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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246040, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285610

ABSTRACT

Abstract Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a congenitally reduced head circumference (-3 to -5 SD) and non-progressive intellectual disability. The objective of the study was to evaluate pathogenic mutations in the ASPM gene to understand etiology and molecular mechanism of primary microcephaly. Blood samples were collected from various families across different remote areas of Pakistan from February 2017 to May 2019 who were identified to be affected with primary microcephaly. DNA extraction was performed using the salting-out method; the quality and quantity of DNA were evaluated using spectrophotometry and 1% agarose gel electrophoresis, respectively in University of the Punjab. Mutation analysis was performed by whole exome sequencing from the Cologne Center for Genomics, University of Cologne. Sanger sequencing was done in University of the Punjab to confirm the pathogenic nature of mutation. A novel 4-bp deletion mutation c.3877_3880delGAGA was detected in exon 17 of the ASPM gene in two primary microcephaly affected families (A and B), which resulted in a frame shift mutation in the gene followed by truncated protein synthesis (p.Glu1293Lysfs*10), as well as the loss of the calmodulin-binding IQ domain and the Armadillo-like domain in the ASPM protein. Using the in-silico tools Mutation Taster, PROVEAN, and PolyPhen, the pathogenic effect of this novel mutation was tested; it was predicted to be "disease causing," with high pathogenicity scores. One previously reported mutation in exon 24 (c.9730C>T) of the ASPM gene resulting in protein truncation (p.Arg3244*) was also observed in family C. Mutations in the ASPM gene are the most common cause of MCPH in most cases. Therefore, enrolling additional affected families from remote areas of Pakistan would help in identifying or mapping novel mutations in the ASPM gene of primary microcephaly.


Resumo Microcefalia primária autossômica recessiva (MCPH) é um distúrbio do neurodesenvolvimento caracterizado por uma redução congênita do perímetro cefálico (-3 a -5 DP) e deficiência intelectual não progressiva. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar mutações patogênicas no gene ASPM a fim de compreender a etiologia e o mecanismo molecular da microcefalia primária. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas de várias famílias em diferentes áreas remotas do Paquistão de fevereiro de 2017 a maio de 2019, que foram identificadas como afetadas com microcefalia primária. A extração do DNA foi realizada pelo método salting-out; a qualidade e a quantidade de DNA foram avaliadas por espectrofotometria e eletroforese em gel de agarose a 1%, respectivamente, na Universidade de Punjab. A análise de mutação foi realizada por sequenciamento completo do exoma do Cologne Center for Genomics, University of Cologne. O sequenciamento de Sanger foi feito na Universidade do Punjab para confirmar a natureza patogênica da mutação. Uma nova mutação de deleção de 4 bp c.3877_3880delGAGA foi detectada no exon 17 do gene ASPM em duas famílias afetadas por microcefalia primária (A e B), que resultou em uma mutação de frame shift no gene seguida por síntese de proteína truncada (pGlu1293Lysfs * 10), bem como a perda do domínio IQ de ligação à calmodulina e o domínio do tipo Armadillo na proteína ASPM. Usando as ferramentas in-silico Mutation Taster, PROVEAN e PolyPhen, o efeito patogênico dessa nova mutação foi testado; foi previsto ser "causador de doenças", com altos escores de patogenicidade. Uma mutação relatada anteriormente no exon 24 (c.9730C > T) do gene ASPM, resultando em truncamento de proteína (p.Arg3244 *) também foi observada na família C. Mutações no gene ASPM são a causa mais comum de MCPH na maioria dos casos . Portanto, a inscrição de famílias afetadas adicionais de áreas remotas do Paquistão ajudaria a identificar ou mapear novas mutações no gene ASPM da microcefalia primária.


Subject(s)
Humans , Microcephaly/genetics , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Pakistan , Consanguinity , Mutation/genetics
2.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(1): 32-39, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364313

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objetivo: Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) patients have clinical heterogeneity as shown by many studies. Thus, often it is misdiagnosed to type 1 or type 2 diabetes(T2DM). The aim of this study is to evaluate MODY mutations in adult T2DM patients suspicious in terms of MODY, and to show clinical and laboratory differences between these two situations. Subjects and methods: In this study, we analyzed 72 type 2 diabetic patients and their relatives (35F/37M) who had been suspected for MODY and referred to genetic department for mutation analysis. The gene mutations for MODY have been assessed in the laboratory of Marmara University genetics. Totally 67 (32F/35M; median age 36.1) diabetic patients were analyzed for 7 MODY mutations. Twelve patients who have uncertain mutation (VUS) were excluded from study for further evaluation. MODY(+) (n:30) patients and T2DM patients (n:25) were compared for clinical and laboratory parameters. Results: In MODY(+) subjects, mutations in GCK (MODY 2) (n:12; 40%) were the most common followed by HNF4A (MODY 1) (n:4; 13.3%). Diabetes diagnosis age was younger in MODY(+) group but not statistically significant. Sixty-six percent of MODY(+) subjects had diabetes history at 3-consecutive generations in their family compared with 28% of T2DM patients statistically significant (p:0.006). Gender, BMI, C-peptide, HbA1c, lipid parameters, creatinine, GFR, microalbuminuria, vitamin D and calcium were not statistically different between the groups. Conclusion: According to present study results, MODY mutation positivity is most probable in young autoantibody (-) diabetic patients diagnosed before 30 years of age, who have first degree family history of diabetes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , C-Peptide , Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-alpha/genetics , Mutation/genetics
3.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 57(3): 16-23, jul.-set. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342511

ABSTRACT

Amyloidosis are characterized by mutations in the gene coding for transthyretin (TTR), located on chromosome 18. TTR is a set of four 127-aminoacid polypeptides structured as homotetrameric protein of 56 kDa with a secondary ß sheet structure. It plays the role of thyroxin (T4) carrier, and has a binding domain for retinol (vitamin A). It is synthesized in the liver, although a small quantity is also produced by the choroid plexus, and retinal cells. Mutations of this gene result in loss of tetramer stability. Insoluble amyloid fibrils (AF) are formed and deposited in tissues and organs. The abnormal aggregation of TTR protein trigger several syndromes, such as familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP-TTR), cardiomyopathies (CMP), and senile systemic amyloidosis (SSA). It is estimated there are 5,000 to 10,000 cases of FAP-TTR globally. OBJECTIVE: The study intends to develop an online platform for the diagnosis of FAP-TTR. The aim is to facilitate the diagnosis process and promote a tool for epidemiological study. METHODS: The project was based on a literature review featuring clinical and epidemiological evidence for the development of a practical platform (applied research). RESULTS: It was elaborated a platform containing a questionnaire to allow a more dynamic, cheaper, and efficient operation, mediated by a better characterization of the disease to enable its early diagnosis. CONCLUSION: The platform might become a valuable resource for the characterization, diagnosis, and future epidemiological study of FAP-TTR


As amiloidoses se caracterizam por mutações no gene codificante da transtirretina (TTR) no cromossomo 18. A proteína TTR compõe-se de uma corrente de polipeptídios de 127 resíduos, que constituem uma proteína homotetramérica de 56kDa com estrutura secundária de folha ß, que serve como proteína de deslocamento para a tiroxina (T4), e uma proteína de ligação ao retinol (vitamina A). O principal local de produção dessa proteína é o fígado, embora uma pequena quantidade seja produzida pelo plexo coroide e pelas células retinianas. O gene codificante da TTR (18q11.2-12) é pequeno (7 kb) e contém quatro éxons. As mutações convertem-se em perda do equilíbrio do tetrâmero proteico. Surgem assim, fibrilas amiloides (FA) em cadeias não ramificadas de 10 a 12 nm de diâmetro e fibrilas indissolúveis, que se condensam nos tecidos e órgãos. As síndromes concernentes ao acúmulo da proteína TTR são: polineuropatia amiloidótica familiar (PAFTTR), miocardiopatias (MCP) e amiloidose sistêmica senil (ASS). Estimativa recente relatou a existência de 5.000 a 10.000 casos de PAFTTR no mundo. OBJETIVO: O estudo objetiva elaborar uma plataforma de diagnóstico PAFTTR on-line para auxiliar como ferramenta de contribuição para o estudo da epidemiologia e facilitar o diagnóstico. MÉTODOS: O projeto baseou-se em uma pesquisa bibliográfica capaz de levantar evidências clínicas e epidemiológicas na elaboração de uma plataforma facilitadora (pesquisa aplicada). RESULTADOS: O resultado alcançado foi a elaboração da plataforma contendo um questionário, que tornará o trabalho dos profissionais mais dinâmico, barato e eficiente, caracterizando melhor a doença e promovendo um diagnóstico precoce. CONCLUSÃO: A plataforma poderá tornar-se recurso valioso para caracterização, diagnóstico e futuro estudo epidemiológico da PAF-TTR


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Prealbumin/genetics , Epidemiologic Studies , Amyloid Neuropathies, Familial/diagnosis , Amyloid Neuropathies, Familial/genetics , Amyloidosis , Mutation/genetics , Genetic Testing , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): e340-e344, agosto 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1281780

ABSTRACT

La acrodisostosis es una displasia esquelética rara, de herencia autosómica dominante, que se caracteriza por la presencia de disostosis facial y periférica, talla baja y diferentes grados de obesidad. La acrodisostosis de tipo 1, secundaria a la mutación heterocigota en el gen PRKAR1A (17q24.2), se caracteriza por la asociación de resistencia hormonal múltiple con anomalías esqueléticas. Su incidencia está infradiagnosticada debido a que comparte rasgos clínicos y de laboratorio con otras entidades como el seudohipoparatiroidismo. Presentamos el caso de una niña de 8 años, con acrodisostosis tipo 1, confirmada mediante estudio genético. Además del fenotipo característico descrito, la talla baja y la resistencia hormonal, la paciente presentó una afectación progresiva de la función pulmonar: un patrón pulmonar obstructivo no reversible. En la literatura revisada, no se han encontrado otros casos que describan esta asociación entre acrodisostosis y afectación respiratoria.


Acrodysostosis is a rare skeletal displasia, of autosomal dominant inheritance, characterized by the presence of facial and peripheral dysostosis, short stature and obesity. Type 1 acrodysostosis is secondary to a mutation in the PRKAR1A (17q24.2) gene, which results in multi hormonal resistance and skeletal anomalities. This syndrome is under-diagnosed as it shares analytical and clinical characteristics with other entities, such as pseudohypoparathyroidism. We report the case of an eight-year-old girl with genetically confirmed type 1 acrodysostosis. In addition to the characteristic phenotype described, the short stature and the hormonal resistance, the patient suffered a progressive lung function deterioration: an irreversible pulmonary obstructive pattern. We have not found in previous literature cases reporting an association between acrodysostosis and lung function impairement.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Osteochondrodysplasias/complications , Dysostoses/complications , Lung Diseases, Obstructive/complications , Osteochondrodysplasias/genetics , Osteochondrodysplasias/diagnostic imaging , Spirometry , Diagnosis, Differential , Dysostoses/genetics , Dysostoses/diagnostic imaging , Dyspnea/complications , Mutation/genetics
5.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(2): e3465, mar.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251796

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El Síndrome Sanfilippo B es un error innato en el metabolismo lisosomal, con herencia autosómica recesiva. Se caracteriza por facie ligeramente tosca, deterioro neurológico progresivo y poca repercusión somática, provocado por mutaciones en el gen NAGLU, cuyo locus es 17q21.2. La incidencia internacionalmente es muy baja y en Cuba solo se han diagnosticado siete pacientes desde 1985. Objetivo: Describir las manifestaciones clínicas, bioquímicas y moleculares de un paciente cubano diagnosticado con Síndrome Sanfilippo B. Presentación de Caso: Se describió un paciente de 13 años, cuyas principales manifestaciones clínicas fueron: facie ligeramente tosca, sinofris, alteraciones de conducta y deterioro neurológico progresivo. El trastorno del sueño fue ocasional y frecuente las infecciones respiratorias. Se demostró la presencia de colitis ulcerativa y pólipo intestinal. Se confirmó excreción aumentada de heparán sulfato y disminución de la actividad enzimática N-acetil αD-glucosaminidasa. Se identificó la mutación c.640dupC en el gen NAGLU en homocigosis en el paciente y ambos padres resultaron ser portadores. Conclusiones: Predominaron las alteraciones de conducta, deterioro neurológico progresivo e infecciones respiratorias en el caso reportado; siendo la colitis ulcerativa y el pólipo intestinal un hallazgo no descrito anteriormente para esta enfermedad. Los estudios cromatográficos y enzimáticos resultaron positivos para Sanfilippo B. El genotipo de este paciente resultó ser homocigótico para una nueva variante alélica patogénica en el gen NAGLU. Se demostró la segregación mendeliana de la mutación en la familia(AU)


Introduction: Sanfilippo syndrome type B is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease. The frequent clinical manifestations include slightly coarse facial features, progressive neurodegeneration and mild somatic repercussion caused by mutations in the NAGLU gene, whose locus is 17q21.2. The worldwide incidence is very low and only seven patients have been diagnosed in Cuba since 1985. Objective: To describe clinical, biochemical and molecular characteristics of a Cuban patient with the diagnosis of Sanfilippo Syndrome type B. Case presentation: A 13 years old patient was described. The main clinical manifestations included mild coarse facie, synophrys, behavior disturbances, and progressive neurologic deterioration. Intermittent sleep disturbance and frequent upper respiratory infections were identified. Ulcerative colitis and intestinal polyp were demonstrated. Increased excretion of heparan sulfate and very low N-acetyl α-Dglucosaminidase activity were confirmed. In addition, the presence of mutation c.640dupC in NAGLU gene was identified. The patient had homozygous genotype and both parents were heterozygous. Conclusions: Behavioral alterations, progressive neurological deterioration and respiratory infections predominated in the reported case. Other findings such as ulcerative colitis and intestinal polyps were not previously described in this disease. The chromatographic and enzymatic studies were positive for Sanfilippo type B. This patient's genotype was found to be homozygous for a novel pathogenic allelic variant in the NAGLU gene. Mendelian segregation of the mutation in the family was demonstrated(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Respiratory Tract Infections , Lysosomal Storage Diseases , Mucopolysaccharidosis III/genetics , Genotype , Mutation/genetics
6.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1570-1582, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922660

ABSTRACT

Human genetic prion diseases (gPrDs) are directly associated with mutations and insertions in the PRNP (Prion Protein) gene. We collected and analyzed the data of 218 Chinese gPrD patients identified between Jan 2006 and June 2020. Nineteen different subtypes were identified and gPrDs accounted for 10.9% of all diagnosed PrDs within the same period. Some subtypes of gPrDs showed a degree of geographic association. The age at onset of Chinese gPrDs peaked in the 50-59 year group. Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS) and fatal familial insomnia (FFI) cases usually displayed clinical symptoms earlier than genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (gCJD) patients with point mutations. A family history was more frequently recalled in P105L GSS and D178N FFI patients than T188K and E200K patients. None of the E196A gCJD patients reported a family history. The gCJD cases with point mutations always developed clinical manifestations typical of sporadic CJD (sCJD). EEG examination was not sensitive for gPrDs. sCJD-associated abnormalities on MRI were found in high proportions of GSS and gCJD patients. CSF 14-3-3 positivity was frequently detected in gCJD patients. Increased CSF tau was found in more than half of FFI and T188K gCJD cases, and an even higher proportion of E196A and E200K gCJD patients. 63.6% of P105L GSS cases showed a positive reaction in cerebrospinal fluid RT-QuIC. GSS and FFI cases had longer durations than most subtypes of gCJD. This is one of the largest studies of gPrDs in East Asians, and the illness profile of Chinese gPrDs is clearly distinct. Extremely high proportions of T188K and E196A occur among Chinese gPrDs; these mutations are rarely reported in Caucasians and Japanese.


Subject(s)
14-3-3 Proteins/cerebrospinal fluid , China , Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome/genetics , Humans , Mutation/genetics , Prion Diseases/genetics , Prion Proteins/genetics , Prions/genetics , tau Proteins/cerebrospinal fluid
7.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1658-1670, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922653

ABSTRACT

Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling governs important physiological and pathological processes key to cellular life. Loss of mTOR negative regulators and subsequent over-activation of mTOR signaling are major causes underlying epileptic encephalopathy. Our previous studies showed that UBTOR/KIAA1024/MINAR1 acts as a negative regulator of mTOR signaling, but whether UBTOR plays a role in neurological diseases remains largely unknown. We therefore examined a zebrafish model and found that ubtor disruption caused increased spontaneous embryonic movement and neuronal activity in spinal interneurons, as well as the expected hyperactivation of mTOR signaling in early zebrafish embryos. In addition, mutant ubtor larvae showed increased sensitivity to the convulsant pentylenetetrazol, and both the motor activity and the neuronal activity were up-regulated. These phenotypic abnormalities in zebrafish embryos and larvae were rescued by treatment with the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin. Taken together, our findings show that ubtor regulates motor hyperactivity and epilepsy-like behaviors by elevating neuronal activity and activating mTOR signaling.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hyperkinesis/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Signal Transduction , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Zebrafish/metabolism
8.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 590-599, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922360

ABSTRACT

Azoospermia patients who carry a monogenetic mutation that causes meiotic arrest may have their biological child through genetic correction in spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). However, such therapy for infertility has not been experimentally investigated yet. In this study, a mouse model with an X-linked testis-expressed 11 (TEX11) mutation (Tex11


Subject(s)
Adult Germline Stem Cells/metabolism , Animals , Azoospermia/genetics , Infertility, Male/therapy , Male , Mice , Mutation/genetics , Spermatogenesis/genetics
9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2457-2464, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921179

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Investigations of the pathogenic mechanisms in motor neurons (MNs) derived from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) disease-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell lines could improve understanding of the issues affecting MNs. Therefore, in this study we explored mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) protein expression in MNs derived from the iPS cell lines of ALS patients carrying different SOD1 mutations.@*METHODS@#We generated induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from two familial ALS (FALS) patients with SOD1-V14M and SOD1-C111Y mutations, and then differentiated them into MNs. We investigated levels of the SOD1 protein in iPSCs and MNs, the intracellular Ca2+ levels in MNs, and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in the process of differentiation into the MNs derived from the controls and ALS patients' iPSCs.@*RESULTS@#The iPSCs from the two FALS patients were capable of differentiation into MNs carrying different SOD1 mutations and differentially expressed MN markers. We detected high SOD1 protein expression and high intracellular calcium levels in both the MN and iPSCs that were derived from the two SOD1 mutant patients. However, at no time did we observe stronger LDH activity in the patient lines compared with the control lines.@*CONCLUSIONS@#MNs derived from patient-specific iPSC lines can recapitulate key aspects of ALS pathogenesis, providing a cell-based disease model to further elucidate disease pathogenesis and explore gene repair coupled with cell-replacement therapy. Incremental mutant expressions of SOD1 in MNs may have disrupted MN function, either causing or contributing to the intracellular calcium disturbances, which could lead to the occurrence and development of the disease.


Subject(s)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/genetics , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Motor Neurons , Mutation/genetics , Superoxide Dismutase-1/genetics
10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2430-2437, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921177

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a promising biomarker for non-invasive epidermal growth factor receptor mutations (EGFRm) detection in lung cancer patients, but existing methods have limitations in sensitivity and availability. In this study, we used the ΔCt value (mutant cycle threshold [Ct] value-internal control Ct value) generated during the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to convert super-amplification-refractory mutation system (superARMS) from a qualitative method to a semi-quantitative method named reformed-superARMS (R-superARMS), and evaluated its performance in detecting EGFRm in plasma ctDNA in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma.@*METHODS@#A total of 41 pairs of tissues and plasma samples were obtained from lung adenocarcinoma patients who had known EGFRm in tumor tissue and were previously untreated. EGFRm in ctDNA was identified by using superARMS. Through making use of ΔCt value generated during the detection process of superARMS, we indirectly transform this qualitative detection method into a semi-quantitative PCR detection method, named R-superARMS. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses of the data were performed. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to estimate the progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Fisher exact test was used for categorical variables.@*RESULTS@#The concordance rate of EGFRm in tumor tissues and matched plasma samples was 68.3% (28/41). At baseline, EGFRm-positive patients were divided into two groups according to the cut-off ΔCt value of EGFRm set at 8.11. A significant difference in the median OS (mOS) between the two groups was observed (EGFRm ΔCt ≤8.11 vs. >8.11: not reached vs. 11.0 months; log-rank P = 0.024). Patients were divided into mutation clearance (MC) group and mutation incomplete clearance (MIC) group according to whether the ΔCt value of EGFRm test turned negative after 1 month of treatment. We found that there was also a significant difference in mOS (not reached vs. 10.4 months; log-rank P = 0.021) between MC group and MIC group. Although there was no significant difference in PFS between the two groups, the two curves were separated and the PFS of MC group tended to be higher than the MIC group (not reached vs. 27.5 months; log-rank P = 0.088). Furthermore, EGFRm-positive patients were divided into two groups according to the cut-off of the changes in ΔCt value of EGFRm after 1 month of treatment, which was set at 4.89. A significant difference in the mOS between the two groups was observed (change value of ΔCt >4.89 vs. ≤4.89: not reached vs. 11.0 months; log-rank P = 0.014).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Detecting EGFRm in ctDNA using R-superARMS can identify patients who are more likely sensitive to targeted therapy, reflect the molecular load of patients, and predict the therapeutic efficacy and clinical outcomes of patients.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma of Lung/genetics , Circulating Tumor DNA/genetics , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors
11.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 708-715, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878092

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most aggressive cancers without effective therapy. To explore potential molecular targets in ESCC, we quantified the mutation spectrum and explored the relationship between gene mutation and clinicopathological characteristics and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression.@*METHODS@#Between 2015 and 2019, 29 surgically resected ESCC tissues and adjacent normal tissues from the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University were subjected to targeted next-generation sequencing. The expression levels of PD-L1 were detected by immunohistochemistry. Mutational signatures were extracted from the mutation count matrix by using non-negative matrix factorization. The relationship between detected genomic alterations and clinicopathological characteristics and PD-L1 expression was estimated by Spearman rank correlation analysis.@*RESULTS@#The most frequently mutated gene was TP53 (96.6%, 28/29), followed by NOTCH1 (27.6%, 8/29), EP300 (17.2%, 5/29), and KMT2C (17.2%, 5/29). The most frequently copy number amplified and deleted genes were CCND1/FGF3/FGF4/FGF19 (41.4%, 12/29) and CDKN2A/2B (10.3%, 3/29). By quantifying the contribution of the mutational signatures to the mutation spectrum, we found that the contribution of signature 1, signature 2, signature 10, signature 12, signature 13, and signature 17 was relatively high. Further analysis revealed genetic variants associated with cell cycle, chromatin modification, Notch, and Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling pathways, which may be key pathways in the development and progression of ESCC. Evaluation of PD-L1 expression in samples showed that 13.8% (4/29) of samples had tumor proportion score ≥1%. 17.2% (5/29) of patients had tumor mutation burden (TMB) above 10 mut/Mb. All samples exhibited microsatellite stability. TMB was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (r = 0.468, P = 0.010), but not significantly associated with PD-L1 expression (r = 0.246, P = 0.198). There was no significant correlation between PD-L1 expression and detected gene mutations (all P > 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Our research initially constructed gene mutation profile related to surgically resected ESCC in high-incidence areas to explore the mechanism underlying ESCC development and potential therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
B7-H1 Antigen , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/genetics , Esophageal Neoplasms/genetics , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Mutation/genetics
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 318-325, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153356

ABSTRACT

CKB3 is a regulatory (beta) subunit of CK2. In this study Arabidopsis thaliana homozygous T-DNA mutant ckb3 was studied to understand the role of CKB3 in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. The results shown: CKB3 was expressed in all organs and the highest expression in the seeds, followed by the root. During seed germination and root growth the ckb3 mutant showed reduced sensitivity to ABA. The ckb3 mutant had more stomatal opening and increased proline accumulation and leaf water loss. The expression levels of number of genes in the ABA regulatory network had changed. This study demonstrates that CKB3 is an ABA signaling-related gene and may play a positive role in ABA signaling.


CKB3 é uma subunidade reguladora (beta) de CK2. Neste estudo, o mutante homozigoto ckb3 de Arabidopsis thaliana foi estudado para entender o papel da CKB3 na sinalização de ácido abscísico (ABA). Os resultados apresentados: CKB3 foi expresso em todos os órgãos e a maior expressão nas sementes, seguida pela raiz. Durante a germinação das sementes e o crescimento radicular, o mutante ckb3 mostrou sensibilidade reduzida ao ABA. O mutante ckb3 teve mais abertura estomática e aumento do acúmulo de prolina e perda de água nas folhas. Os níveis de expressão do número de genes na rede reguladora da ABA haviam mudado. Este estudo demonstra que CKB3 é um gene relacionado à sinalização ABA e pode desempenhar um papel positivo na sinalização ABA.


Subject(s)
Arabidopsis/genetics , Arabidopsis/metabolism , Abscisic Acid , Arabidopsis Proteins/genetics , Arabidopsis Proteins/metabolism , Seeds , Germination , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/genetics , Mutation/genetics
13.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(5): 559-566, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131124

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Our aim is to establish genetic diagnosis of congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) using targeted massively parallel sequencing (MPS), also known as next-generation sequencing (NGS). Subjects and methods: Nine unrelated individuals with a clinical diagnosis of CGL were recruited. We used a customized panel to capture genes related to genetic lipodystrophies. DNA libraries were generated, sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq, and bioinformatics analysis was performed. Results: An accurate genetic diagnosis was stated for all nine patients. Four had pathogenic variants in AGPAT2 and three in BSCL2. Three large homozygous deletions in AGPAT2 were identified by copy-number variant analysis. Conclusions: Although we have found allelic variants in only 2 genes related to CGL, the panel was able to identify different variants including deletions that would have been missed by Sanger sequencing. We believe that MPS is a valuable tool for the genetic diagnosis of multi-genes related diseases, including CGL.


Subject(s)
Humans , GTP-Binding Protein gamma Subunits/genetics , Lipodystrophy, Congenital Generalized/diagnosis , Lipodystrophy, Congenital Generalized/genetics , Lipodystrophy/diagnosis , Lipodystrophy/genetics , Alleles , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Mutation/genetics
14.
Appl. cancer res ; 40: 1-12, Oct. 19, 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1281498

ABSTRACT

Background: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) based assay for finding an actionable driver in non-small-cell lung cancer is a less used modality in clinical practice. With a long list of actionable targets, limited tissue, arduous single-gene assays, the alternative of NGS for broad testing in one experiment looks attractive. We report here our experience with NGS for biomarker testing in hundred advanced lung cancer patients. Methods: Predictive biomarker testing was performed using the Ion AmpliSeq™ Cancer Hotspot Panel V2 (30 tumors) and Oncomine™ Solid Tumor DNA and Oncomine™ Solid Tumor Fusion Transcript kit (70 tumors) on IonTorrent sequencing platform. Results: One-seventeen distinct aberrations were detected across 29 genes in eighty-six tumors. The most commonly mutated genes were TP53 (43% cases), EGFR (23% cases) and KRAS (17% cases). Thirty-four patients presented an actionable genetic variant for which targeted therapy is presently available, and fifty-two cases harbored non-actionable variants with the possibility of recruitment in clinical trials. NGS results were validated by individual tests for detecting EGFR mutation, ALK1 rearrangement, ROS1 fusion, and c-MET amplification. Compared to single test, NGS exhibited good agreement for detecting EGFR mutations and ALK1 fusion (sensitivity- 88.89%, specificity- 100%, Kappa-score 0.92 and sensitivity- 80%, specificity- 100%, Kappa-score 0.88; respectively). Further, the response of patients harboring tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) sensitizing EGFR mutations was assessed. The progression-free-survival of EGFR positive patients on TKI therapy, harboring a concomitant mutation in PIK3CAmTOR and/or RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway gene and/or TP53 gene was inferior to those with sole-sensitizing EGFR mutation (2 months vs. 9.5 months, P = 0.015). Conclusions: This is the first study from South Asia looking into the analytical validity of NGS and describing the mutational landscape of lung cancer patients to study the impact of co-mutations on cancer biology and treatment outcome. Our study demonstrates the clinical utility of NGS testing for identifying actionable variants and making treatment decisions in advanced lung cancer


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Proto-Oncogenes/genetics , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Reproducibility of Results
15.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(3): 327-331, May-June 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132598

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Deafness is the most frequent sensory deficit in humans. Incidence is estimated at 4:1000 births in Brazil. Specific programs for clinical care of patients with hearing loss are still scarce in Brazil and the issue is an important public health problem. Objective: To determine the frequency of 35delG and D13S1830 mutations in GJB2 and GJB6 genes respectively in patients with non-syndromic sensorineural hearing loss from Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods: This research involved 53 individuals, who were assessed by a questionnaire for predicting the possibility of non-syndromic deafness and for data collecting. Samples were tested for the presence of the 35delG mutation in GJB2 gene and D13S1830 in GJB6 gene by polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme digestion. Results: Epidemiological research has shown that the majority of the subjects are unaware of the etiology and the pathogenesis of hearing loss. In 9 patients (16.98%), 35delG mutation was found in heterozygosis and the allele frequency was estimate to be around 8.5%. Although 9.61% of the patients reported having some degree of consanguinity between the parents and 12.08% reported other cases of deafness in their families, this mutation was not found in homozygosis. The D13S1830 mutation was not found in this study. Conclusion: This research describes for the first time the frequency of the 35delG and D13S1830 mutation in hearing-impaired individuals from Minas Gerais, Brazil, and the collected data reinforce the need for further studies in this population due to heterogeneity of hearing loss.


Resumo Introdução: A surdez é o déficit sensorial mais frequente em humanos. Estima-se que a incidência seja de 4:1.000 nascimentos no Brasil. Programas específicos para atendimento clínico de pacientes com perda auditiva são escassos no Brasil e a questão é um importante problema de saúde pública. Objetivo: Determinar a frequência das mutações 35delG no gene GJB2 e D13S1830 no GJB6 em pacientes deficientes auditivos de origem neurossensorial e não sindrômica de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Método: A pesquisa envolveu 53 indivíduos selecionados por meio de questionário o qual avaliou a possibilidade de surdez não sindrômica entre outros dados. As amostras foram testadas quanto à presença da mutação 35delG no gene GJB2 e D13S1830 no gene GJB6 por reação em cadeia da polimerase e digestão com enzima de restrição. Resultados: A pesquisa epidemiológica mostrou que a maioria dos indivíduos desconhece a etiologia da perda auditiva. Em 9 pacientes (16,98%), a mutação 35delG foi encontrada em heterozigose e a frequência alélica foi estimada em 8,5%. Embora 9,61% das pessoas tenham relatado algum grau de consanguinidade entre os pais e 12,08% relatassem outros casos de surdez em suas famílias, essa mutação não foi encontrada em homozigose. A mutação D13S1830 não foi encontrada neste estudo. Conclusão: Este trabalho descreve pela primeira vez a frequência da mutação 35delG e D13S1830 em deficientes auditivos de Minas Gerais, Brasil, e os dados coletados reforçam a necessidade de mais estudos nessa população devido à heterogeneidade da perda auditiva.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genotype
16.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 36(2): e1189, abr.-jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1149902

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La leucemia mieloide aguda (LMA) es un grupo heterogéneo de desórdenes clonales con una gran variabilidad en términos de patogénesis, características morfológicas, genéticas e inmunofenotípicas. Las mutaciones en el gen NPM1 representan una de las más comunes en las LMA y está asociada con una respuesta clínica favorable. Por citogenética, la inversión del cromosoma 16 define el subgrupo de las LMA de factor de unión al grupo con un pronóstico favorable. Objetivo: Describir un caso con diagnóstico de LMA en los cuales el estudio molecular del gen NPM1 y de la inv(16) fueron positivos. Caso clínico: A nivel molecular, la hibridación in situ fluorescente fue positivo a la inv(16) y por biología molecular fue positivo tanto a la inv(16) como al gen NPM1-A, elementos de baja frecuencia de aparición. Se le administró a la paciente un esquema de poliquimioterapia no intensiva para mejorarla clínicamente. Después de una mejoría clínica inicial, la paciente comenzó con complicaciones y falleció. Conclusiones: La coexistencia de estas dos mutaciones es muy poco frecuente en pacientes con LMA, y a pesar de ser de buen pronóstico la paciente falleció a los pocos días de tratamiento(AU)


Introduction: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous group of clonal disorders with great variability in terms of pathogenesis, morphological, genetic and immunophenotypic characteristics. NPM1 mutations represent one of the most common in AML and are associated with favorable clinical response. By cytogenetics, chromosome 16 inversion defines, with a favorable prognosis, the core‐binding factor for the subgroup of AMLs Objective: To describe a AML case in which the molecular study of the NPM1 gene and the chromosome 16 inversion were positive. Clinical case: At the molecular level, fluorescent in situ hybridization was positive for chromosome 16 inversion and, by molecular biology, it was positive for both chromosome 16 inversion and for the NPM1-A gene, elements with a low frequency of appearance. The patient was administered a non-intensive combination as part of a chemotherapy regimen to improve her clinical status. After initial clinical improvement, the patient began with complications and died. Conclusions: The coexistence of these two mutations is very rare in patients with AML. Despite presenting a good prognosis, the patient died after a few days of treatment(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16/genetics , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/diagnosis , Mutation/genetics , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence/methods , Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase/genetics
17.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(2): 185-189, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131063

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY The EIF1AX gene mutations have been recently associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma and anaplastic thyroid cancer. According with these reports, the gene as been considered as a drive gene for thyroid cancer development. However, the occurrence of these alterations in benign thyroid lesions is not known and is still under investigation. Some authors have already reported the presence of EIF1AX variants in follicular adenomas and hyperplastic nodules. Here, we describe for the first time a case of a man with the EIF1AX c.338-2A>T splice site mutation in an indeterminate FNA lesion with trabecular adenoma at final histology in the absence of other pathogenetic mutations, demonstrating that further studies are required to better understand EIF1AX role in the tumorigenesis of thyroid carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics , Adenoma/diagnosis , Adenoma/genetics , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-1/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Middle Aged
18.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(3): 143-148, Mar. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098069

ABSTRACT

Abstract Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) usually affects men. However, women are also affected in rare instances. Approximately 8% of female DMD carriers have muscle weakness and cardiomyopathy. The early identification of functional and motor impairments can support clinical decision making. Objective: To investigate the motor and functional impairments of 10 female patients with dystrophinopathy diagnosed with clinical, pathological, genetic and immunohistochemical studies. Methods: A descriptive study of a sample of symptomatic female carriers of DMD mutations. The studied variables were muscular strength and functional performance. Results: The prevalence was 10/118 (8.4%) symptomatic female carriers. Deletions were found in seven patients. The age of onset of symptoms in female carriers of DMD was quite variable. Pseudohypertrophy of calf muscles, muscular weakness, compensatory movements and longer timed performance on functional tasks were observed in most of the cases. Differently from males with DMD, seven female patients showed asymmetrical muscular weakness. The asymmetric presentation of muscle weakness was frequent and affected posture and functionality in some cases. The functional performance presents greater number of compensatory movements. Time of execution of activities was not a good biomarker of functionality for this population, because it does not change in the same proportion as the number of movement compensations. Conclusion: Clinical manifestation of asymmetrical muscle weakness and compensatory movements, or both can be found in female carriers of DMD mutations, which can adversely affect posture and functional performance of these patients.


Resumo A distrofia muscular de Duchenne (DMD) geralmente afeta indivíduos do sexo masculino. No entanto, mulheres também são acometidas em casos raros. Aproximadamente 8% das portadoras de DMD têm fraqueza muscular ou cardiomiopatia. A identificação precoce das alterações funcionais e motoras pode alterar a tomada de decisão clínica. Objetivo: Investigar as deficiências motoras e funcionais de 10 pacientes do sexo feminino com distrofinopatia diagnosticada por estudos clínicos, patológicos, genéticos e imuno-histoquímicos. Método: Estudo descritivo de uma amostra de portadoras sintomáticas de mutações DMD. As variáveis estudadas foram força muscular e desempenho funcional. Resultados: A prevalência foi de 10/118 (8,4%) de portadoras sintomáticas de DMD. Foram encontradas deleções em sete pacientes. A idade de início dos sintomas em portadoras de DMD foi variável. Pseudo-hipertrofia de panturrilhas, movimentos compensatórios, fraqueza muscular e aumento no tempo de execução de tarefas funcionais foram observados na maioria dos casos. Diferentemente dos homens com DMD, sete pacientes apresentaram fraqueza muscular assimétrica. A apresentação assimétrica da fraqueza muscular foi frequente, podendo afetar a postura e a funcionalidade. O desempenho funcional geralmente apresenta aumento no número de movimentos compensatórios. Não podemos sempre considerar o tempo como um bom marcador de funcionalidade para essa população, uma vez que não muda na mesma proporção que o número de compensações em todas essas pacientes. Conclusão: Fraqueza muscular assimétrica e movimentos compensatórios, ou ambos, podem ser encontrados em portadoras sintomáticas de DMD, o que pode afetar a postura e a funcionalidade dessas pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/diagnosis , Muscle Strength/physiology , Muscular Dystrophies/genetics , Cardiomyopathies/etiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Muscle Weakness/etiology , Muscle Weakness/epidemiology , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/genetics , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/epidemiology , Muscle Strength/genetics , Physical Functional Performance , Heterozygote , Muscular Dystrophies/physiopathology , Muscular Dystrophies/epidemiology , Mutation/genetics , Cardiomyopathies/epidemiology
19.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(1): 17-23, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088775

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective We aimed to identify the frequency of monogenic diabetes, which is poorly studied in multiethnic populations, due to GCK or HNF1A mutations in patients with suggestive clinical characteristics from the Brazilian population, as well as investigate if the MODY probability calculator (MPC) could help patients with their selection. Subjects and methods Inclusion criteria were patients with DM diagnosed before 35 years; body mass index < 30 kg/m2; negative autoantibodies; and family history of DM in two or more generations. We sequenced HNF1A in 27 patients and GCK in seven subjects with asymptomatic mild fasting hyperglycemia. In addition, we calculated MODY probability with MPC. Results We identified 11 mutations in 34 patients (32.3%). We found three novel mutations. In the GCK group, six cases had mutations (85.7%), and their MODY probability on MPC was higher than 50%. In the HNF1A group, five of 27 individuals had mutations (18.5%). The MPC was higher than 75% in 11 subjects (including all five cases with HNF1A mutations). Conclusion Approximately one third of the studied patients have GCK or HNF1A mutations. Inclusion criteria included efficiency in detecting patients with GCK mutations but not for HNF1A mutations (< 20%). MPC was helpful in narrowing the number of candidates for HNF1A screening.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-alpha/genetics , Glucokinase/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Pedigree , Phenotype , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Probability
20.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 178-184, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877896

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in high temperature requirement serine peptidase A1 (HTRA1) gene are responsible for cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CARASIL). Recently, increasing evidence has shown that heterozygous HTRA1 mutations are also associated with cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. This study was aimed to analyze the genetic and clinical characteristics of HTRA1-related autosomal dominant CSVD.@*METHODS@#We presented three new Chinese cases of familial CSVD with heterozygous HTRA1 mutations and reviewed all clinical case reports and articles on HTRA1-related autosomal dominant CSVD included in PUBMED by the end of March 1, 2020. CARASIL probands with genetic diagnosis reported to date were also reviewed. The genetic and clinical characteristics of HTRA1-related autosomal dominant CSVD were summarized and analyzed by comparing with CARASIL.@*RESULTS@#Forty-four HTRA1-related autosomal dominant CSVD probands and 22 CARASIL probands were included. Compared with typical CARASIL, HTRA1-related autosomal dominant probands has a higher proportion of vascular risk factors (P < 0.001), a later onset age (P < 0.001), and a relatively slower clinical progression. Alopecia and spondylosis can be observed, but less than those in the typical CARASIL. Thirty-five heterozygous mutations in HTRA1 were reported, most of which were missense mutations. Amino acids located close to amino acids 250-300 were most frequently affected, followed by these located near 150∼200. While amino acids 250∼300 were also the most frequently affected region in CARASIL patients, fewer mutations precede the 200th amino acids were detected, especially in the Kazal-type serine protease domain.@*CONCLUSIONS@#HTRA1-related autosomal dominant CSVD is present as a mild phenotype of CARASIL. The trend of regional concentration of mutation sites may be related to the concentration of key sites in these regions which are responsible for pathogenesis of HTRA1-related autosomal dominant CSVD.


Subject(s)
Cerebral Infarction , Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases/genetics , Heterozygote , High-Temperature Requirement A Serine Peptidase 1/genetics , Humans , Leukoencephalopathies/genetics , Mutation/genetics
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