroides como possível agente causador. Os testes de sensibilidade medicamentosa apresentam importância significativa em virtude do aparecimento de resistência aos novos medicamentos.

Humans , Female , Child , Uveitis/microbiology , Scleritis/microbiology , Fluoroquinolones/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Nocardia asteroides/isolation & purification , Nocardia Infections/drug therapy , Oxacillin/therapeutic use , Sulfamethoxazole/therapeutic use , Trimethoprim/therapeutic use , Uveitis/diagnosis , Uveitis/drug therapy , Prednisolone/therapeutic use , Amikacin/therapeutic use , Ciprofloxacin/therapeutic use , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Eye Infections , Scleritis/diagnosis , Scleritis/drug therapy , Slit Lamp , Moxifloxacin/therapeutic use , Meropenem/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Nocardia Infections/diagnosis
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 657-660, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-814983


Legionella pneumonia (LP) is a rare systemic infectious disease, which is often misdiagnosed by clinicians due to the atypical symptoms. A middle-aged man who suffered from fever and dyspnea was diagnosed as community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Changsha Central Hospital in March 2015. The treatment was unsatisfied firstly. The patients showed further symptoms of rhabdomyolysis, acute liver and renal failure, and impaired neural functions, who was diagnosed as LP with multiple organ failure based on a positive test for Legionella antibody. The patient was recovered after treated with moxifloxacin combined with azithromycin and continuous renal replacement therapy. LP should be paid attention when patient was diagnosed as CAP and failed to be treated. The satisfied outcome is achieved after application of macrolide, quinolones and comprehensive treatments.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Community-Acquired Infections , Fluoroquinolones , Legionella , Legionnaires' Disease , Moxifloxacin , Multiple Organ Failure , Pneumonia, Bacterial