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1.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 61-68, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971318

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) intervention on the vasoconstriction of cerebral artery smooth muscle cells after cerebral infarction.@*METHODS@#Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups by a random number table: the model group (n=24), the EA group (n=24), and the normal group (n=6). The model and the EA groups were divided into different time subgroups at 0.5, 1, 3, and 6 h after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), with 6 rats in each subgroup. MCAO model was established using intraluminal suture occlusion method. The EA group was given EA treatment at acupoint Shuigou (GV 26) instantly after MCAO for 20 min. The contents of cerebrovascular smooth muscle MLCK, the 3 subunits of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) MYPT1, PP1c-δ and M20, as well as myosin-ATPase activity were detected using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#The overall expression level of the MYPT1 and PP1c-δ in the model group was significantly higher (P<0.01). After EA intervention, the 0.5 h group expression level was close to that of the normal group (P>0.05), and the other subgroups were still significantly higher than the normal group (P<0.01). After EA intervention, the expression level of each subgroup was significantly lower than the corresponding model group. There was a significant difference between the 0.5 and 1 h subgroups (P<0.01), while a difference was also observed between the 3 and 6 h subgroups (P<0.05). The dynamic change rule gradually increased with the prolongation of infarction time within 6 h after infarction.@*CONCLUSION@#EA intervention can inhibit contraction of cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells and regulate smooth muscle relaxation by regulating MLCK pathway.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Rats, Wistar , Electroacupuncture , Cerebral Infarction/metabolism , Muscle, Smooth , Acupuncture Points , Brain Ischemia/therapy
2.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 130-136, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970113

ABSTRACT

The alteration of pulmonary artery pressure is an important physiological indicator to reflect the organism's adaptation to acclimatization or the pathological injury in response to high-altitude hypoxic environment. The effects of hypoxic stress at different altitudes for different time on pulmonary artery pressure are different. There are many factors involved in the changes of pulmonary artery pressure, such as the contraction of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle, hemodynamic changes, abnormal regulation of vascular activity and abnormal changes of cardiopulmonary function. Understanding of the regulatory factors of pulmonary artery pressure in hypoxic environment is crucial in clarifying the relevant mechanisms of hypoxic adaptation, acclimatization, prevention, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of acute and chronic high-altitude diseases. In recent years, great progress has been made in the study regarding the factors affecting pulmonary artery pressure in response to high-altitude hypoxic stress. In this review, we discuss the regulatory factors and intervention measures of pulmonary arterial hypertension induced by hypoxia from the aspects of hemodynamics of circulatory system, vasoactive state and changes of cardiopulmonary function.


Subject(s)
Humans , Altitude , Arterial Pressure , Acclimatization , Hypoxia , Muscle, Smooth
3.
Prensa méd. argent ; 108(5): 277-289, 20220000. tab, fig
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1392629

ABSTRACT

El histiocitoma fibroso maligno (MFH) es el tumor de tejido blando más común en adultos. Generalmente se considera que surge de las células mesenquimales primitivas que muestran diferenciación histiocítica y fibroblástica parcial. Las observaciones inmunohistoquímicas sugieren que la expresión de marcadores del músculo liso en el llamado MFH es el resultado de la diferenciación miofibroblástica. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo correlacionarse entre el subtipo histipatológico y los parámetros clínicos, calificar los casos de MFH dependiendo de los criterios histopatológicos para la clasificación, y examinar los casos inmunohistoquímicamente para la diferenciación miofibroblástica utilizando marcadores musculares lisos en casos de MFH como una ayuda para un diagnóstico preciso para un diagnóstico preciso. . Este estudio incluye 26 muestras de tejidos blandos diagnosticados como MFH recolectados de laboratorios histopatológicos privados y gubernamentales en Basrah durante el período de enero de 2000 a octubre de 2005. 4 casos adicionales (un leiomioma, dos fibromas y un fibrosarcoma se tomaron como control positivo y negativo. Los casos de MFH (77%) estaban en el grupo de edad de 45 a 60 años. La edad media fue de 53.5 años con una relación hombre / mujer de 1.3: 1. Diecinueve casos (73%) se ubicaron en las extremidades principalmente en las extremidades inferiores. Diecisiete años. Los casos (65.4%) fueron primarios. Veintidós (84.8%) eran de subtipo pleomórfico, dos eran mixoides y 2 eran inflamatorios. Todos los casos recurrentes se consideraban como el Grado III, de los diecisiete casos principales eran de grado III, por lo que veinte y veinte Tres casos (88.5%) fueron de grado III, los 3 casos restantes fueron de grado II. No se registró tumor de grado I. La mayoría de los casos de subtipo pleomórficos (95.5%) fueron de grado III. Ambos casos de subtipo mixoide fueron de grado Ii. Desmin expr Se encontró la en 3 casos (11.5%), ninguno para la actina del músculo liso o la proteína S-100. No hubo correlación entre la expresión de desmin y el sitio tumoral, subtipo o grado, así como, con la edad y el sexo de los pacientes. Se encontró una fuerte asociación entre la expresión de desmin y los tumores recurrentes del 33,3%


Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is the most common soft tissue tumor in adult. It is generally regarded as arising from primitive mesenchymal cells that show partial histiocytic and fibroblastic differentiation. Immunohistochemical observations suggest that the expression of smooth muscle markers in the so called MFH is a result of myofibroblastic differentiation. The present study is aimed to correlate between histipathological subtype and clinical parameters, to grade the MFH cases depending on the histopathological criteria for grading, and to examine the cases immunohistochemically for myofibroblastic differentiation using smooth muscle markers in cases of MFH as an aid for accurate diagnosis. This study including 26 soft tissue specimens diagnosed as MFH collected from private and governmental histopathological laboratories in Basrah during the period from January 2000 to October 2005. Additional 4 cases (one leiomyoma, two fibromas and one fibrosarcoma were taken as control positive and negative. Twenty cases of MFH (77%) were in the age group 45-60 years. The mean age was 53.5 year with male to female ratio of 1.3: 1. Nineteen cases (73%) were located in the extremities mainly the lower limbs. Seventeen cases (65.4%) were primary. Twenty two (84.8%) were of pleomorphic subtype, two were myxoid and 2 were inflammatory. All the recurrent cases were regarded as grade III, from the seventeen primary cases fourteen were of grade III, so twenty three cases (88.5%) were of grade III, the remaining 3 cases were of grade II. No grade I tumor was recorded. The majority of pleomorphic subtype cases (95.5%) were of grade III. Both cases of myxoid subtype were of grade II. Desmin expression was found in only 3 cases (11.5%), none for smooth muscle actin or S-100 protein. There was no correlation between desmin expression and tumor site, subtype or grade, as well as, with age and sex of the patients. A strong association between desmin expression and recurrent tumors 33.3% was found.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Desmin , Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous/immunology , Muscle, Smooth/pathology
4.
Rev. ADM ; 79(1)ene.-feb. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362118

ABSTRACT

El angioleiomioma (AL) es una neoplasia benigna, bien circunscrita y de crecimiento lento, que representa 5% de las neoplasias de tejidos blandos y cuya etiología es desconocida. Se origina del músculo liso, mayormente de las paredes de los vasos sanguíneos; su localización es más frecuente en extremidades, siendo raros en la región de cabeza y cuello, y más aún en cavidad bucal. Histológicamente la lesión se caracteriza por ser un nódulo bien encapsulado con proliferación de fascículos de músculo liso maduro alrededor de la luz de los vasos sanguíneos, cuyas células suelen ser positivas a marcadores de inmunohistoquímica como alfa actina de músculo liso, desmina, HHF35, miosina, calponina y H-caldesmon. El tratamiento actual es la escisión quirúrgica completa con una tasa de recurrencia prácticamente nula. El objetivo es resaltar la importancia del diagnóstico y el manejo correcto de las lesiones intraorales a través de la presentación de un caso clínico de un leiomioma vascular localizado en región nasolabial, además de hacer la revisión de la literatura correspondiente (AU)


The angioleiomyoma (AL) is a benign neoplasm, well circumscribed and slow growing, that represents 5% of the soft tissue neoplasms, whose etiology is unknown. It originates from smooth muscle, mostly from the walls of blood vessels; regarding its location, it more frequently appears in the extremities, being rare in the head and neck region, and even more so in the oral cavity. Histologically, the lesion is characterized by being a well encapsulated nodule with proliferation of mature smooth muscle bundles around the lumen of the blood vessels, whose cells are usually positive for immunohistochemical markers such as alpha smooth muscle actin, desmin, HHF35, myosin, calponin and H-caldesmon. The current treatment is complete surgical excision having zero recurrence rate. The objective of the following article is to educate on the importance of correct diagnosis and management of intraoral lesions through the presentation of a clinical case of a vascular leiomyoma located in the nasolabial region, in addition to reviewing the corresponding literature (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Soft Tissue Neoplasms , Angiomyoma , Muscle, Smooth , Biopsy , Mexico
5.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e21063, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420490

ABSTRACT

Abstract Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a multifactorial disease, highly associated with aging and characterized by increased prostate smooth muscle (PSM) contractility. Animal models have been employed to explore the aging-associated PSM hypercontractility; however, studies have focused in old animals, neglecting the initial alterations in early ages. The determination of prostatic dysfunctions onset is crucial to understand the BPH pathophysiology and to propose new BPH treatments. Considering that PSM contractility in 10-month-old rats has already been explored, the aim of the present study was to characterize the PSM contractility in younger rats. Male Wistar control (3.5-month-old), 6- and 8-month-old rats were used. Concentration-response curves to phenylephrine and electrical-field stimulation (EFS) were conducted in prostate from all groups. For the first time, we showed that 6- and 8-month-old rats exhibit PSM hypercontractility. The increased prostate contractility to phenylephrine starts around at 6-month-old, worsening during the aging. The 8-month-old rats exhibited hypercontractility to phenylephrine and EFS compared to the control and 6-month-old groups. Reduced phenylephrine potency was observed in 8-month-old rats, indicating an increased age-dependent prostate sensibility to this agonist. Collectively, our findings support the use of 6- and 8-month-old aged rats as new models to explore prostate hypercontractility in BPH.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Prostatic Hyperplasia/pathology , Aging/genetics , Muscle, Smooth/abnormalities , Phenylephrine/agonists , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/complications
6.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2166-2174, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921121

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The effectiveness of bronchial thermoplasty (BT) has been reported in patients with severe asthma. This study compared the effects of BT and cryoballoon ablation (CBA) therapy on the airway smooth muscle (ASM).@*METHODS@#Eight healthy male beagle dogs were included in this experiment. In the preliminary experiment, one dog received BT treatment for both lower lobe bronchus, another dog received CBA treatment for 7 s on the upper and lower lobe of right bronchus, and 30 s on the left upper and lower lobe. The treatments were performed twice at an interval of 1 month. In subsequent experiments, the right lower lobe bronchus was treated with BT, and the left lower lobe bronchus was treated with CBA. The effects of treatment were observed after 1 (n = 3) month and 6 months (n = 3). Hematoxylin-eosin staining, Masson trichrome staining, and immunohistochemical staining were used to compare the effects of BT and CBA therapy on the ASM thickness, collagen fibers synthesis, and M3 receptor expression after treatment. One-way analysis of variance with Dunnett post hoc test was used to analyze the differences among groups.@*RESULTS@#In the preliminary experiment, the ASM ablation effect of 30-s CBA was equivalent to that of 7-s CBA (ASM thickness: 30.52 ± 7.75 μm vs. 17.57 ± 15.20 μm, P = 0.128), but the bronchial mucociliary epithelium did not recover, and large numbers of inflammatory cells had infiltrated the mucosal epithelium at 1-month post-CBA with 30-s freezing. Therefore, we chose 7 s as the CBA treatment time in our follow-up experiments. Compared with the control group (35.81 ± 11.02 μm), BT group and CBA group (13.41 ± 4.40 μm and 4.81 ± 4.44 μm, respectively) had significantly decreased ASM thickness after 1 month (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the ASM thickness was significantly lower in the 1-month post-CBA group than in the 1-month post-BT group (P = 0.015). There was no significant difference in ASM thickness between the BT and CBA groups after six months (9.92 ± 4.42 μm vs. 7.41 ± 7.20 μm, P = 0.540). Compared with the control group (0.161 ± 0.013), the average optical density of the ASM M3 receptor was significantly decreased in 6-month post-BT, 1-month post-CBA, and 6-month post-CBA groups (0.070 ± 0.022, 0.072 ± 0.012, 0.074 ± 0.008, respectively; all P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the average optical density of ASM M3 receptor between the BT and CBA therapy groups after six months (P = 0.613).@*CONCLUSIONS@#CBA therapy effectively ablates the ASM, and its ablation effect is equivalent to that of BT with a shorter onset time. A neural mechanism is involved in both BT and CBA therapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Humans , Male , Bronchi/surgery , Bronchial Thermoplasty , Bronchoscopy , Cryosurgery , Muscle, Smooth
7.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 94-97, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811442

ABSTRACT

Duodenal leiomyosarcoma is a rare condition with a poor prognosis. Early diagnosis of duodenal leiomyosarcoma is challenging because it presents with nonspecific symptoms and endoscopic biopsies usually do not enable a definitive diagnosis. Duodenal leiomyosarcomas are diagnosed on the basis of the histopathological identification of a mesenchymal lesion composed of malignant tumor cells that on immunohistochemical examination is positive for smooth muscle actin and desmin. We report the case of a 38-year-old man who presented with gastrointestinal bleeding and obstruction who was diagnosed with duodenal leiomyosarcoma after surgical resection.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Actins , Biopsy , Desmin , Diagnosis , Duodenal Obstruction , Early Diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Hemorrhage , Leiomyosarcoma , Muscle, Smooth , Prognosis
8.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 146-150, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811083

ABSTRACT

Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a relatively uncommon mesenchymal neoplasm that usually arises in the pleura, but also has been reported in numerous extrapleural locations, including cutaneous site. The skin lesion presents as a circumscribed nodule or tumor, mainly on the head and neck. A 41-year-old male presented with 6 months history of nail lesion without symptom on the left third finger. The lesion is slightly yellowish discoloration with subungual erythematous nodule and distal onycholysis. Biopsy specimen from the nail lesion showed the spindle cells form patternless pattern with hypercellular and hypocellular area. And small blood vessels and dilated vascular spaces were present. The result of special stain for specimen showed that positive for CD34, Bcl-2, and CD99 but negative for S-100, FactorXIIIa, and smooth muscle action. Recognition of this uncommon location of SFT is important because of possible confusion with other subungual tumors, including glomus tumor, fibroma and other fibrohistiocytic tumors like dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, superficial acral fibromyxoma and cellular digital fibroma. Here in, we report a case of SFT of subungual region. We think this case is interesting because of uncommon location and may be helpful to more understand the character of this disease.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Biopsy , Blood Vessels , Dermatofibrosarcoma , Fibroma , Fingers , Glomus Tumor , Head , Muscle, Smooth , Neck , Onycholysis , Pleura , Skin , Solitary Fibrous Tumors
9.
Acta cir. bras ; 35(3): e202000305, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130627

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To evaluate the effect of chronic alcoholism on morphometry and apoptosis mechanism and correlate with miRNA-21 expression in the corpus cavernosum of rats. Methods Twenty-four rats were divided into two experimental groups: Control (C) and Alcoholic group (A). After two weeks of an adaptive phase, rats from group A received only ethanol solution (20%) during 7 weeks. The morphometric and caspase-3 immunohistochemistry analysis were performed in the corpus cavernosum. The miRNA-21 expression was analyzed in blood and cavernous tissue. Results Chronic ethanol consumption decreased cavernosal smooth muscle area of alcoholic rats. The protein expression of caspase 3 in the corpus cavernosum was higher in A compared to the C group. There was no difference in the expression of miRNA-21 in serum and cavernous tissue between the groups. Conclusion Chronic ethanol consumption reduced smooth muscle area and increased caspase 3 in the corpus cavernosum of rats, without altered serum and cavernosal miR-21 gene expression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Penis/drug effects , Penis/pathology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Alcoholism/complications , Reference Values , Immunohistochemistry , Gene Expression , Rats, Wistar , MicroRNAs/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Caspase 3/analysis , Erectile Dysfunction/chemically induced , Erectile Dysfunction/pathology , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects
10.
Acta cir. bras ; 35(8): e202000804, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130666

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To investigate the effect of probiotics on spontaneous contractions of smooth muscle isolated from jejunum and ileum of rat model. Methods Four rat groups were created (n=8, in each) including control (Group 1), control+probiotic (Group 2), short bowel (Group 3), and short bowel+probiotic (Group 4). Groups 1 and 2 underwent sham operation, Groups 3 and 4 underwent massive bowel resection. Bifidobacterium Lactis was administered in Groups 2 and 4 daily (P.O.) for three weeks. On postoperative week 3, rats were sacrificed, and jejunum and ileum smooth muscle were isolated for organ bath. Muscle contraction changes were analyzed before and after addition of antagonists. Results Short bowel group exhibited increased amplitude and frequency of spontaneous contractions. The addition of probiotics significantly decreased enhanced amplitude and frequency of bowel contraction in short bowel group and returned to control values. L-NNA increased amplitude and frequency of contractions in all groups. While indomethacin and nimesulide increased the amplitude in all groups, the frequency was only increased in jejunum. Hexamethonium and tetrodotoxin did not change the contraction characteristics in all groups. Conclusion We suggest that early use of probiotics may significantly regulate bowel motility, and accordingly improve absorption of nutrients in short bowel syndrome.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Short Bowel Syndrome , Probiotics/pharmacology , Gastrointestinal Motility/drug effects , Jejunum , Muscle, Smooth
11.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(6): 555-568, 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284299

ABSTRACT

Despite the development of modern medicine, alternative medicine, which has not lost its timeliness, remains attractive for the treatment of various diseases. Glabridin, a major flavonoid of Glycyrrhiza glabra, is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. The aim of this study was: 1) to determine the possible protective role of glabridin against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of the intestine; 2) to evaluate the in vitrocontractile responses of ileum smooth muscles to acetylcholine after an intestinal I/R; and 3) to explain the underlying molecular mechanism of its effect. Rats were assigned to groups of six rats each; 1) I/R, 2) gla10, 3) gla20, 4) gla40, 5) N5-[imino(nitroamino)methyl]-L-ornithine, methyl ester monohydrochloride (L-NAME)+gla40, and 6) Sham group. The healing effect of glabridin was abolished by L-NAME. Glabridin did not cause contractility of the smooth muscles to acetylcholine-induced contractile responses in intestinal I/R. Yet, it increased to spontaneous basal activity.


A pesar del desarrollo de la medicina moderna, la medicina alternativa, sin perder su vigencia, sigue siendo atractiva para el tratamiento de varias enfermedades. Glabradina, el flavonoide mayoritario de Glycyrrhiza glabra, es conocido por su actividad antioxidante y antiinflamatoria. Los propósitos de este estudio fueron: 1) Determinar el posible rol protector de glabradina ante daños intestinales por isquemia/reperfusion (I/R) 2) Evaluar in vitrolas respuestas de contracción de los músculos lisos del ileum ante acetilcolina después de I/R intestinal; y 3) Explicar el mecanismo molecular subyacente de este efecto. Se asignaron grupos de seis ratas: 1) I/R, 2) gla10, 3) gla20, 4) gla40, 5) N5-[imino(nitroamino)metil]-L-ornithina, metil ester monohidrochloruro (L-NAME)+gla40, y 6) Grupo testigo. El efecto curativo de glabridina fue abolido por L-NAME. Glabridina no causó contracción en el músculo liso como respuesta acetilcolina-inducida I/R. Además, incrementa la actividad basal expontánea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Phenols/administration & dosage , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Cyclic AMP/metabolism , Glycyrrhiza , Isoflavones/administration & dosage , Phenols/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Cyclic AMP/analysis , Cyclic GMP/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester , Ileum/drug effects , Ileum/chemistry , Isoflavones/pharmacology , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects
12.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 299-307, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827057

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of L-cysteine on colonic motility and the underlying mechanism. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blot were used to detect the localization of the HS-generating enzymes cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE). Organ bath system was used to observe the muscle contractile activities. Whole-cell patch-clamp technique was applied to record ionic channels currents in colonic smooth muscle cells. The results showed that both CBS and CSE were localized in mucosa, longitudinal and circular muscle and enteric neurons. L-cysteine had a dual effect on colonic contraction, and the excitatory effect was blocked by pretreatment with CBS inhibitor aminooxyacetate acid (AOAA) and CSE inhibitor propargylglycine (PAG); L-cysteine concentration-dependently inhibited L-type calcium channel current (I) without changing the characteristic of L-type calcium channel (P < 0.01); In contrast, the exogenous HS donor NaHS increased I at concentration of 100 μmol/L, but inhibited I and modified the channel characteristics at concentration of 300 μmol/L (P < 0.05); Furthermore, L-cysteine had no effect on large conductance calcium channel current (I), but NaHS significantly inhibited I (P < 0.05). These results suggest that L-cysteine has a potential dual effect on colonic smooth muscle and the inhibitory effect might be directly mediated by L-type calcium channel while the excitatory effect might be mediated by endogenous HS.


Subject(s)
Cystathionine beta-Synthase , Cystathionine gamma-Lyase , Cysteine , Pharmacology , Hydrogen Sulfide , Muscle, Smooth
13.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 391-398, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827049

ABSTRACT

Under physiological conditions, the motility of smooth muscle in digestive tract is mainly regulated by enteric nervous system (ENS). However, how neural signal is transmitted to smooth muscle is not fully understood. Autonomic nerve endings in the smooth muscle layer form large number of varicosities which contain neurotransmitters. It was considered that nerve pulses arriving at the varicosities may cause the release of neurotransmitters, which may diffuse to the smooth muscle cells to induce contractile or relaxant responses. Over the past decade, a new understanding of the neurotransmission between ENS and smooth muscle has emerged, which emphasizes the role of a functional syncytium consisting of the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), the platelet-derived growth factor receptor α positive (PDGFRα) cells and the smooth muscle cells. Within the syncytium, purine neurotransmitters bind to P2Y1 receptors on PDGFRα cells, activating small-conductance calcium activated potassium channel (SK3) to hyperpolarize PDGFRα cells, and thus hyperpolarize smooth muscle cells through gap junction, resulting in relaxation of smooth muscle. In this paper, we review the research progress in the field of inhibitory purinergic neurotransmission in the gastrointestinal tract.


Subject(s)
Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Muscle, Smooth , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha , Synaptic Transmission
14.
The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology ; : 111-119, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787133

ABSTRACT

In vascular smooth muscle, K⁺ channels, such as voltage-gated K⁺ channels (Kv), inward-rectifier K⁺ channels (Kir), and big-conductance Ca²⁺-activated K⁺ channels (BK(Ca)), establish a hyperpolarized membrane potential and counterbalance the depolarizing vasoactive stimuli. Additionally, Kir mediates endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization and the active hyperemia response in various vessels, including the coronary artery. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) induces right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), thereby elevating the risk of ischemia and right heart failure. Here, using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we compared Kv and Kir current densities (I(Kv) and I(Kir)) in the left (LCSMCs), right (RCSMCs), and septal branches of coronary smooth muscle cells (SCSMCs) from control and monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH rats exhibiting RVH. In control rats, (1) I(Kv) was larger in RCSMCs than that in SCSMCs and LCSMCs, (2) I(Kv) inactivation occurred at more negative voltages in SCSMCs than those in RCSMCs and LCSMCs, (3) I(Kir) was smaller in SCSMCs than that in RCSMCs and LCSMCs, and (4) I(BKCa) did not differ between branches. Moreover, in PAH rats, I(Kir) and I(Kv) decreased in SCSMCs, but not in RCSMCs or LCSMCs, and I(BKCa) did not change in any of the branches. These results demonstrated that SCSMC-specific decreases in I(Kv) and I(Kir) occur in an MCT-induced PAH model, thereby offering insights into the potential pathophysiological implications of coronary blood flow regulation in right heart disease. Furthermore, the relatively smaller I(Kir) in SCSMCs suggested a less effective vasodilatory response in the septal region to the moderate increase in extracellular K⁺ concentration under increased activity of the myocardium.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Coronary Vessels , Heart Diseases , Heart Failure , Hyperemia , Hypertension , Hypertrophy, Right Ventricular , Ischemia , Membrane Potentials , Monocrotaline , Muscle, Smooth , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Myocardium , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Potassium Channels , Septum of Brain
15.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(10): e201901005, Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054671

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To quantify and compare the expression of stromal elements in prostate adenocarcinoma of different Gleason scores with non-tumor area (control). Methods: We obtained 132 specimens from samples of prostate peripheral and transition zone. We analyzed the following elements of the extracellular matrix: collagen fibers, elastic system, smooth muscle fibers and blood vessels. The tumor area and non-tumor area (control) of the TMA (tissue microarray) were photographed and analyzed using the ImageJ software. Results: The comparison between the tumor area and the non-tumor area showed significant differences between stromal prostate elements. There was an increase of collagen fibers in the tumor area, mainly in Gleason 7. Elastic system fibers showed similar result, also from the Gleason 7. Blood vessels showed a significant increase occurred in all analyzed groups. The muscle fibers exhibited a different behavior, with a decrease in relation to the tumor area. Conclusions: There is a significant difference between the extracellular matrix in prostate cancer compared to the non-tumor area (control) especially in Gleason 7. Important modifications of the prostatic stromal elements strongly correlate with different Gleason scores and can contribute to predict the pathological staging of prostate cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Stromal Cells/pathology , Reference Values , Blood Vessels/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Collagen/analysis , Tissue Array Analysis , Elastic Tissue/anatomy & histology , Neoplasm Grading , Muscle, Smooth/pathology
16.
Rev. gastroenterol. Perú ; 39(4): 344-347, oct.-dic 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144619

ABSTRACT

Background: Diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1DM) is one of the childhood diseases with growing prevalence. Various accompanying autoimmune diseases were seen with type 1 diabetes. The most common autoimmune diseases with T1DM are autoimmune thyroiditis and celiac disease. In some reports, autoimmune hepatitis has been reported in association with DM-1. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate autoimmune hepatitis autoantibodies in children with T1DM. Materials and methods: In this crosssectional study, 202 children with T1DM were evaluated (47.5% were males and 52.5% were girls). Liver enzymes, autoimmune hepatitis related autoantibodies such as anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-smooth muscle (ASMA) and anti liver and kidney microsomal antibodies (LKM-1) were measured. Liver ultrasound was done for participants and biopsy of liver was taken for children with increased echogenicity of the liver, hepatomegaly or elevated liver enzymes. Results analyzed by statistical software spss-16, Descriptive statistics and chi-square test, paired T-TEST. Level of less than 5% was considered statistically significant. Results: In 6 patients ANA and in 4 patients (2%) ASMA was positive,1 patient was ASMA positive but ANA negative. None of the patients were Anti LKM-1 positive. 3 patients had positive ANA and ASMA, and increased liver echogenicity on ultrasound simultaneously. Histological evaluation was showed that 2 patients had findings in favor of autoimmune hepatitis. Conclusion: Auto antibodies were positive in 10 cases. ANA was positive in 6 (2.97%) of all cases. ASMA was positive in 4 (1.98%) cases. Increased echogenicity was found in 3 cases. Histological evaluation showed 2 patients had biopsy confirmed autoimmune hepatitis. AIH-2 was not seen among our cases.


Antecedentes: La diabetes mellitus tipo 1 (DM1) es una de las enfermedades infantiles con mayor prevalencia. Se observaron varias enfermedades autoinmunes acompañantes con diabetes tipo 1. Las enfermedades autoinmunes más comunes con DM1 son la tiroiditis autoinmune y la enfermedad celíaca. En algunos reportes, se ha encontrado hepatitis autoinmune en asociación con DM-1. Objetivos: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar los autoanticuerpos de hepatitis autoinmunes en niños con DM1. Materiales y métodos: En este estudio transversal, se evaluaron 202 niños con DM1 (47,5% eran hombres y 52,5% eran niñas). Se midieron las enzimas hepáticas, los autoanticuerpos autoinmunes relacionados con la hepatitis, como los anticuerpos antinucleares (ANA), el músculo liso (ASMA) y los anticuerpos microsomales hepáticos y renales (LKM-1). Se realizó una ecografía hepática para los participantes y se tomó una biopsia del hígado para niños con mayor ecogenicidad del hígado, hepatomegalia o enzimas hepáticas elevadas. Los resultados fueron analizados por el software estadístico spss-16 usando estadística descriptiva y prueba de chi-cuadrado, T-TEST pareado. Se consideró estadísticamente significativo un nivel menor del 5%. Resultados: En 6 pacientes con ANA y en 4 pacientes (2%) ASMA fue positiva, 1 paciente fue ASMA positiva pero ANA negativa. Ninguno de los pacientes fue anti LKM-1 positivo. 3 pacientes tuvieron ANA y ASMA positivas, y aumentaron la ecogenicidad hepática en la ecografía simultáneamente. La evaluación histológica mostró que 2 pacientes tenían hallazgos a favor de la hepatitis autoinmune. Conclusión: Los autoanticuerpos fueron positivos en 10 casos. ANA fue positivo en 6 (2,97%) de todos los casos. La ASMA fue positiva en 4 (1,98%) casos. Se encontró mayor ecogenicidad en 3 casos. La evaluación histológica mostró que 2 pacientes tenían biopsia confirmada de hepatitis autoinmune. AIH-2 no fue visto entre nuestros casos.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Young Adult , Autoantibodies/blood , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/immunology , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Microsomes, Liver/immunology , Antibodies, Antinuclear/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Kidney/immunology , Microsomes/immunology , Muscle, Smooth/immunology
18.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 23(2): 119-125, maio-ago. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-996714

ABSTRACT

O consumo de bebidas alcoólicas na gravidez consiste em um importante problema de saúde pública, visto que, pode causar prejuízos na organogênese de diversos órgãos, incluindo o estômago, entretanto, poucos estudos avaliam o efeito da exposição pré-natal ao álcool nesse órgão. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar histologicamente o estômago da prole de ratas submetidas ao consumo crônico de álcool durante a prenhez. Utilizou-se 10 ratas prenhes divididas nos grupos: Controle - ratas que receberam água destilada durante todo período gestacional e Álcool ­ ratas que receberam álcool etílico absoluto (3g/kg/dia) durante todo período gestacional. Logo após o nascimento, 12 neonatos (6 machos e 6 fêmeas) de cada grupo foram anestesiados e os estômagos coletados. Posteriormente, os órgãos foram fixados e processados seguindo a técnica histológica de rotina. Foram feitas análises histomorfométricas das camadas mucosa, muscular e da parede total do estômago. Observou-se que as proles macho e fêmea expostas ao etanol apresentaram diminuição da área de epitélio, contudo, os machos também mostraram redução significativa do número de células epiteliais. Demonstrou-se ainda redução na espessura das camadas mucosa, muscular e da parede total do estômago da prole fêmea do grupo Álcool. No entanto, a camada muscular apresentou aumento significativo em sua espessura no grupo de neonatos machos expostos ao etanol. Assim, concluímos que a exposição pré-natal ao álcool provoca efeitos nocivos sobre o estômago dos neonatos, contudo, estudos futuros são necessários para melhor elucidar os mecanismos envolvidos na patogênese e possíveis consequências para os animais na fase adulta.


Consumption of alcoholic beverages during pregnancy is a significant public health issue since it can damage the organogenesis of several organs, including the stomach; however, few studies evaluate the effect of prenatal exposure to alcohol in this organ. The objective of this study was to analyze the histology of the stomach of offspring of rats submitted to chronic alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Ten pregnant rats were divided into two groups: Control - rats receiving distilled water throughout the gestation period, and Alcohol - rats receiving absolute ethyl alcohol (3g/kg/day) throughout the gestation period. After birth, 12 newborn rats (6 males and 6 females) from each group were anesthetized and their stomachs were collected. Subsequently, the organs were fixed and processed following the routine histological technique. The mucosa, muscle and total stomach were submitted to histomorphometric analyses. It was observed that the male and female offspring exposed to ethanol had a decrease in the epithelium area. However, males also showed a significant reduction in the number of epithelial cells. There was also a reduction in the layer's thickness mucosa, muscle and total stomach wall of the female offspring from the alcohol group. Additionally, the muscular layer presented a significant increase in its thickness in the group of male neonates exposed to ethanol. It can be concluded that prenatal exposure to alcohol causes harmful effects on neonates' stomachs; however, future studies are necessary to better elucidate the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis and possible consequences for the animals in adulthood.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Mice , Stomach , Alcohol Drinking , Pregnancy, Animal , Histological Techniques , Rats, Wistar/microbiology , Distilled Water , Organogenesis , Ethanol , Epithelial Cells , Epithelium , Blood Alcohol Content , Acetaldehyde/analysis , Mucous Membrane , Muscle, Smooth/embryology
19.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(2): 204-222, mar. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007819

ABSTRACT

To explore the mechanistic basis behind smooth muscle relaxant prospective of Bismarckia nobilis in gastrointestinal, respiratory and cardiovascular ailments. The methanolic extract of B. nobilis and sub-fractions have been evaluated in vitro rabbit isolated tissues, in vivo castor oil-induced diarrhea in rats and charcoal meal activity in mice. The B. nobilis extract relaxed spontaneous and K+(80 mM)- induced contractions in rabbit isolated jejunum preparations, CCh (1 µM) and K+ (80 mM)-induced contractions in tracheal and bladder preparations, PE (1 µM) and K+ (80 mM)-induced concentrations in aorta preparations, likewise verapamil. Spasmolytic activity of dichloromethane fraction is stronger as compared to aqueous fraction. In vivo castor oil-induced diarrhea in rats and charcoal meal activity in mice further supported spasmolytic activity. B. nobilis extract possess anti-spasmodic, anti-diarrheal, airway relaxant and vasodilator activities possible mediated through calcium channel blocking mechanism, justifying therapeutic utility of B. nobilis in diarrhea, asthma and hypertension.


El objetivo de trabajo fue explorar el mecanismo de acción relacionado con el efecto relajante del músculo liso inducido por Bismarckia nobilis (B. nobilis) en enfermedades gastrointestinales, respiratorias y cardiovasculares. El extracto metanólico de B. nobilis y subfracciones fue evaluado in vitro en tejidos aislados de conejos. Además se evaluó diarrea in vivo inducida con aceite de ricino en ratas y la actividad de harina de carbón vegetal en ratones. El extracto de B. nobilis relajó tanto las contracciones espontáneas como las inducidas por K+(80 mM) en preparaciones de yeyuno aisladas de conejos, las contracciones inducidas por PE (1 µM) y K+(80 mM) inducidas en preparaciones de aorta; de manera similar a verapamilo. La actividad espasmolítica de la fracción de diclorometano es más potente en comparación con la fracción acuosa. La diarrea inducida in vivo por el aceite de ricino en ratas y la actividad de la harina de carbón vegetal en ratones apoyaron aún más la actividad espasmolítica. El extracto de B. nobilis posee actividades antiespasmódicas, antidiarreicas, relajantes de las vías respiratorias y vasodilatadoras, posibles a través del mecanismo de bloqueo de los canales de calcio, lo que justifica la utilidad terapéutica de B. nobilis en la diarrea, el asma y la hipertensión.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Rats , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/pharmacology , Arecaceae , Antidiarrheals/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Aorta/drug effects , Asthma/metabolism , Trachea/drug effects , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Diarrhea/metabolism , Methanol , Hypotension/metabolism , Jejunum/drug effects , Muscle Relaxation/drug effects , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects
20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3924-3934, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008307

ABSTRACT

Lotus( Nelumbo nucifera) is a traditional medicinal plant,and nowadays it is regarded both as medicine and food. It is widespread across China and rich in natural resources. Almost every part of N. nucifera could be used for medical or edible purpose,including seeds( Lianzi),black ripe fruits( Shilianzi),seed coats( Lianyi),green embryos of mature seed( Lianzixin),flowers( Lianhua),stamens( Lianxu),receptacles( Lianfang),leaves( Heye),leaf or flower stalks( Hegeng),leaf bases( Heyedi),rhizomes( Ou) and rhizome nodes( Oujie). Therefore,this plant is praised as a commercial crop with great economic values. Isoquinoline type alkaloids are the main chemical components of lotus. Smooth muscles usually exist in the digestive tract,respiratory tract and vascular,urinary,reproductive and other human systems. Dysfunction of smooth muscle contraction will induce many diseases including hypertension,asthma and gastrointestinal disorder,etc.,and most of current therapeutic strategies rely on relaxation of smooth muscle by drugs.Previous studies have shown that alkaloids of lotus have strong relaxation activity on smooth muscle. The present paper reviews phytochemistry and smooth muscle relaxation activity of 59 isoquinoline alkaloids from N. nucifera through accessing CNKI,PubMed and multiple databases for biomedical sciences.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alkaloids/pharmacology , China , Isoquinolines/pharmacology , Muscle Relaxation , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects , Nelumbo/chemistry , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Extracts
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