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1.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 512-518, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981299

ABSTRACT

Multiple myeloma(MM)is a systemic malignancy of plasma cells.Nowadays,the basic research on MM is flourishing with the continuous optimization and innovation of mouse models of MM.Heterologous mouse models of MM established with human-derived cells and immunodeficient mice have been applied in assessing drug efficacy,exploring drug resistance mechanisms,and observing tumor-bone marrow microenvironment interactions.In the last decades,the homologous mouse models of MM established with murine-derived cells or gene-editing technologies have been widely used in the research on the pathogenesis and drug development.Additionally,the stable modeling of targeted organ injury will be a key problem to be tackled in this field.This review summarizes the characteristics and application progress of mouse models of MM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Multiple Myeloma/pathology , Bone Marrow/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Resistance , Tumor Microenvironment
2.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 297-300, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971140

ABSTRACT

The multiple myeloma (MM), the second most common hematologic malignancy, is malignant proliferative disease of plasma cells. Although the application of many targeted drugs has significantly prolonged the survival time of MM patients, it is still an incurable disease. In recent years, the immunosuppression caused by interaction between tumor microenvironment(TME) and tumor cells has attracted people's attention gradually. As a kind of immunosuppressive cells in TME, regulatory T cells (Treg) play an important role in the progress of MM. Treg is related to the proliferation and metastasis of tumors, and can lead to the progress of MM by promoting the angiogenesis and generating immunosuppressive TME. In this review, we briefly summarized the latest research progress on the impact of Treg on the pathogenesis of MM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Multiple Myeloma/pathology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/pathology , Immune Tolerance , Plasma Cells/pathology , Immunosuppression Therapy , Tumor Microenvironment
3.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 801-809, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982133

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the biological function of miR-203a-5p and the underlying mechanism in multiple myeloma (MM).@*METHODS@#Three miRNA expression profiles (GSE16558, GSE24371 and GSE17498) were downloaded from the GEO database. The three miRNA expression profiles contained 131 MM samples and 17 normal plasmacyte samples. The robust rank aggregation (RRA) method was used to identify the differentially expressed miRNAs between MM and normal plasmacytes. In order to carry out cytological experiments, MM cell line with stable over-expression of miR-203a-5p was constructed with lentivirus. Expression levels of miR-203a-5p in MM cells were quantified by qRT-PCR. The effects of miR-203a-5p on MM cells were investigated using assays of cell viability and cell cycle. Cell proliferation was measured using the Cell Counting kit (CCK)8 assay. The percentage of cells in each cell cycle was measured with a FACSCalibur system. Xenograft tumor models were established to evaluate the role of miR-203a-5p in tumorigenesis in vivo . To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of miR-203a-5p in mediating cell proliferation inhibition and cell cycle arrest in MM, we used TargetScan and miRanda to predict the candidate targets of miR-203a-5p. The potential target of miR-203a-5p in MM cells was explored using the luciferase reporter assay, qRT-PCR, and Western blot.@*RESULTS@#An integrated analysis of three MM miRNA expression datasets showed that the levels of miR-203a-5p in MM were notably downregulated compared with those in normal plasmacytes. Accordingly, the relative expression levels of miR-203a-5p were decreased in MM cell lines. In addition, overexpression of miR-203a-5p inhibited the proliferation and cell cycle progression of RPMI8226 and U266 cells. In vivo experiments demonstrated that upregulation of miR-203a-5p expression could significantly inhibit the tumorigenesis of subcutaneous myeloma xenografts in nude mice. Mechanistic investigation led to the identification of Jagged 1 (JAG1) as a novel and direct downstream target of miR-203a-5p. Interestingly, the reintroduction of JAG1 abrogated miR-203a-5p-induced MM cell growth inhibition and cell cycle arrest.@*CONCLUSION@#Our data demonstrate that miR-203a-5p inhibits cell proliferation and cell cycle progression in MM cells by targeting JAG1, supporting the utility of miR-203a-5p as a novel and potential therapeutic agent for miRNA-based MM therapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Humans , Multiple Myeloma/pathology , Cell Line, Tumor , Mice, Nude , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Cell Division , Cell Proliferation , Disease Models, Animal , Carcinogenesis/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Jagged-1 Protein/metabolism
4.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 794-800, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982132

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of pure Chinese herbal extract Mangiferin on the malignant biological behaviors of multiple myeloma (MM) cells, and to analyze the molecular mechanism of the anti-myeloma effect of Mangiferin, so as to provide experimental basis for MM replacement therapy.@*METHODS@#U266 and RPMI8226 of human MM cell lines were intervened with different concentrations of Mangiferin. Cell proliferation was detected by CCK-8 method. Annexin V/PI double staining flow cytometry was used to detect cell apoptosis. Western blot was used to detect the expression of apoptosis and related signaling pathway proteins, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR) family.@*RESULTS@#Mangiferin could inhibit the proliferation activity of U266 and RPMI8226 cells and induce cells apoptosis. After Mangiferin intervened in U266, RPMI8226 cells for 48 h, the expression of Bcl-2 family pro-apoptotic protein Bax was up-regulated, while the expression of survivin and Bcl-xL proteins was down-regulated and caspase-3 was hydrolyzed and activated to promote cell apoptosis, besides, the expression of Bcl-2 protein in U266 cells was also significantly down-regulated to induce apoptosis (P<0.05). After Mangiferin intervenes in MM cells, it can not only increase the expression level of tumor suppressor p53, but also induce programmed cell death of MM cells by inhibiting the expression of anti-apoptotic molecules and down-regulating the phosphorylation levels of AKT and NF-κB. In addition, after the intervention of Mangiferin, the expressions of CXCR4, MMP2 and MMP9 in U266 cells were down-regulated (P<0.05), while there is no effect on the expressions of CXCR2, CXCR7 and MMP13 (P>0.05). However, the expressions of CXCR4, MMP9, and MMP13 in RPMI8226 cells were down-regulated (P<0.01), the expression of MMP2 was weakly affected, and the expression of CXCR2 and CXCR7 was basically not affected (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Mangiferin can inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis of MM cells, and its mechanism may be related to inhibiting the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway, affecting the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins, and inhibiting the expression of core members of MMP and CXCR family.


Subject(s)
Humans , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Matrix Metalloproteinase 13 , Cell Line, Tumor , NF-kappa B , Multiple Myeloma/pathology , Cell Proliferation , Apoptosis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2
5.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 589-592, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982100

ABSTRACT

Bone marrow microenvironment is a highly complex environment surrounding tumor, which plays an important role in the survival, proliferation, drug resistance and migration of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. As an important cellular component in tumor microenvironment, tumor-associated macrophages(TAM) has attracted attention due to its key role in tumor progression and drug resistance. Targeting TAM has shown potential therapeutic value in cancer treatment. In order to clarify the role of macrophages in MM progression, it is necessary to understand the differentiation of TAM and its characteristics of promoting MM. This paper reviews the research progress on how TAM is programmed in MM and the mechanism of TAM promoting tumor development and drug resistance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Multiple Myeloma/pathology , Tumor-Associated Macrophages , Macrophages/pathology , Cell Differentiation , Tumor Microenvironment
6.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 197-200, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936194

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics, treatment methods and outcomes of extramedullary plasmacytoma of the head and neck. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 10 cases with extramedullary plasmacytoma of the head and neck who were admitted to Henan Tumor Hospital from January 2005 to January 2020. Among the 10 patients, 6 were male and 4 were female. The average age at diagnosis was 56.3 years old (34-74 years old). Among them, 3 cases were located in the nasal cavity, 2 cases in the nasopharynx, 1 case in the sinuses, 2 cases in the larynx, 1 case in the oropharynx, and 1 case in the cervical lymph nodes. Treatments were administered according to tumor size and resection extent. Complete surgical excision (negative margins) was preferred, followed by adjuvant radiotherapy or radiotherapy alone. The clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of EMP were analyzed. Results: The patients' symptoms were not specific, frequently with local obstruction symptom and localized masses. All patients were confirmed pathologically as suffering from monoclonal plasmacytoma, with negative bone marrow biopsy and negative skeletal survey. Five patients received surgery, 3 received radiotherapy, and 2 received surgery with additional radiation. The follow-up time was 16-125 months, with a median of 92 months. Two patients developed into multiple myeloma. One patient who received radiotherapy after surgery relapsed after 7 years of follow-up and again received surgical treatment, with no evidence of second recurrence. The remaining patients had no recurrence or progression. Conclusion: Extramedullary plasmacytoma of the head and neck has a good prognosis. Surgical treatment can be considered for completely resectable lesions.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Multiple Myeloma/pathology , Plasmacytoma/surgery , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
7.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 40(2): 159-161, 15/06/2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362223

ABSTRACT

Sellar plasmacytomas are rare tumors arising from plasma cells. They are often misdiagnosed as adenomas.We report the case of a 63-year-old woman with headache, cranial nerve III palsy and decreased visual acuity. Imaging revealed an extensive lesion centered on the clivus, extending to the cavernous sinus bilaterally and into the sphenoid sinus. The hormonal tests were compatible with panhypopituitarism and mild hyperprolactinemia. The first hypothesis was invasive pituitary adenoma. Partial resection was achieved, and the immunohistochemical evaluation was compatible with plasmacytoma. After a few weeks, she developed lumbar and hip pain, and the imaging confirming osteolytic lesions. The final diagnosis was multiple myeloma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Pituitary Neoplasms/therapy , Plasmacytoma/surgery , Multiple Myeloma/diagnosis , Multiple Myeloma/pathology , Pituitary Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Plasmacytoma/pathology , Plasmacytoma/diagnostic imaging , Adenoma/pathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Multiple Myeloma/surgery
8.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 158-166, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880047

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the prognostic value of R-ISS staging combined with "Multiple-Hits" in patients with multiple myeloma (MM), and to detected the effect of different "Multiple- Hits" combinations to the prognosis of the patients.@*METHODS@#The 220 MM patients treated in the hematology department of People's Hospital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region from April 2013 to October 2019 were enrolled and retrospective analyzed. All the patients were detected by FISH. The effects of R-ISS staging combined with "Multiple-Hits" and different "Multiple-Hits" combinations to the prognosis of the patients were compared.@*RESULTS@#For the patients at R-ISS stage II and III, the median progression-free survival (PFS) time, overall survival (OS) time and duration of response (DOR) time in "Multiple-Hits" patients were all shorter than those without high-risk cytogenetic abnormality (HRCA) and those with only one type of HRCA (P<0.05), while the TTR (time to response) was significantly prolonged (P<0.05). For the prognosis of the patients among the three different "Multiple-Hits" combinations(1q21+ combined with del(17p), 1q21+ combined with t(14;16) and combined 1q21+ combined with t(4;14)), 1q21+ combined with del(17p) showed the worst prognosis.@*CONCLUSION@#The patients with Different "Multiple-Hits" combinations shows different prognosis. The R-ISS staging combination with "Multiple-Hits" is more conducive to accurately judging the prognosis of MM patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chromosome Aberrations , Multiple Myeloma/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
9.
RFO UPF ; 25(3): 459-466, 20201231. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1357831

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: o mieloma múltiplo é uma neoplasia maligna progressiva de células B, caracterizada pela proliferaçãodesregulada e clonal de plasmócitos na medula óssea. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo descreverum caso clínico de mieloma múltiplo diagnosticado pelo cirurgião-dentista. Descrição do caso: paciente de60 anos, sexo feminino, compareceu à Clínica-escola de Odontologia da Universidade Estadual de Feira deSantana, Bahia, Brasil, cuja queixa principal era: "Tô sentindo uma dor dentro da boca parece que minhaboca soltou". Na história da doença atual, a paciente relatou que há cerca de dois meses, ao mastigar alimentosde consistência dura, observou um estalido e que, a partir de então, a sensação era de uma luxação dearticulação temporomandibular, porém, com uma sintomatologia dolorosa branda. Na história médica, foirelatado que há 3 anos vem apresentando sinais de dor nos ossos, letargia, disfagia, anemia, perda de peso emal-estar crônico. No exame físico extrabucal, foi observado aumento de volume em região de corpo mandibularesquerdo e na clavícula direita. No exame físico intrabucal, foi observado um pequeno aumento devolume na mandíbula do lado esquerdo. Foram solicitados exames de imagem e foi realizada biópsia incisional.Diante do quadro clínico, imaginológico e histológico, chegou-se ao diagnóstico de mieloma múltiplo.Conclusão: é de suma importância conhecer o comportamento clínico epidemiológico do mieloma múltiplo,para que seja realizado um diagnóstico oportuno, abrangente e precoce, com o objetivo de melhorar o prognósticoe a sobrevida do paciente.(AU)


Objective: multiple myeloma is a progressive malignancy of B cells, characterized by unregulated and clonal proliferation of plasma cells in the bone marrow. The present work aims to describe a clinical case of multiple myeloma diagnosed by the dentist. Case description: a 60-year-old female patient attended the Dentistry School of the State University of Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil, whose main complaint was: "I feel a pain inside my mouth, it seems that my mouth has loosened". In the history of the current disease, the patient reported that, approximately 2 months ago, when chewing hard food, she noticed a click and that since then the sensation was of a dislocation of the temporomandibular joint, but with mild painful symptoms. In medical history it has been reported that for 3 years it has been showing signs of bone pain, lethargy, dysphagia, anemia, weight loss and chronic malaise. On physical examination, an increase in volume was observed in the region of the left mandibular body and in the right collarbone. On intraoral physical examination, a small increase in volume was observed in the left side of the mandible. Imaging exams were requested and an incisional biopsy was performed. In view of the clinical, imaging and histological picture, the diagnosis of multiple myeloma was reached. Conclusion: it is extremely important to know the epidemiological clinical behavior of multiple myeloma in order to make a timely, comprehensive and early diagnosis, with the aim of improving the patient's prognosis and survival.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Mandibular Neoplasms/diagnosis , Mandibular Neoplasms/pathology , Dentists , Multiple Myeloma/diagnosis , Multiple Myeloma/pathology , Radiography, Panoramic , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Fatal Outcome
11.
Med. interna (Caracas) ; 36(1): 56-59, 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LIVECS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1103079

ABSTRACT

El mieloma múltiple (MM) es un tumor de proliferación clonal de plasmocitos en la médula ósea (MO). Hasta ahora no es curable1,2. Puede presentarse como una enfermedad indolente o con manifestaciones clínicas como insuficiencia renal, anemia y lesiones osteolíticas1. Se presenta el caso de una paciente femenina de 46 años, quien padecía dolor en la región del brazo izquierdo, acompañado por dolores óseos generalizados. Al examen físico se observó en el tercio proximal de la región humeral izquierda y hombro ipsilateral, gran tumoración que deformaba la anatomía local, indurada, inmóvil y dolorosa. Presentaba anemia severa (Hb. 6 g/dL), cuantificación de ß2 Microglobulina 4,23 mg/L (VR 0,80 ­ 3,0 mg/L) y rastreo óseo radiológico con múltiples lesiones líticas. En la muestra de médula ósea se encontró infiltración de 80 % de células plasmáticas mono- clonales kappa. Se le diagnosticó discrasia de células plasmáticas tipo MM monoclonal kappa sintomático, estadio II (ISS), con enfermedad ósea extensa y un gran plasmocitoma humeral izquier- do. Se indicó tratamiento de inducción de la remisión con el esquema VCD (bortezomib, ciclofosfamida y dexametasona). Adicionalmente ácido zoledrónico. Posteriormente se modificó a bortezomib, talidomida y prednisona. Luego del tratamiento antineoplásico, refirió acalmia completa del dolor con mejoría de la movilidad. Este caso clínico se trata de una presentación inusual de MM debido a la edad de la paciente y a la extensa enfermedad ósea. Llamó la atención la ausencia de niveles elevados de la cadena liviana kappa de las inmunoglobulinas libres en suero. Por la edad de la paciente y la ausencia de co-morbilidades significativas, es candidata para trasplante de células progenitoras hematopoyéticas (TCPH)(AU)


Multiple myeloma (MM) is a tumor of clonal proliferation of plasma cells in the bone marrow (BM). Until now it is not curable1,2. It can present as without symptoms or with clinical manifestations such as renal failure, anemia and osteolytic lesions1. We describe the case of a 46-year-old female patient, who complained of pain in her left arm, and, also, by generalized bone pain. On physical examination a large tumor was present in the proximal third of the left humeral region and ipsilateral shoulder, it was hard, painful and immo- bile. She had severe anemia (Hb 6 g / dL), quantification of ß2 Microglobulin 4.23 mg / L (VR 0.80 - 3.0 mg /L) and the radiological bone survey showed multiple lytic lesions. In the bone marrow sample, an infiltration of 80 % kappa monoclonal plasma cells was found. Her diagnosis was MM-type plasma cell dyscrasia, symptomatic kappa, stage II (ISS), with extensive bone disease and a large left humeral plasmacytoma. Remission induction therapy was indicated with the VCD scheme (bortezomib, cyclophosphamide and dexa- methasone). Additionally zoledronic acid was administered. Subsequently, it was modified to bortezomib, thalidomide and prednisone. After antineoplastic treatment, she referred pain relief with improvement of mobility. This clinical case is an unusual presentation of MM due to the age of the patient and extensive bone disease. The absence of high levels of the kappa light chain of free immunoglobulins in serum attracted attention. Due to the age of the patient and the absence of significant comorbidities, she is a candidate for trans- plantation of hematopoietic stem cells(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Bone Neoplasms , Bone Marrow Cells , Multiple Myeloma/pathology , Rheumatology , Bone Diseases
12.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 78(6): 443-446, Dec. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-976144

ABSTRACT

El mieloma múltiple es una enfermedad oncohematológica, que representa el 15% de las enfermedades hematológicas malignas. La edad media de aparición es entre los 65-70 años, siendo muy poco frecuente en pacientes jóvenes; 2% son menores de 40 años. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 36 años con antecedente de tabaquismo de 20 paquetes año. Consultó por disnea asociada a signos de insuficiencia cardíaca derecha, anemia, proteinuria, elevación de reactantes de fase aguda y patrón sugestivo de restricción moderadamente grave en la espirometría y caída de la capacidad de difusión de monóxido de carbono (DLco). El ecocardiograma doppler evidenció dilatación de cavidades derechas y signos de hipertensión pulmonar que se confirmó con cateterismo cardiaco derecho. En busca de la etiología se arribó al diagnóstico de mieloma múltiple.


Multiple myeloma is a hematologic disease, which accounts for 15% of hematologic malignancies. The average age of onset is between 65-70 years and is very rare in young patients, as 2% are under 40 years old. We present a case of 36-year-old women with history of 20 pack years (p/y) smoking, who complaints of dyspnea associated with signs of right cardiac overload, anemia, proteinuria, elevated acute phase reactants and spirometry pattern suggestive of moderately-severe restriction and severe drop in diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO). Echocardiogram evidence dilated right heart cavities and signs of pulmonary hypertension which is confirmed by right heart catheterization. In search of the etiology we arrive to the diagnosis of multiple myeloma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Biopsy , Cardiac Catheterization , Radiography, Thoracic , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/pathology , Multiple Myeloma/physiopathology , Multiple Myeloma/pathology
14.
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(3): 432-434, May-June 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949869

ABSTRACT

Abstract: A 75-year-old male presented with generalized erythematous, scaly plaques and painless lymphadenopathy. Rosai-Dorfman disease was suspected based on clinical manifestations and confirmed by histopathologic and immune reactivity studies performed on the biopsy obtained from the left supraclavicular lymph node. The patient was also diagnosed with multiple myeloma according to urine electrophoresis, serum light chain assay, and bone marrow biopsy, which were initially performed for evaluation of anemia. This report highlights the dermatological manifestations of Rosai-Dorfman disease with generalized painless lymphadenopathy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Histiocytosis, Sinus/pathology , Multiple Myeloma/pathology , Skin/pathology , Biopsy , Histiocytosis, Sinus/diagnosis , Multiple Myeloma/diagnosis
15.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 77(1): 43-46, jan.-fev. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-899107

ABSTRACT

Resumo Mieloma múltiplo (MM) é uma neoplasia que cursa com a proliferação desordenada de clones de plasmócitos, produzindo imunoglobulina monoclonal e normalmente se apresenta como lesões osteolíticas. Em alguns casos, porém, esta doença apresenta-se como massas, chamadas de plasmocitomas. O acometimento ocular e orbitário é incomum nesta patologia. Neste trabalho, descrevemos o caso de uma paciente de 63 anos com diagnóstico prévio de MM que evoluiu com um plasmocitoma intraconal em olho direito, bem como uma massa vascularizada câmara anterior proveniente de infiltração uveal. Essas lesões foram correlacionadas MM e culminaram com a perda visual no olho acometido. Não foi encontrado na literatura relatos de plasmocitoma intraconal.


Abstract Multiple myeloma (MM) leads to disorderly proliferation of plasma cells clones, producing monoclonal immunoglobulin and commonly presents osteolytic lesions. In some cases, however, masses called plasmocytomas are found. Ocular and orbital involvement is unusual in this pathology. In this paper, we describe a case of a 63 year-old patient with previous diagnostic of MM that evolved an intraconal plasmocytoma in the right eye, as well as a vascularized mass in the anterior chamber from uveal infiltration. These lesions were correlated to MM e lead to visual loss in the affected eye. Reports of intraconal plasmocytoma have not been found in literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Plasmacytoma/diagnosis , Orbital Neoplasms/diagnosis , Multiple Myeloma/diagnosis , Ophthalmoscopy , Plasmacytoma/drug therapy , Biopsy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Orbital Neoplasms/pathology , Orbital Neoplasms/drug therapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Visual Acuity , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Bortezomib/therapeutic use , Slit Lamp Microscopy , Intraocular Pressure , Multiple Myeloma/pathology
16.
Medwave ; 18(3): e7220, 2018.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-911670

ABSTRACT

CONTEXTO: El mieloma múltiple es una neoplasia de las células plasmáticas de la medula ósea. Las terapias disponibles no son curativas y la mayoría de los pacientes se vuelve refractario al tratamiento. Agentes como lenalidomida y bortezomib han demostrado su eficacia en el tratamien-to en segunda línea de estos pacientes. OBJETIVO: Evaluar el costo-efectividad de la combinación lenalidomida/dexametasona frente a bortezomib/dexametasona en pacientes con mieloma múltiple, no candidatos a trasplante, previamente tratados con bortezomib, desde la perspectiva del sistema nacional de salud chileno. METODOLOGÍA: Se empleó un modelo de Markov que simula la evolución de una cohorte de pacientes a través de cuatro estados de salud (preprogresión en tratamiento, preprogresión sin tratamiento, progresión o muerte) en un horizonte temporal de 25 años. Los datos de eficacia, uso de recursos y frecuencia de efectos adversos fueron extraídos de los ensayos sobre mieloma múltiple MM-009 y MM-010 y de un estudio retrospectivo de retratamiento con bortezomib. Todos los parámetros fueron validados por expertos. Se aplicó una tasa de descuento en costos y beneficios de 3%. La robustez de los resultados fue evaluada mediante un análisis de sensibilidad univariante y probabilístico. RESULTADOS: El tratamiento con lenalidomida/dexametasona proporciona 1,41 años de vida y 0,83 años de vida ajustados por calidad incrementales respecto a bortezomib/dexametasona, con un costo incremental de 11 864 597,86 pesos chilenos (19 589,86 dólares). La ratio de cos-to-efectividad y costo-utilidad incremental se cifró en 8 410 266,92 pesos chilenos (13 886,35 dólares) por año de vida ganado y 14 271 896,16 pesos chilenos (23 564,59 dólares) por año de vida ajustado por calidad respectivamente. CONCLUSIÓN: La lenalidomida/dexametasona representa una alternativa potencialmente costo-efectiva, desde la perspectiva del sistema nacional de salud chileno, para el tratamiento en segunda línea de pacientes con mieloma múltiple no candidatos a trasplante.


BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma is a hematologic malignancy affecting bone marrow derived plasma cells. Current therapies are not able to eradicate the disease and most patients become refractory to the treatment. Lenalidomide and bortezomib have proved effective in the second-line treatment of these patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of lenalidomide in combination with dexamethasone compared to bortezomib in combination with dexamethasone in patients with multiple myeloma previously treated with bortezomib, from the perspective of the Chilean National Health Service. METHODOLOGY: A four-state Markov model (preprogression on treatment; preprogression off treatment, progression and death) was used to simulate the evolution of a cohort of multiple myeloma patients over a 25-year time horizon. Efficacy data, resource use and frequency of adverse events were extracted from MM009/010 studies and a retrospective analysis of retreatment with bortezomib. All inputs were validated by experts. A 3% annual discount rate was used for costs and health outcomes. The robustness of the results was evaluated through univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: Lenalidomide in combination with dexamethasone treatment provided 1.41 incremental life years and 0.83 incremental quality-adjusted life years in comparison with bortezomib in combination with dexamethasone, with an incremental cost of 11 864 597.86 CLP (19 589.86 US$). The incremental cost-effectiveness and cost-utility ratio were estimated at 8 410 266.92 CLP (13 886,35 US$) / incremental life year and 14 271 896.16 CLP (23 564,59 US$)/incremental quality-adjusted life years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Lenalidomide in combination with dexamethasone represents a potentially cost-effective alternative for the second-line treatment of patients with multiple myeloma who are not eligible for transplantation, from the perspective of the Chilean National Health Service.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/administration & dosage , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/economics , Chile , Retrospective Studies , Markov Chains , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Disease Progression , Bortezomib/administration & dosage , Lenalidomide/administration & dosage , Multiple Myeloma/economics , Multiple Myeloma/pathology
17.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 43-50, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742506

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Tripartite-motif-containing protein 56 (TRIM56) has been found to exhibit a broad antiviral activity, depending upon E3 ligase activity. Here, we attempted to evaluate the function of TRIM56 in multiple myeloma (MM) and its underlying molecular basis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: TRIM56 expression at the mRNA and protein level was measured by qRT PCR and western blot analysis. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and flow cytometry analysis was performed to investigate the effect of TRIM56 on MM cell proliferation and apoptosis. The concentrations of interferon (IFN)-β, interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in MM cell culture supernatants were detected with respective commercial ELISA kits. Western blot was employed to determine the effect of TRIM56 on toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)/toll-IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-β (TRIF) signaling pathway. RESULTS: TRIM56 expression was prominently decreased in MM cells. Poly (dA:dT)-induced TRIM56 overexpression in U266 cells suppressed proliferation, induced apoptosis, and enhanced inflammatory cytokine production, while TRIM56 knockdown improved growth, diminished apoptosis, and inhibited inflammatory cytokine secretion in RPMI8226 cells. Moreover, TRIM56 knockdown blocked TLR3 signaling pathway. Furthermore, poly (I:C), a TLR3 agonist, markedly abolished TRIM56 depletion-induced increase of proliferation, decrease of apoptosis, and reduction of inflammatory factor in MM cells. CONCLUSION: TRIM56 may act as a tumor suppressor in MM through activation of TLR3/TRIF signaling pathway, contributing to a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of TRIM56 involvement in MM pathogenesis and providing a promising therapy strategy for patients with MM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport/metabolism , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Progression , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Gene Knockdown Techniques , Multiple Myeloma/metabolism , Multiple Myeloma/pathology , Poly I-C/pharmacology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Toll-Like Receptor 3/metabolism , Tripartite Motif Proteins/deficiency , Tripartite Motif Proteins/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/deficiency , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism
18.
Salud colect ; 11(3): 381-399, jul.-sep. 2015.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-761808

ABSTRACT

Este artículo traza un mapa del control social de las drogas a partir de las políticas del espacio, de acuerdo al concepto foucaultiano de heterotopía. En primer lugar, se describe una breve genealogía de los usos de sustancias psicotrópicas en los diversos tiempos y culturas hasta la llegada del paradigma prohibicionista, atendiendo al modo en que el poder ha señalado, separado y encerrado determinados rituales y usos del placer en emplazamientos físicos y simbólicos. Este itinerario se centra en el contexto español para establecer un diálogo entre las distintas políticas del espacio que se han sucedido y superpuesto en la construcción y gestión de un problema que deviene objeto de la mirada, la mecánica y los discursos médicos, jurídicos y sociales. Así, se analizan las intersecciones de los emplazamientos liminares de consumo con el paradigma de la reducción de daños, así como las estrategias terapéuticas con prescripción farmacológica, desde los programas de metadona hasta los más recientes de heroína.


This article traces a map of the social control of drugs through the politics of space, according to the Foucaultian concept of "heterotopia." Firstly, a brief genealogy of the use of psychotropic substances in different times and cultures is described, up to the introduction of the prohibitionist paradigm. Attention is paid to the way in which power has marked, separated and enclosed certain rituals and uses of pleasure in physical and symbolic sites. The itinerary is focused on the Spanish context to establish a dialogue between the various policies of space that have come into being and have overlapped in the construction and management of a problem which has been rendered an object to the gazes, mechanics and discourses of the medical, legal, and social fields. In this way, the intersections between the liminal spaces of drug use and the harm reduction paradigm are analyzed, including therapeutic strategies with prescribed drugs, from methadone programs to the new heroin programs.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Lumbar Vertebrae/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Multiple Myeloma/pathology , Databases, Factual , Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted , Sensitivity and Specificity
19.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(4): 330-335, 04/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-745760

ABSTRACT

Spine is the most common site for skeletal metastasis in patients with malignancy. Vertebral involvement quantification, neurological status, general health status and primary tumor histology are factors to set surgical planning and therapeutic targets. We evaluated the impact of general clinical and neurological status, histologic type and surgery in survival. Method : The study sample consisted of consecutive patients admitted from July 2010 to January 2013 for treatment. Results : Sixty eight patients were evaluated. 23 were female and 45 were male. Main primary neoplasic sites were: breast, prostate, lung/pleura and linfoproliferative. Thirty three out of 68 received surgical treatment, 2 received percutaneous biopsy and 33 had nonsurgical treatment. Survival : Log Rank curves revealed no statistical significant difference according to histological type, surgical approach and Frankel Score. Karnofsky Score was statistically different. Conclusion : Histological type and clinical status were statistically associated with life expectancy in vertebral metastatic disease. .


A coluna vertebral é o sítio mais comum de metastases ósseas. A quantificação do acometimento vertebral, o status neurológico, status clínico e histologia do tumor primário são fatores importantes para planejamento cirúrgico e metas terapêuticas. Nós avaliamos o impacto do status clinico geral e neurológico, tipo histológico e cirurgia na sobrevida de pacientes com metástases espinhais. Método : A amostra consistiu de pacientes consecutivamente admitidos de Julho de 2010 a Janeiro de 2013. Resultados : Sessenta e oito pacientes foram avaliados. 23 eram mulheres e 45 eram homens. Os principais sítios primários foram mama, próstata, pulmão e linfoproliferativos. Trinta e três realizaram tratamento cirúrgico, 2 realizaram biópsia percutânea e 33 tiveram tratamento conservador e radioterapia. Conclusão As curvas Log Rank não revelaram significância quanto à cirurgia e escore de Frankel, mas revelaram associação com Karnofsky e tipo histológico. .


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Spinal Neoplasms/mortality , Spinal Neoplasms/secondary , Breast Neoplasms/mortality , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Lung Neoplasms/mortality , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lymphoma/mortality , Lymphoma/pathology , Multiple Myeloma/mortality , Multiple Myeloma/pathology , Prognosis , Pleural Neoplasms/mortality , Pleural Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/mortality , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Survival Rate , Spinal Neoplasms/therapy , Time Factors
20.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 37(1): 40-48, Jan-Mar/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741932

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the dichotomy of type I/II and type A/B alcoholism typologies in opiate-dependent patients with a comorbid alcohol dependence problem (ODP-AP). Methods: The validity assessment process comprised the information regarding the history of alcohol use (internal validity), cognitive-behavioral variables regarding substance use (external validity), and indicators of treatment during 6-month follow-up (predictive validity). Results: ODP-AP subjects classified as type II/B presented an early and much more severe drinking problem and a worse clinical prognosis when considering opiate treatment variables as compared with ODP-AP subjects defined as type I/A. Furthermore, type II/B patients endorse more general positive beliefs and expectancies related to the effect of alcohol and tend to drink heavily across several intra- and interpersonal situations as compared with type I/A patients. Conclusions: These findings confirm two different forms of alcohol dependence, recognized as a low-severity/vulnerability subgroup and a high-severity/vulnerability subgroup, in an opiate-dependent population with a lifetime diagnosis of alcohol dependence. .


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Multiple Myeloma/pathology , Survival Rate , Cohort Studies , Multiple Myeloma/mortality , Multiple Myeloma/surgery , Prognosis , Stem Cell Transplantation , Treatment Outcome
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