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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(3): 717-724, jun. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514288

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Athletes differ among themselves and one of the main differences is observed in relation to body shape and composition. Achieving top sports performance requires more standardization in the processes of training and development of a unique methodology for individualizing the control specific adaptation of athletes. The aim of this study is to establish reference data for the most sensitive variables to define the amount and structure of body fat in female athletes in individual sports. The sample included 895 females, divided in: a control group (Cont) of young females (N = 688); International (N = 113), and National level female athletes (N = 94) in 13 individual sports. Four variables described the structureof of body fat: Percentage of body fat (PBF), Body Fat Mass Index (BFMI), Protein Fat Index (PFI) and Index of Body Composition (IBC). Results showed that considering the control group, female athletes have all examined Body Fat variables statistically significantly different (BFMI and PBF are lower, p = 0.011 and p = 0.000, while PFI and IBC are higher, p = 0.000, respectively). Female athletes are also statistically significantly different in relation to the level of competition (p = 0.000), and the investigated variables are responsible for 17.7 % of the variability of the difference between the groups. Competitively more successful female athletes have higher IBC (lower percentage of fat per overall body volume, p = 0.013), as well as, a statistically significantly higher protein mass in relation to body fat mass (PFI, p = 0.018). The most sensitive variables for defining body fat differences between the examined individual sports were IBC, with an influence of 37.9 %, then PFI (32.4 %), then PBF (22.8 %), and finally BFMI, with an influence of 11.4 % on the differences. Based on the results of this study, IBC and PFI are variables that have shown useful scientific-methodological potential for research in the future.


Los deportistas difieren entre sí y una de las principales diferencias se observa en relación a la forma y composición corporal. Alcanzar el máximo rendimiento deportivo requiere una mayor estandarización en los procesos de entrenamiento y en el desarrollo de una metodología única para individualizar el control de adaptación específico de los atletas. El objetivo de este estudio fue establecer datos de referencia de las variables más sensibles para definir la cantidad y estructura de la grasa corporal en mujeres deportistas en deportes individuales. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 895 mujeres, divididas en: un grupo control (Cont) de mujeres jóvenes (N = 688); Atletas femeninas de nivel internacional (N = 113) y nacional (N = 94) en 13 deportes individuales. Cuatro variables describieron la estructura de la grasa corporal: Porcentaje de grasa corporal (PBF), Índice de Masa Grasa Corporal (BFMI), Índice de Proteína Grasa (PFI) e Índice de Composición Corporal (IBC). Los resultados mostraron que, considerando el grupo control, todas las atletas tuvieron diferecias estadísticamente significativas respecto a las variables de grasa corporal (BFMI y PBF son más bajos, p = 0,011 y p = 0,000, mientras que PFI e IBC son más altos, p = 0,000, respectivamente). En relación al nivel de competencia, las atletas femeninas presentan diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p = 0,000), y las variables investigadas son responsables por el 17,7 % de la variabilidad de la diferencia entre los grupos. Las atletas femeninas competitivamente más exitosas tienen un IBC más alto (menor porcentaje de grasa por volumen corporal total, p = 0,013), así como una masa proteica estadísticamente más alta en relación con la masa de grasa corporal (PFI, p = 0,018). Las variables más sensibles para definir las diferencias de grasa corporal entre los deportes individuales examinados fueron IBC, con una influencia del 37,9 %, luego PFI (32,4 %), a seguir PBF (22,8 %) y finalmente BFMI, con una influencia del 11,4 % en las diferencias. En base a los resultados de este estudio, IBC y PFI son las variables que han mostrado un potencial científico-metodológico útil para la investigación en el futuro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Sports , Body Composition , Athletes , Reference Values , Discriminant Analysis , Adipose Tissue , Multivariate Analysis , Electric Impedance
2.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 9(1): 30190, 27 abr. 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1427955

ABSTRACT

Introdução:A Hipertensão Arterial Sistêmica é uma doença crônica que acometea maior parte idosos brasileiros, sendo uma das principais causas de mortes prematuras e incapacidades funcionais que causam complicações cardiovasculares e cerebrais, as quais podem estar associadas a diversos fatores predisponentes como a obesidade.Objetivo:Avaliar a associação entre hipertensão arterial sistêmica e indicadores antropométricos em idosos do estudo BrazucaNatal.Metodologia: Estudo transversal de base populacional com 191 idosos do município Natal-RN. Foram coletados dados sociodemográficos, econômicos e antropométricos (peso, estatura, perímetro da cintura e perímetro do quadril) e cálculo do Índice de Massa Corporal, Razão Cintura-Estatura e Razão Cintura Quadril. A hipertensão arterial foi auto referida. Os dados foram analisados pelo software SPSS versão 20.0. Teste t de Student foi utilizado para avaliar as diferenças entre médias das variáveis de acordo com o sexo e presença de hipertensão arterial. A associação entre a presença da doença e as variáveisfoi realizadapela Regressão de Poisson, comas razões de prevalência brutas e ajustadas e seus intervalos de confiança (95%).Resultados:A maioria dos idosos eram do sexo feminino (55%), com média de idade 69,48 anos (DP=7,38) e índice de massa corporalde 28,46 (DP=5,25), 59,4% possuíamexcesso de peso e 60,1% hipertensão. Ao comparar os sexos, registramos maiores médias de índice de massa corporal, perímetro do quadrile relação cintura estaturanas mulheres (p<0,05). Observamos maiores médias de idadee indicadores antropométricos entre os idosos com hipertensão (p<0,05). Constatamos que a presença de hipertensão estava associada a perímetro da cintura e índice de massa corporal no modelo bruto, mantendo-se apenas o perímetro da cinturano modelo ajustado. Conclusões:Indicadores antropométricos de fácil aplicação e baixo custo como o perímetroda cintura podeser eficientes para a detecção precoce da hipertensão arterial em idosos (AU).


Introduction:SystemicArterial Hypertension is a chronic disease that affects most Brazilian older adults and is one of the main causes of premature deaths and functional disabilities that cause cardiovascular and brain complications. Obesityis among the several predisposing factorsassociatedwithhypertension. Objective:To evaluate the association between SAHand anthropometric indicators in older adultsof the Brazuca Natal study.Methodology: Cross-sectional population-based study with 191 older adults in the city of Natal-RN.Sociodemographic, economic and anthropometric data (weight, height, waist circumference,and hip circumference),Body Mass Index, Waist-Height Ratio and Waist-Hip Ratio were collected. Hypertension was self-reported. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software, version 20.0. The Student's t-test was used to compare themeans of the variables according to sexand presence of hypertension. The association between the presence of the disease and the variables wasperformed by Poisson regression, with crude and adjusted prevalence ratios and respectiveconfidence intervals (95%).Results:The majority of the elderly were female (55%), with a mean age of 69.48 years (SD = 7.38) andBody Mass Indexof 28.46 (SD = 5.25), 59.4% were overweight and 60.1% had hypertension. Mean Body Mass Index, hip circumference and Waist-Height Ratiovalues were higher in women (p<0.05). The age and anthropometric indicators values were higher among the older adults with hypertension (p<0.05). We found that the presence of hypertension was associated with body weight and Body Mass Index,in the crude model and only with body weight in the adjusted model. Conclusions:Anthropometric indicators of easy application and lowcost such as waist circumference can be efficient todetect hypertension in older adults (AU).


Introducción:La Hipertensión Arterial Sistémica es una enfermedad crónica que afecta principalmente ancianos brasileños, siendo una de las principales causas de muertes prematuras ydiscapacidades funcionales que causan complicaciones cardiovasculares y cerebrales, las cuales pueden estar asociadas a diversos factores predisponentes como la obesidad. Objetivo:Evaluar la asociación entre la hipertensión arterial sistémica y los indicadores antropométricos en ancianos del estudio Brazuca Natal. Metodología:Estudio transversal de base poblacional con 191 ancianos del municipio Natal-RN. Se reconpilaron datos sociodemográficos, económicos y antropométricos (peso, estatura, perímetro de la cintura y perímetro de la cadera) y cálculo del Índice de Masa Corporal,Razón Cintura-Estatura y Razón Cintura Cadera. La hipertensión fue auto referida. Los datos fueron analizados por el software SPSSversión 20.0. Test t de Student fue realizado para evaluar las diferencias entre medias de las variables de acuerdo con el sexo y la presencia de hipertensión arterial. La asociación entre la presencia de la enfermedad y las variables fue realizada por la Regresión de Poisson, con las razones de prevalencia brutas y ayustadas y sus intervalos de confianza (95%). Resultados:La mayoría de los ancianos eran mujeres (55%), con una media de 69,48 años (DP= 7,38) y Índice de Masa Corporalde 28,46 (DP= 5,25), 59,4% poseían exceso de peso y 60,1% hipertensión. Observamos mayores medias de edady indicadores antropométricosentre los ancianos con hipertensión (p<0,05).Constatamos que la presencia de hipertensión estaba asociada al perímetro de la cinturae Índice de Masa Corporalen el modelo bruto, manteniendo solo el perímetro de la cinturaen el modelo ayustado. Conclusiones:Indicadores antropométricos de fácil aplicación y bajo costo como el perímetro de la cintura puede ser eficaz para la detección temprana de la hipertensión arterial en los ancianos (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged , Anthropometry/methods , Health of the Elderly , Risk Factors , Food and Nutritional Surveillance , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Multivariate Analysis , Hypertension/pathology
3.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 9(1): 29265, 27 abr. 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1427981

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A lei de cotas (nº 12.711/2012) foi criada com o intuito de oportunizar o acesso de alunos oriundos de escolas públicas ao ensino superior. Desde então, medidas adicionais foram tomadas para garantir, não só o acesso, mas a permanência destes alunos nas universidades. Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o desempenho acadêmico dealunos cotistas e não cotistas da Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade Federal do Pará. Metodologia: Foram coletados dados de alunos matriculados nos anos de 2020 e2021 por meio de um questionário on-line e realizada a análise de histórico acadêmico dos voluntários. A análise dos dados foi realizada com software Jamovi versão 1.6.23, utilizando os testesQui-quadrado, t de Student para amostras independentes e análise de regressão linear multivariada. Em todas as análises foi adotado o nível de significância de 0,05. Resultados: Com uma taxa de resposta de 39,92% (n=200), os resultados demonstraram haver um melhor desempenho acadêmico para o grupo não-cotista no que se refere ao Coeficiente de Rendimento Geral (p=0,001). Além disso, alunos do grupo cotista enfrentam mais dificuldades quando comparados aos não-cotistas (p<0,0001). Na análise múltipla verificou-se que juntas, forma de ingresso (cotista ou não), o enfrentamento de dificuldades, recebimento de auxílios e atividades fora da Faculdade explicam quase 10% da variável Coeficiente de Rendimento Geral (R² = 0,098). Conclusões: A complexidade da comparação sugere a possibilidade de múltiplas causas, entre elas o fator socioeconômico e outras dificuldades experienciadas. Entender e atuar nestas causas é de fundamental importância para a construção de uma universidade inclusiva de qualidade (AU).


Introduction:The quota law (nº 12.711/2012) was created with the objective of providing opportunities for students from public schools to enter federal universities. Since then, additional measures have been taken to ensure not only the access, but the permanence of these students in universities. Objectives:This study aimed to assess the academic performance of quota students and non-quota students at the Faculty of Dentistry of the Federal University of Pará. Methods:Data were collected from students enrolled in the years 2020 and 2021 through an online questionnaire and the academic history of the volunteers was analyzed. Data analysis was performed with Jamovi software version 1.6.23, using the chi-square test, Student's t test for independent samples, and multivariate linear regression analysis. In all analyses, a significance level of 0.05 was adopted. Results:With a response rate of 39.92% (n=200), the results showed a better academic performance for the non-quotastudents with regard to the General PerformanceCoefficient (p=0.001). In addition, quota students face more difficulties when compared to non-quota students (p<0.0001). In the multiple analysis, it was found that the admission modality (quota students or non-quota students), facing difficulties, receiving aid, and activities outside the University explained together almost 10% of the General Performance Coefficient variable (R² = 0.098). Conclusion:The complexity of the comparison suggests the possibility of multiple causes, including the socioeconomic factor and other difficulties experienced. Understanding and acting on these causes is of fundamental importance for the construction of a quality inclusive university (AU).


Introducción: La ley de cuotas (nº 12.711/2012) fue creada con el objetivo de brindar a estudiantes de colegios públicosla oportunidad de ingresar a una universidad federal. Desde entonces, se han tomado medidas adicionales para asegurar, no solo el acceso, sino también la permanencia de estos estudiantes en las universidades. Objetivos:Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el rendimiento académico de los alumnos con cuota y los sin cuota de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Federal de Pará. Métodos:Se recolectaron datos de estudiantes matriculados en los años 2020 y 2021 a través de un cuestionario en línea y se realizó el análisis del historial académico de los voluntarios. El análisis de datos se realizó con el software Jamovi versión 1.6.23, utilizando la prueba de qui-cuadrado, prueba t de Student para muestras independientes y análisis de regresión lineal multivariado. En todos los análisis se adoptó un nivel de significación de 0.05. Resultados:Con una tasa de respuesta del 39.92% (n=200), los resultados mostraron un mejor rendimiento académico de los alumnos sin cuotacon respecto al Coeficiente de Rendimiento General (p=0.001). Además, los estudiantes con cuota enfrentan más dificultades cuando comparados a los estudiantes sin cuota (p<0.0001). En el análisis múltiple, se encontró que,en conjunto, la forma de ingreso (alumnos con cuota o sin cuota), enfrentar las dificultades, recibir ayudas y actividades fuera de la Facultad explican casi el 10% de la variable Coeficiente de Rendimiento General(R² = 0,098). Conclusión:La complejidad de la comparación sugiere la posibilidad de múltiples causas, incluido el factor socioeconómico y otras dificultades experimentadas. Comprender y actuar sobre estas causas es de fundamental importancia para la construcción de una universidad inclusiva de calidad (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Public Policy , Social Conditions , Universities , Education, Dental , Academic Performance/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Students, Dental , Brazil , Chi-Square Distribution , Linear Models , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Multivariate Analysis , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 139-144, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971507

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate humanistic practice ability of nurses in a general hospital in Hunan Province and analyze the factors affecting their practices to provide evidence for interventions to improve humanistic practice ability of the nurses.@*METHODS@#A total of 1196 nurses were surveyed using a self-designed questionnaire and a nurse humanistic practice ability assessment scale questionnaire for assessment of their abilities for humanistic care practice, psychological adjustment, interpersonal communication, self-management, ethics and legal practice. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed for analysis of the factors affecting the practice abilities of the nurses.@*RESULTS@#The total score of humanistic practice ability of the 1196 nurses was 105.69±16.45 (the full score of the scale was 130), and the scores of humanistic care practice ability, psychological adjustment ability, interpersonal communication ability, self-management ability, ethics and legal practice ability were 40.95±6.46, 16.41±2.66, 16.41±2.66, 11.32±2.05 and 12.43±2.00, respectively. Univariate analysis and multiple linear regression analysis showed that gender (P=0.033), age (P < 0.001), department (P=0.015), working years (P < 0.001), professional title (P < 0.001), first academic degree (P < 0.001), highest academic degree (P < 0.001), family location (P=0.010), marital status (P=0.023), number of patients to care for (P=0.022), number of children (P=0.001), previous humanities related training (P < 0.001), training times (P < 0.001), and care received from family members (P < 0.001) and colleagues (P < 0.001) were all the factors affecting humanistic practice ability of the nurses. Among these factors, age, working in department of obstetrics and gynecology and emergency department, professional title, humanities training, and care from family and colleagues explained 20.7% of the variance.@*CONCLUSION@#The humanistic practice ability of nurses in this general hospital is above the average level, but their self-management ability needs to be improved. Intervention measures should be implemented to improve the nurses' humanistic practice ability including more attentions to the key groups and departments, strengthening the training of humanistic practice ability, and improving the promotion assessment system.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Hospitals, General , Emergency Service, Hospital , Multivariate Analysis , Research Design
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 625-635, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970531

ABSTRACT

This study explored the feasibility of mineral element content and ratios of nitrogen isotopes to discriminate the cultivation mode of Dendrobium nobile in order to provide theoretical support for the discrimination of the cultivation mode of D. nobile. The content of 11 mineral elements(N, K, Ca, P, Mg, Na, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, and B) and nitrogen isotope ratios in D. nobile and its substrate samples in three cultivation methods(greenhouse cultivation, tree-attached cultivation, and stone-attached cultivation) were determined. According to the analysis of variance, principal component analysis, and stepwise discriminant analysis, the samples of different cultivation types were classified. The results showed that the nitrogen isotope ratios and the content of elements except for Zn were significantly different among different cultivation types of D. nobile(P<0.05). The results of correlation analysis showed that the nitrogen isotope ratios, mineral element content, and effective component content in D. nobile were correlated with the nitrogen isotope ratio and mineral element content in the corresponding substrate samples to varying degrees. Principal component analysis can preliminarily classify the samples of D. nobile, but some samples overlapped. Through stepwise discriminant analysis, six indicators, including δ~(15)N, K, Cu, P, Na, and Ca, were screened out, which could be used to establish the discriminant model of D. nobile cultivation methods, and the overall correct discrimination rates after back-substitution test, cross-check, and external validation were all 100%. Therefore, nitrogen isotope ratios and mineral element fingerprints combined with multivariate statistical analysis could effectively discriminate the cultivation types of D. nobile. The results of this study provide a new method for the identification of the cultivation type and production area of D. nobile and an experimental basis for the quality evaluation and quality control of D. nobile.


Subject(s)
Dendrobium , Minerals , Discriminant Analysis , Multivariate Analysis , Nitrogen Isotopes
6.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 115-120, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981844

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To estimate postmortem interval (PMI) by analyzing the protein changes in skeletal muscle tissues with the protein chip technology combined with multivariate analysis methods.@*METHODS@#Rats were sacrificed for cervical dislocation and placed at 16 ℃. Water-soluble proteins in skeletal muscles were extracted at 10 time points (0 d, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, 4 d, 5 d, 6 d, 7 d, 8 d and 9 d) after death. Protein expression profile data with relative molecular mass of 14 000-230 000 were obtained. Principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS) were used for data analysis. Fisher discriminant model and back propagation (BP) neural network model were constructed to classify and preliminarily estimate the PMI. In addition, the protein expression profiles data of human skeletal muscles at different time points after death were collected, and the relationship between them and PMI was analyzed by heat map and cluster analysis.@*RESULTS@#The protein peak of rat skeletal muscle changed with PMI. The result of PCA combined with OPLS discriminant analysis showed statistical significance in groups with different time points (P<0.05) except 6 d, 7 d and 8 d after death. By Fisher discriminant analysis, the accuracy of internal cross-validation was 71.4% and the accuracy of external validation was 66.7%. The BP neural network model classification and preliminary estimation results showed the accuracy of internal cross-validation was 98.2%, and the accuracy of external validation was 95.8%. There was a significant difference in protein expression between 4 d and 25 h after death by the cluster analysis of the human skeletal muscle samples.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The protein chip technology can quickly, accurately and repeatedly obtain water-soluble protein expression profiles in rats' and human skeletal muscles with the relative molecular mass of 14 000-230 000 at different time points postmortem. The establishment of multiple PMI estimation models based on multivariate analysis can provide a new idea and method for PMI estimation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Rats , Multivariate Analysis , Postmortem Changes , Protein Array Analysis , Technology
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3448-3461, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981480

ABSTRACT

A comprehensive analytical method based on ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole/linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry(UFLC-QTRAP-MS/MS) was established for simultaneous determination of the content of 45 bioactive constituents including flavonoids, alkaloids, amino acids, phenolic acids, and nucleosides in Epimedium brevicornum. The multiple bioactive constituents in leaves, petioles, stems and rhizomes of E. brevicornum were analyzed. The gradient elution was performed at 30 ℃ in an XBridge~® C_(18) column(4.6 mm×100 mm, 3.5 μm) with 0.4% formic acid aqueous solution-acetonitrile as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL·min~(-1). Single factor experiment and response surface methodology were employed to optimize the extraction conditions. Multivariate statistical analyses including systematic cluster analysis(SCA), principal component analysis(PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis(PLS-DA), and one-way analysis of variance(One-way ANOVA) were carried out to classify the samples from different parts and identify different constituents. Grey relation analysis(GRA) and entropy weight-TOPSIS analysis were performed to build a multi-index comprehensive evaluation model for different parts of E. brevicornum. The results showed that there was a good relationship between the mass concentrations of 45 constituents and the corresponding peak areas, with the correlation coefficients(r) not less than 0.999 0. The precision, repeatability, and stability of the established method were good for all the target constituents in this study, with the relative standard deviations(RSDs) less than 5.0%(0.62%-4.9%) and the average recovery of 94.51%-105.7%. The above results indicated that the bioactive constituents varied in different parts of E. brevicornum, and the overall quality followed the trend of leaves > petioles > rhizomes > stems. This study verified the rationality of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020 edition) stipulating that the medicinal part of E. brevicornum is the leaf. Moreover, our study indicated that the rhizome had the potential for medicinal development. The established method was accurate and reliable, which can be used to comprehensive evaluate and control the quality of E. brevicornum. This study provides data reference for clarifying the medicinal parts and rationally utilizing the resources of E. brevicornum.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Epimedium , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Chromatography, Liquid , Multivariate Analysis
8.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 26(4): e007097, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1526419

ABSTRACT

La identificación de relaciones causales es uno de los problemas fundamentales de la investigación científica en medicina y es necesaria para poder ejercerla en forma efectiva. Sin embargo, desde el punto de vista práctico es difícil establecer la existencia de relaciones causales en estudios de carácter observacional, en gran parte por la presencia de factores de confusión. El análisis a través de variables instrumentales es una de las estrategias que permite controlar el efecto confundidor y documentar la presencia de relaciones causa-efecto en estas situaciones. En este artículo, el autor resume los principales supuestos del análisis a través de variables instrumentales, haciendo foco en la aleatorización mendeliana. (AU)


The identification of causal relationships is one of the fundamental challenges in scientific research in medicine and is necessary for its effective practice. However, from a practical standpoint, establishing the existence of causal relationships in observational studies is difficult, largely due to the presence of confounding factors. Analysis through instrumental variables is one of the strategies that allows to control the confounding effect and documenting the presence of cause-and-effect relationships in these situations. In this article, the author summarizes the main assumptions of analysis through instrumental variables, with a focus on Mendelian randomization. (AU)


Subject(s)
Epidemiologic Methods , Confounding Factors, Epidemiologic , Observational Studies as Topic , Causality , Multivariate Analysis , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Mendelian Randomization Analysis
9.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1431040

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To present the profile of hospitalizations due to transport accidents in individuals aged 0-19 years in a reference hospital for urgent and emergency traumatology care. Material and Methods: This retrospective study is grounded on analyzing medical records of children and adolescents hospitalized due to transport accidents in 2016 and 2017. The bivariate analyses included Chi-square and Fischer's exact tests and binary logistic regression, with a 5% significance level. Results: Four hundred and seventy-five (43.7%) of the 1,088 medical records investigated corresponded to transport accidents, and accidents involving motorcycles were the most frequent (68.3%), affecting adolescents (81.3%), while children were more involved in accidents as pedestrians (57.1%). Advancing age increases the likelihood of the outcome, with a significant association in the multivariate analysis (p<0.001). The mandible was most frequently affected in maxillofacial fractures. Conclusion: Transport accidents predominantly affect male adolescents, involving motorcycles, and the lower limbs are the most affected. The mandible was the most affected bone in maxillofacial fractures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Accidents, Traffic , Child , Adolescent , Facial Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Traffic Victims , Hospitalization , Chi-Square Distribution , Logistic Models , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals, Packaged , Maxillary Fractures
10.
Psico USF ; 28(2): 239-251, Apr.-June 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448903

ABSTRACT

Escala de Satisfação com a Escolha do Curso (ESEC) para uso no contexto brasileiro. Participaram deste estudo 674 estudantes universitários, com idade variando entre 18 e 62 anos (M= 23,18, DP= 5,81). Seis modelos fatoriais unidimensionais foram testados com o objetivo de identificar a solução mais parcimoniosa para o instrumento. Sugere-se uma solução final com quatro itens, ao invés de seis. Análises de TRI foram realizadas e observou-se alta fidedignidade da escala para mensuração de baixos níveis do traço latente. A ESEC esteve significativamente correlacionada com os cinco fatores de personalidade, adaptabilidade de carreira e satisfação com a vida. Indica-se que a ESEC apresenta evidências de validade favoráveis ao seu uso no contexto brasileiro, mas o instrumento identifica melhor indivíduos insatisfeitos com a escolha do curso do que os satisfeitos. (AU)


This study aimed to adapt and obtain validity evidence for the Academic Major Satisfaction Scale (AMSS) in the Brazilian context. The instrument was tested in 674 college students, with ages ranging from 18 to 62 (M = 23.18, SD = 5.81). Six unidimensional models were tested in order to find the parsimonious solution to the instrument. A four-item final solution is suggested, instead of the original 6-item solution. IRT was applied and it was identified that the AMSS had high reliability in individuals with low levels of latent trait. AMSS was significantly correlated with the big-five personality factors, career adapt-ability and life satisfaction. AMSS presents favorable evidences of validity to the Brazilian context, although the scale is more efficient in identifying students who are unsatisfied rather than satisfied with their college major. (AU)


Este estudio buscó adaptar y obtener evidencia de la validez de la Escala de Satisfacción de Elección de Curso (ESEC) para su uso en el contexto brasileño. Participaron un total de 674 estudiantes universitarios, con edades comprendidas entre los 18 y los 62 años (M = 23,18, DT = 5,81). Se probaron seis modelos factoriales unidimensionales con el fin de identificar la solución más parsimoniosa para el instrumento. Se sugiere una solución final con cuatro elementos en lugar de seis. El modelo de respuesta graduada se aplicó a los ítems que funcionaron bien a niveles bajos del constructo. La ESEC se correlacionó significativamente con los cinco factores de personalidad, adaptabilidad profesional y satisfacción con la vida. Se indica que la ESEC presenta evidencia de validez favorable a su uso en el contexto brasileño, pero el instrumento identifica mejor a los insatisfechos con la elección del curso que a los satisfechos. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Personality Tests , Career Mobility , Multivariate Analysis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Data Analysis
11.
Psico USF ; 28(2): 253-265, Apr.-June 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448905

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate social support and marital relationships in women with and without postpartum depression (PND), investigating the relationship between these constructs and the positive and negative impacts of each of them for the PND. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 67 women (32 with depression and 35 without depression) with children aged between 51 and 77 days. The results indicated that women with PND (assessed through the EPDS) had lower scores in perception of social support and identified their marital relationships as more conflicting. In the hierarchical model, demographic variables (baby's age and maternal education) and marital relationship explained part of the variance of symptoms of PND. Social support did not prove to be a significant predictor in the model. Among the factors evaluated, the quality of the marital relationship was the most important to minimize the risk of developing PND, being an aspect subject to interventions by health professionals. (AU)


O objetivo foi avaliar o apoio social e o relacionamento conjugal em mulheres com e sem depressão pós-parto (DPP), investigando a relação entre esses construtos e os impactos positivos e negativos de cada um deles para a DPP. Conduziu-se um estudo transversal com 67 mulheres (32 com depressão e 35 sem depressão) com filhos com idade entre 51 e 77 dias. Os resultados indicaram que mulheres com DPP (avaliadas por meio da EPDS) relataram menor percepção de apoio social e identificaram seus relacionamentos conjugais como mais conflituosos. No modelo hierárquico, variáveis demográficas (idade do bebê e escolaridade materna) e relacionamento conjugal explicaram em parte a variância dos sintomas de DPP. O apoio social não se revelou um preditor significativo no modelo. Entre os avaliados, a qualidade do relacionamento conjugal foi o mais importante para minimizar o risco de desenvolvimento de DPP, sendo um aspecto passível de intervenções por profissionais da saúde. (AU)


El objetivo fue evaluar el apoyo social y las relaciones maritales en mujeres con y sin depresión posparto (DPP), investigando la relación entre estos constructos y los impactos positivos y negativos de cada uno de ellos a la DPP. Se realizó un estudio transversal con 67 mujeres (32 con depresión y 35 sin depresión) con hijos de entre 51 y 77 días. Los resultados indicaron que las mujeres con DPP (evaluadas a través de la EPDS) presentaron una menor percepción de apoyo social e identificaron sus relaciones maritales como más conflictivas. En el modelo jerárquico, las variables demográficas (edad del bebé y educación materna) y la relación conyugal explicaron una parte de la varianza de los síntomas de la DPP. El apoyo social no resultó ser un predictor significativo en el modelo. Entre los factores evaluados, la calidad de la relación conyugal fue el más importante para minimizar el riesgo de desarrollar DPP, siendo un aspecto sujeto a intervenciones por parte de los profesionales de la salud. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Mental Health , Family Conflict , Interpersonal Relations , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1521291

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the association between individual and socioeconomic factors during the first thousand days of the child's life and the occurrence of risk behaviors for the development of malocclusions. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study. A sample of 655 6-year-old schoolchildren and families was included. Interviews with mothers were performed at home. The dependent variables were risk behaviors to the development of malocclusions. Independent variables were socioeconomic conditions, aspects of gestation, birth and health of the child up to two years of age. Bivariate and multivariate analyzes were performed through Poisson regression. Results: Maternal education of less than eight years was independently associated with the interruption of exclusive breastfeeding until the fourth month (PR=1.58 CI 95%; 1.07; 2.37). Occupation of the mother with income [PR=1.26; 1.02; 1.56)], occupation of the father without income [PR=1.46 (1.01; 2.14)] were associated fwith interruption of breastfeeding until the sixth month. Pregnancy in adolescence [PR=0.83 (0.70; 0.98)] and nursery attendance [PR=1.15 (1.02; 1.28)] were associated with bottle use. Nursery attendance [PR=1.27 (1.01; 1.59)], hospitalization in the first 29 days of life [PR=1.34 (1.01; 1.80)], occurrence of reflux [PR=1.30 (1.01; 1.70)] were associated with pacifier using. Conclusion: Variables related to the period of the first thousand days of life are associated with higher risk behaviors for the occurrence of malocclusions.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Child , Orthodontics , Child Development , Child Health , Risk Factors , Malocclusion , Breast Feeding/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Multivariate Analysis , Longitudinal Studies , Prevalence Ratio
13.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 32(1): e2022307, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421405

ABSTRACT

Objective: to analyze intimate partner violence (IPV) in Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil, with emphasis on physical violence. Methods: this was a cross-sectional study applying multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) to records retrieved from the Notifiable Health Conditions Information System covering the period from 2009 to 2018. Results: of the 9,950 notifications registered, 91.8% were notifications of physical violence; higher rates were found in young females (189.2/100,000), who had up to incomplete high school education (139.6/100,000), had a partner (202.7/100,000), were Indigenous (488.8/100,000), and were living on the border with other countries (223,1/100,000); the aggressors were mostly current partners (76.9%) and male (95.5%); MCA revealed that physical violence was predominant at weekends, at night, with use of physical force and when the aggressor was under the influence of alcohol; most IPV did not occur at home, but was committed by current partners and was not a repeated event. Conclusion: IPV stood out among young victims, those who had a partner, low education, Indigenous women and occurred notably in the border region.


Objetivo: analizar la violencia por compañero íntimo (VPI) en Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil, con énfasis en la violencia física. Métodos: estudio transversal, con análisis de correspondencia (AC) de registros en el Sistema de Información de Agravamientos de Notificación, entre 2009 y 2018. Resultados: de las 9.950 notificaciones registradas, el 91,8% era de violencia física; las mayores tasas fueron encontradas en mujeres jóvenes (189,2/100.000), con escolaridad hasta secundaria completa (139,6/100.000), con pareja (202,7/100.000), indígenas (488.8/100,000) y residentes en la frontera (223,1/100.000); los agresores fueron, en su mayoría, de compañeros actuales (76,9%) y hombres (95,5%); sobre la violencia física, la AC reveló predominio de los fines de semana, en la noche, con uso de fuerza física y el agresor bajo los efectos de alcohol; sin embargo, ocurrieron fuera de la residencia, cometidos por compañeros actuales y no constituyeron hechos de repetición. Conclusión: se destacaron víctimas jóvenes, con pareja, baja escolaridad, mujeres indígenas y expresivos sucesos en la región fronteriza.


Objetivo: analisar a violência por parceiros íntimos (VPI) em Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil, com destaque para violência física. Métodos: estudo transversal, com análise de correspondências (AC) dos registros no Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação, em 2009-2018. Resultados: de 9.950 notificações registradas, 91,8% foram de violência física; maiores taxas foram encontradas em jovens do sexo feminino (189,2/100 mil), com escolaridade até o ensino médio incompleto (139,6/100 mil), com companheiro (202,7/100 mil), indígenas (488,8/100 mil) e residentes na fronteira (223,1/100 mil); os agressores eram majoritariamente parceiros atuais (76,9%) e homens (95,5%); sobre a violência física, a AC revelou predominância em fins de semana, à noite, com utilização de força corporal e agressor sob efeito de álcool; entretanto, ocorreu principalmente fora da residência, cometida por parceiro atual e não constituiu evento de repetição. Conclusão: destacaram-se vítimas jovens, com companheiro, baixa escolaridade, mulheres indígenas e ocorrência expressiva em região de fronteira.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Violence Against Women , Health Information Systems , Intimate Partner Violence/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis
14.
ABCD (São Paulo, Online) ; 36: e1755, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1505418

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Weight regain in the postoperative period after bariatric surgery is directly related to the relapse of preoperative comorbidities and a negative impact on the patients' biochemical profile. AIMS: To assess the metabolic impact of weight regain on preoperative comorbidities and on patients' biochemical profiles, in order to show the impact of the complications on the metabolic outcomes of bariatric surgery. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out with 75 women in the late postoperative period of bariatric surgery who presented pathological weight regain (≥20% of the maximum weight loss). Data of interest consisted of glycemic, lipid, and inflammatory profile measurements at three different moments of evaluation: preoperative period, at the weight nadir (minimum weight), and after weight regain. A multivariate analysis was performed. RESULTS: The mean age was 46.39±12.09 years. Preoperative body mass index was 40.10±4.11 kg/m2. There was an overall increase of 3.36 points in the mean body mass index between the nadir and after regain: from 26.30±3.9 kg/m2 to 29.66±4.66 kg/m2. The mean time to reach the nadir was 18±7.6 months, with an average percentage of excess weight loss of 91.08±11.8%. The median time for pathological weight regain was 48 months, and the mean regain amongst the sample was 8.85±5.65 kg. There was a significant correlation between pathological weight regain and levels of insulin (r=0.351; p<0.011), C-peptide (r=0.303; p<0.011), C-reactive protein (r=0.402; p<0.001), and vitamin D (r=-0.435; p<0.001), the last two being the most influenced by the percentage of weight regained. CONCLUSIONS: The pathological weight regain in the postoperative period of bariatric surgery results in losses in the patients' metabolic and inflammatory profiles. However, the biochemical benefits are sustained up to the preoperative levels of the parameters analyzed.


RESUMO RACIONAL: Reganho de peso no pós-operatório de cirurgia bariátrica está diretamente relacionado à recidiva das comorbidades pré-operatórias e a um impacto negativo no perfil bioquímico desses pacientes. OBJETIVOS: avaliar o impacto metabólico do reganho de peso nas comorbidades pré-operatórias e no perfil bioquímico desses pacientes, a fim de mostrar o impacto das complicações nos desfechos metabólicos finais da cirurgia bariátrica. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo que analisou 75 mulheres no pós-operatório tardio de cirurgia bariátrica que apresentaram reganho patológico de peso (=20% do máximo de peso perdido). Foram coletados dados referentes às medidas dos perfis glicêmico, lipídico e inflamatório em três momentos distintos de avaliação: no pré-operatório, no nadir de peso (menor peso) e após o reganho ponderal. Foi realizada uma análise multivariada. RESULTADOS: A idade média foi 46.39±12.09 anos. IMC médio pré-operatório foi 40.10±4.11 kg/m2. Houve um aumento de 3,36 pontos no IMC médio entre o nadir e após reganho: de 26.30±3.9 Kg/m2 para 29.66±4.66 Kg/m2. O tempo médio para atingir o nadir foi de 18±7.6 meses, com uma %PEP de 91.08±11.8%. O tempo médio para o reganho patológico foi de 48 meses, e a média de reganho foi 8.85±5.65 kg. Houve correlação significativa entre o reganho patológico e os níveis de insulina (r=0.351; p<0.011), peptídeo C (r=0.303; p<0.011), proteína C reativa (r=0.402; p<0.001) e vitamina D (r=-0.435; p<0.001), sendo os dois últimos os mais influenciados pela porcentagem de reganho de peso. CONCLUSÕES: O reganho de peso patológico no pós-operatório de cirurgia bariátrica resulta em prejuízos ao perfil metabólico e inflamatório dos pacientes. No entanto, os benefícios bioquímicos perduram em relação aos níveis pré-operatórios dos parâmetros analisados


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/metabolism , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Weight Gain , Bariatric Surgery , Weight Loss , Body Mass Index , Nutritional Status , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
15.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 87(6): 388-395, dic. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1423749

ABSTRACT

Objective: Determining the appropriate approach for delivery after previous cesarean is a very controversial issue. Our objective was to establish whether pregnant women with a previous cesarean have an increased maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality after attempting vaginal delivery as well as to determine which factors may influence the achievement of a vaginal birth after cesarean. Materials and methods: A retrospective observational cohort study including 390 patients (196 cesarean group and 194 nulliparous group) was carried out. We compared neonatal and maternal outcomes between groups. Afterward, a multivariate logistic regression was applied for our second objective. Results: There were higher rates of uterine rupture (2% vs. 0%, p: 0.045) and puerperal hemorrhage (9.7% vs. 3.1%, p: 0.008) in the cesarean group and lower vaginal delivery rate (58.2% vs. 77.8%, p < 0.0005). We found that the induced onset of labor (OR = 2.9) and new born weight (OR = 1.0001) were associated with an increased risk of cesarean section. Conclusions: Our findings stress the need for further investigations in this field, which might provide a basis for a better management of patients with a previous cesarean.


Objetivo: Determinar el abordaje adecuado del tipo de parto tras una cesárea previa es un tema muy controvertido. Nuestro objetivo fue establecer si las gestantes con cesárea previa presentan mayor morbimortalidad materna y fetal tras intentar parto vaginal, así como determinar qué factores pueden influir en conseguir un parto vaginal posterior a la cesárea. Material y métodos: Estudio observacional de cohortes retrospectivo incluyendo 390 pacientes (196 con cesárea previa, 194 nulíparas). Comparamos los datos sobre los resultados neonatales y maternos. Posteriormente se aplicó un modelo de regresión logística multivariante. Resultados: Hubo mayores tasas de ruptura uterina (2% vs. 0%; p = 0.045) y hemorragia puerperal (9.7% vs. 3.1%, p: 0.008) en el grupo de cesárea anterior, así como una tasa de parto vaginal mas baja (58.2% vs. 77.8%, p < 0.0005). La inducción del parto (OR = 2,9) y el peso del recién nacido (OR = 1.0001) se asociaron a un mayor riesgo de cesárea. Conclusión: La probabilidad de parto vaginal en estas pacientes disminuye cuanto mayor sea el peso del recién nacido y con partos inducidos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Vaginal Birth after Cesarean/adverse effects , Uterine Rupture/epidemiology , Infant Mortality , Maternal Mortality , Multivariate Analysis , Regression Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Postpartum Hemorrhage/epidemiology
16.
Psico USF ; 27(4): 765-778, Oct.-Dec. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1422351

ABSTRACT

Este estudo teve como objetivo propor um modelo explicativo de não adesão ao paradigma psicossocial da saúde mental a partir dos estereótipos, das crenças sobre a etiologia da doença mental, da percepção de ameaça e do preconceito. Para tanto, contou-se com a participação de 400 universitários, com média de idade de 24,64 anos (DP = 6, 64), sendo a maioria do sexo feminino (75,6%). Para a proposição do modelo, foi realizada uma path analysis. O modelo proposto demonstrou que quanto maior a percepção de ameaça e a concordância com o estereótipo de incapacidade, menor o apoio ao paradigma psicossocial. Ademais, verificou-se que as crenças acerca da etiologia da doença mental e os estereótipos estão na base da percepção de ameaça e todas essas variáveis juntas predizem maior preconceito. Os achados desta pesquisa fornecem subsídios científicos para a realização de intervenções eficazes e consistentes que fortaleçam o paradigma psicossocial no cenário nacional. (AU)


This study aimed to propose an explanatory model of non-adherence to the psychosocial paradigm of mental health based on stereotypes, beliefs about the etiology of mental illness, perception of threat, and prejudice. Participants included a total of 400 university students, with a mean age of 24.64 years (SD = 6, 64), mostly women (75.6%). A path analysis was performed to propose the model, which showed that the greater the perception of threat and the agreement with the disability stereotype, the lower the support for the psychosocial paradigm. Furthermore, it was found that beliefs about the etiology of mental illness and stereotypes are at the basis of the perception of threat and all these variables together predict greater prejudice. The findings of this research provide scientific support for effective and consistent interventions that strengthen the psychosocial paradigm on the national scene. (AU)


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo proponer un modelo explicativo de la no adherencia al paradigma psicosocial de la salud mental basado en estereotipos, creencias sobre la etiología de la enfermedad mental, percepción de amenaza y prejuicio. Para ello participaron 400 estudiantes universitarios, con una edad media de 24,64 años (DS = 6,64), siendo la mayoría mujeres (75,6 %). Para la proposición del modelo, se realizó un path análisis. El modelo sugerido demostró que, a mayor percepción de amenaza y concordancia con el estereotipo de discapacidad, menor apoyo al paradigma psicosocial. Además, se encontró que las creencias sobre la etiología de la enfermedad mental y los estereotipos están en la base de la percepción de amenaza y todas estas variables en conjunto predicen un mayor prejuicio. Los hallazgos de esta investigación brindan soporte científico para ejecutar intervenciones efectivas y consistentes que fortalezcan el paradigma psicosocial en el escenario nacional. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Prejudice , Stereotyping , Mental Health , Psychosocial Functioning , Students , Students, Medical , Students, Nursing , Universities , Multivariate Analysis , Regression Analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Health Care Reform , Data Accuracy , Correlation of Data , Psychological Distress , Sociodemographic Factors
17.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 39(4): [442-449], oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1424344

ABSTRACT

Objetivos. Determinar los factores sociodemográficos, clínicos y radiológicos asociados al tiempo de progresión de discapacidad en pacientes con esclerosis múltiple (EM). Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal analítico, basado en registros de la historia clínica de pacientes del Instituto Neurológico de Colombia, entre el 2013 y 2021. La progresión a discapacidad de los pacientes con EM se definió como el tiempo hasta un aumento de por lo menos 0,5 puntos en el valor de la EDSS (del inglés Expanded Disability Status Scale), sostenido por al menos seis meses. Se usó un modelo de regresión de Cox para estimar la función de supervivencia y los hazard ratios (HR) con sus intervalos de confianza de 95% (IC 95%). Resultados. Se incluyeron 216 pacientes, de los cuales el 25% progresó a discapacidad, la mediana de supervivencia fue de 78 meses (RIC 95%: 70−83), las lesiones activas (HR = 1,94; IC 95%: 1,10−3,44), el sexo masculino (HR = 2,5; IC 95%: 1,32−4,73), y las enfermedades neurológicas (HR = 2,18; IC95%: 1,03−4,61) se asociaron en el modelo multivariado. Conclusiones. La mediana de tiempo de progresión hacia la discapacidad fue de 72 meses. Las lesiones activas captadas en resonancia magnética y el sexo masculino se asociaron con mayor progresión de la discapacidad, con resultados estadísticamente significativos en el modelo multivariado.


Objectives. To determine the sociodemographic, clinical and radiological factors associated with time to disability progression in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Materials and methods. Cross-sectional descriptive study with an analytical component, based on clinical records of patients at the Neurological Institute of Colombia, between 2013 and 2021. Progression to disability in MS patients was defined as the time to an increase of at least 0.5 points in the EDSS (Expanded Disability Status Scale) score, sustained for at least six months. A Cox regression model was used to estimate the survival function and Hazard Ratios (HR) with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results. We included 216 patients, of whom 25% progressed to disability, median survival was 78 months (95% CI: 70-83), active lesions (HR = 1.94; 95% CI: 1.10-3.44), cerebellar complications (HR = 2.03; 95% CI: 0. 99-4.16), being male (HR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.32-4.73), and having neurological diseases (HR = 2.18; 95% CI: 1.03-4.61) were associated as risk factors. While relapsing remitting MS (HR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.31-1.26) and age at diagnosis less than 40 years (HR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.53-1.76) were associated as protective factors. Conclusions. Progression is affected by many factors, and there is no single independent factor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Multivariate Analysis , Disabled Persons , Multiple Sclerosis , Patients , Survivorship
18.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 9(3): 1-13, sept. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1518684

ABSTRACT

Worldwide, the leading cause of death is cardiovascular disease. The study details the prescription of statins at the Pablo Arturo Suarez Hospital in Ecuador between March 2021 and February 2022 following the ASCVD risk scale of the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association. There are 563 people in this cross-sectional and retrospective study: 70% women, 30% men, 93.30% mestizos, 48.10% diabetics, 62.30% hypertensives, and 18.70% smokers. 26.10% of all patients received statins, with simvastatin being the most common (96.60%). The mean cardiovascular risk in the general population was 15.52 ± 14.51%, 44.99% of subjects had a risk lower than 7.50%, and 29% had a risk higher than 20%, with a statistically significant difference (p<0.001) according to sex. The study determined that 58.60% of the population received a statin or an inadequate dosage.


A nivel mundial, la principal causa de muerte es la enfermedad cardiovascular. El estudio detalla la prescripción de estatinas en el Hospital Pablo Arturo Suárez de Ecuador entre marzo de 2021 y febrero de 2022, siguiendo la escala de riesgo ASCVD del Colegio Americano de Cardiología y la Asociación Americana del Corazón. Son 563 personas en este estudio transversal y retrospectivo: 70% mujeres, 30% hombres, 93.30% mestizos, 48.10% diabéticos, 62.30% hipertensos y 18.70% fumadores. El 26.10% de los pacientes recibía estatinas, siendo la simvastatina la más frecuente (96.60%). El riesgo cardiovascular medio en la población general fue de 15.52 ± 14.51%, el 44.99% de los sujetos tenía un riesgo inferior al 7.50%, y el 29% tenía un riesgo superior al 20%, con una diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p<0.001) según el sexo. El estudio determinó que el 58.60% de la población recibía una estatina o una dosis inadecuada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Ethnicity , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/methods , Simvastatin/administration & dosage , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Atherosclerosis/diagnosis , Atherosclerosis/epidemiology , Atorvastatin/administration & dosage , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology
19.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(3): 273-286, jun. 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407794

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: A pesar de la probada eficacia y seguridad de las vacunas contra la COVID-19, la cobertura de vacunación pediátrica sigue siendo baja en muchos países. Aún existen dudas y temores en los padres sobre la vacunación en sus hijos bajo 12 años de edad. OBJETIVO: Evaluar las percepciones e intención de los padres de vacunar a sus hijos bajo 12 años en Perú. METODOLOGÍA: Estudio transversal analítico, a partir de una encuesta que recopiló la percepción de los padres sobre el riesgo de contagio por COVID-19, necesidad de vacunación y desarrollo de eventos adversos por la vacuna en niños bajo 12 años. Evaluamos los factores asociados a la intención de vacunación mediante razones de prevalencia crudas (RPc) y ajustadas (RPa) con intervalos de confianza al 95% (IC 95%). RESULTADOS: El 83,5% de los padres tenían la intención de vacunar a sus hijos bajo 12 años. En el análisis multivariado, los factores asociados a una disminución de la intención de vacunación fueron pensar que la vacuna no es necesaria (RPa: 0,65; IC 95% 0,44 - 0,94), que no protegería (RPa: 0,14; IC 95% 0,03 - 0,63), que no sería segura (RPa: 0,80; IC 95% 0,70 - 0,92) y que ocasionaría efectos negativos a largo plazo (RPa: 0,92; IC 95% 0,85 - 1,00). Por otro lado, residir en la Selva (RPa: 1,09; IC 95%: 1,03-1,15) o en la Sierra (RPa: 1,06; IC 95%: 1,00-1,11) se asoció a una mayor prevalencia de intención. CONCLUSIONES: En Perú, un 16,5% de padres no vacunaría a sus hijos bajo 12 años, ya que perciben que la vacuna no es necesaria y no protegería contra la COVID-19, además de tener la preocupación de posibles eventos adversos.


BACKGROUND: Despite the proven efficacy and safety of COVID-19 vaccines, pediatric vaccination coverage remains low in many countries. There are still doubts and fears in parents about vaccination in their children under 12 years of age. AIM: To evaluate the perceptions and intention of parents to vaccinate their children under 12 years of age. METHODS: Analytical cross-sectional study based on an online survey that evaluated the parents' perceptions regarding the risk of COVID-19 infection, the need for a vaccine, and the vaccine adverse events in their children under 12 years. We assessed the factors associated with the intention to vaccinate through crude (cPR) and adjusted prevalence rates (aPR), with confidence interval of 95% (CI 95%). RESULTS: 83.5% of respondents had the intention to vaccinate their children under 12 years of age. In the multivariate analysis, the factors associated with a decrease in the intention to vaccinate were to believe that the vaccine was not necessary (aPR 0.65; 95% CI 0.44 - 0.94), that it would not protect (aPR: 0.14; 95% CI 0.03 - 0.63), it would not be safe (aPR: 0.80; 95% CI 0.70 - 0.92) and it would cause long-term side effects (aPR: 0.92; 95% CI 0.85 - 1.00). On the other hand, living on the highlands or jungle was associated with an increase in the intention. CONCLUSION: In Peru, 16.5% of parents would not vaccinate their children under 12 years of age, because they perceived that the vaccine was not necessary and would not protect against COVID-19. In addition, they expressed concerns about the development of possible adverse events.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Intention , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Parents , Perception , Peru/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 74(3): 283-289, jun. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407923

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: La lesión del nervio laríngeo recurrente es una grave complicación en cirugía tiroidea. El propósito del presente estudio es analizar la utilidad de la neuromonitorización vagal continua intraoperatoria en un hospital terciario. Materiales y Método: Estudio observacional, analítico y retrospectivo que recoge pacientes intervenidos de cirugía tiroidea con neuromonitorización en un período de 14 meses. La pérdida de señal se define como amplitud final nerviosa < 100 ^V, realizándose laringoscopia postquirúrgica ante la sospecha de lesión nerviosa. El análisis estadístico se realizó con el programa SPSS® V25,0, con p < 0,05. Resultados: Se incluyeron 120 pacientes intervenidos, registrándose en el 24,2% pérdida de señal. Factores de riesgo para lesión fueron bocio intratorácico (OR 5,31; IC 95% 1,56-17,99; p = 0,007), cirugía cervical previa (OR 5,76; IC 95% 0,64-51,97; p = 0,119) y patología maligna (OR 1,44; IC 95% 0,16-12,79; p = 0,743). Fue posible el cambio de estrategia quirúrgica en 7 casos. En el seguimiento posterior se cuantificó parálisis recurrencial transitoria en 27 pacientes y permanente en 4. Discusión: La neuromonitorización parece reducir la incidencia de parálisis laríngea porque aumenta la seguridad en la identificación del nervio recurrente y reduce su manipulación durante la cirugía. Conclusiones: La neuromonitorización intraoperatoria es útil para identificar el nervio laríngeo recurrente y advierte del riesgo potencial de lesión, permitiendo cambiar la estrategia quirúrgica para evitar la parálisis bilateral de cuerdas vocales.


Aim: Recurrent laryngeal nerve injury is a serious complication in thyroid surgery. The purpose of the present study is to analyze the use of intraoperative continuous vagal neuromonitoring in a tertiary hospital. Materials and Method: Observational, analytical and retrospective study that includes patients who underwent thyroid surgery with neuromonitoring in a period of 14 months. Loss of signal is defined as final nerve amplitude < 100 ^V, and postsurgical laryngoscopy is performed due to suspicion of nerve injury. Statistical analysis was performed with the SPSS® V25.0 program, with p < 0.05. Results: 120 operated patients were included, registering loss of signal in 24.2%. Risk factors for injury were intrathoracic goiter (OR 5.31; 95% CI 1.56-17.99; p = 0.007), previous cervical surgery (OR 5.76; 95% CI 0.64-51.97; p = 0.119) and malignant pathology (OR 1.44; 95% CI 0.16-12.79; p = 0.743). A change in surgical strategy was possible in 7 cases. In the subsequent follow-up, transient recurrent paralysis was quantified in 27 patients and permanent in 4. Discussion: Neuromonitoring seems to reduce the incidence of laryngeal paralysis because it increases the security in the identification of the recurrent nerve and reduces its manipulation during surgery. Conclusions: Intraoperative neuromonitoring is useful to identify the recurrent laryngeal nerve and warns of the potential risk of injury, allowing to change the surgical strategy to avoid bilateral vocal cord paralysis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve/pathology , Thyroid Gland/surgery , Vagus Nerve , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Monitoring, Intraoperative
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