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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936320


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of Bax inhibitor 1 (BI- 1) and optic atrophy protein 1 (OPA1) on vascular calcification (VC).@*METHODS@#Mouse models of VC were established in ApoE-deficient (ApoE-/-) diabetic mice by high-fat diet feeding for 12 weeks followed by intraperitoneal injections with Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine for 16 weeks. ApoE-/- mice (control group), ApoE-/- diabetic mice (VC group), ApoE-/- diabetic mice with BI-1 overexpression (VC + BI-1TG group), and ApoE-/- diabetic mice with BI-1 overexpression and OPA1 knockout (VC+BI-1TG+OPA1-/- group) were obtained for examination of the degree of aortic calcification using von Kossa staining. The changes in calcium content in the aorta were analyzed using ELISA. The expressions of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) were detected using immunohistochemistry, and the expression of cleaved caspase-3 was determined using Western blotting. Cultured mouse aortic smooth muscle cells were treated with 10 mmol/L β-glycerophosphate for 14 days to induce calcification, and the changes in BI-1 and OPA1 protein expressions were examined using Western blotting and cell apoptosis was detected using TUNEL staining.@*RESULTS@#ApoE-/- mice with VC showed significantly decreased expressions of BI-1 and OPA1 proteins in the aorta (P=0.0044) with obviously increased calcium deposition and expressions of RUNX2, BMP-2 and cleaved caspase-3 (P= 0.0041). Overexpression of BI-1 significantly promoted OPA1 protein expression and reduced calcium deposition and expressions of RUNX2, BMP-2 and cleaved caspase-3 (P=0.0006). OPA1 knockdown significantly increased calcium deposition and expressions of RUNX2, BMP-2 and cleaved caspase-3 in the aorta (P=0.0007).@*CONCLUSION@#BI-1 inhibits VC possibly by promoting the expression of OPA1, reducing calcium deposition and inhibiting osteogenic differentiation and apoptosis of the vascular smooth muscle cells.

Animals , Apolipoproteins E/metabolism , Calcium/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , GTP Phosphohydrolases/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/pathology , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/pathology , Optic Atrophy, Autosomal Dominant/pathology , Osteogenesis , Vascular Calcification/pathology , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928947


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate whether the antihypertensive mechanism of electroacupuncture (EA) is associated with attenuating phenotype transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) via phosphoinositide3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways.@*METHODS@#Eight Wistar-ktoyo (WKY) rats were set as normal blood pressure group (normal group). A total of 32 spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs) were randomly divided into 4 groups using random number tables: a model group, an EA group, an EA+PI3K antagonist group (EA+P group), and an EA+p38 MAPK agonist+extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) agonist group (EA+M group) (n=8/group). SHRs in EA group, EA+P group and EA+M group received EA treatment 5 sessions per week for continuous 4 weeks, while rats in the normal and model groups were bundled in same condition. The systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) of each rat was measured at 0 week and the 4th week. After 4-week intervention, thoracic aorta was collected for hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, immunohistochemistry [the contractile markers α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and calponin and the synthetic marker osteopontin (OPN)] and Western blot [α-SMA, calponin, OPN, PI3K, phosphorylated-Akt (p-Akt), Akt, p-p42/44 ERK, total p42/44 ERK, p-p38 MAPK and total p38 MAPK].@*RESULTS@#EA significantly reduced SBP, DBP and MAP (P<0.01). HE staining showed that the wall thickness of thoracic aorta in EA group was significantly decreased (P<0.01). From results of immunohistochemistry and Western blot, EA increased the expression of α-SMA and calponin, and decreased the expression of OPN (P<0.01). In addition, the expression of PI3K and p-Akt increased (P<0.01), while the expression of p-p42/44 ERK and p-p38 MAPK decreased in EA group (P<0.01). However, these effects were reversed by PI3K antagonist, p38 MAPK agonist and ERK agonist.@*CONCLUSIONS@#EA was an effective treatment for BP management. The antihypertensive effect of EA may be related with inhibition of phenotypic transformation of VSMCs, in which the activation of PI3K/Akt and the repression of MAPK pathway were involved.

Animals , Electroacupuncture , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/metabolism , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Phenotype , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Inbred SHR
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939798


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the regulatory roles of Shexiang Baoxin Pill (SXBXW) in neointimal formation and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) invasion and apoptosis as well as the potential molecular mechanisms using cultured VSMCs model of vascular injury (platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-stimulated) in vitro.@*METHODS@#VSMCs were randomly assigned to 5 groups: blank, PDGF-BB (20 ng/mL+ 0.1% DMSO), SXBXW-L (PDGF-BB 20 ng/mL + SXBXW low dose 0.625 g/L), SXBXW-M (PDGF-BB 20 ng/mL + SXBXW medium dose 1.25 g/L) and SXBXW-H (PDGF-BB 20 ng/mL+ SXBXW high dose 2.5 g/L) group. Cell proliferation was assessed using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assay, the migration effects were detected by Transwell assay, cell apoptosis rate was measured by the Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) apoptosis kit. The markers of contractile phenotype of VSMCs were detected with immunofluorescent staining. To validate the effects of miR-451 in regulating proliferation, migration and apoptosis treated with SXBXW, miR-451 overexpression experiments were performed, the VSMCs were exposed to PDGF-BB 20 ng/mL + 0.1% DMSO and later divided into 4 groups: mimic-NC (multiplicity of infection, MOI=50), SXBXW (1.25 g/L) + mimic-NC, mimic-miR451 (MOI=50), and SXBXW (1.25 g/L) + mimic-miR451, and alterations of proteins related to the miR-451 pathway were analyzed using Western blot.@*RESULTS@#PDGF-BB induced VSMCs injury causes acceleration of proliferation and migration. SXBXW inhibited phenotypic switching, proliferation and migration and promoted cell apoptosis in PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs. In addition, miR-451 was shown to be down-regulated in the VSMCs following PDGF-BB stimulation. SXBXW treatment enhanced the expression of miR-451 in PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs (P<0.05). Compared with SXBXW + mimic-NC and mimic-miR451 groups, the expression of tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein zeta (Ywhaz) and p53 was further reduced in SXBXW + mimic-miR451 group, while activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) was increased in VSMCs (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#SXBXW regulated proliferation, migration and apoptosis via activation of miR-451 through ATF2, p53 and Ywhaz in PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMCs.

Apoptosis , Becaplermin/pharmacology , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Dimethyl Sulfoxide/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Hyperplasia/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(4): e3901, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289616


Introducción: Uno de los derivados de los clorofenoles más utilizado en Estomatología, lo constituye el p-clorofenol (4-clorofenol), empleado como agente antibacteriano en la desinfección del conducto radicular durante el tratamiento pulporradicular. Son escasos los reportes científicos sobre sus efectos en la musculatura lisa vascular arterial y la regulación del flujo sanguíneo local. Objetivo: Determinar el efecto del 4-clorofenol sobre el músculo liso vascular de aorta abdominal de ratas Wistar. Material y Métodos: Se realizó una investigación experimental preclínica, utilizando 30 anillos de aorta abdominal (porción superior) obtenidos de ratas Wistar adultas. Las preparaciones de unos 5 mm se colocaron en baño de órganos, registrándose la tensión desarrollada por el músculo liso vascular tras la adición de 4-clorofenol en diferentes concentraciones y durante diferentes intervalos de tiempo. Resultados: El 4-clorofenol, tras la preactivación del musculo liso vascular de anillos de aorta abdominal, indujo relajación del vaso, la que se incrementó durante todo el tiempo de estudio y al aumento de la concentración del medicamento. Existieron diferencias significativas entre los valores de tensión promedios registrados en los diferentes intervalos de tiempo con los de la tensión base inicial. Conclusiones: El p-clorofenol indujo in vitro, relajación del músculo liso vascular de aorta abdominal de ratas Wistar(AU)

Introduction: In Dentistry, p-chlorophenol (4-chlorophenol) is one of the most widely used derivatives of chlorophenols. It is used as an antibacterial agent in root canal disinfection during pulp-radicular treatment. There are few scientific reports on its effects on vascular smooth musculature and the regulation of local blood flow. Objective: To determine the effect of 4-chlorophenol on vascular smooth muscle of abdominal aorta from Wistar rats. Material and Methods: A preclinical experimental research was carried out using 30 abdominal aortic rings (upper portion) obtained from adult Wistar rats. The preparations of about 5 mm were placed in an organ bath, recording the tension developed by the vascular smooth muscle after the addition of 4-chlorophenol at different concentrations and during different time intervals. Results: The results demonstrate that 4-Chlorophenol induced vasorelaxation after the preactivation of the vascular smooth muscle of the abdominal aortic rings, which increased during the entire study time and with increased drug concentration. There were significant differences among average tension values registered at different intervals of time in relation to the initial base tension. Conclusions: It is concluded that in vitro, p-chlorophenol induced relaxation of abdominal aorta vascular smooth muscle in Wistar rats(AU)

Rats , Oral Medicine , Dentistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , In Vitro Techniques , Chlorophenols/therapeutic use , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Rats, Wistar
Medisan ; 25(3)2021. graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1287304


Introducción: La carótida externa es una arteria muscular que irriga todos los componentes del sistema masticatorio, por lo que la regulación de la dinámica contráctil de su músculo liso vascular es imprescindible para garantizar el tono y el flujo sanguíneo tisular y modular la respuesta inflamatoria. Objetivo: Describir la dinámica contráctil espontánea del musculo liso vascular de la arteria carótida externa. Métodos: Se realizó una investigación experimental en el Instituto de Fisiología Oscar Langerdorff de la Facultad de Medicina, en la Universidad de Rostock, Alemania, de octubre a diciembre del 2018, en la cual se utilizaron 60 anillos de arterias carótidas externas obtenidas de 10 ratas Wistar adultas de ambos sexos. A dichos anillos se les practicó un corte helicoidal y fueron colocados en un baño de órganos, para registrarles, luego, la tensión espontánea desarrollada por el músculo liso vascular contra una carga de 1 gramo, durante diferentes intervalos de tiempo. Resultados: Los registros de la actividad contracción-relajación espontánea del músculo liso vascular de la arteria carótida externa fluctuaron dentro de un rango estrecho de cifras de tensión, con valores máximos de 8,48 ± 0,03 y mínimos de 8,33 ± 0,03, y una diferencia de 0,08 mN/g de músculo. Los valores promedios de tensión en cada intervalo de tiempo fueron muy cercanos, con desviaciones estándar que evidenciaron muy poca dispersión de los datos respecto a la media. La tensión promedio general registrada fue de 8,40 ± 0,032 mN/g. Conclusiones: La dinámica contráctil espontánea desarrollada por el músculo liso vascular de la arteria carótida externa mostró una progresión irregular en el tiempo, con valores promedios de tensión que oscilaron entre 5-10 mN/g de músculo.

Introduction: The external carotid is a muscle artery irrigating all components of the masticatory system, so that the regulation of the contractile dynamics of its vascular smooth muscle is important. Objective: To describe the spontaneous contractile dynamics of the vascular smooth muscle of the external carotid artery. Methods: An experimental investigation was carried out in the Oscar Langerdorff Physiology Institute from the Medicine Faculty at Rostock University, Germany, from October to December 2018, in which 60 rings of the external carotid artery obtained from 10 adult Wistar rats from both sexes. An helical cut was made to each ring and they were placed in an organ bath, to be registered, then, the spontaneous strain developed by the vascular smooth muscle against a charge of 1 g, during different time intervals was registered. Results: The records from the spontaneous contraction-relaxation of the vascular smooth muscle in the external carotid artery fluctuated within a narrow range of strain figures, with maximum values of 8.48 ± 0.03 and minimum of 8.33 ± 0.03, and a difference of 0.08 mN/g of muscle. Average strain values in each time interval were very closed, with standard deviations which evidenced a very small data dispersion regarding the mean. The average general registered strain was 8.40 ± 0.032 mN/g. Conclusions: The spontaneous contractile dynamics developed by the vascular smooth muscle of the external carotid artery showed an irregular progression in time, with average strain values fluctuating between 5-10 mN/g of muscle.

Carotid Artery, External , Rats, Wistar , Research , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921566


Abdominal aortic aneurysm(AAA)is a common aortic degenerative disease in the elderly,and its incidence is gradually increasing with the aging of the population.There are no specific drugs available to delay the expansion of AAA.Once the aneurysm ruptures,the mortality will exceed 90%,which seriously threatens the life of patients.Given the high incidence of AAA in the elderly,this review discusses the role of vascular aging in the pathogenesis of AAA,involving chronic inflammation,oxidative stress,mitochondrial dysfunction,protein homeostasis imbalance,increased apoptosis and necrosis,extracellular matrix remodeling,nutritional sensing disorders,epigenetic changes,and increased pro-aging factors.Meanwhile,several potential aging-related drug targets of AAA are listed.This review provides new ideas for basic and translational medical research of AAA.

Aged , Aging , Animals , Aorta, Abdominal , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/drug therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/metabolism , Oxidative Stress
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888500


Atherosclerosis is a common pathological change in cardiovascular disease. Vascular smooth muscle cell is the main source of plaque cell and extracellular matrix, and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key transcription factor regulating the function of vascular smooth muscle cell. In the process of atherosclerosis, Nrf2 signaling pathway has the following regulatory effects on vascular smooth muscle cell: regulating the phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cell to change to the direction conducive to the alleviation of disease progression; inhibiting the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cell; mitigating the level of blood lipid; alleviating vascular smooth muscle cell calcification, aging and apoptosis process. This article reviews the specific mechanisms of Nrf2 regulating atherosclerosis, such as phenotypic transformation, proliferation and migration, lipid metabolism, calcification, aging and apoptosis in atherosclerosis, in order to provide a basis for understanding the molecular mechanism of atherosclerosis development and finding therapeutic targets.

Atherosclerosis , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Humans , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Signal Transduction
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888151


This study aimed to observe the inhibitory effect of icariin against oxidative stress-induced calcification in aortic vascular smooth muscle cells(VSMCs) and elucidate the molecular mechanism of icariin in inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress(ERS)-mediated atherosclerotic calcification, so as to provide new ideas for exploring the anti-atherosclerotic mechanism of Epimedii Folium. The VSMCs in rat thoracic aorta were subjected to adherent culture and then treated with the complete calcification DMEM containing high glucose and hydrogen peroxide(H_2O_2) for three weeks. The resulting calcified VSMCs were divided into different treatment groups. Icariin was added one week after calcification induction for protecting the VSMCs, whose viability was then detected using cell counting kit-8(CCK-8). Alizarin red-S staining was conducted to observe the calcification degree. The activity of alkaline phosphatase(ALP) in VSMCs was measured using the disodium phenyl phosphate substrate and the calcium content was measured by arsenazo Ⅲ method. The mRNA expression levels of ossification-related factors including osteocalcin(OC), osteopontin(OPN), Runt-related transcription factor 2(Runx2), and type Ⅰ collagen(Col Ⅰa) were detected by real-time PCR. Western blot was carried out to determine the protein expression levels of α-smooth muscle actin(α-SMA), Runx2, activating transcription factor 4(ATF4), and eukaryotic translation initiation factor(eIF)-2α. The results showed that H_2O_2 significantly induced the calcification of VSMCs, increased the ALP activity and calcium content in VSMCs, promoted OC, OPN, Runx2, and Col Ⅰa mRNA expression and Runx2 protein expression, and reduced α-SMA protein expression. The ATF4 protein expression and eIF2α phosphorylation were also elevated significantly. Icariin reversed the calcification of VSMCs induced by H_2O_2, inhibited ALP activity and calcium content in VSMCs, down-regulated the mRNA expression levels of OC, OPN, Runx2 and Col Ⅰa and Runx2 protein expression, and relatively up-regulated the expression of α-SMA. The expression of ATF4 and phosphorylation of eIF2α also declined significantly. All these have demonstrated that icariin inhibited VSMCs calcification by down-regulating the ossification-related factors and lowering ALP activity and calcium content in VSMCs. Besides, the down-regulation of Runx2 expression and the inhibition of ATF4 and eIF2α-mediated cellular calcification pathway in ERS might also be involved in such calcification-suppressing process.

Animals , Cells, Cultured , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/metabolism , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Oxidative Stress , Rats
Rev inf cient ; 100(5): 1-11, 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1348797


Introducción: El p-clorofenol alcanforado es un derivado clorofenólico de uso común como medicación intraconducto en Endodoncia. Son escasos los reportes científicos sobre sus efectos en la musculatura lisa vascular arterial y la regulación del flujo sanguíneo local. Objetivo: Determinar el efecto del p-clorofenol alcanforado sobre la dinámica contráctil del músculo liso vascular arterial en el tiempo. Método: Se realizó una investigación experimental preclínica utilizando 14 anillos de aorta obtenidos de ratas Wistar. Los anillos se colocaron en baño de órganos y se preactivaron con noradrenalina, registrándose luego la tensión desarrollada por el músculo liso vascular tras la adición de p-clorofenol alcanforado durante diferentes intervalos de tiempo. Resultados: El 51,4 porciento de la musculatura lisa vascular se relajó por la acción del p-clorofenol alcanforado. El mayor descenso del tono vascular se produjo entre el tercer y quinto minuto de añadido el medicamento. Las pruebas de Wilcoxon de los rangos con signos evidenciaron diferencias significativas entre la tensión base inicial y la registrada en los diferentes intervalos de tiempo estudiados. Conclusiones: el p-clorofenol alcanforado, induce in vitro, relajación del músculo liso arterial a través de un acoplamiento excitación-contracción de tipo farmacomecánico, la cual se incrementa en función del tiempo(AU).

Introduction: Camphorated p-chlorophenol is a chlorophenolic derivative commonly used as an intra-oral medication in endodontics. Scientific reports on its effects in arterial vascular smooth muscle and local blood flow regulation are scarce. Objective: To determine the effect of camphorated p-chlorophenol on the contractile dynamics of arterial vascular smooth muscle. Method: An experimental and preclinical research was conducted with the use of 14 aortic rings of Wistar rats. The rings were placed in an organ bath and preactivated with noradrenaline, and the tension developed by the vascular smooth muscle at different time intervals was recorded after induction of camphorated p-chlorophenol. Results: Most of the vascular smooth muscle (51.4 percent) relaxed with the use of camphorated p-chlorophenol. The greatest decrease in vascular tone occurred between the third and fifth minute after use the drug. Wilcoxon rank tests showed significant differences between tension observed at baseline and those recorded at the different time intervals studied. Conclusions: Camphorated p-chlorophenol, induces in vitro, relax the arterial smooth muscle through a pharmacomechanical excitation-contraction link, which increases according to the time(AU).

Introdução: O cânfora-clorofenol é um derivado clorofenólico comumente utilizado como medicamento intracanal em Endodontia. Relatórios científicos sobre seus efeitos no músculo liso vascular arterial e na regulação do fluxo sanguíneo local são escassos. Objetivo: Determinar o efeito da cânfora-clorofenol na dinâmica contrátil do músculo liso vascular arterial ao longo do tempo. Método: Foi realizada investigação experimental pré-clínica com 14 anéis aórticos obtidos de ratos Wistar. Os anéis foram colocados em banho de órgãos e pré-ativados com norepinefrina, em seguida, a tensão desenvolvida pela musculatura lisa vascular foi registrada após a adição de cânfora-clorofenol em diferentes intervalos de tempo. Resultados: 51,4 porcento dos músculos lisos vasculares estavam relaxados pela ação do cânfora-clorofenol. A maior diminuição do tônus vascular ocorreu entre o terceiro e o quinto minuto após a adição do medicamento. Os testes de Wilcoxon das faixas com sinais mostraram diferenças significativas entre a tensão base inicial e a registrada nos diferentes intervalos de tempo estudados. Conclusões: O cânfora-clorofenol induz, in vitro, relaxamento da musculatura lisa arterial por meio de um acoplamento excitação-contração do tipo farmacomecânico, que aumenta em função do tempo(AU).

Animals , Rats , Chlorophenols/administration & dosage , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/drug effects , Muscle Tonus/drug effects , Intervention Studies , Rats, Wistar , Germany
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 160-174, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878245


Vascular smooth muscle cell (vSMC) is the predominant cell type in the blood vessel wall and is constantly subjected to a complex extracellular microenvironment. Mechanical forces that are conveyed by changes in stiffness/elasticity, geometry and topology of the extracellular matrix have been indicated by experimental studies to affect the phenotype and function of vSMCs. vSMCs perceive the mechanical stimuli from matrix via specialized mechanosensors, translate these stimuli into biochemical signals controlling gene expression and activation, with the consequent modulation in controlling various aspects of SMC behaviors. Changes in vSMC behaviors may further cause disruption of vascular homeostasis and then lead to vascular remodeling. A better understanding of how SMC senses and transduces mechanical forces and how the extracellular mechano-microenvironments regulate SMC phenotype and function may contribute to the development of new therapeutics for vascular diseases.

Biophysics , Cells, Cultured , Extracellular Matrix , Humans , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Phenotype , Vascular Remodeling
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 82-88, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878238


The research on the molecular mechanism of vascular injury has been a hot topic in recent years since the mechanism can be targeted for the treatment of vascular injury diseases. A large number of studies have found that vascular injury, repair and pathological remodeling are closely related to phenotype switching, abnormal proliferation and migration, and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Smooth muscle 22α (SM22α) is a shape change and transformation sensitive F-actin-binding protein. SM22α decorates the contractile filament bundles within cultured VSMCs exhibiting differentiated phenotypes. In addition, SM22α is involved in regulation of cell signaling pathways related to vascular homeostasis and vascular remodeling. Here, we reviewed the recent research progress of SM22α in vascular homeostasis and remodeling.

Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Homeostasis , Humans , Muscle Proteins , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Phenotype , Vascular Remodeling
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(4): 630-636, out. 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131353


Resumo Fundamento: A taxa de falha de enxerto de veia safena um ano após a cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio varia de 10% a 25%. O objetivo deste estudo foi de investigar se a atorvastatina pode reduzir o acúmulo de células musculares lisas vasculares para inibir a hiperplasia intimal por meio da inibição da via p38 MAPK. Métodos: Quarenta e cinco ratos Sprague-Dawley foram randomizados em três grupos. Trinta ratos foram submetidos à cirurgia de enxerto de veia e randomizados para tratamento com veículo ou atorvastatina; quinze ratos foram submetidos à cirurgia sham. Detectamos a hiperplasia intimal por meio de coloração com hematoxilina-eosina e a expressão de proteínas relacionadas por meio de análise imuno-histoquímica e Western blot. Foram realizadas as comparações por análise de variância de fator único e pelo teste da diferença mínima significativa de Fisher, com p < 0,05 considerado significativo. Resultados: A íntima analisada pela coloração com hematoxilina-eosina era dramaticamente mais espessa no grupo controle que no grupo atorvastatina e no grupo sham (p < 0,01). Os resultados da coloração imuno-histoquímica de α-SMA demonstraram que a porcentagem de células positivas para α-SMA no grupo controle era mais alta que no grupo atorvastatina (p < 0,01). Nós também avaliamos α-SMA, PCNA, p38 MAPK e fosforilação de p38 MAPK após o tratamento com estatina por meio de análise de Western blot e os resultados indicaram que a atorvastatina não levou à redução de p38 MAPK (p < 0,05); no entanto, resultou na inibição da fosforilação de p38 MAPK (p < 0,01) e reduziu significativamente os níveis de α-SMA e PCNA, em comparação com o grupo controle (p < 0,01). Conclusão: Nós demonstramos que a atorvastatina pode inibir o acúmulo de células musculares lisas vasculares por meio da inibição da via p38 MAPK e é capaz de inibir a hiperplasia intimal em modelos de enxerto de veia em ratos.

Abstract Background: The rate of saphenous vein graft failure one year after coronary artery bypass grafting ranges from 10% to 25%. The aim of this study was to explore whether atorvastatin can reduce accumulation of vascular smooth muscle cells to inhibit intimal hyperplasia via p38 MAPK pathway inhibition. Methods: Forty-five Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to three groups. Thirty rats received a vein graft operation, and they were randomized to be treated with vehicle or atorvastatin; fifteen rats received a sham operation. We detected intimal hyperplasia by hematoxylin-eosin staining and related protein expression by immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis. Comparisons were analyzed by single-factor analysis of variance and Fisher's least significant difference test, with p < 0.05 considered significant. Results: The intima analyzed by hematoxylin-eosin staining was dramatically thicker in the control group than in the atorvastatin group and sham group (p < 0.01). The outcomes of immunohistochemical staining of α-SMA demonstrated that the percentage of α-SMA-positive cells in the control group was higher than in the atorvastatin group (p < 0.01). We also evaluated α-SMA, PCNA, p38 MAPK, and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK after statin treatment by Western blot analysis, and the results indicated that atorvastatin did not lead to p38 MAPK reduction (p < 0.05); it did, however, result in inhibition of p38 MAPK phosphorylation (p < 0.01), and it significantly reduced α-SMA and PCNA levels, in comparison with the control group (p < 0.01). Conclusion: We have demonstrated that atorvastatin can inhibit accumulation of vascular smooth muscle cells by inhibiting the p38 MAPK pathway, and it is capable of inhibiting intimal hyperplasia in a rat vein graft model.

Animals , Rats , Transplants , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Veins , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Atorvastatin/therapeutic use , Atorvastatin/pharmacology , Hyperplasia/prevention & control , Hyperplasia/drug therapy , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular
J. bras. nefrol ; 42(3): 300-306, July-Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134857


ABSTRACT Introduction: Vascular calcification is a common complication of chronic kidney disease. Osteoblast differentiation factor (Cbfa1) is present in histologic sections of arteries from patients with end-stage renal disease. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) can dedifferentiate to osteoblast-like cells, possibly by up-regulation of Cbfa1. There is evidence that the production of nitric oxide (NO) may have an important role in the regulation of osteoblast metabolism. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether increased NO/iNOS expression causes an increase in cbfa1 expression in VSMC. Methods: VSMC were obtained from renal artery of Wistar male rats, treated for 72 hours with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), ß-glycerophosphate (BGF), a donor of phosphate and aminoguanidine (AG), an inhibitor of iNOS, in the following groups: CTL (control), LPS, BGF, LPS + BGF, and LPS + AG. NO synthesis was determined by chemiluminescence. Cbfa1 and iNOS mRNA expressions were analyzed by RT-PCR, Cbfa1 protein expression by immunohistochemistry and cellular viability by acridine orange. Results: Cbfa1 and iNOS mRNA expressions were higher in LPS and LPS+ BGF vs CTL (p < 0.05), and they were lower in LPS+AG vs LPS (p < 0.05). The Cbfa1 in the groups LPS and LPS+BGF also resulted in a higher value compared to CTL (p < 0.05), and in LPS+AG it was lower compared to LPS (p < 0.05). NO was higher in LPS and LPS+BGF compared to CTL group (p < 0.05) and lower in LPS + AG compared to LPS group (p < 0.05). Cellular viability showed no statistical difference among groups. Conclusion: This study showed that increased NO/iNOS expression causes an increase in cbfa1 expression in VSMC.

RESUMO Introdução: A calcificação vascular é uma complicação comum da doença renal crônica. O fator de diferenciação osteoblástica (Cbfa1) está presente em cortes histológicos das artérias de pacientes com doença renal em estágio terminal. As células do músculo liso vascular (CMLV) podem desdiferenciar para células do tipo osteoblastos, possivelmente pela regulação positiva da Cbfa1. Há evidências de que a produção de óxido nítrico (NO) pode ter um papel importante na regulação do metabolismo dos osteoblastos. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar se o aumento da expressão de NO/iNOS causa um aumento na expressão de cbfa1 nas CMLV. Métodos: As CMLV foram obtidas da artéria renal de ratos machos Wistar, tratados por 72 horas com lipopolissacarídeo (LPS), ß-glicerofosfato (BGF), um doador de fosfato e aminoguanidina (AG), um inibidor da iNOS, nos seguintes grupos: CTL (controle), LPS, BGF, LPS + BGF e LPS + AG. A síntese de NO foi determinada por quimioluminescência. As expressões de mRNA de Cbfa1 e iNOS foram analisadas por RT-PCR, a expressão da proteína Cbfa1 por imunohistoquímica e viabilidade celular por laranja de acridina. Resultados: As expressões de mRNA de Cbfa1 e iNOS foram maiores em LPS e LPS + BGF v.s. CTL (p < 0,05) e menores em LPS + AG v.s. LPS (p <0,05). O Cbfa1 nos grupos LPS e LPS + BGF também resultou em um valor maior em comparação ao CTL (p < 0,05), e no LPS + AG foi menor em comparação ao LPS (p < 0,05). NO foi maior no LPS e LPS + BGF em comparação ao grupo CTL (p < 0,05) e menor no LPS + AG em comparação ao grupo LPS (p < 0,05). A viabilidade celular não mostrou diferença estatística entre os grupos. Conclusão: Este estudo mostrou que o aumento da expressão de NO/iNOS causa um aumento na expressão de cbfa1 nas CMLV.

Humans , Animals , Male , Rats , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Nitric Oxide , Renal Artery , Lipopolysaccharides , Rats, Wistar , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit
Biol. Res ; 53: 44, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131888


BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis (AS) is the main pathological basis of coronary heart disease, cerebral infarction and peripheral vascular disease, which seriously endanger people's life and health. In recent years, long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) has been found to be involved in gene expression regulation, but the research on AS is still in the initial stage. In this study, we mainly studied the role of HCG11 in patients with AS. Quantitative Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (QRT-PCR) was used to detect the expression of HCG11 and miR-144 in the serum of AS patients and healthy volunteers. Oxidation Low Lipoprotein (Ox-LDL), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α) radiation were used to establish human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in vitro model. Cell proliferation was determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. The apoptosis rate was determined by flow cytometry (FACS) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling assay (TUNEL) staining. The expression levels of Forkhead box protein F1 (FOXF1), B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and BCL2-Associated X (Bax) were detected by qRT-PCR. Luciferase gene reporter and RNA pull down experiments confirmed the relationship between HCG11 and miR-144, miR-144 and FOXF1. RESULTS: This study showed that HCG11 was significantly upregulated in patients with AS, while miR-144 was down-regulated in patients with AS. Ox-LDL and IL-6 in VSMCs induced up-regulation of HCG11 and down-regulation of miR-144. Overexpression of HCG11 promoted the proliferation and inhibited apoptosis of VSMCs. Luciferase gene reporter gene assay showed that HCG11 could bind to miR-144, and miR-144 could bind to FOXF1. Overexpression of miR-144 reversed the effect of HCG11 on VSMCs. CONCLUSIONS: LncRNA HCG11 regulates proliferation and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cell through targeting miR-144-3p/FOXF1 axis.

Humans , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/cytology , MicroRNAs/genetics , Atherosclerosis/genetics , Forkhead Transcription Factors/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Apoptosis/genetics , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/cytology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787137


Aging is one of the risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases. During the progression of cellular senescence, cells enter a state of irreversible growth arrest and display resistance to apoptosis. As a flavonoid, quercetin induces apoptosis in various cells. Accordingly, we investigated the relationship between quercetin-induced apoptosis and the inhibition of cellular senescence, and determined the mechanism of oxidative stress-induced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) senescence. In cultured VSMCs, hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) dose-dependently induced senescence, which was associated with increased numbers of senescence-associated β-galactosidase-positive cells, decreased expression of SMP30, and activation of p53-p21 and p16 pathways. Along with senescence, expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was observed to increase and the levels of proteins related to the apoptosis pathway were observed to decrease. Quercetin induced apoptosis through the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase. This action led to the alleviation of oxidative stress-induced VSMC senescence. Furthermore, the inhibition of AMPK activation with compound C and siRNA inhibited apoptosis and aggravated VSMC senescence by reversing p53-p21 and p16 pathways. These results suggest that senescent VSMCs are resistant to apoptosis and quercetin-induced apoptosis attenuated the oxidative stress-induced senescence through activation of AMPK. Therefore, induction of apoptosis by polyphenols such as quercetin may be worthy of attention for its anti-aging effects.

Aging , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Apoptosis , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cellular Senescence , Hydrogen Peroxide , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Polyphenols , Quercetin , Risk Factors , RNA, Small Interfering
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787133


In vascular smooth muscle, K⁺ channels, such as voltage-gated K⁺ channels (Kv), inward-rectifier K⁺ channels (Kir), and big-conductance Ca²⁺-activated K⁺ channels (BK(Ca)), establish a hyperpolarized membrane potential and counterbalance the depolarizing vasoactive stimuli. Additionally, Kir mediates endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization and the active hyperemia response in various vessels, including the coronary artery. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) induces right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), thereby elevating the risk of ischemia and right heart failure. Here, using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we compared Kv and Kir current densities (I(Kv) and I(Kir)) in the left (LCSMCs), right (RCSMCs), and septal branches of coronary smooth muscle cells (SCSMCs) from control and monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH rats exhibiting RVH. In control rats, (1) I(Kv) was larger in RCSMCs than that in SCSMCs and LCSMCs, (2) I(Kv) inactivation occurred at more negative voltages in SCSMCs than those in RCSMCs and LCSMCs, (3) I(Kir) was smaller in SCSMCs than that in RCSMCs and LCSMCs, and (4) I(BKCa) did not differ between branches. Moreover, in PAH rats, I(Kir) and I(Kv) decreased in SCSMCs, but not in RCSMCs or LCSMCs, and I(BKCa) did not change in any of the branches. These results demonstrated that SCSMC-specific decreases in I(Kv) and I(Kir) occur in an MCT-induced PAH model, thereby offering insights into the potential pathophysiological implications of coronary blood flow regulation in right heart disease. Furthermore, the relatively smaller I(Kir) in SCSMCs suggested a less effective vasodilatory response in the septal region to the moderate increase in extracellular K⁺ concentration under increased activity of the myocardium.

Animals , Coronary Vessels , Heart Diseases , Heart Failure , Hyperemia , Hypertension , Hypertrophy, Right Ventricular , Ischemia , Membrane Potentials , Monocrotaline , Muscle, Smooth , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Myocardium , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Potassium Channels , Rats , Septum of Brain
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828100


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effects of olmesartan on age-associated migration and invasion capacities and microRNA (miRAN) axis in human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (HA-VSMCs).@*METHODS@#Cultured HA-VSMCs were divided into control group, bleomycin-mediated senescence (BLM) group and bleomycin + olmesartan treatment group. Wound-healing assay and Boyden chambers invasion assay were used to assess the changes in migration and invasion of the cells, gelatin zymography was used to analyze matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activation in the cells. The differentially expressed miRNAs were identified by miRNA microarray assay and validated by quantitative real-time PCR. MiR-3133 inhibitor was used to examine the effects of molecular manipulation of olmesartan on age-associated migration and invasion and MMP-2 activation in the cells.@*RESULTS@#Compared with those of the control group, the percentage of the repopulated cells and the number of cells crossing the basement membrane increased significantly in BLM group [(78.43±12.76)% (42.47±7.22)%, < 0.05; 33.33±5.51 13.00±4.36, < 0.05]. A significant increase of MMP-2 activation was found in BLM group as compared with the control group (1.66 ± 0.27 0.87 ± 0.13, < 0.05). Olmesartan significantly inhibited BLM-induced enhancement of cell migration and invasion and MMP-2 secretion in the cells. MiR-3133 was significantly downregulated in BLM group and upregulated in olmesartan group. Transfection with miR-3133 inhibitor significantly reversed the effects of olmesartan on age-associated migration and invasion of the cells [(85.87±7.39)% (49.77±3.05)%; 34.67±2.31 20.00±4.58, < 0.05] and MMP-2 activation in the cells (1.76±0.19 0.94±0.10, < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Olmesartan inhibits the migration and invasion of ageassociated HA-VSMCs probably by upregulating of the miR-3133 axis.

Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Humans , Imidazoles , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 , MicroRNAs , Genetics , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Tetrazoles
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(3): e8853, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089343


Anaphylactic shock can be defined as an acute syndrome, and it is the most severe clinical manifestation of allergic diseases. Anaphylactoid reactions are similar to anaphylactic events but differ in the pathophysiological mechanism. Nitric oxide (NO) inhibitors during anaphylaxis suggest that NO might decrease the signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis but exacerbate associated vasodilation. Therefore, blocking the effects of NO on vascular smooth muscle by inhibiting the guanylate cyclase (GC) would be a reasonable strategy. This study aimed to investigate the effects of NO/cGMP pathway inhibitors methylene blue (MB), Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME), and indigo carmine (IC) in shock induced by compound 48/80 (C48/80) in rats. The effect was assessed by invasive blood pressure measurement. Shock was initiated by C48/80 intravenous bolus injection 5 min before (prophylactic) or after (treatment) the administration of the inhibitors MB (3 mg/kg), L-NAME (1 mg/kg), and IC (3 mg/kg). Of the groups that received drugs as prophylaxis for shock, only the IC group did not present the final systolic blood pressure (SBP) better than the C48/80 group. Regarding shock treatment with the drugs tested, all groups had the final SBP similar to the C48/80group. Altogether, our results suggested that inhibition of GC and NO synthase in NO production pathway was not sufficient to revert hypotension or significantly improve survival.

Animals , Male , Rats , Cyclic GMP/antagonists & inhibitors , Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Anaphylaxis/drug therapy , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/drug effects , Nitric Oxide/antagonists & inhibitors , Rats, Wistar , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Indigo Carmine/administration & dosage , Methylene Blue/administration & dosage