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1.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 299-307, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827057

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of L-cysteine on colonic motility and the underlying mechanism. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blot were used to detect the localization of the HS-generating enzymes cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE). Organ bath system was used to observe the muscle contractile activities. Whole-cell patch-clamp technique was applied to record ionic channels currents in colonic smooth muscle cells. The results showed that both CBS and CSE were localized in mucosa, longitudinal and circular muscle and enteric neurons. L-cysteine had a dual effect on colonic contraction, and the excitatory effect was blocked by pretreatment with CBS inhibitor aminooxyacetate acid (AOAA) and CSE inhibitor propargylglycine (PAG); L-cysteine concentration-dependently inhibited L-type calcium channel current (I) without changing the characteristic of L-type calcium channel (P < 0.01); In contrast, the exogenous HS donor NaHS increased I at concentration of 100 μmol/L, but inhibited I and modified the channel characteristics at concentration of 300 μmol/L (P < 0.05); Furthermore, L-cysteine had no effect on large conductance calcium channel current (I), but NaHS significantly inhibited I (P < 0.05). These results suggest that L-cysteine has a potential dual effect on colonic smooth muscle and the inhibitory effect might be directly mediated by L-type calcium channel while the excitatory effect might be mediated by endogenous HS.


Subject(s)
Cystathionine beta-Synthase , Cystathionine gamma-Lyase , Cysteine , Pharmacology , Hydrogen Sulfide , Muscle, Smooth
2.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 391-398, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827049

ABSTRACT

Under physiological conditions, the motility of smooth muscle in digestive tract is mainly regulated by enteric nervous system (ENS). However, how neural signal is transmitted to smooth muscle is not fully understood. Autonomic nerve endings in the smooth muscle layer form large number of varicosities which contain neurotransmitters. It was considered that nerve pulses arriving at the varicosities may cause the release of neurotransmitters, which may diffuse to the smooth muscle cells to induce contractile or relaxant responses. Over the past decade, a new understanding of the neurotransmission between ENS and smooth muscle has emerged, which emphasizes the role of a functional syncytium consisting of the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), the platelet-derived growth factor receptor α positive (PDGFRα) cells and the smooth muscle cells. Within the syncytium, purine neurotransmitters bind to P2Y1 receptors on PDGFRα cells, activating small-conductance calcium activated potassium channel (SK3) to hyperpolarize PDGFRα cells, and thus hyperpolarize smooth muscle cells through gap junction, resulting in relaxation of smooth muscle. In this paper, we review the research progress in the field of inhibitory purinergic neurotransmission in the gastrointestinal tract.


Subject(s)
Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Muscle, Smooth , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha , Synaptic Transmission
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811442

ABSTRACT

Duodenal leiomyosarcoma is a rare condition with a poor prognosis. Early diagnosis of duodenal leiomyosarcoma is challenging because it presents with nonspecific symptoms and endoscopic biopsies usually do not enable a definitive diagnosis. Duodenal leiomyosarcomas are diagnosed on the basis of the histopathological identification of a mesenchymal lesion composed of malignant tumor cells that on immunohistochemical examination is positive for smooth muscle actin and desmin. We report the case of a 38-year-old man who presented with gastrointestinal bleeding and obstruction who was diagnosed with duodenal leiomyosarcoma after surgical resection.


Subject(s)
Actins , Adult , Biopsy , Desmin , Diagnosis , Duodenal Obstruction , Early Diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Hemorrhage , Humans , Leiomyosarcoma , Muscle, Smooth , Prognosis
4.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 146-150, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811083

ABSTRACT

Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a relatively uncommon mesenchymal neoplasm that usually arises in the pleura, but also has been reported in numerous extrapleural locations, including cutaneous site. The skin lesion presents as a circumscribed nodule or tumor, mainly on the head and neck. A 41-year-old male presented with 6 months history of nail lesion without symptom on the left third finger. The lesion is slightly yellowish discoloration with subungual erythematous nodule and distal onycholysis. Biopsy specimen from the nail lesion showed the spindle cells form patternless pattern with hypercellular and hypocellular area. And small blood vessels and dilated vascular spaces were present. The result of special stain for specimen showed that positive for CD34, Bcl-2, and CD99 but negative for S-100, FactorXIIIa, and smooth muscle action. Recognition of this uncommon location of SFT is important because of possible confusion with other subungual tumors, including glomus tumor, fibroma and other fibrohistiocytic tumors like dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, superficial acral fibromyxoma and cellular digital fibroma. Here in, we report a case of SFT of subungual region. We think this case is interesting because of uncommon location and may be helpful to more understand the character of this disease.


Subject(s)
Adult , Biopsy , Blood Vessels , Dermatofibrosarcoma , Fibroma , Fingers , Glomus Tumor , Head , Humans , Male , Muscle, Smooth , Neck , Onycholysis , Pleura , Skin , Solitary Fibrous Tumors
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787133

ABSTRACT

In vascular smooth muscle, K⁺ channels, such as voltage-gated K⁺ channels (Kv), inward-rectifier K⁺ channels (Kir), and big-conductance Ca²⁺-activated K⁺ channels (BK(Ca)), establish a hyperpolarized membrane potential and counterbalance the depolarizing vasoactive stimuli. Additionally, Kir mediates endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization and the active hyperemia response in various vessels, including the coronary artery. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) induces right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), thereby elevating the risk of ischemia and right heart failure. Here, using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we compared Kv and Kir current densities (I(Kv) and I(Kir)) in the left (LCSMCs), right (RCSMCs), and septal branches of coronary smooth muscle cells (SCSMCs) from control and monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH rats exhibiting RVH. In control rats, (1) I(Kv) was larger in RCSMCs than that in SCSMCs and LCSMCs, (2) I(Kv) inactivation occurred at more negative voltages in SCSMCs than those in RCSMCs and LCSMCs, (3) I(Kir) was smaller in SCSMCs than that in RCSMCs and LCSMCs, and (4) I(BKCa) did not differ between branches. Moreover, in PAH rats, I(Kir) and I(Kv) decreased in SCSMCs, but not in RCSMCs or LCSMCs, and I(BKCa) did not change in any of the branches. These results demonstrated that SCSMC-specific decreases in I(Kv) and I(Kir) occur in an MCT-induced PAH model, thereby offering insights into the potential pathophysiological implications of coronary blood flow regulation in right heart disease. Furthermore, the relatively smaller I(Kir) in SCSMCs suggested a less effective vasodilatory response in the septal region to the moderate increase in extracellular K⁺ concentration under increased activity of the myocardium.


Subject(s)
Animals , Coronary Vessels , Heart Diseases , Heart Failure , Hyperemia , Hypertension , Hypertrophy, Right Ventricular , Ischemia , Membrane Potentials , Monocrotaline , Muscle, Smooth , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Myocardium , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Potassium Channels , Rats , Septum of Brain
6.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(6): 555-568, 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284299

ABSTRACT

Despite the development of modern medicine, alternative medicine, which has not lost its timeliness, remains attractive for the treatment of various diseases. Glabridin, a major flavonoid of Glycyrrhiza glabra, is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. The aim of this study was: 1) to determine the possible protective role of glabridin against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of the intestine; 2) to evaluate the in vitrocontractile responses of ileum smooth muscles to acetylcholine after an intestinal I/R; and 3) to explain the underlying molecular mechanism of its effect. Rats were assigned to groups of six rats each; 1) I/R, 2) gla10, 3) gla20, 4) gla40, 5) N5-[imino(nitroamino)methyl]-L-ornithine, methyl ester monohydrochloride (L-NAME)+gla40, and 6) Sham group. The healing effect of glabridin was abolished by L-NAME. Glabridin did not cause contractility of the smooth muscles to acetylcholine-induced contractile responses in intestinal I/R. Yet, it increased to spontaneous basal activity.


A pesar del desarrollo de la medicina moderna, la medicina alternativa, sin perder su vigencia, sigue siendo atractiva para el tratamiento de varias enfermedades. Glabradina, el flavonoide mayoritario de Glycyrrhiza glabra, es conocido por su actividad antioxidante y antiinflamatoria. Los propósitos de este estudio fueron: 1) Determinar el posible rol protector de glabradina ante daños intestinales por isquemia/reperfusion (I/R) 2) Evaluar in vitrolas respuestas de contracción de los músculos lisos del ileum ante acetilcolina después de I/R intestinal; y 3) Explicar el mecanismo molecular subyacente de este efecto. Se asignaron grupos de seis ratas: 1) I/R, 2) gla10, 3) gla20, 4) gla40, 5) N5-[imino(nitroamino)metil]-L-ornithina, metil ester monohidrochloruro (L-NAME)+gla40, y 6) Grupo testigo. El efecto curativo de glabridina fue abolido por L-NAME. Glabridina no causó contracción en el músculo liso como respuesta acetilcolina-inducida I/R. Además, incrementa la actividad basal expontánea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Phenols/administration & dosage , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Cyclic AMP/metabolism , Glycyrrhiza , Isoflavones/administration & dosage , Phenols/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Cyclic AMP/analysis , Cyclic GMP/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester , Ileum/drug effects , Ileum/chemistry , Isoflavones/pharmacology , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects
7.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(10): e201901005, Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054671

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To quantify and compare the expression of stromal elements in prostate adenocarcinoma of different Gleason scores with non-tumor area (control). Methods: We obtained 132 specimens from samples of prostate peripheral and transition zone. We analyzed the following elements of the extracellular matrix: collagen fibers, elastic system, smooth muscle fibers and blood vessels. The tumor area and non-tumor area (control) of the TMA (tissue microarray) were photographed and analyzed using the ImageJ software. Results: The comparison between the tumor area and the non-tumor area showed significant differences between stromal prostate elements. There was an increase of collagen fibers in the tumor area, mainly in Gleason 7. Elastic system fibers showed similar result, also from the Gleason 7. Blood vessels showed a significant increase occurred in all analyzed groups. The muscle fibers exhibited a different behavior, with a decrease in relation to the tumor area. Conclusions: There is a significant difference between the extracellular matrix in prostate cancer compared to the non-tumor area (control) especially in Gleason 7. Important modifications of the prostatic stromal elements strongly correlate with different Gleason scores and can contribute to predict the pathological staging of prostate cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Stromal Cells/pathology , Reference Values , Blood Vessels/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Collagen/analysis , Tissue Array Analysis , Elastic Tissue/anatomy & histology , Neoplasm Grading , Muscle, Smooth/pathology
8.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 23(2): 119-125, maio-ago. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-996714

ABSTRACT

O consumo de bebidas alcoólicas na gravidez consiste em um importante problema de saúde pública, visto que, pode causar prejuízos na organogênese de diversos órgãos, incluindo o estômago, entretanto, poucos estudos avaliam o efeito da exposição pré-natal ao álcool nesse órgão. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar histologicamente o estômago da prole de ratas submetidas ao consumo crônico de álcool durante a prenhez. Utilizou-se 10 ratas prenhes divididas nos grupos: Controle - ratas que receberam água destilada durante todo período gestacional e Álcool ­ ratas que receberam álcool etílico absoluto (3g/kg/dia) durante todo período gestacional. Logo após o nascimento, 12 neonatos (6 machos e 6 fêmeas) de cada grupo foram anestesiados e os estômagos coletados. Posteriormente, os órgãos foram fixados e processados seguindo a técnica histológica de rotina. Foram feitas análises histomorfométricas das camadas mucosa, muscular e da parede total do estômago. Observou-se que as proles macho e fêmea expostas ao etanol apresentaram diminuição da área de epitélio, contudo, os machos também mostraram redução significativa do número de células epiteliais. Demonstrou-se ainda redução na espessura das camadas mucosa, muscular e da parede total do estômago da prole fêmea do grupo Álcool. No entanto, a camada muscular apresentou aumento significativo em sua espessura no grupo de neonatos machos expostos ao etanol. Assim, concluímos que a exposição pré-natal ao álcool provoca efeitos nocivos sobre o estômago dos neonatos, contudo, estudos futuros são necessários para melhor elucidar os mecanismos envolvidos na patogênese e possíveis consequências para os animais na fase adulta.


Consumption of alcoholic beverages during pregnancy is a significant public health issue since it can damage the organogenesis of several organs, including the stomach; however, few studies evaluate the effect of prenatal exposure to alcohol in this organ. The objective of this study was to analyze the histology of the stomach of offspring of rats submitted to chronic alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Ten pregnant rats were divided into two groups: Control - rats receiving distilled water throughout the gestation period, and Alcohol - rats receiving absolute ethyl alcohol (3g/kg/day) throughout the gestation period. After birth, 12 newborn rats (6 males and 6 females) from each group were anesthetized and their stomachs were collected. Subsequently, the organs were fixed and processed following the routine histological technique. The mucosa, muscle and total stomach were submitted to histomorphometric analyses. It was observed that the male and female offspring exposed to ethanol had a decrease in the epithelium area. However, males also showed a significant reduction in the number of epithelial cells. There was also a reduction in the layer's thickness mucosa, muscle and total stomach wall of the female offspring from the alcohol group. Additionally, the muscular layer presented a significant increase in its thickness in the group of male neonates exposed to ethanol. It can be concluded that prenatal exposure to alcohol causes harmful effects on neonates' stomachs; however, future studies are necessary to better elucidate the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis and possible consequences for the animals in adulthood.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Mice , Stomach , Alcohol Drinking , Pregnancy, Animal , Histological Techniques , Rats, Wistar/microbiology , Distilled Water , Organogenesis , Ethanol , Epithelial Cells , Epithelium , Blood Alcohol Content , Acetaldehyde/analysis , Mucous Membrane , Muscle, Smooth/embryology
10.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(2): 204-222, mar. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007819

ABSTRACT

To explore the mechanistic basis behind smooth muscle relaxant prospective of Bismarckia nobilis in gastrointestinal, respiratory and cardiovascular ailments. The methanolic extract of B. nobilis and sub-fractions have been evaluated in vitro rabbit isolated tissues, in vivo castor oil-induced diarrhea in rats and charcoal meal activity in mice. The B. nobilis extract relaxed spontaneous and K+(80 mM)- induced contractions in rabbit isolated jejunum preparations, CCh (1 µM) and K+ (80 mM)-induced contractions in tracheal and bladder preparations, PE (1 µM) and K+ (80 mM)-induced concentrations in aorta preparations, likewise verapamil. Spasmolytic activity of dichloromethane fraction is stronger as compared to aqueous fraction. In vivo castor oil-induced diarrhea in rats and charcoal meal activity in mice further supported spasmolytic activity. B. nobilis extract possess anti-spasmodic, anti-diarrheal, airway relaxant and vasodilator activities possible mediated through calcium channel blocking mechanism, justifying therapeutic utility of B. nobilis in diarrhea, asthma and hypertension.


El objetivo de trabajo fue explorar el mecanismo de acción relacionado con el efecto relajante del músculo liso inducido por Bismarckia nobilis (B. nobilis) en enfermedades gastrointestinales, respiratorias y cardiovasculares. El extracto metanólico de B. nobilis y subfracciones fue evaluado in vitro en tejidos aislados de conejos. Además se evaluó diarrea in vivo inducida con aceite de ricino en ratas y la actividad de harina de carbón vegetal en ratones. El extracto de B. nobilis relajó tanto las contracciones espontáneas como las inducidas por K+(80 mM) en preparaciones de yeyuno aisladas de conejos, las contracciones inducidas por PE (1 µM) y K+(80 mM) inducidas en preparaciones de aorta; de manera similar a verapamilo. La actividad espasmolítica de la fracción de diclorometano es más potente en comparación con la fracción acuosa. La diarrea inducida in vivo por el aceite de ricino en ratas y la actividad de la harina de carbón vegetal en ratones apoyaron aún más la actividad espasmolítica. El extracto de B. nobilis posee actividades antiespasmódicas, antidiarreicas, relajantes de las vías respiratorias y vasodilatadoras, posibles a través del mecanismo de bloqueo de los canales de calcio, lo que justifica la utilidad terapéutica de B. nobilis en la diarrea, el asma y la hipertensión.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Rats , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/pharmacology , Arecaceae , Antidiarrheals/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Aorta/drug effects , Asthma/metabolism , Trachea/drug effects , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Diarrhea/metabolism , Methanol , Hypotension/metabolism , Jejunum/drug effects , Muscle Relaxation/drug effects , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765965

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Interstitial cells play important roles in gastrointestinal (GI) neuro-smooth muscle transmission. The underlying mechanisms of colonic dysmotility have not been well illustrated. We established a partial colon obstruction (PCO) mouse model to investigate the changes of interstitial cells and the correlation with colonic motility. METHODS: Western blot technique was employed to observe the protein expressions of Kit, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (Pdgfra), Ca²⁺-activated Cl⁻ (Ano1) channels, and small conductance Ca²⁺- activated K⁺ (SK) channels. Colonic migrating motor complexes (CMMCs) and isometric force measurements were employed in control mice and PCO mice. RESULTS: PCO mice showed distended abdomen and feces excretion was significantly reduced. Anatomically, the colon above the obstructive silicone ring was obviously dilated. Kit and Ano1 proteins in the colonic smooth muscle layer of the PCO colons were significantly decreased, while the expression of Pdgfra and SK3 proteins were significantly increased. The effects of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME) and an Ano1 channel inhibitor (NPPB) on CMMC and colonic spontaneous contractions were decreased in the proximal and distal colons of PCO mice. The SK agonist, CyPPA and antagonist, apamin in PCO mice showed more effect to the CMMCs and colonic smooth muscle contractions. CONCLUSIONS: Colonic transit disorder may be due to the downregulation of the Kit and Ano1 channels and the upregulation of SK3 channels in platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α positive (PDGFRα⁺) cells. The imbalance between interstitial cells of Cajal-Ano1 and PDGFRα-SK3 distribution might be a potential reason for the colonic dysmotility.


Subject(s)
Abdomen , Animals , Apamin , Blotting, Western , Chloride Channels , Colon , Down-Regulation , Feces , Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Mice , Muscle, Smooth , Myoelectric Complex, Migrating , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Platelet-Derived Growth Factor , Silicon , Silicones , Small-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels , Up-Regulation
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765956

ABSTRACT

The mammalian intestine contains many different cell types but is comprised of 2 main cell types: epithelial cells and smooth muscle cells. Recent in vivo and in vitro evidence has revealed that various alterations to the DNA methylation apparatus within both of these cell types can result in a variety of cellular phenotypes including modified differentiation status, apoptosis, and uncontrolled growth. Methyl groups added to cytosines in regulatory genomic regions typically act to repress associated gene transcription. Aberrant DNA methylation patterns are often found in cells with abnormal growth/differentiation patterns, including those cells involved in burdensome intestinal pathologies including inflammatory bowel diseases and intestinal pseudo-obstructions. The altered methylation patterns being observed in various cell cultures and DNA methyltransferase knockout models indicate an influential connection between DNA methylation and gastrointestinal cells' development and their response to environmental signaling. As these modified DNA methylation levels are found in a number of pathological gastrointestinal conditions, further investigations into uncovering the causative nature, and controlled regulation, of this epigenetic modification is of great interest.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Differentiation , DNA Methylation , DNA , Epigenomics , Epithelial Cells , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Intestinal Mucosa , Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction , Intestines , Methylation , Muscle, Smooth , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Pathology , Phenotype
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765940

ABSTRACT

The internal anal sphincter (IAS) plays an important role in the maintenance of fecal continence since it generates tone and is responsible for > 70% of resting anal pressure. During normal defecation the IAS relaxes. Historically, tone generation in gastrointestinal muscles was attributed to mechanisms arising directly from smooth muscle cells, ie, myogenic activity. However, slow waves are now known to play a fundamental role in regulating gastrointestinal motility and these electrical events are generated by the interstitial cells of Cajal. Recently, interstitial cells of Cajal, as well as slow waves, have also been identified in the IAS making them viable candidates for tone generation. In this review we discuss four different mechanisms that likely contribute to tone generation in the IAS. Three of these involve membrane potential, L-type Ca²⁺ channels and electromechanical coupling (ie, summation of asynchronous phasic activity, partial tetanus, and window current), whereas the fourth involves the regulation of myofilament Ca²⁺ sensitivity. Contractile activity in the IAS is also modulated by sympathetic motor neurons that significantly increase tone and anal pressure, as well as inhibitory motor neurons (particularly nitrergic and vasoactive intestinal peptidergic) that abolish contraction and assist with normal defecation. Alterations in IAS motility are associated with disorders such as fecal incontinence and anal fissures that significantly decrease the quality of life. Understanding in greater detail how tone is regulated in the IAS is important for developing more effective treatment strategies for these debilitating defecation disorders.


Subject(s)
Anal Canal , Defecation , Fecal Incontinence , Gastrointestinal Motility , Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Membrane Potentials , Motor Neurons , Muscle, Smooth , Muscles , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Myofibrils , Quality of Life , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha , Tetanus
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765928

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and their special calcium-activated chloride channel, anoctamin-1 (ANO1) play pivotal roles in regulating colonic transit. This study is designed to investigate the role of ICC and the ANO1 channel in colonic transit disorder in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated colitis mice. METHODS: Colonic transit experiment, colonic migrating motor complexes (CMMCs), smooth muscle spontaneous contractile experiments, intracellular electrical recordings, western blotting analysis, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were applied in this study. RESULTS: The mRNA and protein expressions of c-KIT and ANO1 channels were significantly decreased in the colons of DSS-colitis mice. The colonic artificial fecal-pellet transit experiment in vitro was significantly delayed in DSS-colitis mice. The CMMCs and smooth muscle spontaneous contractions were significantly decreased by 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB), an ANO1 channel blocker, and NG-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase activity, in DSS-colitis mice compared with that of control mice. Intracellular electrical recordings showed that the amplitude of NPPB-induced hyperpolarization was more positive in DSS-colitis mice. The electric field stimulation-elicited nitric-dependent slow inhibitory junctional potentials were also more positive in DSS-colitis mice than those of control mice. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that colonic transit disorder is mediated via downregulation of the nitric oxide/ICC/ANO1 signalling pathway in DSS-colitis mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Chloride Channels , Colitis , Colon , Dextrans , Down-Regulation , In Vitro Techniques , Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Mice , Muscle, Smooth , Myoelectric Complex, Migrating , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger , Sodium
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761891

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To investigate whether human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) seeded on multilayered poly (L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) sheets improve bladder function in a rat model of detrusor smooth muscle-removed bladder. METHODS: Male rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: Normal, injury (detrusor smooth muscle-removed bladder), PLCL (detrusor smooth muscle-removed bladder implanted with PLCL sheets), and PLCL + ADSC (detrusor smooth muscle-removed bladder implanted with PLCL sheets seeded with hADSCs). Four weeks after the treatment, physiological, histological, immunohistochemical, and immunoblot analyses were performed. RESULTS: hADSCs were compatible with PLCL sheets. Further, the physiological study of PLCL + ADSC group showed significant improvement in compliance and contractility suggesting the functional improvement of the bladder. Histological, immunohistochemical and immunoblot analyses revealed the uniform distribution of hADSCs in between PLCL sheets as well as differentiation of hADSCs into smooth muscle cells (SMC) which is illustrated by the expression of SMC markers. CONCLUSION: hADSCs seeded on the multilayered PLCL sheets has the potential to differentiate into SMC, thus facilitating the recovery of compliance and contractility of the injured bladder.


Subject(s)
Animals , Clothing , Compliance , Humans , Male , Models, Animal , Muscle, Smooth , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Rats , Stem Cells , Tissue Engineering , Urinary Bladder
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764116

ABSTRACT

This article reviewed the current knowledge on time-course manifestation of diabetic urethral dysfunction (DUD), and explored an early intervention target to prevent the contribution of DUD to the progression of diabetes-induced impairment of the lower urinary tract (LUT). In the literature search through PubMed, key words used included “diabetes mellitus,” “diabetic urethral dysfunction,” and “diabetic urethropathy.” Polyuria and hyperglycemia induced by diabetes mellitus (DM) can cause the time-dependent changes in functional and morphological manifestations of DUD. In the early stage, it promotes urethral dysfunction characterized by increased urethral pressure during micturition. However, the detrusor muscle of the bladder tries to compensate for inducing complete voiding by increasing the duration and amplitude of bladder contractions. As the disease progresses, it can induce an impairment of coordinated micturition due to dyssynergic activity of external urethra sphincter, leading to detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia. The impairment of relaxation mechanisms of urethral smooth muscles (USMs) may additionally be attributable to decreased responsiveness to nitric oxide, as well as increased USM responsiveness to α1-adrenergic receptor stimulation. In the late stage, diabetic neuropathy may play an important role in inducing LUT dysfunction, showing that the decompensation of the bladder and urethra, which can cause the decrease of voiding efficiency and the reduced thickness of the urothelium and the atrophy of striated muscle bundles, possibly leading to the vicious cycle of the LUT dysfunction. Further studies to increase our understandings of the functional and molecular mechanisms of DUD are warranted to explore potential targets for therapeutic intervention of DM-induced LUT dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Ataxia , Atrophy , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Neuropathies , Early Intervention, Educational , Hyperglycemia , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms , Muscle, Smooth , Muscle, Striated , Nitric Oxide , Polyuria , Relaxation , Urethra , Urinary Bladder , Urinary Tract , Urination , Urothelium
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764081

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Few studies were evaluated the effect of blindness on outcome in animal models, though a potential effect of blinding has been reported in clinical trials. We evaluated the effects of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on cavernous nerve injury (CNI)-induced erectile dysfunction (ED) in the rat and examined how proper blinding of the outcome assessor affected treatment effect. METHODS AND RESULTS: We searched in Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane and Web of Science databases from inception to January 2019. We included CNI animal model, randomized controlled experiments, and ADSC intervention. Erectile function and structural changes were assessed by intracavernous pressure and mean arterial pressure (ICP/MAP) ratios, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) levels, cavernous smooth muscle and collagen (CSM/collagen) ratios, and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). RESULTS: Nineteen studies were included in the final meta-analysis. The ICP/MAP ratio of the ADSC treatment group increased compared to the control group (SMD=1.33, 95%CI: 1.11~1.56, I²=72%). The nNOS level (SMD=2.29, 95%CI: 1.74~2.84, I²=75%), CSM/collagen (SMD=2.57, 95%CI: 1.62~3.52; I²=85%), and cGMP (SMD=2.96, 95%CI: 1.82~4.10, I²=62%) were also increased in the ADSC treatment group. Preplanned subgroup analysis was conducted to explore the source of heterogeneity. Five studies with blinded outcome assessment were significantly less effective than the unblinded studies (SMD=1.33, 95%CI: 0.86~1.80; SMD=1.81, 95%CI: 1.17~2.46, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: ADSCs might be effective in improving erectile function and structural change in CNI-induced ED. However, non-blinded outcome assessors might cause detection bias and overestimate treatment efficacy. Therefore, the ADSC efficacy must be further evaluated with a rigorous study design to avoid bias.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arterial Pressure , Bias , Blindness , Collagen , Erectile Dysfunction , Guanosine Monophosphate , Male , Models, Animal , Muscle, Smooth , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I , Population Characteristics , Rats , Stem Cells , Treatment Outcome
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760323

ABSTRACT

Leiomyosarcoma of the bladder is a very rare tumor and it has been reported in less than 200 cases in the literature which represent 0.1% of all nonurothelial bladder tumors. We experienced a case of sarcoma of bladder that protruding into the urinary bladder in 51-year-old woman. She underwent mass excision with enucleation for the bladder function preservation. Pathologically, the mass consisted of high grade leiomyosarcoma. In immunohistochemical study, tumor showed positive reactions for smooth muscle actin and desmin. After mass excision, follow-up radiation treatment is ongoing. Herein, we present the case of a high-grade leiomyosarcoma with literature review.


Subject(s)
Actins , Desmin , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Leiomyosarcoma , Middle Aged , Muscle, Smooth , Sarcoma , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms , Urinary Bladder
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719635

ABSTRACT

Most diabetic patients experience diabetic mellitus (DM) urinary bladder dysfunction. A number of studies evaluate bladder smooth muscle contraction in DM. In this study, we evaluated the change of bladder smooth muscle contraction between normal rats and DM rats. Furthermore, we used pharmacological inhibitors to determine the differences in the signaling pathways between normal and DM rats. Rats in the DM group received an intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin and measured blood glucose level after 14 days to confirm DM. Bladder smooth muscle contraction was induced using acetylcholine (ACh, 10⁻⁴ M). The materials such as, atropine (a muscarinic receptor antagonist), U73122 (a phospholipase C inhibitor), DPCPX (an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist), udenafil (a PDE5 inhibitor), prazosin (an α₁-receptor antagonist), papaverine (a smooth muscle relaxant), verapamil (a calcium channel blocker), and chelerythrine (a protein kinase C inhibitor) were pre-treated in bladder smooth muscle. We found that the DM rats had lower bladder smooth muscle contractility than normal rats. When prazosin, udenafil, verapamil, and U73122 were pre-treated, there were significant differences between normal and DM rats. Taken together, it was concluded that the change of intracellular Ca²⁺ release mediated by PLC/IP3 and PDE5 activity were responsible for decreased bladder smooth muscle contractility in DM rats.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Animals , Atropine , Blood Glucose , Calcium Channels , Humans , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Muscle, Smooth , Papaverine , Prazosin , Protein Kinase C , Rats , Receptor, Adenosine A1 , Receptors, Muscarinic , Streptozocin , Type C Phospholipases , Urinary Bladder , Verapamil
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719526

ABSTRACT

Proliferative myositis is a rare, benign, probably pseudosarcomatous fibroblastic proliferation that typically presents as a rapidly growing soft tissue mass. Its relative rarity, fast growth rate, and unique histopathologic findings may lead to misdiagnosis as a malignant lesion and unnecessary radical surgical excision. A 57-year-old female presented with a non-tender, well-defined, indurated, solitary, hard papule on the median sulcus of the tongue for 2 weeks. Histologic examination revealed numerous fibroblastic or myofibroblastic spindle cells and large ganglion-like cells infiltrating between and around the muscle fascicles. Immunohistochemical staining showed positivity for vimentin, smooth muscle actin, and CD68 and negativity for S-100. Based on these characteristic clinical findings and histopathologic features, the patient was diagnosed with proliferative myositis. Here, we report a rare case of proliferative myositis on the tongue and recommend considering proliferative myositis in the differential diagnosis when a physician encounters a rapidly grown soft tissue mass.


Subject(s)
Actins , Diagnosis, Differential , Diagnostic Errors , Female , Fibroblasts , Humans , Middle Aged , Muscle, Smooth , Myofibroblasts , Myositis , Tongue , Vimentin
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