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1.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 87(3): 171-178, jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388735

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La violencia en la gestante está asociada a muchos factores del recién nacido, pero esto casi no se ha reportado en la altura geográfica. OBJETIVO: Determinar si existe asociación entre el maltrato en la gestante adolescente y su efecto en el peso del recién nacido en la altura geográfica peruana. MÉTODO: Estudio de cohorte retrospectiva. Se tomó la información de 855 gestantes. La variable exposición fue que hubieran sufrido violencia, lo cual se asoció al peso y otros datos del recién nacido en la ciudad de Huancayo, Perú. RESULTADOS: Según el análisis multivariado, hubo más riesgo de que el niño tuviera un peso inadecuado cuando hubo violencia física (riesgo relativo ajustado [RRa]: 1,42; intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%]: 1,01-2,00; p = 0,045), cuando se tuvo un parto pretérmino según Capurro (RRa: 4,90; IC95%: 2,85-8,45; p < 0,001), cuando hubo complicaciones en el parto (RRa: 2,11; IC95%: 1,25-3,61; p = 0,006) y si el abuso inició en el primer trimestre (RRa: 14,74; IC95%: 4,70-46,27; p < 0,001), el segundo (RRa: 18,72; IC95%: 5,78-60,63; p < 0,001) o el tercero (RRa: 18,87; IC95%: 4,71-75,60; p < 0,001). CONCLUSIONES: Existe asociación entre sufrir violencia física durante la gestación y el bajo peso al nacer, y también se encontró asociación con otras variables.


INTRODUCTION: Violence in the pregnant woman is associated with many newborn factors, but this has hardly been reported in the geographical altitude. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is an association between adolescent pregnancy abuse and its effect on newborn birth weight in high altitude Peru. METHOD: Retrospective cohort study. Information was taken from 855 pregnant women. The exposure variable was whether they had suffered gender-based violence, the exposure variable was that they had suffered violence, which was associated with the weight and other data of the newborn in Huancayo city, Peru. RESULTS: In the multivariatee analysis it was found that there was a higher risk of the child having an inadequate weight when there was physical violence (adjusted relative risk [RRa]: 1.42; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.01-2.00; p = 0.045), when there was a preterm birth according to Capurro (RRa: 4.90; 95% CI: 2.85-8.45; p < 0.001), when there were complications in childbirth (RRa: 2.11; 95% CI: 1.25-3.61; p = 0.006) and if the abuse started in the first trimester (RRa: 14.74; 95% CI: 4.70-46.27; p < 0.001), second (RRa: 18.72; 95% CI: 5.78-60.63; p < 0.001) or third (RRa: 18.87; 95% CI: 4.71-75.60; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between suffering physical violence during gestation and low birth weight, and association was also found with other variables.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Child , Adolescent , Pregnancy in Adolescence , Birth Weight , Domestic Violence/statistics & numerical data , Violence Against Women , Peru , Sex Offenses , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Neonatal Screening , Pregnant Women , Altitude , Intimate Partner Violence/statistics & numerical data
2.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 37(2): 163-172, Jan.-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394945

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most frequent malignant primary liver tumor globally. In 2018, it ranked sixth and represented the fourth cause of death from cancer; the five-year overall survival is 18 %. Most cases of HCC develop in patients with cirrhosis of any etiology, especially because of hepatitis B and C viruses, alcohol, and recently nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Aim: To analyze the clinical characteristics, diagnostic methods, treatments, prognostic variables, and survival. Materials and methods: This retrospective descriptive study was conducted on a cohort of patients diagnosed with cirrhosis and treated between January 2011 and December 2020 at a health care center in Bogotá. The diagnosis of HCC was confirmed radiologically or by biopsy. We analyzed the information descriptively with absolute frequency measures in the case of categorical variables. For continuous variables, the information was summarized with measures of central tendency (mean or median) and their relevant measures of dispersion. Results: We included 152 patients diagnosed with HCC, with a mean age of 69.4 years; 51.3 % were men. The leading cause of HCC was nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which accounted for almost a third of cases (32 %); other causes were alcohol (15 %) and hepatitis C virus (14 %). The median manifestation of the tumor was two nodules with a size close to 4 cm. Besides, 35 % of patients had a BCLC (Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer) stage with curative options, and 25 % received curative treatment options. The first-line systemic therapy used in this cohort was sorafenib®, used in 35 patients (33.7 %). Survival curves showed that women, Child-Pugh class A, and BCLC stage 0 had higher median survival. Multivariate analysis showed a higher risk of death for males (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.16; confidence interval [CI]: 1.24-3.76), Child-Pugh class B (HR: 2.14; CI 1.16-3.95), and Child-Pugh class C (HR: 7.52; CI 2.88-19.57). Conclusions: NAFLD is the leading cause of HCC in this cohort. A third of patients are diagnosed in early BCLC stages with a curative treatment option, and 25 % are treated with curative therapies. Sorafenib was the first-line therapy in advanced HCC. Overall survival after diagnosis of HCC remains low, being necessary to join forces in the follow-up of patients with cirrhosis to improve these outcomes.


Resumen Introducción: el hepatocarcinoma (HCC) es el tumor hepático primario maligno más frecuente en el mundo: en 2018 ocupó la sexta posición y representó la cuarta causa de muerte por cáncer; la supervivencia global a 5 años es del 18 %. La mayoría de los casos de HCC se desarrolla en pacientes con cirrosis de cualquier etiología, especialmente por virus de la hepatitis B y C, alcohol y, recientemente, por la esteatohepatitis no alcohólica (NASH). Objetivo: analizar las características clínicas, métodos de diagnóstico, tratamientos, variables pronósticas y supervivencia. Metodología: estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de una cohorte de pacientes con diagnóstico de cirrosis atendidos entre enero de 2011 y diciembre de 2020 en un centro de atención médica de Bogotá, con diagnóstico de HCC confirmado radiológicamente o por biopsia. La información se analizó de forma descriptiva con medidas de frecuencia absoluta en el caso de las variables categóricas; para las variables continuas se resumió la información con medidas de tendencia central (media o medianas) y su respectiva medida de dispersión. Resultados: se incluyeron 152 pacientes diagnosticados con HCC, con edad promedio de 69,4 años, 51,3 % eran hombres. La principal causa de HCC fue el hígado graso no alcohólico (NAFLD), que representó casi una tercera parte de los casos (32 %); otras causas fueron el alcohol (15 %) y el virus de la hepatitis C (14 %). La mediana de presentación del tumor fue de 2 nódulos con un tamaño cercano a 4 cm. El 35 % de los pacientes tenía un estadio BCLC (Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer) con opciones curativas y el 25 % de los pacientes recibió opciones curativas de tratamiento. La terapia sistémica de primera línea utilizada en esta cohorte fue el sorafenib®, que se utilizó en 35 pacientes (33,7 %). Las curvas de supervivencia mostraron que las mujeres, el estadio Child-Pugh A y el estadio BCLC 0 presentaron mayores medianas de supervivencia. El análisis multivariado evidenció un mayor riesgo de muerte al ser hombre (Hazard ratio [HR]: 2,16; intervalo de confianza [IC]: 1,24 a 3,76), estar en los estadios Child-Pugh B (HR: 2,14; IC: 1,16 a 3,95) y Child-Pugh C (HR: 7,52; IC: 2,88 a 19,57). Conclusiones: el NAFLD es la principal causa de HCC en la presente cohorte, una tercera parte de los pacientes se diagnostica en estadios BCLC tempranos con opción curativa de tratamiento, y un 25 % se trata con terapias curativas. El sorafenib fue la terapia de primera línea en HCC avanzado. La supervivencia global luego del diagnóstico de HCC sigue siendo baja, y es necesario aunar esfuerzos en el seguimiento de los pacientes con cirrosis para mejorar estos resultados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Therapeutics , Hepatitis B virus , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Diagnosis , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Sorafenib , Hepatitis B , Liver Neoplasms , Patients , Survival , Confidence Intervals , Causality , Multivariate Analysis , Central Trend Measures , Neoplasms
3.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 74(3): 283-289, jun. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407923

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: La lesión del nervio laríngeo recurrente es una grave complicación en cirugía tiroidea. El propósito del presente estudio es analizar la utilidad de la neuromonitorización vagal continua intraoperatoria en un hospital terciario. Materiales y Método: Estudio observacional, analítico y retrospectivo que recoge pacientes intervenidos de cirugía tiroidea con neuromonitorización en un período de 14 meses. La pérdida de señal se define como amplitud final nerviosa < 100 ^V, realizándose laringoscopia postquirúrgica ante la sospecha de lesión nerviosa. El análisis estadístico se realizó con el programa SPSS® V25,0, con p < 0,05. Resultados: Se incluyeron 120 pacientes intervenidos, registrándose en el 24,2% pérdida de señal. Factores de riesgo para lesión fueron bocio intratorácico (OR 5,31; IC 95% 1,56-17,99; p = 0,007), cirugía cervical previa (OR 5,76; IC 95% 0,64-51,97; p = 0,119) y patología maligna (OR 1,44; IC 95% 0,16-12,79; p = 0,743). Fue posible el cambio de estrategia quirúrgica en 7 casos. En el seguimiento posterior se cuantificó parálisis recurrencial transitoria en 27 pacientes y permanente en 4. Discusión: La neuromonitorización parece reducir la incidencia de parálisis laríngea porque aumenta la seguridad en la identificación del nervio recurrente y reduce su manipulación durante la cirugía. Conclusiones: La neuromonitorización intraoperatoria es útil para identificar el nervio laríngeo recurrente y advierte del riesgo potencial de lesión, permitiendo cambiar la estrategia quirúrgica para evitar la parálisis bilateral de cuerdas vocales.


Aim: Recurrent laryngeal nerve injury is a serious complication in thyroid surgery. The purpose of the present study is to analyze the use of intraoperative continuous vagal neuromonitoring in a tertiary hospital. Materials and Method: Observational, analytical and retrospective study that includes patients who underwent thyroid surgery with neuromonitoring in a period of 14 months. Loss of signal is defined as final nerve amplitude < 100 ^V, and postsurgical laryngoscopy is performed due to suspicion of nerve injury. Statistical analysis was performed with the SPSS® V25.0 program, with p < 0.05. Results: 120 operated patients were included, registering loss of signal in 24.2%. Risk factors for injury were intrathoracic goiter (OR 5.31; 95% CI 1.56-17.99; p = 0.007), previous cervical surgery (OR 5.76; 95% CI 0.64-51.97; p = 0.119) and malignant pathology (OR 1.44; 95% CI 0.16-12.79; p = 0.743). A change in surgical strategy was possible in 7 cases. In the subsequent follow-up, transient recurrent paralysis was quantified in 27 patients and permanent in 4. Discussion: Neuromonitoring seems to reduce the incidence of laryngeal paralysis because it increases the security in the identification of the recurrent nerve and reduces its manipulation during surgery. Conclusions: Intraoperative neuromonitoring is useful to identify the recurrent laryngeal nerve and warns of the potential risk of injury, allowing to change the surgical strategy to avoid bilateral vocal cord paralysis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve/pathology , Thyroid Gland/surgery , Vagus Nerve , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Monitoring, Intraoperative
4.
Rev. latinoam. cienc. soc. niñez juv ; 20(1): 55-75, ene.-abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365865

ABSTRACT

Resumen (analítico) Se caracteriza el fenómeno del colecho en términos sociodemográficos, socioeconómicos y en relación con las vulnerabilidades específicas de los hogares, tales como la violencia intrafamiliar y los consumos nocivos. A través de la Encuesta de la Deuda Social Argentina y un análisis multivariado cuantitativo, se abordan los siguientes interrogantes: ¿el colecho es una práctica asociada únicamente a los bebés?, ¿resulta más frecuente en contextos de pobreza o se trata de una práctica que atraviesa a diferentes infancias? Se concluye que el colecho no es un fenómeno exclusivo de los y las bebés; que en la adolescencia es más regresivo para las mujeres y que el factor socio-económico remite a un «colecho forzoso¼ que se especifica en interacción con el hacinamiento, la monoparentalidad, los consumos nocivos y la violencia intrafamiliar.


Abstract (analytical) This paper analyses the phenomenon of bed-sharing in terms of sociodemographic and socioeconomic variables, but also considers specific vulnerabilities like domestic violence and addictions. It is worth examining whether this practice is associated only with babies, or else if vulnerable contexts also have an impact on children's and adolescent's co-sleeping. The information was obtained through Social Debts in Argentina Survey, and this quantitative research concludes that in this country not only early years bed-share, the phenomenon impairs teenage girls more often and that the socio-economic factor plays a decisive role. For this reason, we propose the term "forced-bed-sharing", which refers to when co-sleeping is intensified by variables like overcrowding, single-parent family type, addictions and domestic violence.


Resumo (analítico) O artigo caracteriza o fenómeno do coleito considerando variáveis sócio demográficas e socioeconómicas, mas também vulnerabilidades específicas como a violência doméstica ou vícios. Neste contexto, perguntamo-nos: associa-se só aos bebés? Tem mais frequência em condições de vulnerabilidade? Esta prática tem um impacto ou motivações diferentes em relação ás características das crianças? A informação foi obtida através do Questionário da Dívida Social Argentina, e o desenho de pesquisa quantitativo conclui que não é somente um fenómeno exclusivo da primeira infância, na adolescência é mais frequente em meninas e que o fator socioeconómico é decisivo. Por isso, propomos o termo "coleito forçoso", que refere a quando a regularidade da cama compartilhada se intensifica por variáveis como a superlotação, o tipo de família monoparental, vícios e violência doméstica.


Subject(s)
Demography , Health , Family Health , Multivariate Analysis , Domestic Violence , Single-Parent Family
5.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 60(2): 142-148, abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367399

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la mortalidad asociada a infarto del miocardio (IM) no solo se debe a complicaciones cardiovasculares, sino también a complicaciones intrahospitalarias no cardiovasculares (CIHNC). El índice leuco-glucémico (ILG) se ha utilizado como un marcador pronóstico para el desarrollo de complicaciones cardiovasculares en el IM. Centramos este estudio en identificar el punto de corte de ILG para el desarrollo de CIHNC en pacientes con infarto de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST (IAMCEST). Material y métodos: en este diseño de un solo centro y transversal, incluimos pacientes con IAMCEST. El análisis bioquímico incluyó glucosa y leucocitos; se calculó ILG. Se realizaron análisis univariados y bivariados, curva ROC y análisis multivariado para el desarrollo de IAMCEST. Resultados: incluimos 1294 pacientes, 79.8% hombres y 20.2% mujeres. Las principales comorbilidades fueron: hipertensión arterial sistémica, diabetes mellitus y dislipidemia. Seiscientos cuarenta y cuatro pacientes (49.8%) presentaron CIHNC. El ILG > 1200 con área bajo la curva (AUC) 0.817 predice el desarrollo de CIHNC en pacientes con IAMCEST. Las variables que aumentaron el desarrollo de CIHNC fueron: ILG > 1200, creatinina > 0.91 mg/dL, diabetes mellitus y edad > 65 años. La neumonía intrahospitalaria y las complicaciones cardiovasculares aumentaron el riesgo de muerte entre los pacientes con IAMCEST. Conclusión: un LGI > 1200 aumentó más de nueve veces el riesgo de desarrollo de CIHNC en pacientes con IAMCEST.


Background: The myocardial infarction-associated (MI) mortality is not only due cardiovascular complications, but intrahospital non-cardiovascular complications (IHnCVCs). The leuko-glycemic index (LGI) has been used as a prognostic marker for the development of cardiovascular complications in MI. We focused this study on identifying the cut-off point of LGI for the IHnCVCs development in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).Material and methods: In this single-center and cross-sectional design, we included patients with STEMI. The biochemical analysis included glucose and leucocytes; with them we calculated the LGI. Receiver operating characteristic curve, univariate and bivariate analysis, and multivariate analysis for IHnCVCs development were performed. A p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: We included 1294 patients, 79.8% were men and 20.2% women. The main comorbidities were hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. Six hundred forty-four (49.8%) patients presented IHNCVCs. The LGI > 1200 (AUC 0.817) predict the IHNCVCs development in STEMI patients. The variables that increased the IHNCVCs development were LGI > 1200, creatinine > 0.91 mg/dL, diabetes mellitus and age > 65 years. Hospital acquired pneumonia and cardiovascular complications increase the risk of death among STEMI patients. Conclusion: A LGI > 1200 increased, just over nine times, the risk of IHnCVC development in STEMI patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Glycemic Index , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/blood , Prognosis , Biomarkers/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Hospital Mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/complications , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Nonagenarians , Mexico/epidemiology
6.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 87(1): 11-18, feb. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388705

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Evaluar los factores sociales y demográficos asociados al embarazo y al embarazo repetido en mujeres adolescentes de Perú MÉTODO: Estudio transversal analítico realizado a partir de las encuestas de población ENDES 2009 a 2018 en Perú. Participaron mujeres adolescentes entre 12 y 19 años de edad. Se recogió información de condición de embarazo y características sociales y demográficas. Se aplicó la prueba de χ2 y se calculó la razón de prevalencia ajustada con su intervalo de confianza al 95% usando regresión de Poisson con varianza robusta. RESULTADOS: En el estudio se incluyeron 49 676 mujeres adolescentes. El 12,6% tuvieron un embarazo y el 5,1% tuvieron dos o más embarazos. Se evidenció asociación entre edad, región geográfica, origen étnico, nivel educativo, nivel económico y embarazo adolescente (p < 0,001). Los niveles educativo y económico inferiores presentaron una mayor razón de prevalencia de embarazo adolescente, siendo mayor incluso en situaciones de dos o más embarazos. CONCLUSIONES: En la población de mujeres adolescentes de Perú, el 17,7% estuvieron embarazadas y el 5,1% tuvieron embarazo repetido. Existe asociación entre embarazo adolescente y bajos niveles económico y educativo; esta asociación se incrementa en situaciones de embarazo repetido.


OBJECTIVE: To assess the social and demographic factors associated with pregnancy and repeated pregnancy in adolescent women in Peru. METHOD: Analytical cross-sectional study carried out from the ENDES population surveys 2009 to 2018 in Peru. Adolescent women between 12 and 19 years of age participated. Information on pregnancy status and number of children was collected, as well as social and demographic characteristics. The χ2 test was applied, the adjusted prevalence ratio with its 95% confidence interval was calculated using Poisson regression with robust variance. RESULTS: 49 676 adolescent women were included in the study. The 17.7% had one or more pregnancies and 5.1% two or more pregnancies. The analysis showed an association between geographic region, age, ethnic origin, educational level, economic level and adolescent pregnancy (p < 0.001). The lower levels of educational level and economic level presented a higher prevalence ratio of adolescent pregnancy, being higher even in situations of two or more pregnancies. CONCLUSIONS: In the population of adolescent women in Peru, 17.7% were pregnant and 5.1% had repeated pregnancy. Adolescent pregnancy is associated with low economic and educational levels; this association increases in situations of repeated pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Pregnancy in Adolescence/statistics & numerical data , Parity , Peru/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Demography , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Regression Analysis
7.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 74(1): 41-47, feb. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388917

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Las consultas en el servicio de urgencia (CU) y el reingreso (RI) hospitalario después de una cirugía bariátrica (CB) son importantes indicadores de calidad y seguridad. Sin embargo, existe escasa información de estos indicadores en nuestro medio nacional. En este trabajo analizamos las CU y RI de pacientes sometidos a una CB primaria en un centro universitario de alto volumen, y buscamos variables asociadas a estos indicadores. Materiales y Método: Estudio observacional retrospectivo que incluyó a todos los pacientes sometidos a bypass gástrico (BPG) o gastrectomía en manga (GM) laparoscópica primaria realizados de forma consecutiva en nuestra institución durante el período 2006-2007 y 2012-2013. Utilizando nuestros registros clínicos y base de seguimiento prospectivo, identificamos aquellos pacientes con CU o RI en nuestro hospital durante los primeros 30 días después del alta. Resultados: Se incluyeron 1.146 CB primarias, 53% (n = 613) fueron BPG y 47% (n = 533) GM. Un 8,03% (n = 92) de los pacientes tuvo al menos una CU y un 3,7% (n = 42) un RI. Las variables independientes asociadas tanto a CU como RI fueron el tiempo operatorio e índice de masa corporal (IMC) preoperatorio. No se encontró asociación estadística, en el periodo estudiado, para el tipo de CB realizada con la CU ni con el RI. Conclusión: Existe una baja proporción de pacientes que requieren CU y RI posterior a la CB, lo que demuestra la seguridad de estas intervenciones.


Introduction: Emergency department visits (EDV) and hospital readmission (HR) after bariatric surgery (BS) are important indicators of quality and safety in surgery, however there is little information on their characteristics in our national environment. Aim: In this work we analyze EDV and HR in patients undergoing a primary BS in a high-volume university center, and identify variables that could be associated with these indicators. Materials and Method: A retrospective observational study where we identified all patients undergoing Roux-in-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) or primary laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG) performed consecutively at our institution during the period 2006-2007 and 2012-2013. Using our clinical records and prospective follow-up database, we identify those patients with EDV and/or HR in our hospital during the first 30 days after discharge. Results: 1146 primary BS were included, of these 53% (n = 613) were RYGBP and 47% (n = 533) SG. 8,03% (n = 92) of the patients had at least one EDV, of these 3,7% (n = 42) had an HR. The independent variables associated with EDV and HR were the operative time and preoperative body mass index (BMI). No statistical association was found, in the period studied, for the type of BS performed with EDV or HR. Conclusion: There is a low proportion of patients who require EDV and HR after BS, which demonstrates the safety of these interventions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adult , Gastric Bypass/methods , Bariatric Surgery/statistics & numerical data , Patient Readmission , Postoperative Complications , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Gastrectomy
8.
J. health med. sci. (Print) ; 8(1): 63-72, ene.-mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395775

ABSTRACT

Las radiaciones ionizantes tienen el potencial de generar efectos adversos a la salud de las personas. Para hacer un uso más seguro y eficiente de estas radiaciones, la Comisión Internacional de Protección Radiológica fundamentalmente ha implementado un sistema de protección radiológica (SPR) que se basa en tres principios: justificación, optimización y límites. A su vez, estos principios se sustentan en cuatro valores éticos (beneficencia, prudencia, justicia y dignidad). Se sabe que en Chile el profesional que esta mandatado para realizar la toma de los exámenes que utilizan radiaciones ionizantes es el/la Tecnólogo Médico en Imagenología. Por lo tanto, resulta interesante valorar el grado de conocimiento adquirido y posteriormente aplicado en torno a los valores éticos del SPR por parte de dichos profesionales. De esta manera el objetivo del este artículo de tipo Punto de Vista fue realizar una serie de reflexiones en torno a esta temática. Cuando se realiza un procedimientos médico u odontológico con radiaciones ionizantes, el/la Tecnólogo Médico en Imagenología participa esencialmente en la realización del mismo, por lo que no debería ser su responsabilidad el cautelar que se cumplan los 4 valores éticos descritos dentro del SPR. A juicio nuestro, el principio de optimización, sería el único principio o pilar del SPR donde tiene real obligación de participar, utilizando las restricciones a las exposiciones individuales y los niveles de referencia para diagnóstico para reducir las desigualdades en la distribución de las exposiciones entre los grupos expuestos. Finalmente, resulta vital investigar si en su formación de especialidad se tocan estas temáticas.


Ionizing radiation has the potential to generate adverse effects on people's health. To make safer and more efficient use of these radiations, the International Commission on Radiological Protection has fundamentally implemented a radiological protection system (RPS) based on three principles: justification, optimization and limits. In turn, these principles are based on four ethical values (beneficence, prudence, justice and dignity). It is known that in Chile the professional who is mandated to perform the exams that use ionizing radiation is the Medical Imaging Technologist. Therefore, it is interesting to assess the degree of knowledge acquired and subsequently applied around the ethical values of the RPS by these professionals. In this way, the objective of this Point of View article was to make a series of reflections on this subject. When a medical or dental procedure is performed with ionizing radiation, the Medical Imaging Technologist essentially participates in its performance, so it should not be their responsibility to ensure that the 4 ethical values described in the RPS are met. In our opinion, the principle of optimization would be the only principle or pillar of the RPS where it has a real obligation to participate, using the restrictions on individual exposures and the diagnostic reference levels to reduce inequalities in the distribution of exposures between exposed groups. Finally, it is vital to investigate whether these topics are addressed in his specialty training.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiation Protection , Medical Laboratory Personnel/trends , Radiation Dosage , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Multivariate Analysis , Safety Management
9.
Rev. ABENO ; 22(2): 1741, jan. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1396725

ABSTRACT

The aim this study was to evaluate the association between the use of dental services and the sociodemographic characteristics and perceptions of oral health of pregnant women living in amunicipality of southern Brazil. The instrument used in this cross-sectional study was a questionnaire composed of questions about sociodemographic characteristics, perceptions of oral health and access to dental services, administered to 102 pregnant women during prenatal care. Descriptive analyses of the variables were performed, along with multivariate analyses for the estimation in a logistic regression model. The mean age of the women was 29±6.2 years. The area of residence, first pregnancy, and the perception that pregnancy impairs oral health and causes weakening of teeth remained significant predictors of dental consultation. The chances of not having had a dental appointment were significantly higher for pregnant women who lived in the countryside, by more than three times; those who believed that pregnancy damages teeth, more than five times; and those teeth were weakened during this period, more than eight times. Furthermore, not being the first pregnancy was a protective factor for not having dental appointment.Women who are pregnant for the first time, living in rural areas and with misperceptions about dental conditions during pregnancy, did not consult during pregnancy (AU).


O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a associação entre a utilização de serviços odontológicos e as características sociodemográficas e percepções sobre saúde bucal de gestantes residentes em um município do Sul do Brasil. O instrumento utilizado no estudo transversal foi um questionário composto por questões sobre características sociodemográficas, percepções de saúde bucal e acesso a serviços odontológicos, aplicado a 102 gestantes durante o pré-natal. Foram realizadas análises descritivas multivariadas das variáveis em modelo de regressão logística. A média de idade das mulheres foi de 29±6,2 anos. A zona de residência, a primeira gravidez e a percepção de que a gravidez prejudica a saúde bucal e causa enfraquecimento dos dentes permaneceram como preditores significativos da consulta odontológica. As chances de não ter feito consulta odontológica foram significativamente maiores para as gestantes residentes na zona rural em mais de três vezes; as que acreditavam que a gravidez danifica os dentes em mais de cinco vezes; e que os dentes enfraqueceram nesse período mais de oito vezes. Além disso, não ser a primeira gravidez foi fator de proteção para a consulta odontológica. Mulheres grávidas pela primeira vez, residentes na zona rural e com percepções equivocadas sobre as condições odontológicas durante a gestação, não utilizaram o serviço odontológico durante a gestação (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Prenatal Care , Oral Health , Dental Care , Pregnant Women , Social Perception , Logistic Models , Rural Areas , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Multivariate Analysis , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
urol. colomb. (Bogotá. En línea) ; 31(2): 73-81, 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1411986

ABSTRACT

Purpose To identify metabolites in humans that can be associated with the presence of malignant disturbances of the prostate. Methods In the present study, we selected male patients aged between 46 and 82 years who were considered at risk of prostate cancer due to elevated levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or abnormal results on the digital rectal examination. All selected patients came from two university hospitals (Hospital Universitario del Valle and Clínica Rafael Uribe Uribe) and were divided into 2 groups: cancer (12 patients) and non-cancer (20 patients). Cancer was confirmed by histology, and none of the patients underwent any previous treatment. Standard protocols were applied to all the collected blood samples. The resulting plasma samples were kept at -80°C, and a profile of each one was acquired by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) using established experiments. Multivariate analyses were applied to this dataset, first to establish the quality of the data and identify outliers, and then, to model the data. Results We included 12 patients with cancer and 20 without it. Two patients were excluded due to contamination with ethanol. The remaining ones were used to build an Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) model (including 15 non-cancer and 10 cancer patients), with acceptable discrimination (Q2 = 0.33). This model highlighted the role of lactate and lipids, with a positive association of these two metabolites and prostate cancer. Conclusions The primary discriminative metabolites between patients with and without prostate cancer were lactate and lipids. These might be the most reliable biomarkers to trace the development of cancer in the prostate.


Objetivo Identificar metabolitos en humanos que pueden estar asociados con la presencia de alteraciones malignas de la próstata. Métodos Se incluyeron muestras de pacientes masculinos entre 46 y 82 años y que se consideraron en riesgo de cáncer de próstata debido a la elevación del antígeno prostático específico (PSA) o el examen rectal anormal. Todos los pacientes seleccionados procedían de dos hospitales universitarios (Hospital Universitario del Valle y Clínica Rafael Uribe Uribe) y se dividieron en dos grupos: Oncológicos (12) vs no oncológicos (20). El cáncer fue confirmado por histología, y ninguno de ellos recibió tratamiento previo. Se aplicaron protocolos estándar a todas las muestras de sangre recolectadas. Las muestras de plasma resultantes se mantuvieron a −80°C y se adquirió un perfil de cada muestra mediante RMN. Se aplicaron análisis multivariantes a este conjunto de datos, primero para establecer la calidad de los datos e identificar valores atípicos, y para modelar los datos. Resultados Se incluyeron 12 pacientes con cáncer y 20 pacientes sin cáncer. Dos pacientes fueron excluidos por contaminación con etanol. Los restantes se utilizaron para construir un modelo OPLS-DA (15 pacientes no oncológicos y diez oncológicos), con una discriminación aceptable (Q2 = 0,33). Este modelo destacó el papel del lactato y los lípidos, encontrando una asociación positiva entre estos dos metabolitos y el cáncer de próstata. Conclusiones Los principales metabolitos discriminativos entre pacientes con cáncer de próstata versus no cáncer fueron el lactato y los lípidos. Estos podrían ser los biomarcadores más confiables para rastrear el desarrollo del cáncer en la próstata.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prostate , Prostatic Neoplasms , Metabolomics , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Discriminant Analysis , Multivariate Analysis , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Lactic Acid , Digital Rectal Examination , Social Discrimination
11.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 31: e20200525, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1357477

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: determining the multidimensional factors associated with the severity of chronic back pain is essential to design appropriate interventions. The objective of this study was to assess the physical and emotional factors associated with the severity of chronic back pain in adults. Method: a descriptive, analytical and cross-sectional study, carried out between November 2017 and December 2018 in Family Health Strategies, with 198 adults with chronic back pain. Pain severity, assessed by the Brief Pain Inventory, was considered the outcome variable; and the pain interference in daily activities (Brief Pain Inventory), physical disability (Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire), quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief) and pain threshold (digital algometer) variables were considered explanatory. A Multivariate Multiple Linear Regression analysis, using the stepwise method with 5% significance, was preformed to establish an explanatory model of pain severity. Results: the mean age was 48.03 years old (standard deviation: 12.41). Most of the participants were women, married and worked. The variables that had a significant and joint impact on pain severity were pain interference in daily activities (parameter: 0.196; p-value<0.001) and in mood (parameter: 0.054; p-value=0.039) and physical domain of quality of life (parameter: -0.032; p-value<0.001). Conclusion: physical factors (pain interference in daily activities and physical domain of quality of life) and emotional factors (pain interference in mood) play an important role in the severity of chronic back pain, which reinforces its multidimensional character.


RESUMEN Objetivo: determinar los factores multidimensionales asociados a la gravedad del dolor de espalda crónico es esencial para diseñar intervenciones apropiadas. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar los factores físicos y emocionales asociados a la gravedad del dolor de espalda crónico en adultos. Método: estudio descriptivo y analítico, de corte transversal, realizado entre noviembre de 2017 y diciembre de 2018, en unidades de la Estrategia de Salud Familiar, con 198 adultos que sufren dolor de espalda crónico. La gravedad del dolor, evaluada por medio del Brief Pain Inventory, se consideró como variable de resultado; y las variables interferencia del dolor en las actividades cotidianas (Brief Pain Inventory), discapacidad física (Cuestionario de Discapacidad de Roland Morris), calidad de vida (World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief) y umbral de dolor (algómetro digital) se consideraron como variables explicativas. Se realizó un análisis multivariado de Regresión Lineal Múltiple, usando el método stepwise con 5% de significancia, para establecer el modelo explicativo de la gravedad del dolor. Resultados: la media de edad fue de 48,03 años (desviación estándar: 12,41). La mayoría de los participantes fueron mujeres, casadas y con alguna actividad laboral. Las variables que ejercieron un impacto sobre la gravedad del dolor en forma significativa y conjunta fueron las siguientes: interferencia del dolor en las actividades cotidianas (parámetro: 0,196; valor p<0,001) y en el estado de ánimo (parámetro: 0,054; valor p=0,039) y el dominio físico de la calidad de vida (parámetro: -0,032; valor p<0,001). Conclusión: los factores físicos (interferencia del dolor en las actividades cotidianas y el dominio físico de la calidad de vida) y emocionales (interferencia del dolor en el estado de ánimo) desempeñan un rol importante en la gravedad del dolor de espalda crónico, lo que refuerza su carácter multidimensional.


RESUMO Objetivo: determinar os fatores multidimensionais associados à severidade da dor crônica nas costas é essencial para traçar intervenções apropriadas. O objetivo deste estudo consistiu em avaliar os fatores físicos e emocionais associados à severidade da dor crônica nas costas em adultos. Método: estudo descritivo analítico, de corte transversal, realizado entre novembro de 2017 e dezembro de 2018, em Estratégias de Saúde da Família, com 198 adultos com dor crônica nas costas. A severidade da dor, avaliada pelo Brief Pain Inventory, foi considera variável de desfecho; as variáveis interferência da dor nas atividades cotidianas (Brief Pain Inventory), incapacidade física (Questionário de Incapacidade de Rolland Morris), qualidade de vida (World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief) e limiar de dor (algômetro digital) foram consideradas variáveis explicativas. Análise multivariada de Regressão Linear Múltipla, usando o método stepwise com 5% de significância, foi conduzida para estabelecer modelo explicativo da severidade da dor. Resultados: a média de idade foi de 48,03 anos (desvio padrão: 12,41). A maioria eram mulheres, casadas e que trabalhavam. As variáveis que tiveram impacto na severidade da dor de forma significativa e conjunta foram interferência da dor nas atividades cotidianas (parâmetro: 0,196; valor p<0,001) e no humor (parâmetro: 0,054; valor p=0,039) e domínio físico da qualidade de vida (parâmetro: -0,032; valor p<0,001). Conclusão: fatores físicos (interferência da dor nas atividades cotidianas e domínio físico da qualidade de vida) e emocionais (interferência da dor no humor) desempenham importante papel na severidade da dor crônica nas costas, o que reforça o seu caráter multidimensional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pain Measurement , Regression Analysis , Back Pain , Chronic Pain , Activities of Daily Living , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Nursing , National Health Strategies
12.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 27(2): 493-502, Fev. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356062

ABSTRACT

Resumo Estudo quantitativo que analisou as mortes de mulheres por agressão nos 122 municípios que fazem parte da linha de fronteira brasileira. As fronteiras são territórios de conquista, conflito e violência, e nos municípios de fronteira brasileiros há taxas elevadas de homicídios masculinos e femininos. O objetivo do estudo foi quantificar as mortes femininas por agressão nesses municípios e identificar fatores a elas associados. As mortes femininas por agressão, consideradas um indicador indireto dos feminicídios, foram o desfecho de uma análise multivariada utilizando o modelo de Poisson. No período de 2000 a 2015, ocorreram 1.384 mortes de mulheres por agressão, representando uma taxa média de 5,8/100.000 mulheres; dessas, 181 eram indígenas (13%). Observou-se o padrão de distribuição desses óbitos, que aconteceram predominantemente no Arco Central, em municípios maiores e onde há mais migrantes. Há uma heterogeneidade nas taxas de violência nos municípios que fazem parte da linha de fronteira, indicando um olhar atento aos locais mais populosos, com alta presença de migração e taxas elevadas de mortes femininas por agressão. Mas também se recomenda atentar para municípios pequenos em que houve mudança de padrão, com elevação abrupta no número de assassinatos de mulheres.


Abstract This quantitative study analyzed female deaths due to agression in the 122 municipalities that are part of the Brazilian borderline. Borders are territories of conquest, conflict and violence and Brazilian border cities have high rates of male and female homicides. This study aimed to quantify female deaths from agression in border towns and identify factors associated with these deaths. Female deaths from agression are considered an indirect indicator of femicides and were the outcome of a multivariate analysis using the Poisson model. In the 2000-2015 period, 1,384 women died from agression, which represent a mean rate of 5.8/100,000 women; of these, 181 were in indigenous women (13%). We observed the pattern of distribution of these deaths, which occurred predominantly in the Central Arch, larger municipalities, and where there are more migrants. There is heterogeneity in the rates of violence in the municipalities that are part of the borderline, indicating a close look at the most populous places, with a high presence of migration and female deaths due to agression. However, we should also pay attention to the small municipalities where there has been a change in pattern, with an abrupt increase in the number of female murders.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Violence , Homicide , Brazil/epidemiology , Multivariate Analysis , Cities/epidemiology
13.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1386807

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the impact of daily toothbrushing frequency on parental reports of dental pain and discomfort in preschoolers. Material and Methods: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted involving 376 children between four and five years of age at public preschools in the city of Campo Magro, Brazil. Parents/guardians answered a socioeconomic questionnaire that contained a single question on the child's daily toothbrushing frequency and the Brazilian version of the Dental Discomfort Questionnaire (DDQ-B). Statistical analysis involved bivariate and multivariate Poisson regression analyses (α=0.05). Results: After the adjustments in the multivariate analysis, the prevalence of dental pain and discomfort was lower among children whose last visit to the dentist was for prevention (PR = 4.42; 95% CI: 1.75- 11.14; p=0.002) and those with a higher daily toothbrushing frequency (PR = 2.13; 95% CI: 1.12-4.05; p=0.021). Conclusion: A lower toothbrushing frequency is associated with parental reports of dental pain and discomfort in preschoolers. Educational and preventive measures that stimulate an increase in daily toothbrushing frequency can contribute to a better oral health status in preschoolers, consequently, less prevalence of dental pain and discomfort.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Toothache/prevention & control , Toothbrushing/methods , Oral Health/education , Health Education, Dental , Pediatric Dentistry , Parents , Socioeconomic Factors , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Multivariate Analysis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Regression Analysis , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Dentists
14.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1365233

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To determine the relationship between dental anxiety and self-reported periodontal status. Material and Methods The study was conducted among 263 patients at the Family Medicine Clinic of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH), Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria. Self-assessed gingival and periodontal disease was measured using the validated periodontal disease self-report surveillance questionnaire. The Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) was used for evaluating dental anxiety. Student's t-test was used to test for association between categorical variables. P-value < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results Seventy-seven (29.3%) participants had high dental anxiety, while 49 (18.6%) had very high dental anxiety. The prevalence of periodontal disease was higher among those with very high dental anxiety (77.6%), while female respondents had a significantly higher proportion of self-reported periodontitis (34.1%). There was a significantly higher prevalence of very high dental anxiety among respondents who had never visited the dentist (23.2%). Similarly, females (19.4%), middle-class respondents (30.8%), and those with a primary level of school education (23.5%) had a higher prevalence of high dental anxiety, even though the association was not significant. Conclusion The prevalence of self-reported periodontal disease among the respondents with very high dental anxiety was higher than in those with high dental anxiety and those without dental anxiety, but the difference was not significant.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Periodontal Diseases/prevention & control , Oral Health/education , Dental Anxiety , Self Report , Nigeria/epidemiology , Periodontitis , Prevalence , Multivariate Analysis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Regression Analysis , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Dentists
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929053

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) 2000 scoring system classifies gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) patients into low- and high-risk groups, so that single- or multi-agent chemotherapy can be administered accordingly. However, a number of FIGO-defined low-risk patients still exhibit resistance to single-agent regimens, and the risk factors currently adopted in the FIGO scoring system possess inequable values for predicting single-agent chemoresistance. The purpose of this study is therefore to evaluate the efficacy of risk factors in predicting single-agent chemoresistance and explore the feasibility of simplifying the FIGO 2000 scoring system for GTN.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 578 GTN patients who received chemotherapy between January 2000 and December 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify risk factors associated with single-agent chemoresistance in low-risk GTN patients. Then, simplified models were built and compared with the original FIGO 2000 scoring system.@*RESULTS@#Among the eight FIGO risk factors, the univariate and multivariate analyses identified that pretreatment serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) level and interval from antecedent pregnancy were consistently independent predictors for both first-line and subsequent single-agent chemoresistance. The simplified model with two independent factors showed a better performance in predicting single-agent chemoresistance than the model with the other four non-independent factors. However, the addition of other co-factors did improve the efficiency. Overall, simplified models can achieve favorable performance, but the original FIGO 2000 prognostic system still features the highest discrimination.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Pretreatment serum hCG level and interval from antecedent pregnancy were independent predictors for both first-line and subsequent single-agent chemoresistance, and they had greater weight than other non-independent factors in predicting single-agent chemoresistance. The simplified model composed of certain selected factors is a promising alternative to the original FIGO 2000 prognostic system, and it shows comparable performance.


Subject(s)
Female , Gestational Trophoblastic Disease/drug therapy , Humans , Multivariate Analysis , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928136

ABSTRACT

The fingerprint of Boenninghausenia albiflora var. albiflora was established by ultra performance liquid chromatography(UPLC), and the content of 12 active components including chlorogenic acid was determined. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to explore the indicator components of B. albiflora var. albiflora and a comprehensive evaluation system was created for the quality of B. albiflora var. albiflora. In this study, 33 batches of B. albiflora var. albiflora with different sources were collected and studied, and the UPLC fingerprint of B. albiflora var. albiflora was developed. There were 37 common peaks, of which 12 components were identified, and the content of these 12 components was measured. In combination of the common peaks and the content of chemical components, multivariate statistical analysis was performed, and the results showed that 6 components [daphnoretin, isoimperatorin, astragalin, imperatorin, neochlorogenic acid, and isoquercitrin(weight coefficient>0.1)] were selected as chemical markers for the quality of B. albiflora var. albiflora. Technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution(TOPSIS) analysis and chemometrics revealed that the quality of S32, S28 and S29 were superior, while that of S12, S7 and S16 were inferior. The quality evaluation method of B. albiflora var. albiflora constructed in this study was accurate and reliable, with simpleness and easiness to operate. It is suggested that the 6 above-mentioned active components could be used as indicator components for quality control of B. albiflora var. al-biflora. The samples were harvested during the flowering and fruiting period, which is from the beginning of July to the end of August.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Chromatography, Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Multivariate Analysis , Quality Control
17.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 35: eAPE02931, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1364230

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Identificar a prevalência e intensidade da sede de crianças no pós-operatório imediato e seus fatores associados. Métodos Estudo transversal e analítico. A amostra consistiu-se de 78 crianças de quatro a doze anos em sala de recuperação anestésica no pós-operatório imediato. A presença de sede, bem como seus atributos e sinais foi identificada por questionamento da pesquisadora e/ou autorrelato da criança e seu cuidador. A intensidade de sede foi mensurada por meio da escala de faces. As variáveis desfecho foram presença e intensidade da sede. A razão de prevalência foi calculada por regressão de Poisson, com variância robusta. Resultados A prevalência de sede foi de 88,5% sendo que 39,7% referiram sede no pós-operatório e 48,7% desde o pré-operatório. Quanto à intensidade, 20,5% referiram sede forte e 37,2 % sede intensa. Adicionalmente, mais da metade das crianças (59%) a verbalizou de forma espontânea. Os fatores associados à maior intensidade da sede foram: sexo feminino (RP=1,27); queixa espontânea (RP=1,29); referir sensação de boca seca (RP=1,93) e de saliva grossa (RP=1,43); a idade apresentou associação inversa com a intensidade da sede, ou seja, quanto menor a idade, maior a intensidade da sede (beta= -0,053; p=0,01). Conclusão A sede na criança cirúrgica apresenta elevada prevalência e intensidade. A criança é capaz de identificar os sinais relacionados à sede e a verbaliza espontaneamente. Sexo, queixa espontânea, idade, boca seca e saliva grossa apresentaram associação com a intensidade. Estes resultados sinalizam a necessidade de intervenções intencionais para reduzir a sede da criança na prática clínica.


Resumen Objetivo Identificar la prevalencia e intensidad de la sed de niños en el posoperatorio inmediato y los factores asociados. Métodos Estudio transversal y analítico. La muestra fue formada por 78 niños de 4 a 12 años en sala de recuperación anestésica en el posoperatorio inmediato. La presencia de sed, así como sus atributos y señales, fue identificada mediante cuestionario de la investigadora o autorrelato del niño y su cuidador. La intensidad de la sed fue medida mediante escala de expresiones faciales. Las variables de resultado fueron presencia e intensidad de la sed. La razón de prevalencia fue calculada por regresión de Poisson, con varianza robusta. Resultados La prevalencia de sed fue del 88,5 %, de los cuales el 39,7 % relató sed en el posoperatorio y el 48,7 % desde el preoperatorio. Con relación a la intensidad, el 20,5 % relató sed fuerte y el 37,2 % sed intensa. Además, más de la mitad de los niños (59 %) la verbalizó de forma espontánea. Los factores asociados con una mayor intensidad de sed fueron: sexo femenino (RP=1,27), queja espontánea (RP=1,29), relatar sensación de boca seca (RP=1,93) y de saliva espesa (RP=1,43), la edad presentó asociación inversa respecto a la intensidad de la sed, es decir, cuanto menor la edad, mayor la intensidad de la sed (beta= -0,053; p=0,01). Conclusión La sed en niños quirúrgicos presenta una elevada prevalencia e intensidad. Los niños son capaces de identificar las señales relacionadas con la sed y la verbalizan espontáneamente. Sexo, queja espontánea, edad, boca seca y saliva espesa presentan asociación con la intensidad. Estos resultados indican la necesidad de intervenciones intencionales para reducir la sed de los niños en la práctica clínica.


Abstract Objective To identify the prevalence and thirst intensity in children in the immediate postoperative period and its associated factors. Methods This is a cross-sectional and analytical study. The sample consisted of 78 children aged four to twelve years in the post-anesthesia care unit in the immediate postoperative period. Thirst presence, as well as its attributes and signs, were identified by questioning by the researcher and/or self-report of children and their caregivers. Thirst intensity was measured using the face scale. The outcome variables were thirst presence and intensity. Prevalence ratio was calculated by Poisson regression, with robust variance. Results The prevalence of thirst was 88.5%, with 39.7% reporting thirst in the postoperative period and 48.7% since the preoperative period. As for the intensity, 20.5% reported strong thirst and 37.2% intense thirst. Additionally, more than half of the children (59%) reported it spontaneously. The factors associated with greater thirst intensity were: female sex (PR=1.27); spontaneous complaint (PR=1.29); reporting feeling of dry mouth (PR=1.93) and thick saliva (PR=1.43); age was inversely associated with thirst intensity, i.e., the younger the age, the greater the thirst intensity (beta= -0.053; p=0.01). Conclusion Thirst in surgical children has a high prevalence and intensity. Children are able to identify the signs related to thirst and spontaneously reports it. Sex, spontaneous complaints, age, dry mouth and thick saliva were associated with intensity. These results signal the need for intentional interventions to reduce child thirst in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Postoperative Care , Recovery Room , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Thirst , Intensive Care Units , Postoperative Period , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis
18.
Pan Afr. med. j ; 43: NA-NA, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1399963

ABSTRACT

Introduction: the pediatric emergency department is the first contact between the population and the hospital. Consequently, its dysfunction influences the quality of general health care. However, any successful policy must first be based on convincing results hence the need to better explore this service, diagnose the various dysfunctions, and survey disease trends to identify the needs of the local population. In this perspective, we propose to describe the epidemiological profile of children hospitalized at the emergency service of the Mother-Child hospital, University Hospital Centre Marrakech, and establish the prevalence table for childhood pathologies. Methods: a retrospective study was carried out in pediatric emergency services for 1658 hospitalized patients between March 2015 and December 2018. The collected data concerns mainly the socio-demographic, clinical profile, evolution status, mode of admission, and medical history. Results: the characterization of the studied population by sex and age showed a predominance of Male with a sex ratio of 1.36, infants with 625 patients. Concerning the final diagnosis, the most frequent pathologies affected the respiratory system in 28% of cases, then the digestive system (11.3%), while infectious pathologies represented 10.7% of admissions. The death rate in the emergency department was 7.4%. Multivariate analysis of the data showed a statistically significant relationship between the final diagnosis (16 diseases by a system according to The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) and age, season, and weight. Thus, for the association between Diseases of the digestive system and weight (aOR=1.052, 95% CI= 1.019-1.086, p=0.02). While for Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue and the autumn season (aOR=11.37, 95% CI= 1.272-<101.777, p=0.03) and age has a negative significance for most diseases. Conclusion: the epidemiological profile study will allow knowledge of patient´s pathologies typology for a well-supported and better definition of needs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Child, Hospitalized , Multivariate Analysis , Subcutaneous Tissue , Delivery of Health Care , Pediatric Emergency Medicine , Diagnosis
19.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 61(4): 742-747, dic. 2021. tab., ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1399929

ABSTRACT

En el contexto de la llegada de las vacunas contra la COVID-19 al Perú, es importante conocer que rubros son los más dispuestos a realizarlo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los factores socio-laborales asociados a la posibilidad de vacunación contra la COVID-19 si el trabajo se los exige. Estudio transversal analítico, que tuvo como pregunta principal si es que se vacunarían si es que es requisito para el trabajo, esto se comparó según el rubro laboral, el sexo y el grupo etario; se obtuvo estadística descriptiva y analítica. De los 6628 trabajadores encuestados, el 34% y 35% se vacunarían si es que el trabajo se los pide según el que aún no se enfermaran o que ya lo hubiesen hecho, respectivamente. En el análisis multivariado, hubo mayor frecuencia de estar de acuerdo con el vacunarse entre los que están en el sector de minería (RPa: 1,33; IC95%: 1,05-1,69; valor p=0,019), los que hacen labores domésticas (RPa: 1,14; IC95%: 1,01-1,29; valor p=0,036) y los hombres (RPa: 1,07; IC95%. 1,01-1,14; valor p=0,029); en cambio, a comparación de los más jóvenes, los del rango etario de 40-49 años (RPa: 0,82; IC95%: 0,71-0,95; valor p=0,010) los que pensaban en vacunarse menor frecuencia. Hubo una baja percepción a la posibilidad de vacunarse si es que el trabajo se los pide, siendo los principales factores asociados a la posibilidad de vacunarse el no haberse contagiado previamente de COVID-19, pertenecer al sector minería, realizar labores domésticas y ser hombre(AU)


In the context of the arrival of vaccines against COVID-19 in Peru, it is important to know which sectors are the most willing to be vaccinated. The objective of this study was to determine the socio-labor factors associated with the possibility of vaccination against COVID-19 if required by work. Analytical cross-sectional study, which had as its main question whether they would be vaccinated if it was a job requirement, this was compared according to work category, sex and age group; descriptive and analytical statistics were obtained. Of the 6628 workers surveyed, 34% and 35% would get vaccinated if required to do so by their job, based on whether they had not yet been sick or had already been sick, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, there was a higher frequency of agreement to be vaccinated among those in the mining sector (aPR: 1.33; 95%CI: 1.05-1.69; p-value=0.019), those doing domestic work (aPR: 1.14; 95%CI: 1.01-1.29; p-value=0.036) and men (aPR: 1.07; 95%CI. 1.01-1.14; p-value=0.029); in contrast, those in the younger age range 40-49 years (aPR: 0.82; 95%CI: 0.71-0.95; p-value=0.010) were less likely to be vaccinated than those in the younger age range (aPR: 0.82; 95%CI: 0.71-0.95; p-value=0.010). There was a low perception of the possibility of getting vaccinated if asked to do so at work, the main factors associated with the possibility of getting vaccinated being not having been previously infected with COVID-19, belonging to the mining sector, performing domestic work and being male(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Occupational Health , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Perception , Peru , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Mining , Occupational Groups
20.
Rev. ABENO ; 21(1): 1021, dez. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1371727

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo transversal foi avaliaro desfecho dor e fatores associados em pacientes atendidos em um serviço de urgência odontológica no sul do Brasil. Foram avaliados 137 prontuários provenientes de um projeto de extensão para capacitação em atendimento odontológico de urgência da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (Santa Maria/RS), referentes ao período de abril de 2017 a dezembro de 2018. Os dados contidos na ficha clínica, autorrelatados pelos pacientes, foram coletados e variáveis relacionadas às características socioeconômicas, médicas e odontológicas foram submetidas à análise estatística descritiva e regressão de Poisson multivariada. A prevalência de dor nestes pacientes foi de 65,2%e a hipótese diagnósticamais prevalente foi de pulpite aguda irreversível (46,2% dos casos). A procura por atendimento foi maiorna faixa etária entre 40-59 anos (48,6%), no sexo feminino (64%), em pacientes sem nível superior (85,3%) e os dentes mais frequentemente tratados foram os posteriores (82,7%). Houve associação entre a presença de dor e variáveis médicas, sendo queos pacientes com mais de duas doençassistêmicas apresentaram maior prevalência de dor. O preenchimento inadequado dos prontuários odontológicos foi um achado comum, o que pode prejudicar o estabelecimento do perfil epidemiológico destes pacientes e o planejamento dos atendimentos futuros de forma eficiente, além de poder acarretar problemas jurídicos (AU).


This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the pain outcome and associated factorsin patients attending an emergency dental service in southern Brazil. One hundred and thirty-seven (137) patient records from an extension project for emergency dental care training at the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (Santa Maria, RS, Brazil), relative to the period from April 2017 to December 2018, were evaluated. The data in the records, self-reported by the patients, were collected, and variables related to socioeconomic, medical and dental characteristics were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis and multivariate Poisson regression. The prevalence of pain in these patients was 65.2%, and the most prevalent diagnostic hypothesis was irreversible acute pulpitis (46.2% of the cases). The demand for care was greater in the age group between40-59 years (48.6%), in women (64%), in patients without university education (85.3%), and posterior teeth were the most frequently treated (82.7%). There was an association between the presence of pain and medical variables, being that patients with morethan two systemic diseases had a higher prevalence of pain. The inadequate completion of dental records was a common finding, which can impair the establishment of the epidemiological profile of these patients and the efficient planning of future dental care services, as well as cause legal problems (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Toothache/epidemiology , Health Profile , Dental Care , Emergency Treatment/instrumentation , Health Services Research/methods , Pain/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Medical Records/standards , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Multivariate Analysis , Regression Analysis
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