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Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256923, 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360219


Naturally occurring mutations in morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) are associated with decreased ovulation rate (OR), litter size (LS), and sterility. It is of a great interest to elucidate BMP15 gene in Cholistani sheep breed to uplift socio-economic status and the knowledge of Cholistani sheep breeding in Southern Punjab, Pakistan. In our study, a total of 50 infertile Cholistani sheep aged between 2-6 years and having no blood relation were screened for BMP15 mutations. For this purpose, a high-quality DNA was extracted from the blood of sheep followed by primer designing, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification, DNA sequencing, and in silico analyses. Out of total 50 samples, 9 samples including case 1 (T3), case 2 (T8), case 3 (T17), case 4 (T22), case 5 (T25), case 6 (T33), case 7 (T40), case 8 (T44), and case 9 (T47) were found positive for a variety of already reported and novel BMP15 mutations. Further in silico analyses of the observed mutations have shown the functional impact of these mutations on different characteristics (molecular weight, theoretical PI, estimated half-life, instability index, sub-cellular localization, and 3D confirmation) of the encoded proteins, possibly altering the normal functionality. In a nutshell, findings of this study have confirmed the possible essential role of the BMP15 mutations in the infertility of the Cholistani sheep.

Mutações de ocorrência natural na proteína morfogenética 15 (BMP15) estão associadas à diminuição da taxa de ovulação (TO), tamanho da ninhada (TN) e esterilidade. Estudar a BMP15 na raça Cholistani para elevar o status socioeconômico e o conhecimento da criação de ovinos Cholistani no sul de Punjab, Paquistão. Em nosso estudo, 50 ovelhas Cholistani inférteis sem parentesco sanguíneo foram rastreadas para mutações BMP15. Para tanto, um DNA de alta qualidade foi extraído do sangue dessas ovelhas, seguido de concepção do primer, amplificação da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR), sequenciamento de DNA e análises in silico. Do total de 50 amostras, 9, incluindo caso 1 (T3), caso 2 (T8), caso 3 (T17), caso 4 (T22), caso 5 (T25), caso 6 (T33), caso 7 (T40), caso 8 (T44) e caso 9 (T47), foram consideradas positivas para uma variedade de mutações BMP15 novas e já relatadas. Mais análises in silico das mutações observadas mostraram o impacto funcional dessas mutações em diferentes características (peso molecular, PI teórico, meia-vida estimada, índice de instabilidade, localização subcelular e confirmação 3D) das proteínas codificadas, possivelmente alterando a funcionalidade normal. Nossos achados confirmaram o possível papel essencial das mutações BMP15 na infertilidade de ovelhas Cholistani.

Animals , Sheep , Infertility , Mutation/genetics
Femina ; 51(12): 692-696, 20231230. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1532473


A síndrome de Reed ocorre em mulheres com múltiplos leiomiomas cutâneos e leiomiomatose uterina. Relatam-se três casos de pacientes do sexo feminino, acompanhadas em hospital universitário, com pápulas e nódulos eritêmato-acas- tanhados dolorosos em membros superiores e tórax, agravados por frio, pressão e estresse, e associados a miomatose uterina. Foram realizados diversos tratamentos prévios, sem sucesso, tais como: aplicação de corticoterapia e toxina botulínica intralesional, bloqueadores de canais de cálcio, neuromoduladores e analgésicos orais. Foi, então, realizado tratamento cirúrgico, com melhora dos sintomas. O co- nhecimento e o esclarecimento dessa síndrome é fundamental para estabelecer a relação com miomatose uterina e câncer de células renais, para que, então, a partir da lesão de pele, se faça o rastreio das demais neoplasias, diagnóstico precoce e a educação em saúde.

Reed syndrome occurs in women with multiple cutaneous leiomyomas and uterine leiomyomatosis. We report the case of three female patients followed at a university hospital with painful erythematous-brown papules and nodules on the upper limbs and chest, aggravated by cold, pressure, stress, and associated with uterine myoma- tosis. Several previous unsuccessful treatments were performed, such as the applica- tion of corticotherapy and intralesional botulinum toxin, calcium channel blockers, neuromodulators, and analgesics. Surgical treatment was performed with the im- provement of symptoms. Knowledge and clarification of this syndrome are essential to establish a relationship between uterine myomatosis and renal cell neoplasm, so that, after the skin lesion, screening for other neoplasms, early diagnosis, and health education can be carried out.

Humans , Female , Skin Abnormalities , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Neoplasms , Leiomyomatosis/prevention & control , Thorax/physiopathology , Women's Health , Leiomyomatosis/surgery , Extremities/physiopathology , Kidney Neoplasms/diagnosis , Mutation/genetics
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1949-1958, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980980


BACKGROUND@#Previous research demonstrated that a homozygous mutation of g.136372044G>A (S12N) in caspase recruitment domain family member 9 ( CARD9 ) is critical for producing Aspergillus fumigatus -induced ( Af -induced) T helper 2 (T H 2)-mediated responses in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). However, it remains unclear whether the CARD9S12N mutation, especially the heterozygous occurrence, predisposes the host to ABPA.@*METHODS@#A total of 61 ABPA patients and 264 controls (including 156 healthy controls and 108 asthma patients) were recruited for sequencing the CARD9 locus to clarify whether patients with this heterozygous single-nucleotide polymorphisms are predisposed to the development of ABPA. A series of in vivo and in vitro experiments, such as quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, flow cytometry, and RNA isolation and quantification, were used to illuminate the involved mechanism of the disease.@*RESULTS@#The presence of the p.S12N mutation was associated with a significant risk of ABPA in ABPA patients when compared with healthy controls and asthma patients, regardless of Aspergillus sensitivity. Relative to healthy controls without relevant allergies, the mutation of p.S12N was associated with a significant risk of ABPA (OR: 2.69 and 4.17 for GA and AA genotypes, P = 0.003 and 0.029, respectively). Compared with patients with asthma, ABPA patients had a significantly higher heterozygous mutation (GA genotype), indicating that p.S12N might be a significant ABPA-susceptibility locus ( aspergillus sensitized asthma: OR: 3.02, P = 0.009; aspergillus unsensitized asthma: OR: 2.94, P = 0.005). The mutant allele was preferentially expressed in ABPA patients with heterozygous CARD9S12N , which contributes to its functional alterations to facilitate Af -induced T H 2-mediated ABPA development. In terms of mechanism, Card9 wild-type ( Card9WT ) expression levels decreased significantly due to Af -induced decay of its messenger RNA compared to the heterozygous Card9S12N . In addition, ABPA patients with heterozygous CARD9S12N had increased Af -induced interleukin-5 production.@*CONCLUSION@#Our study provides the genetic evidence showing that the heterozygous mutation of CARD9S12N , followed by allele expression imbalance of CARD9S12N , facilitates the development of ABPA.

Humans , Aspergillosis, Allergic Bronchopulmonary/complications , Aspergillus fumigatus/genetics , Asthma/genetics , Aspergillus , Mutation/genetics , CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins/genetics
International Journal of Oral Science ; (4): 46-46, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010701


Hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) is a rare inherited condition with fibromatoid hyperplasia of the gingival tissue that exhibits great genetic heterogeneity. Five distinct loci related to non-syndromic HGF have been identified; however, only two disease-causing genes, SOS1 and REST, inducing HGF have been identified at two loci, GINGF1 and GINGF5, respectively. Here, based on a family pedigree with 26 members, including nine patients with HGF, we identified double heterozygous pathogenic mutations in the ZNF513 (c.C748T, p.R250W) and KIF3C (c.G1229A, p.R410H) genes within the GINGF3 locus related to HGF. Functional studies demonstrated that the ZNF513 p.R250W and KIF3C p.R410H variants significantly increased the expression of ZNF513 and KIF3C in vitro and in vivo. ZNF513, a transcription factor, binds to KIF3C exon 1 and participates in the positive regulation of KIF3C expression in gingival fibroblasts. Furthermore, a knock-in mouse model confirmed that heterozygous or homozygous mutations within Zfp513 (p.R250W) or Kif3c (p.R412H) alone do not led to clear phenotypes with gingival fibromatosis, whereas the double mutations led to gingival hyperplasia phenotypes. In addition, we found that ZNF513 binds to the SOS1 promoter and plays an important positive role in regulating the expression of SOS1. Moreover, the KIF3C p.R410H mutation could activate the PI3K and KCNQ1 potassium channels. ZNF513 combined with KIF3C regulates gingival fibroblast proliferation, migration, and fibrosis response via the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathways. In summary, these results demonstrate ZNF513 + KIF3C as an important genetic combination in HGF manifestation and suggest that ZNF513 mutation may be a major risk factor for HGF.

Animals , Humans , Mice , Fibromatosis, Gingival/pathology , Gingiva , Kinesins/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/genetics
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1469-1480, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010613


Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interactions and repetitive behaviors. Although hundreds of ASD risk genes, implicated in synaptic formation and transcriptional regulation, have been identified through human genetic studies, the East Asian ASD cohorts are still under-represented in genome-wide genetic studies. Here, we applied whole-exome sequencing to 369 ASD trios including probands and unaffected parents of Chinese origin. Using a joint-calling analytical pipeline based on GATK toolkits, we identified numerous de novo mutations including 55 high-impact variants and 165 moderate-impact variants, as well as de novo copy number variations containing known ASD-related genes. Importantly, combined with single-cell sequencing data from the developing human brain, we found that the expression of genes with de novo mutations was specifically enriched in the pre-, post-central gyrus (PRC, PC) and banks of the superior temporal (BST) regions in the human brain. By further analyzing the brain imaging data with ASD and healthy controls, we found that the gray volume of the right BST in ASD patients was significantly decreased compared to healthy controls, suggesting the potential structural deficits associated with ASD. Finally, we found a decrease in the seed-based functional connectivity between BST/PC/PRC and sensory areas, the insula, as well as the frontal lobes in ASD patients. This work indicated that combinatorial analysis with genome-wide screening, single-cell sequencing, and brain imaging data reveal the brain regions contributing to the etiology of ASD.

Humans , Autism Spectrum Disorder/metabolism , Autistic Disorder , Exome Sequencing , DNA Copy Number Variations , East Asian People , Brain/metabolism , Mutation/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2712-2721, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007683


BACKGROUND@#Thymic carcinomas (TCs) and thymic neuroendocrine neoplasms (TNENs) are two aggressive subtypes of thymic malignancy. Traditional therapy for advanced TCs and TNENs has limited outcome. New genomic profiling of TCs and TNENs might provide insights that contribute to the development of new treatment approaches.@*METHODS@#We used gene panel sequencing technologies to investigate the genetic aberrations of 32 TC patients and 15 TNEN patients who underwent surgery at Shanghai Chest Hospital between 2015 and 2017. Patient samples were sequenced using a 324-gene platform with licensed technologies. In this study, we focused on clinically relevant genomic alterations (CRGAs), which are previously proven to be pathogenic alterations, to identify the pathology-specific mutational patterns, prognostic signatures of TCs and TNENs.@*RESULTS@#The mutational profiles between TCs and TNENs were diverse. The genetic alterations that ranked highest in TCs were in CDKN2A, TP53, ASXL1, CDKN2B, PIK3C2G, PTCH1, and ROS1 , while those in TNENs were in MEN1, MLL2, APC, RB1 , and TSC2 . Prognostic analysis showed that mutations of ROS1, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, BRAF, and BAP1 were significantly associated with worse outcomes in TC patients, and that mutation of ERBB2 indicated shortened disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in TNEN patients. Further investigation found that the prognosis-related genes were focused on signal pathways of cell cycle control, chromatin remodeling/DNA methylation, phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)/RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling.@*CONCLUSION@#We profiled the mutational features of 47 Chinese patients with thymic malignancy of diverse pathologic phenotypes to uncover the integrated genomic landscape of these rare tumors, and identified the pathology-specific mutational patterns, prognostic signatures, and potential therapeutic targets for TCs and TNENs.

Humans , Thymoma , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , China , Thymus Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis , Neuroendocrine Tumors/pathology , Mutation/genetics
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2776-2786, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007602


Epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR ) mutations are common oncogenic driver mutations in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The application of EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is beneficial for patients with advanced and early-stage NSCLC. With the development of next-generation sequencing technology, numerous patients have been found to have more than one genetic mutation in addition to a single EGFR mutation; however, the efficacy of conventional EGFR-TKIs and the optimal treatments for such patients remain largely unknown. Thus, we review the incidence, prognosis, and current treatment regimens of EGFR compound mutations and EGFR concomitant mutations to provide treatment recommendations and guidance for patients with these mutations.

Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Mutation/genetics , ErbB Receptors
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2551-2561, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007566


BACKGROUND@#The brain is a common metastatic site in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), resulting in a relatively poor prognosis. Systemic therapy with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is recommended as the first-line treatment for EGFR -mutated, advanced NSCLC patients. However, intracranial activity varies in different drugs. Thus, brain metastasis (BM) should be considered when choosing the treatment regimens. We conducted this network meta-analysis to explore the optimal first-line therapeutic schedule for advanced EGFR -mutated NSCLC patients with different BM statuses.@*METHODS@#Randomized controlled trials focusing on EGFR-TKIs (alone or in combination) in advanced and EGFR -mutant NSCLC patients, who have not received systematic treatment, were systematically searched up to December 2021. We extracted and analyzed progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). A network meta-analysis was performed with the Bayesian statistical model to determine the survival outcomes of all included therapy regimens using the R software. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to compare intervention measures, and overall rankings of therapies were estimated under the Bayesian framework.@*RESULTS@#This analysis included 17 RCTs with 5077 patients and 12 therapies, including osimertinib + bevacizumab, aumolertinib, osimertinib, afatinib, dacomitinib, standards of care (SoC, including gefitinib, erlotinib, or icotinib), SoC + apatinib, SoC + bevacizumab, SoC + ramucirumab, SoC + pemetrexed based chemotherapy (PbCT), PbCT, and pemetrexed free chemotherapy (PfCT). For patients with BM, SoC + PbCT improved PFS compared with SoC (HR = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.17-0.95), and osimertinib + bevacizumab was most likely to rank first in PFS, with a cumulative probability of 34.5%, followed by aumolertinib, with a cumulative probability of 28.3%. For patients without BM, osimertinib + bevacizumab, osimertinib, aumolertinib, SoC + PbCT, dacomitinib, SoC + ramucirumab, SoC + bevacizumab, and afatinib showed superior efficacy compared with SoC (HR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.20-0.90; HR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.31-0.68; HR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.34-0.77; HR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.38-0.66; HR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.43-0.89; HR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.44-0.94; HR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.48-0.76; HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.50-1.00), PbCT (HR = 0.29, 95% CI: 0.11-0.74; HR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.15-0.62; HR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.17-0.69; HR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.18-0.64; HR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.21-0.82; HR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.22-0.87; HR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.22-0.74; HR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.31-0.75), and PfCT (HR = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.06-0.32; HR = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.09-0.26; HR = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.09-0.29; HR = 0.16, 95% CI: 0.10-0.26; HR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.12-0.35; HR = 0.21, 95% CI: 0.12-0.39; HR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.12-0.31; HR = 0.23, 95% CI: 0.16-0.34) in terms of PFS. And, SoC + apatinib showed relatively superior PFS when compared with PbCT (HR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.22-0.92) and PfCT (HR = 0.21, 95% CI: 0.12-0.39), but similar PFS to SoC (HR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.42-1.03). No statistical differences were observed for PFS in patients without BM between PbCT and SoC (HR = 1.49, 95% CI: 0.84-2.64), but both showed favorable PFS when compared with PfCT (PfCT vs. SoC, HR = 3.09, 95% CI: 2.06-4.55; PbCT vs. PfCT, HR = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.06-0.32). For patients without BM, osimertinib + bevacizumab was most likely to rank the first, with cumulative probabilities of 47.1%. For OS, SoC + PbCT was most likely to rank first in patients with and without BM, with cumulative probabilities of 46.8%, and 37.3%, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#Osimertinib + bevacizumab is most likely to rank first in PFS in advanced EGFR -mutated NSCLC patients with or without BM, and SoC + PbCT is most likely to rank first in OS.

Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/metabolism , Afatinib/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/metabolism , Bevacizumab/therapeutic use , Bayes Theorem , Network Meta-Analysis , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pemetrexed/therapeutic use , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Brain Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation/genetics
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1517022


Galloway­Mowat syndrome (GAMOS) is a rare hereditary disease manifested as a combination of nephrotic syndrome and central nervous system impairment. To date, many GAMOS cases attributed to various gene mutations have been reported such as WHAMM, NUP107, WDR73, OSGEP, and TP53RK. We detected two novel homozygous mutations of WDR73 ''NM_032856:c.G287A:p.R96K'' and TP53RK ''NM_033550:c.A193O:p.K65Q'' in two female kids of the consanguineous parents from different families using whole exome sequencing. Both patients almost manifested similar neurodegenerative phenotypes, including developmental delay, microcephaly, hypotonia, and brain atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging during infancy. WDR73-positive GAMOS case manifested a lateonset minimal nephrotic syndrome at the age 4 years while TP53RK-positive case presented nephrotic syndrome at the age 1 which progressed to steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome due to lack of remission after 4-6 weeks of initial treatment with prednisone. Despite the brain abnormalities and the onset time difference of renal abnormalities, both patients are still alive. Given the heterogeneity of the renal phenotype among GAMOS types, accurate recognition of expanding spectrum of phenotype findings and regular renal function screening are necessary for an early diagnosis and timely treatment

A síndrome de Galloway-Mowat (GAMOS) é uma doença hereditária rara que se manifesta como uma combinação de síndrome nefrótica e comprometimento do sistema nervoso central. Até o momento, foram relatados muitos casos de GAMOS atribuídos a várias mutações genéticas, como WHAMM, NUP107, WDR73, OSGEP e TP53RK. Detectamos duas novas mutações homozigóticas de WDR73 ''NM_032856:c.G287A:p.R96K'' e TP53RK ''NM_033550:c.A193O:p.K65Q'' em duas crianças do sexo feminino, de pais consanguíneos de diferentes famílias usando o exoma completo de sequenciamento. Ambos os pacientes manifestaram fenótipos neurodegenerativos semelhantes, incluindo atraso no desenvolvimento, microcefalia, hipotonia e atrofia cerebral por ressonância magnética durante a infância. O caso GAMOS positivo para WDR73 manifestou síndrome nefrótica mínima de início tardio aos quatro anos de idade, enquanto o caso positivo para TP53RK apresentou síndrome nefrótica com um ano de idade, que progrediu para síndrome nefrótica resistente a esteroides devido à falta de remissão após quatro a seis semanas de tratamento inicial com prednisona. Apesar das anormalidades cerebrais e da diferença de tempo de início das anormalidades renais, ambos os pacientes ainda estão vivos. Dada a heterogeneidade do fenótipo renal entre os tipos de GAMOS, o reconhecimento preciso do espectro em expansão dos achados fenótipos e a triagem regular da função renal são necessários para um diagnóstico precoce e tratamento oportuno

Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Mutation/genetics
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246040, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285610


Abstract Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a congenitally reduced head circumference (-3 to -5 SD) and non-progressive intellectual disability. The objective of the study was to evaluate pathogenic mutations in the ASPM gene to understand etiology and molecular mechanism of primary microcephaly. Blood samples were collected from various families across different remote areas of Pakistan from February 2017 to May 2019 who were identified to be affected with primary microcephaly. DNA extraction was performed using the salting-out method; the quality and quantity of DNA were evaluated using spectrophotometry and 1% agarose gel electrophoresis, respectively in University of the Punjab. Mutation analysis was performed by whole exome sequencing from the Cologne Center for Genomics, University of Cologne. Sanger sequencing was done in University of the Punjab to confirm the pathogenic nature of mutation. A novel 4-bp deletion mutation c.3877_3880delGAGA was detected in exon 17 of the ASPM gene in two primary microcephaly affected families (A and B), which resulted in a frame shift mutation in the gene followed by truncated protein synthesis (p.Glu1293Lysfs*10), as well as the loss of the calmodulin-binding IQ domain and the Armadillo-like domain in the ASPM protein. Using the in-silico tools Mutation Taster, PROVEAN, and PolyPhen, the pathogenic effect of this novel mutation was tested; it was predicted to be "disease causing," with high pathogenicity scores. One previously reported mutation in exon 24 (c.9730C>T) of the ASPM gene resulting in protein truncation (p.Arg3244*) was also observed in family C. Mutations in the ASPM gene are the most common cause of MCPH in most cases. Therefore, enrolling additional affected families from remote areas of Pakistan would help in identifying or mapping novel mutations in the ASPM gene of primary microcephaly.

Resumo Microcefalia primária autossômica recessiva (MCPH) é um distúrbio do neurodesenvolvimento caracterizado por uma redução congênita do perímetro cefálico (-3 a -5 DP) e deficiência intelectual não progressiva. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar mutações patogênicas no gene ASPM a fim de compreender a etiologia e o mecanismo molecular da microcefalia primária. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas de várias famílias em diferentes áreas remotas do Paquistão de fevereiro de 2017 a maio de 2019, que foram identificadas como afetadas com microcefalia primária. A extração do DNA foi realizada pelo método salting-out; a qualidade e a quantidade de DNA foram avaliadas por espectrofotometria e eletroforese em gel de agarose a 1%, respectivamente, na Universidade de Punjab. A análise de mutação foi realizada por sequenciamento completo do exoma do Cologne Center for Genomics, University of Cologne. O sequenciamento de Sanger foi feito na Universidade do Punjab para confirmar a natureza patogênica da mutação. Uma nova mutação de deleção de 4 bp c.3877_3880delGAGA foi detectada no exon 17 do gene ASPM em duas famílias afetadas por microcefalia primária (A e B), que resultou em uma mutação de frame shift no gene seguida por síntese de proteína truncada (pGlu1293Lysfs * 10), bem como a perda do domínio IQ de ligação à calmodulina e o domínio do tipo Armadillo na proteína ASPM. Usando as ferramentas in-silico Mutation Taster, PROVEAN e PolyPhen, o efeito patogênico dessa nova mutação foi testado; foi previsto ser "causador de doenças", com altos escores de patogenicidade. Uma mutação relatada anteriormente no exon 24 (c.9730C > T) do gene ASPM, resultando em truncamento de proteína (p.Arg3244 *) também foi observada na família C. Mutações no gene ASPM são a causa mais comum de MCPH na maioria dos casos . Portanto, a inscrição de famílias afetadas adicionais de áreas remotas do Paquistão ajudaria a identificar ou mapear novas mutações no gene ASPM da microcefalia primária.

Humans , Microcephaly/genetics , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Pakistan , Consanguinity , Mutation/genetics
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 176-183, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970052


BACKGROUND@#Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (JALS) is an uncommon form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis whose age at onset (AAO) is defined as prior to 25 years. FUS mutations are the most common cause of JALS. SPTLC1 was recently identified as a disease-causative gene for JALS, which has rarely been reported in Asian populations. Little is known regarding the difference in clinical features between JALS patients carrying FUS and SPTLC1 mutations. This study aimed to screen mutations in JALS patients and to compare the clinical features between JALS patients with FUS and SPTLC1 mutations.@*METHODS@#Sixteen JALS patients were enrolled, including three newly recruited patients between July 2015 and August 2018 from the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine. Mutations were screened by whole-exome sequencing. In addition, clinical features such as AAO, onset site and disease duration were extracted and compared between JALS patients carrying FUS and SPTLC1 mutations through a literature review.@*RESULTS@#A novel and de novo SPTLC1 mutation (c.58G>A, p.A20T) was identified in a sporadic patient. Among 16 JALS patients, 7/16 carried FUS mutations and 5/16 carried respective SPTLC1 , SETX , NEFH , DCTN1 , and TARDBP mutations. Compared with FUS mutation patients, those with SPTLC1 mutations had an earlier AAO (7.9 ± 4.6 years vs. 18.1 ± 3.9 years, P  < 0.01), much longer disease duration (512.0 [416.7-607.3] months vs. 33.4 [21.6-45.1] months, P  < 0.01), and no onset of bulbar.@*CONCLUSION@#Our findings expand the genetic and phenotypic spectrum of JALS and help to better understand the genotype-phenotype correlation of JALS.

Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/genetics , DNA Helicases/genetics , Genetic Association Studies , Multifunctional Enzymes/genetics , Mutation/genetics , RNA Helicases/genetics , RNA-Binding Protein FUS/genetics , Serine C-Palmitoyltransferase/genetics
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(1): 32-39, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364313


ABSTRACT Objetivo: Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) patients have clinical heterogeneity as shown by many studies. Thus, often it is misdiagnosed to type 1 or type 2 diabetes(T2DM). The aim of this study is to evaluate MODY mutations in adult T2DM patients suspicious in terms of MODY, and to show clinical and laboratory differences between these two situations. Subjects and methods: In this study, we analyzed 72 type 2 diabetic patients and their relatives (35F/37M) who had been suspected for MODY and referred to genetic department for mutation analysis. The gene mutations for MODY have been assessed in the laboratory of Marmara University genetics. Totally 67 (32F/35M; median age 36.1) diabetic patients were analyzed for 7 MODY mutations. Twelve patients who have uncertain mutation (VUS) were excluded from study for further evaluation. MODY(+) (n:30) patients and T2DM patients (n:25) were compared for clinical and laboratory parameters. Results: In MODY(+) subjects, mutations in GCK (MODY 2) (n:12; 40%) were the most common followed by HNF4A (MODY 1) (n:4; 13.3%). Diabetes diagnosis age was younger in MODY(+) group but not statistically significant. Sixty-six percent of MODY(+) subjects had diabetes history at 3-consecutive generations in their family compared with 28% of T2DM patients statistically significant (p:0.006). Gender, BMI, C-peptide, HbA1c, lipid parameters, creatinine, GFR, microalbuminuria, vitamin D and calcium were not statistically different between the groups. Conclusion: According to present study results, MODY mutation positivity is most probable in young autoantibody (-) diabetic patients diagnosed before 30 years of age, who have first degree family history of diabetes.

Humans , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , C-Peptide , Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-alpha/genetics , Mutation/genetics
Rev. ANACEM (Impresa) ; 16(2): 101-107, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1525495


Las N-terminal acetiltransferasas (NaT) son fundamentales en el desarrollo, funcionamiento y vida media celular, acetilando gran parte del proteoma humano. Entre las ocho NaT identificadas, N-terminal acetiltransferasa A (NaTA) acetila a un mayor número de sustratos, teniendo además un rol fundamental en el neurodesarrollo. Previamente, estudios han demostrado que mutaciones en la subunidad catalítica de NaTA, NAA10, se asocian con trastornos del neurodesarrollo. Sin embargo, nuevas líneas investigativas sugieren que mutaciones de la subunidad auxiliar, NAA15, también tendrían un rol importante en el desarrollo de estos trastornos. Esta revisión se realiza con el objetivo de recopilar evidencia sobre variantes de NAA15 relacionadas con Discapacidad Intelectual (DI) y Trastorno de Espectro Autista (TEA). Se consultaron fuentes actualizadas sobre acetilación N-terminal, NaT, DI y TEA y mutaciones reportadas de NAA15 y sus expresiones fenotípicas, publicadas entre 2011 y 2022. Se concluye que, aun cuando existe relación entre mutaciones de NAA15, DI y TEA, todavía es necesario esclarecer los mecanismos fisiopatológicos de estos trastornos, el rol de NaTA y el impacto de variantes de sus subunidades en las vías moleculares y el fenotipo, lo que se dificulta por razones que van desde la complejidad de estas vías hasta el elevado costo de análisis genéticos. Se sugiere continuar la investigación en esta área, para comprender las bases moleculares subyacentes a estos trastornos y el rol de las mutaciones en subunidades de NaTA, con el fin último de estudiar potenciales tratamientos que mejoren la calidad de vida de las personas con estos trastornos y sus familias.

Nt-acetyltransferases (NaT) are essential in cell development, function and half-life, catalyzing most of the human proteome. Among the eight NaTs identified, N-terminal acetyltransferase A (NaTA) acetylates a greater number of substrates, also having a fundamental role in neurodevelopment. Previously, studies have shown that mutations in the catalytic subunit of NaTA, NAA10, are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. However, new research lines suggest that mutations of the NAA15 helper subunit also plays an important role in the development of these disorders. This review is carried out with the objective of gathering evidence on NAA15 variants related to Intellectual Disability (ID) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Updated sources on N-terminal acetylation, N-acetyltransferases, DI and TEA and reported mutations of NAA15 and their phenotypic expressions, published between 2011 and 2022 were consulted. It is concluded that even though there is a relationship between mutations of NAA15, ID and ASD exists, it is still necessary to clarify the pathophysiological mechanisms of these disorders, the role of NaTA and the impact of variants of its subunits in the molecular pathways and in the phenotype, for reasons ranging from the complexity of these pathways to the high cost of genetic testing. It is suggested to continue research in this area, to understand the molecular bases underlying these disorders and the role of mutations in NatA subunits, with the ultimate aim of studying potential treatments that improve the quality of life of people with these disorders and their families.

Humans , N-Terminal Acetyltransferase A/genetics , Autism Spectrum Disorder/genetics , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Genetic Variation , N-Terminal Acetyltransferase A/metabolism , Mutation/genetics
Clin. biomed. res ; 42(1): 93-95, 2022. il.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391340


Central nervous system high-grade neuroepithelial tumors with BCOR alteration are rare. Currently, there are only 24 cases reported in the literature. These tumors are characterized by a change involving the BCOR gene and have a poor prognosis. Studies are needed to improve the current therapy and outcomes of these neoplasms. This case report describes the clinical history of a patient with this disease and aims to contribute to the current knowledge about this new entity.

Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Central Nervous System/pathology , Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial/diagnosis , Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial/genetics , Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial/pathology , Mutation/genetics
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-24, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468567


The mutations are genetic changes in the genome sequences and have a significant role in biotechnology, genetics, and molecular biology even to find out the genome sequences of a cell DNA along with the viral RNA sequencing. The mutations are the alterations in DNA that may be natural or spontaneous and induced due to biochemical reactions or radiations which damage cell DNA. There is another cause of mutations which is known as transposons or jumping genes which can change their position in the genome during meiosis or DNA replication. The transposable elements can induce by self in the genome due to cellular and molecular mechanisms including hypermutation which caused the localization of transposable elements to move within the genome. The use of induced mutations for studying the mutagenesis in crop plants is very common as well as a promising method for screening crop plants with new and enhanced traits for the improvement of yield and production. The utilization of insertional mutations through transposons or jumping genes usually generates stable mutant alleles which are mostly tagged for the presence or absence of jumping genes or transposable elements. The transposable elements may be used for the identification of mutated genes in crop plants and even for the stable insertion of transposable elements in mutated crop plants. The guanine nucleotide-binding (GTP) proteins have an important role in inducing tolerance in rice plants to combat abiotic stress conditions.

Mutações são alterações genéticas nas sequências do genoma e têm papel significativo na biotecnologia, genética e biologia molecular, até mesmo para descobrir as sequências do genoma de um DNA celular junto com o sequenciamento do RNA viral. As mutações são alterações no DNA que podem ser naturais ou espontâneas e induzidas devido a reações bioquímicas ou radiações que danificam o DNA celular. Há outra causa de mutações, conhecida como transposons ou genes saltadores, que podem mudar sua posição no genoma durante a meiose ou a replicação do DNA. Os elementos transponíveis podem induzir por si próprios no genoma devido a mecanismos celulares e moleculares, incluindo hipermutação que causou a localização dos elementos transponíveis para se moverem dentro do genoma. O uso de mutações induzidas para estudar a mutagênese em plantas cultivadas é muito comum, bem como um método promissor para a triagem de plantas cultivadas com características novas e aprimoradas para a melhoria da produtividade e da produção. A utilização de mutações de inserção por meio de transposons ou genes saltadores geralmente gera alelos mutantes estáveis que são marcados quanto à presença ou ausência de genes saltadores ou elementos transponíveis. Os elementos transponíveis podem ser usados para a identificação de genes mutados em plantas de cultivo e até mesmo para a inserção estável de elementos transponíveis em plantas de cultivo mutadas. As proteínas de ligação ao nucleotídeo guanina (GTP) têm papel importante na indução de tolerância em plantas de arroz para combater as condições de estresse abiótico.

DNA Transposable Elements/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Guanine Nucleotides/analysis , Oryza/genetics
Rev. bras. neurol ; 57(3): 16-23, jul.-set. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342511


Amyloidosis are characterized by mutations in the gene coding for transthyretin (TTR), located on chromosome 18. TTR is a set of four 127-aminoacid polypeptides structured as homotetrameric protein of 56 kDa with a secondary ß sheet structure. It plays the role of thyroxin (T4) carrier, and has a binding domain for retinol (vitamin A). It is synthesized in the liver, although a small quantity is also produced by the choroid plexus, and retinal cells. Mutations of this gene result in loss of tetramer stability. Insoluble amyloid fibrils (AF) are formed and deposited in tissues and organs. The abnormal aggregation of TTR protein trigger several syndromes, such as familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP-TTR), cardiomyopathies (CMP), and senile systemic amyloidosis (SSA). It is estimated there are 5,000 to 10,000 cases of FAP-TTR globally. OBJECTIVE: The study intends to develop an online platform for the diagnosis of FAP-TTR. The aim is to facilitate the diagnosis process and promote a tool for epidemiological study. METHODS: The project was based on a literature review featuring clinical and epidemiological evidence for the development of a practical platform (applied research). RESULTS: It was elaborated a platform containing a questionnaire to allow a more dynamic, cheaper, and efficient operation, mediated by a better characterization of the disease to enable its early diagnosis. CONCLUSION: The platform might become a valuable resource for the characterization, diagnosis, and future epidemiological study of FAP-TTR

As amiloidoses se caracterizam por mutações no gene codificante da transtirretina (TTR) no cromossomo 18. A proteína TTR compõe-se de uma corrente de polipeptídios de 127 resíduos, que constituem uma proteína homotetramérica de 56kDa com estrutura secundária de folha ß, que serve como proteína de deslocamento para a tiroxina (T4), e uma proteína de ligação ao retinol (vitamina A). O principal local de produção dessa proteína é o fígado, embora uma pequena quantidade seja produzida pelo plexo coroide e pelas células retinianas. O gene codificante da TTR (18q11.2-12) é pequeno (7 kb) e contém quatro éxons. As mutações convertem-se em perda do equilíbrio do tetrâmero proteico. Surgem assim, fibrilas amiloides (FA) em cadeias não ramificadas de 10 a 12 nm de diâmetro e fibrilas indissolúveis, que se condensam nos tecidos e órgãos. As síndromes concernentes ao acúmulo da proteína TTR são: polineuropatia amiloidótica familiar (PAFTTR), miocardiopatias (MCP) e amiloidose sistêmica senil (ASS). Estimativa recente relatou a existência de 5.000 a 10.000 casos de PAFTTR no mundo. OBJETIVO: O estudo objetiva elaborar uma plataforma de diagnóstico PAFTTR on-line para auxiliar como ferramenta de contribuição para o estudo da epidemiologia e facilitar o diagnóstico. MÉTODOS: O projeto baseou-se em uma pesquisa bibliográfica capaz de levantar evidências clínicas e epidemiológicas na elaboração de uma plataforma facilitadora (pesquisa aplicada). RESULTADOS: O resultado alcançado foi a elaboração da plataforma contendo um questionário, que tornará o trabalho dos profissionais mais dinâmico, barato e eficiente, caracterizando melhor a doença e promovendo um diagnóstico precoce. CONCLUSÃO: A plataforma poderá tornar-se recurso valioso para caracterização, diagnóstico e futuro estudo epidemiológico da PAF-TTR

Humans , Male , Female , Prealbumin/genetics , Epidemiologic Studies , Amyloid Neuropathies, Familial/diagnosis , Amyloid Neuropathies, Familial/genetics , Amyloidosis , Mutation/genetics , Genetic Testing , Surveys and Questionnaires
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): e340-e344, agosto 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1281780


La acrodisostosis es una displasia esquelética rara, de herencia autosómica dominante, que se caracteriza por la presencia de disostosis facial y periférica, talla baja y diferentes grados de obesidad. La acrodisostosis de tipo 1, secundaria a la mutación heterocigota en el gen PRKAR1A (17q24.2), se caracteriza por la asociación de resistencia hormonal múltiple con anomalías esqueléticas. Su incidencia está infradiagnosticada debido a que comparte rasgos clínicos y de laboratorio con otras entidades como el seudohipoparatiroidismo. Presentamos el caso de una niña de 8 años, con acrodisostosis tipo 1, confirmada mediante estudio genético. Además del fenotipo característico descrito, la talla baja y la resistencia hormonal, la paciente presentó una afectación progresiva de la función pulmonar: un patrón pulmonar obstructivo no reversible. En la literatura revisada, no se han encontrado otros casos que describan esta asociación entre acrodisostosis y afectación respiratoria.

Acrodysostosis is a rare skeletal displasia, of autosomal dominant inheritance, characterized by the presence of facial and peripheral dysostosis, short stature and obesity. Type 1 acrodysostosis is secondary to a mutation in the PRKAR1A (17q24.2) gene, which results in multi hormonal resistance and skeletal anomalities. This syndrome is under-diagnosed as it shares analytical and clinical characteristics with other entities, such as pseudohypoparathyroidism. We report the case of an eight-year-old girl with genetically confirmed type 1 acrodysostosis. In addition to the characteristic phenotype described, the short stature and the hormonal resistance, the patient suffered a progressive lung function deterioration: an irreversible pulmonary obstructive pattern. We have not found in previous literature cases reporting an association between acrodysostosis and lung function impairement.

Humans , Female , Child , Osteochondrodysplasias/complications , Dysostoses/complications , Lung Diseases, Obstructive/complications , Osteochondrodysplasias/genetics , Osteochondrodysplasias/diagnostic imaging , Spirometry , Diagnosis, Differential , Dysostoses/genetics , Dysostoses/diagnostic imaging , Dyspnea/complications , Mutation/genetics
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 36(1): 12-16, jun. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1380384


Se describe hasta la fecha de hoy, 4 de julio del 2021, la evidencia existente sobre la variante Delta del SARS-CoV-2, su impacto en la trasmisión, en la severidad de la infección y su probable evasión a la respuesta inmune. (AU)

As of today, July 4, 2021, the existing evidence on the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2, its impact on transmission, on the severity of the infection and its probable evasion of the immune response is described. (AU)

Humans , RNA/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Chile/epidemiology , Mass Vaccination , Immune Evasion , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/epidemiology
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(2): e3465, mar.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251796


Introducción: El Síndrome Sanfilippo B es un error innato en el metabolismo lisosomal, con herencia autosómica recesiva. Se caracteriza por facie ligeramente tosca, deterioro neurológico progresivo y poca repercusión somática, provocado por mutaciones en el gen NAGLU, cuyo locus es 17q21.2. La incidencia internacionalmente es muy baja y en Cuba solo se han diagnosticado siete pacientes desde 1985. Objetivo: Describir las manifestaciones clínicas, bioquímicas y moleculares de un paciente cubano diagnosticado con Síndrome Sanfilippo B. Presentación de Caso: Se describió un paciente de 13 años, cuyas principales manifestaciones clínicas fueron: facie ligeramente tosca, sinofris, alteraciones de conducta y deterioro neurológico progresivo. El trastorno del sueño fue ocasional y frecuente las infecciones respiratorias. Se demostró la presencia de colitis ulcerativa y pólipo intestinal. Se confirmó excreción aumentada de heparán sulfato y disminución de la actividad enzimática N-acetil αD-glucosaminidasa. Se identificó la mutación c.640dupC en el gen NAGLU en homocigosis en el paciente y ambos padres resultaron ser portadores. Conclusiones: Predominaron las alteraciones de conducta, deterioro neurológico progresivo e infecciones respiratorias en el caso reportado; siendo la colitis ulcerativa y el pólipo intestinal un hallazgo no descrito anteriormente para esta enfermedad. Los estudios cromatográficos y enzimáticos resultaron positivos para Sanfilippo B. El genotipo de este paciente resultó ser homocigótico para una nueva variante alélica patogénica en el gen NAGLU. Se demostró la segregación mendeliana de la mutación en la familia(AU)

Introduction: Sanfilippo syndrome type B is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease. The frequent clinical manifestations include slightly coarse facial features, progressive neurodegeneration and mild somatic repercussion caused by mutations in the NAGLU gene, whose locus is 17q21.2. The worldwide incidence is very low and only seven patients have been diagnosed in Cuba since 1985. Objective: To describe clinical, biochemical and molecular characteristics of a Cuban patient with the diagnosis of Sanfilippo Syndrome type B. Case presentation: A 13 years old patient was described. The main clinical manifestations included mild coarse facie, synophrys, behavior disturbances, and progressive neurologic deterioration. Intermittent sleep disturbance and frequent upper respiratory infections were identified. Ulcerative colitis and intestinal polyp were demonstrated. Increased excretion of heparan sulfate and very low N-acetyl α-Dglucosaminidase activity were confirmed. In addition, the presence of mutation c.640dupC in NAGLU gene was identified. The patient had homozygous genotype and both parents were heterozygous. Conclusions: Behavioral alterations, progressive neurological deterioration and respiratory infections predominated in the reported case. Other findings such as ulcerative colitis and intestinal polyps were not previously described in this disease. The chromatographic and enzymatic studies were positive for Sanfilippo type B. This patient's genotype was found to be homozygous for a novel pathogenic allelic variant in the NAGLU gene. Mendelian segregation of the mutation in the family was demonstrated(AU)

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Respiratory Tract Infections , Lysosomal Storage Diseases , Mucopolysaccharidosis III/genetics , Genotype , Mutation/genetics
West Indian med. j ; 69(3): 148-153, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341890


ABSTRACT The concomitant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) translocations in lung adenocancers are very rare scenarios. Until now, 42 cases described in the literature have all been treated by different drugs. There is no overall consensus regarding the treatment for this adenocarcinoma subgroup. We report here a case of lung adenocarcinoma with concomitant EGFR mutation in exon 21 (L858R) and ALK rearrangement in primary tumour, EGFR mutation in exon 21 (L858R) and no ALK rearrangement in its synchronous metastasis. We treated this patient with crizotinib as the second-line therapy (after the first line docetaxel-cisplatin chemotherapy), but no response was obtained. The therapeutic choice for the lung adenocancer patients with concomitant EGFR mutation and ALK rearrangement is unclear. Examination of c-ros oncogene 1 mutation can be used as an indicator in the prediction of the crizotinib treatment success. The ALK mutation may not responsible for the resistance to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), and EGFR-TKI can be initiated to EGFR and ALK dual mutant patients as the first treatment.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Adenocarcinoma/genetics , Genes, erbB-1/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Exons/genetics , Cisplatin/therapeutic use , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Docetaxel/therapeutic use , Crizotinib/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use