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1.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul. (En línea) ; 27(1): e007089, 2024. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1552204

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes. El valor pronóstico de una ergometría positiva en el contexto de imágenes tomográficas de perfusión miocárdica de estrés y reposo (SPECT) normales no está bien establecido. Objetivos. Documentar la incidencia de infarto, muerte y revascularización coronaria en pacientes con una ergometría positiva de riesgo intermedio e imágenes de perfusión SPECT normales, y explorar el potencial valor del puntaje de riesgo de Framingham en la estratificación pronóstica de estos pacientes. Métodos. Cohorte retrospectiva integrada por pacientes que habían presentado síntomas o hallazgos electrocardiográficos compatibles con enfermedad arterial coronaria durante la prueba de esfuerzo, con criterios de riesgo intermedio en la puntuación de Duke y perfusión miocárdica SPECT normal. Fueron identificados a partir de la base de datos del laboratorio de cardiología nuclear del Instituto de Cardiología y Cirugía Cardiovascular de la ciudad de Posadas, Argentina. Resultados. Fueron elegibles 217 pacientes. El seguimiento fue de 3 1,5 años. La sobrevida libre de eventos (muerte,infarto de miocardio no fatal, angioplastia coronaria o cirugía de bypass de arteria coronaria) a uno, tres y cinco años fue significativamente menor (Log-rank test, p= 0,001) en el grupo con puntaje de Framingham alto o muy alto (77, 71y 59 %, respectivamente) que en el grupo de puntaje bajo o intermedio (89, 87 y 83 %). Tomando como referencia a los pacientes con riesgo bajo en el puntaje de Framingham, luego de ajustar por edad, sexo y puntaje de Duke, los pacientes categorizados en los estratos alto y muy alto riesgo del puntaje de Framingham presentaron una incidencia del evento combinado cercana al triple (hazard ratio [HR] 2,81; intervalo de confianza [IC] del 95 % 0,91 a 8,72; p= 0,07 y HR 3,61;IC 95 % 1,23 a 10,56; p= 0,019 respectivamente). Conclusiones. La estimación de riesgo con el puntaje de Framingham sería de ayuda en la estratificación pronóstica de los pacientes con ergometría positiva y SPECT normal. (AU)


Background. The prognostic value of positive exercise testing with normal SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging is not well established. Objectives. To document the incidence of infarction, death, and coronary revascularization in patients with a positive intermediate-risk exercise test and normal SPECT perfusion images and to explore the potential value of the Framingham Risk Score in the prognostic stratification of these patients. Methods. A retrospective cohort comprised patients who presented symptoms or electrocardiographic findings compatible with coronary artery disease during the stress test, with intermediate risk criteria in the Duke score and normal SPECT myocardial perfusion. They were identified from the database of the nuclear cardiology laboratory of the Instituto de Cardiología y Cirugía Cardiovascular of Posadas, Argentina. Results. 217 patients were eligible. Follow-up was 3 1.5 years. Event-free survival (death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, coronary angioplasty, or coronary artery bypass surgery) at one, three, and five years was significantly lower (Log-ranktest, p: 0.001) in the group with a score of Framingham high or very high (77, 71 and 59 %, respectively) than in the lowor intermediate score group (89, 87 and 83 %). Taking as reference the low-risk patients in the Framingham score, after adjusting for age, sex, and Duke score, the patients categorized in the high-risk and very high-risk strata showed about three times higher incidence of the combined event (hazard ratio [HR] 2.81; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.91 to 8.72;p=0.07 and HR 3.61; 95 % CI 1.23 to 10.56; p=0.019 respectively). Conclusions. Risk estimation with the Framingham score would be helpful in the prognostic stratification of patients with positive exercise testing and normal SPECT. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Prognosis , Myocardial Infarction/prevention & control , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Survival Analysis , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Ergometry , Risk Assessment/methods , Exercise Test , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Myocardial Infarction/mortality
2.
Rev. urug. cardiol ; 38(1): e702, 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1522876

ABSTRACT

La tomografía de coherencia óptica (OCT) es una técnica de imagen endovascular con elevada resolución espacial que permite evaluar las diferentes estructuras que componen la pared de las arterias coronarias, caracterizar morfológicamente la placa aterosclerótica y establecer el mecanismo fisiopatológico subyacente en los síndromes coronarios agudos (SCA). Se presenta el caso clínico de un paciente con infarto agudo de miocardio, donde la OCT evidenció que la reducción de la luz arterial estaba determinada principalmente por la presencia de trombo, a la vez que demostró una disrupción endotelial (ruptura de placa) como mecanismo fisiopatológico subyacente. Se adoptó una estrategia invasivo-conservadora, donde finalmente no se implantó stent. La información surgida de la OCT en este caso particular fue fundamental en la toma de decisiones.


Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an endovascular imaging technique with high spatial resolution. It allows to evaluate the different structures that compose coronary arteries' wall, morphologically characterize atherosclerotic plaques and establish the underlying pathophysiological mechanism in acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The case of a patient with acute myocardial infarction is presented, in which OCT showed that the reduction of arterial lumen was determined mainly by the presence of thrombus, while also demonstrated endothelial disruption (plaque rupture) as the underlying pathophysiological mechanism. An invasive-conservative strategy was adopted and finally stent was not implanted. The information that emerged from the OCT in this particular case was fundamental in decision-making.


A tomografia de coerência óptica (OCT) é uma técnica de imagem endovascular com alta resolução espacial que permite a avaliação das diferentes estruturas que compõem a parede das artérias coronárias, a caracterização morfológica da placa aterosclerótica e o estabelecimento do mecanismo fisiopatológico subjacente de síndrome coronariana aguda (SCA). Apresentamos o caso clínico de um paciente com enfarte agudo do miocárdio, onde a OCT mostrou que a redução do lúmen arterial foi determinada principalmente pela presença de trombo, ao mesmo tempo que demonstrou uma ruptura endotelial (ruptura da placa) como causa fisiopatológica subjacente. Adotou-se uma estratégia invasiva-conservadora, onde finalmente o stent não foi implantado. As informações obtidas da OCT neste caso específico foram fundamentais na tomada de decisão.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Coronary Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Thrombosis/drug therapy , Cineangiography , Coronary Stenosis/drug therapy , Coronary Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/drug therapy , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Myocardial Infarction/therapy
3.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 736-742, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008894

ABSTRACT

Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is an important basis for the diagnosis of arrhythmia and myocardial infarction. In order to further improve the classification effect of arrhythmia and myocardial infarction, an ECG classification algorithm based on Convolutional vision Transformer (CvT) and multimodal image fusion was proposed. Through Gramian summation angular field (GASF), Gramian difference angular field (GADF) and recurrence plot (RP), the one-dimensional ECG signal was converted into three different modes of two-dimensional images, and fused into a multimodal fusion image containing more features. The CvT-13 model could take into account local and global information when processing the fused image, thus effectively improving the classification performance. On the MIT-BIH arrhythmia dataset and the PTB myocardial infarction dataset, the algorithm achieved a combined accuracy of 99.9% for the classification of five arrhythmias and 99.8% for the classification of myocardial infarction. The experiments show that the high-precision computer-assisted intelligent classification method is superior and can effectively improve the diagnostic efficiency of arrhythmia as well as myocardial infarction and other cardiac diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Electrocardiography , Heart Diseases , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Algorithms , Electric Power Supplies
4.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 41(1): 39-44, abr. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388112

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Se presenta un caso de trombólisis sistémica complicada con transformación hemorrágica en paciente con evento isquémico cerebral sintomático por embolia múltiple a partir de trombo intraventricular en contexto de infarto agudo de miocardio por oclusión total de arteria descendente anterior con deterioro severo de función sistólica de ventrículo izquierdo.


ABSTRACT: We describe a case of complicated systemic thrombolysis with hemorrhagic transformation in a patient with a cerebral ischemic event due to multiple embolisms from intraventricular thrombus in the context of acute myocardial infarction due to total occlusion of the anterior descending artery and severe deterioration of left ventricular systolic function.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Intracranial Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Electrocardiography/methods , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography/methods , Stroke , Fibrinolytic Agents , Anticoagulants/pharmacology
5.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(2): 178-182, feb. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389641

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The presence of a chronic total occlusion (CTO) in a non-infarct-related artery in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), may be a sign of bad prognosis. AIM: To estimate the long-term survival of patients with AMI who were studied with coronarography during 2013-2014 who had one or more CTO in a non-infarct-related artery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Review of coronary angiograms performed between 2013 and 2014 to patients with an AMI. Patients were grouped as having or not a CTO in a non-infarct-related artery. Their medical records were reviewed, and mortality was determined requesting their death certificates. RESULTS: Of 993 patients with AMI under-going coronarography, 233 (23.5%) had at least one CTO. Patients with CTO were older (66 and 62 years respectively). They also had a higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), kidney failure and moderate to severe systolic ventricular dysfunction. The independent predictors of mortality were CTO, age, DM and kidney failure. Survival at an average follow-up period of 57 months was significantly higher in patients without CTO (89.5 and 80.3% respectively, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of CTO in patients with acute myocardial infarction is associated with a higher frequency of cardiovascular risk factors and lower long-term survival.


Subject(s)
Humans , Renal Insufficiency/etiology , Coronary Occlusion/complications , Coronary Occlusion/diagnostic imaging , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Prognosis , Chronic Disease , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome
6.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 160-165, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935121

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the diagnosis value of myocardial work (MW) in evaluating left ventricular global systolic function among acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients with preserved ejection fraction (LVEF). Methods: This study was a diagnostic trial in a prospective case-control design. AMI patients with preserved LVEF were enrolled as AMI(LVEF>50%) group and age and sex-matched healthy individuals undergoing healthy checkup in our hospital were collected as control group. Two-dimensional dynamic images, including standard apical two-chamber, long-axis and four-chamber views in 3 consecutive cardiac cycles were acquired. General clinical data, routine echocardiography and myocardial work parameters were obtained from all subjects. The indices were compared between the two groups. Intra-observer and inter-observer repeatability of myocardial work parameters were evaluated by intra-group correlation coefficient (ICC). Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the diagnostic value of global constructive work (GCW), global wasted work (GWW), global work efficiency (GWE) and global work index (GWI) on the reduction of left ventricular global systolic function in AMI(LVEF>50%) group. Results: There were 30 patients in AMI(LVEF>50%) group, the age was (67.3±9.7)years, and 14 cases were female(46.7%). Thirty participants were included in the control group, the age was (68.1±8.6)years, and 12 cases were female (40.0%). Compared with the control group, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD), left ventricular end-systolic diameter (LVESD), interventricular septum thickness (IVSD), left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV), peak early diastolic velocity of mitral orifice/tissue Doppler velocity of posterior mitral annulus (E/e), left ventricular mass (LVM), left ventricular mass index (LVMI) were significantly higher, while E and e values were significantly lower in AMI (LVEF>50%) group (all P<0.05). Compared with the control group, GCW ((1 145.9±440.1)mmHg% (1 mmHg=0.133 kPa) vs. (1 425.7±355.4)mmHg%), GWE ((80.9±9.5)% vs. (87.3±5.5)%), GWI ((1 001.3±416.2)mmHg% vs. (1 247.6±341.7)mmHg%) and the absolute value of long axis integral strain (GLS) ((8.5±3.4)% vs. (11.4±3.7)%) were significantly lower, while peak strain dispersion(PSD)((101.3±66.4)ms vs. (74.7±31.9)ms) was significantly higher in AMI(LVEF>50%) group (P all<0 05). There was no significant difference in GWW((177.2±71.1)mmHg% vs. (155.7±64.6)mmHg%) between the two groups (P>0.05). The reproducibility of GCW, GWW, GWE and GWI within and between observers were satisfactory (all ICC>0.75). ROC curve analysis showed that all four parameters, GCW, GWW, GWE, and GWI, could be used for the diagnosis of reduced left ventricular systolic function in patients with AMI (LVEF>50%), and their areas under the ROC curve were 0.896,0.929,0.808,0.862. Conclusion: Myocardial work assessment is valuable on diagnosing left ventricular global systolic function reduction in AMI patients with preserved LVEF.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Reproducibility of Results , Stroke Volume , Systole , Ventricular Function, Left
7.
Chinese Medical Sciences Journal ; (4): 309-319, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970698

ABSTRACT

Objective To quantitatively evaluate the associations of infarct size, regional myocardial function examined by cardiac magnetic resonance feature tracking (CMR-FT) strain analysis with infarct location in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention.Methods Cardiac magnetic resonance images were retrospectively analyzed in 95 consecutive STEMI patients with successful reperfusion. The patients were divided into the anterior wall myocardial infarction (AWMI) and nonanterior wall myocardial infarction (NAWMI) groups. Infarct characteristics were assessed by late gadolinium enhancement. Global and regional strains and associated strain rates in the radial, circumferential and longitudinal directions were assessed by CMR-FT based on standard cine images. The associations of infarct size, regional myocardial function examined by CMR-FT strain analysis with infarct location in STEMI patients were evaluated by the Spearman or Pearsonmethod. Results There were 44 patients in the AWMI group and 51 in the NAWMI group. The extent of left ventricular enhanced mass was significantly larger in patients with AWMI compared with the NAWMI group (24.47±11.89, 21.06±12.08 %LV; t=3.928, P = 0.008). In infarct zone analysis, strains in the radial, circumferential and longitudinal directions were remarkably declined in the AWMI group compared with the NAWMI group (z=-20.873, -20.918, -10.357, all P < 0.001). The volume (end-systolic volume index), total enhanced mass and extent of enhanced mass of the left ventricular were correlated best with infarct zone strain in the AWMI group (all P < 0.001). Conclusion In STEMI patients treated by percutaneous coronary intervention, myocardial damage is more extensive and regional myocardial function in the infarct zone is lower in the AWMI group compared with the NAWMI group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anterior Wall Myocardial Infarction/therapy , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Contrast Media , Retrospective Studies , Ventricular Function, Left , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Gadolinium , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Stroke Volume
8.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 149(10): 1399-1411, oct. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389379

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute myocarditis frequently mimics an acute myocardial infarction, and its diagnosis is a clinical challenge. AIM: To describe the characteristics of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in patients with acute myocarditis hospitalized with a diagnosis of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-four patients aged 33 ± 11 years (21 men) with a definitive diagnosis of acute myocarditis hospitalized with a presumptive diagnosis of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, in whom a coronary angiogram excluded significant atherosclerotic coronary lesions, were included. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with cine-resonance images was performed to assess global and regional ventricular function, and to study myocardial tissue characteristics. T2-STIR sequences were used for the assessment of oedema and late gadolinium enhancement for necrosis/fibrosis. RESULTS: Patients had high levels of total CK, CK-MB, troponin I, brain natriuretic peptide and C-reactive protein. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging revealed myocardial edema and late gadolinium enhancement was identified in all patients. The edema was transmural in 86% and subepicardial in 14%. Enhancement was subepicardial in 74% of patients and intramural in 26%. It was located in the inferior and lateral walls of the left ventricle in 93%, without affecting the endocardium. In all patients, two of three Lake Louise criteria were met, and an acute myocarditis was diagnosed. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is the diagnostic method of choice for diagnosing acute myocarditis when it mimics an acute myocardial infarction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Contrast Media , Gadolinium
9.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(3): 375-381, jun. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346472

ABSTRACT

Los síndromes coronarios agudos sin lesiones coronarias han cobrado relevancia en los últimos años, pero aún no se dispone de datos locales. Analizamos un registro de pacientes con infarto agudo de miocardio, en 45 centros del país con residencias de cardiología. Se analizaron 1182 participantes de los cuales 33 (2.8%) no presentaron lesiones coronarias en angiografía, mientras que 89.5% tenían lesiones graves y 7.7% lesiones intermedias. La edad promedio de los pacientes sin lesiones coronarias fue 64.5 ± 13.0 años, 69.7% eran varones, sin diferencias respecto a aquellos con enfermedad epicárdica. La presentación electrocardiográfica más frecuente fue la desviación del segmento ST (13 supradesnivel y 10 infradesnivel del segmento). Además, este subgrupo presentó biomarcadores más bajos (CPK pico 203.5 UI/l, rango [RIC] 102- 422.5 vs. 895.5 UI/l RIC 350-1891, p < 0.0001). La mediana de días de internación fue 4.0 (RIC 3-5.5), siendo menor que la del grupo con enfermedad coronaria intermedia y grave (5.5 días, RIC 4-7, y 6 RIC 4-7, p = 0.003). Al alta, aquellos sin lesiones coronarias recibieron menor prescripción de IECA/ARA II (54.6% vs. 78.0% y 79.7%, p = 0.002) y estatinas (78.8% vs. 87.9% y 91.9%, p = 0.017). Ninguno de este subgrupo falleció durante la inter nación. Nuestros datos sugieren que los infartos sin lesiones coronarias significativas son frecuentes en nuestro medio, aunque probablemente se encuentren subdiagnosticados. Si bien su pronóstico parece más favorable, resulta importante señalar que recibieron menos fármacos para prevenir su recurrencia. Nuevos estudios son necesarios para profundizar el conocimiento de esta enfermedad.


Abstract Acute coronary syndromes without coronary lesions have gained relevance in recent years. However, local data on this condition is scarce. We aimed to explore this entity in a National registry of acute myocardial infarction that was carried out prospectively in hospitals with cardiology residence programs from Ar gentina. We included 1182 patients from 45 centers, where 33 did not present coronary lesions on angiography. The mean age was 64.5 ±13.0 and 69.7% were male, without differences compared to participants with epicardial disease. The most common electrocardiographic presentation was ST segment deviation. In addition, presented lower biomarkers (peak CPK 203.5 IU / l, range [IQR] 102-422.5 vs. 895.5 IU / l IQR 350-1891, p < 0.0001). The median hospitalization was 4.0 days (IQR 3-5.5), lower than the group with intermediate and severe coronary disease (5.5 days, RIC 4-7, and 6, RIC 4-7, p = 0.003). At discharge, less use of ACE/ARB (54.6% vs.78.0% y 79.7%, p = 0.002) and statins (78.8% vs. 87.9% y 91.9%, p = 0.017). No deaths during hospitalization were reported. Our data suggested that infarcts without significant coronary lesions are frequent, although they are probably underdiagnosed. Their prognosis seems to be more favorable, but they receive fewer drugs to prevent recurrence. New studies are necessary to deepen the knowledge of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Argentina/epidemiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Registries , Risk Factors , Coronary Angiography , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists
10.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(3): 466-472, Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248875

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento O fenômeno de no-reflow após a intervenção coronária percutânea está associado a um pior prognóstico em pacientes com infarto do miocárdio com supradesnivelamento do segmento ST (IAMCSST). O escore SYNTAX é um bom preditor de no-reflow. Objetivo Nosso objetivo foi avaliar se a carga aterosclerótica (escore Gensini) e a carga trombótica na artéria coronária culpada melhorariam a capacidade do escore SYNTAX para detectar o no-reflow. Métodos Neste estudo coorte prospectivo, foram estudados pacientes com IAMCSST consecutivos que se apresentaram dentro de 12 horas a partir do início dos sintomas. O no-reflow foi definido como fluxo TIMI < 3 ou fluxo TIMI =3 mas grau de blush miocárdico (myocardial blush grade) < 2. A carga trombótica foi quantificada de acordo com o grau TIMI de trombo (0 a 5). Resultados Foram incluídos 481 pacientes no estudo, com idade média de 61±11 anos. O fenômeno de no-reflow ocorreu em 32,8% dos pacientes. O escore SYNTAX (OR=1,05, IC95% 1,01-1,08, p<0,01), a carga trombótica (OR=1,17, IC95% 1,06-1,31, p<0,01), e o escore Gensini (OR=1,37, IC95% 1,13-1,65, p<0,01) foram preditores independentes do no-reflow. Os escores combinados apresentaram uma maior área sob a curva quando comparados ao escore SYNTAX isolado (0,78 [0,73-0,82] vs 0,73 [0,68-0,78], p=0,03). A análise da melhora da reclassificação líquida (NRI) categórica (0,11 [0,01-0,22], p=0,02) e contínua (NRI>0) (0,54 [0,035-0,73], p<0.001) mostrou melhora na capacidade preditiva do no-reflow no modelo combinado, com melhora da discriminação integrada (IDI) de 0,07 (0,04-0,09, p<0,001). Conclusões Nossos achados sugerem que, em pacientes com IAMCSST submetidos à intervenção coronária percutânea, a carga aterosclerótica e a carga trombótica na artéria culpada adicionam valor preditivo ao escore SYNTAX na detecção do fenômeno no-reflow. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Abstract Background No-reflow after percutaneous coronary intervention is associated with poor prognosis in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). SYNTAX score is a good predictor of no-reflow. Objective We aimed to evaluate whether atherosclerotic burden (Gensini score) and thrombus burden in the culprit coronary artery would improve the ability of the SYNTAX score to detect no-reflow. Methods In this prospective cohort study, consecutive patients with STEMI who presented within 12 h of onset of symptoms were selected for this study. No-reflow was defined as TIMI flow < 3 o r TIMI flow = 3 but myocardial blush grade <2. Thrombus burden was quantified according to the TIMI thrombus grade scale (0 to 5). Results A total of 481 patients were included (mean age 61±11 years). No-reflow occurred in 32.8%. SYNTAX score (OR=1.05, 95%CI 1.01-1.08, p<0.01), thrombus burden (OR=1.17, 95%CI 1.06-1.31, p<0.01), and Gensini score (OR=1.37, 95%CI 1.13-1.65, p<0.01) were independent predictors of no-reflow. Combined scores had a larger area under the curve than the SYNTAX score alone (0.78 [0.73-0.82] vs 0.73 [0.68-0.78], p=0.03). Analyses of both categorical (0.11 [0.01-0.22], p=0.02), and continuous net reclassification improvement (NRI>0) (0.54 [0.035-0.73], p<0.001) showed improvement in the predictive ability of no-reflow in the combined model, with integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) of 0.07 (0.04-0.09, p<0.001). Conclusions Our findings suggest that, in patients with STEMI undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, atherosclerotic burden and thrombus burden in the culprit artery add predictive value to the SYNTAX score in detecting the no-reflow phenomenon. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Thrombosis , No-Reflow Phenomenon/diagnostic imaging , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Coronary Angiography , Middle Aged
12.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 150-157, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941251

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine the impact of inflammatory reaction levels and the culprit plaque characteristics on preprocedural Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow grade in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: The is a retrospective study. A total of 1 268 STEMI patients who underwent pre-intervention optical coherence tomography (OCT) examination of culprit lesion during emergency PCI were divided into 2 groups by preprocedural TIMI flow grade (TIMI 0-1 group (n =964, 76.0%) and TIMI 2-3 group (n =304, 24.0%)). Baseline clinical data of the 2 groups were collected; blood samples were collected for the detection of inflammatory markers such as high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), myocardial injury marker, blood lipid, etc.; echocardiography was used to determine left ventricular ejection fraction; coronary angiography and OCT were performed to define the lesion length, diameter stenosis degree of the infarct-related arteries, presence or absence of complex lesions, culprit lesion type, area stenosis degree and vulnerability of culprit plaques. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent correlation factors. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of continuous independent correlation factors was analyzed, and the best cut-off value of TIMI 0-1 was respectively determined according to the maximum value of Youden index. Results: The mean age of 1 268 STEMI patients were (57.6±11.4) years old and 923 cases were males (72.8%). Compared with TIMI 2-3 group, the patients in TIMI 0-1 group were older and had higher N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level, lower cardiac troponin I (cTnI) level, lower left ventricular ejection fraction, and higher hsCRP level (5.16(2.06, 11.78) mg/L vs. 3.73(1.51, 10.46) mg/L). Moreover, the hsCRP level of patients in TIMI 0-1 group was higher in the plaque rupture subgroup (all P<0.05). Coronary angiography results showed that compared with TIMI 2-3 group, the proportion of right coronary artery (RCA) as the infarct-related artery was higher, the angiographical lesion length was longer, minimal lumen diameter was smaller, and diameter stenosis was larger in TIMI 0-1 group (all P<0.05). The prevalence of plaque rupture was higher (75.8% vs. 61.2%) in TIMI 0-1 group. Plaque vulnerability was significantly higher in TIMI 0-1 group than that in TIMI 2-3 group with larger mean lipid arc (241.27°±46.78° vs. 228.30°±46.32°), more thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA, 72.4% vs. 57.9%), more frequent appearance of macrophage accumulation (84.4% vs. 70.7%) and cholesterol crystals (39.1% vs. 25.7%). Minimal flow area was smaller [1.3(1.1-1.7)mm2 vs. 1.4(1.1-1.9)mm2, all P<0.05] and flow area stenosis was higher (78.2%±10.6% vs. 76.3%±12.3%) in TIMI 0-1 group. Multivariable analysis showed that mean lipid arc>255.55°, cholesterol crystals, angiographical lesion length>16.14 mm, and hsCRP>3.29 mg/L were the independent correlation factors of reduced preprocedural TIMI flow grade in STEMI patients. Conclusions: Plaque vulnerability and inflammation are closely related to reduced preprocedural TIMI flow grade in STEMI patients.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Coronary Angiography , Inflammation , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Stroke Volume , Thrombolytic Therapy , Ventricular Function, Left
13.
Clinics ; 76: e2732, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278936

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronary artery disease is the primary cause of death and is responsible for a high number of hospitalizations worldwide. Ventricular remodeling is associated with worse prognosis following ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and is a risk factor for ventricular dysfunction and heart failure. This study aimed to identify the predictors of ventricular remodeling following STEMI. Additionally, we evaluated the clinical, laboratory, and echocardiographic characteristics of patients with anterior wall STEMI who underwent primary percutaneous intervention in the acute phase and at 6 months after the infarction. METHODS: This prospective, observational, and longitudinal study included 50 patients with anterior wall STEMI who were admitted to the coronary care unit (CCU) of a tertiary hospital in Brazil between July 2017 and August 2018. During the CCU stay, patients were evaluated daily and underwent echocardiogram within the first three days following STEMI. After six months, the patients underwent clinical evaluation and echocardiogram according to the local protocol. RESULTS: Differences were noted between those who developed ventricular remodeling and those who did not in the mean±standard deviation levels of creatine phosphokinase MB isoenzyme (CKMB) peak (no remodeling group: 323.7±228.2 U/L; remodeling group: 522.4±201.6 U/L; p=0.008) and the median and interquartile range of E/E' ratio (no remodeling group: 9.20 [8.50-11.25] and remodeling group: 12.60 [10.74-14.40]; p=0.004). This difference was also observed in multivariate logistic regression. CONCLUSIONS: Diastolic dysfunction and CKMB peak in the acute phase of STEMI can be predictors of ventricular remodeling following STEMI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Brazil , Echocardiography , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Ventricular Function, Left , Ventricular Remodeling
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 18(4): 245-248, DEZ 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361672

ABSTRACT

A síndrome de Takotsubo é uma cardiomiopatia induzida por estresse, caracterizada por disfunção transitória do ventrículo esquerdo. Essa disfunção pode ser confundida com infarto agudo miocárdio na sala de emergência por ter características clínicas semelhantes ­ principalmente a dor torácica. A fisiopatologia ainda não é bem definida, mas está associada à deficiência de estrogênio e ao aumento de catecolaminas que estimulam o acoplamento dos receptores beta-2 do coração, o que resulta em atividade inotrópica negativa, levando à disfunção contrátil do ventrículo esquerdo. As enzimas cardíacas alteradas dificultam ainda mais o diagnóstico da síndrome de Takotsubo. O exame padrão-ouro, que diferencia a síndrome de Takotsubo do infarto agudo do miocárdio, é a angiografia coronariana. Uma das opções na emergência é o ecocardiograma na beira do leito. Além disso, os critérios de Mayo devem ser usados para diagnosticar a síndrome de Takotsubo. É importante, para o profissional que trabalha no pronto-socorro, ter a síndrome de Takotsubo como diagnóstico diferencial na dor torácica.


Takotsubo syndrome is a stress-induced cardiomyopathy characterized by a transient left ventricular dysfunction. This dysfunction can be confused with acute myocardial infarction in the emergency room as it has similar clinical characteristics, especially chest pain. Its pathophysiology is not yet well defined, but is associated with estrogen deficiency and increased catecholamines that stimulate the coupling of cardiac beta-2 receptors, resulting in negative inotropic activity and leading to contractile dysfunction of the left ventricle. Altered cardiac enzymes make the diagnosis of Takotsubo syndrome even more difficult. The gold standard exam that will differentiate Takotsubo syndrome from acute myocardial infarction is coronary angiography. One of the options in the emergency room is bedside echocardiography. In addition, Mayo criteria should be used to diagnose Takotsubo syndrome. Professionals working in the emergency room shall have Takotsubo syndrome as a differential diagnosis in chest pain.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chest Pain/diagnostic imaging , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Troponin/blood , Echocardiography , Coronary Angiography , Diagnosis, Differential , Electrocardiography , Emergencies , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/blood
15.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 33(4): eabc97, 20200000.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146296

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: O infarto do miocárdio é uma das principais causas de morbimortalidade no mundo, e 13,2% dos pacientes com síndrome coronariana aguda apresentam coronárias sem obstrução significativa, denominada MINOCA (do inglês Myocardial Infarction with Non-Obstructive Coronary Artery, Infarto do Miocárdio sem Doença Coronariana Obstrutiva). Apesar do MINOCA ter evolução mais favorável que o infarto do miocárdio por obstrução coronariana, seu prognóstico não é benigno. A ressonância magnética cardíaca é o exame que apresenta importância no diagnóstico das diversas causas de MINOCA, e seu valor prognóstico não está completamente elucidado. Objetivo: Avaliar o valor prognóstico da ressonância magnética cardíaca na detecção de eventos adversos maiores em pacientes com MINOCA. Métodos: Coorte prospectiva por meio de coleta de dados de pacientes admitidos na urgência de pacientes com hospital terciário, diagnosticados com MINOCA, no período de 2012 a 2019. Resultados: Foram avaliados 179 pacientes com seguimento médio de 45 ± 21 meses, sendo 52% do sexo masculino, com idade média de 57,3 ± 15,5 anos. Observou-se incidência de eventos adversos maiores de 17,9%. A taxa de mortalidade ao final do acompanhamento foi de 3,8%. Na análise multivariada, apenas a ressonância magnética cardíaca com resultado normal se mostrou como preditor independente de bom prognóstico (hazard ratio: 0,09; intervalo de confiança de 95% 0,01- 0,88; p = 0,04), com curva de Kaplan-Meier apresentando diferença significativa (log-rank x2 = 9,83; p = 0,02) na predição de eventos adversos maiores. Conclusão: A ressonância magnética cardíaca normal mostrou-se como variável independente de bom prognóstico nessa população, podendo ser útil na estratificação de risco de pacientes com MINOCA.


Background: Myocardial infarction is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and 13.2% of patients with acute coronary syndrome have normal or unobstructed coronary arteries, called MINOCA (Myocardial Infarction with Non-Obstructive Coronary Artery). Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is the gold standard for investigating the etiology of acute coronary syndrome. Although MINOCA has a more benign evolution than myocardial infarction due to coronary obstruction, its prognostic factors are not completely elucidated. Objective: To evaluate prognosis, predictive factors and describe the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with MINOCA. Methods: Prospective cohort through data collection of patients admitted to the emergency department of a tertiary hospital, diagnosed with MINOCA from 2012 to 2019. The mean follow-up was 45 months, the outcomes considered were: death, rehospitalization due to cardiac causes, recurrence of chest pain, myocardial revascularization (MACE).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Hypertension/complications , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Multivariate Analysis , Cohort Studies , Outcome Assessment, Health Care
16.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(10)oct. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389208

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients hospitalized with suspected ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who have normal coronary arteries (CAs) on invasive coronary angiography (ICA) may have an AMI or another acute cardiac disease that mimics it. Aim: To evaluate the usefulness of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) for diagnosing conditions resembling AMI with normal CAs. Material and Methods: We studied 424 consecutive patients admitted with suspected STEMI who underwent ICA. Those with normal CAs underwent CMRI involving cine-CMRI sequences to evaluate segmental wall motion, T2-weighted short-tau inversion-recovery imaging to detect oedema and delayed contrast enhancement (DCE) after gadolinium administration to identify necrosis/fibrosis. Patients with previous myocardial infarction were excluded. Results: Twenty-six patients (6.1%) had normal CAs. Definitive diagnosis after CMRI was acute myocarditis in 11 patients (42.3%) whose DCE was localized in the subepicardium or intramyocardially but not in the endocardium, AMI in nine patients (34.6%) who had subendocardial or transmural DCE, and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM) in six patients (23.1%), whose CMRI showed regional contractility abnormalities of the left ventricle and myocardial oedema but not DCE. Conclusions: Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging allows a precise diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction in patients with angiographically normal coronary arteries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy , Myocardial Infarction , Myocarditis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Contrast Media , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging
17.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(10)oct. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389209

ABSTRACT

Acute myocardial infarction caused by thrombosis of left main coronary artery generate acute cardiac failure, cardiogenic shock and death. Along with the clinical history, the electrocardiogram (EKG) is the most useful tool for its recognition and timely management. Classically the EKG shows ST elevation > 1 mm in aVR or V1 with ST depression in the other leads. Urgent coronary angiography with percutaneous coronary angioplasty using drug eluting stents is recommended when the diagnosis is made. We report two cases to exemplify the clinical presentation, EKG and angiographic findings and therapeutic approach.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thrombosis , Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary , Myocardial Infarction , Treatment Outcome , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Vessels , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging
18.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(8): 1083-1089, ago. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389306

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary artery disease (MINOCA) is common. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and intravascular imaging (IVI) may be useful for establishing its etiology. AIM: To describe a population with MINOCA and its multi-image assessment using IVI or CMR. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Review of medical records, imaging and functional studies of patients with MINOCA treated in three different clinical centers between 2015 and 2019. RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients with MINOCA and IVI were included. Seventy eight percent were women, 46% had hypertension, 32% smoked and 32% had dyslipidemia. At wall motion assessment, 46% presented apical ballooning pattern. In 36% of patients IVI identified lesions that explained the cause of MINOCA, namely plaque disruption (PD) in 18%, spontaneous coronary dissection in 11% and a thrombus without PD in 7%. Forty-six percent of patients had uncomplicated atherosclerotic plaques, and 36% had no pathological findings. CMR was performed in 50% of patients, identifying in all a diagnostic pattern. In nine cases it was compatible with stress cardiomyopathy, three cases had a myocarditis and two cases had transmural infarctions. PD and transmural late gadolinium enhancement were observed in 23% of patients with apical ballooning. Patients with a pattern of myocarditis did not have acute pathological findings at IVI. After a mean follow-up of 16.4±11.4 months, 3 patients with PD died. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with MINOCA, there was a predominance of female gender with low cardiovascular risk factor load. The multi-image assessment allowed greater precision for etiological diagnosis of MINOCA. Apical ballooning was not pathognomonic for stress cardiomyopathy. PD was associated with mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Angiography , Contrast Media , Gadolinium
19.
Rev. costarric. cardiol ; 22(1)jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1388995

ABSTRACT

Resumen Reportamos el caso de manejo percutáneo de un infarto agudo al miocardio utilizando una combinación atípica de estrategias cuyo resultado fue seguro y costoefectivo, que consistió en tromboaspiración, angioplastía con balón y utilización de la reserva fraccional de flujo para descartar la necesidad de colocación de stent.


Abstract Percutaneous management of ST elevation myocardial infarction without stent placement : a case report We herein report the case of percutaneous management of an acute myocardial infarction using an atypical combination of strategies whose outcome was safe and costeffective, which consisted of thrombus aspiration, balloon angioplasty and use of fractional flow reserve to rule out the need for stent placement.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging
20.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(3): 253-270, jun. 2020. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125077

ABSTRACT

Una de cada 4 coronariografías realizadas por isquemia miocárdica presenta lesiones menores al 50% Este dato desencadenó un creciente interés en la comunidad médica. La Sociedad Americana de Cardiología publicó recientemente un artículo que describe la posición consensuada de un grupo de expertos sobre la fisiopatología, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de esta entidad. Nuestro trabajo refleja una revisión narrativa y la posición de un grupo de expertos pertenecientes a diferentes instituciones con servicios de Cardiología jerarquizados. Aborda aspectos fisiopatológicos y diagnósticos para comprender el enfoque actual del tratamiento, tanto en pacientes que ingresan con diagnóstico de MINOCA (infa rto de miocardio con lesiones angiográficas no graves) o de INOCA (angina e isquemia demostradas, pero sin lesiones coronarias que justifiquen este síndrome).


One in every four coronarographies performed to study myocardial ischemia shows coronary angiographic stenosis less than 50%. This data triggered an increasing interest in the medical community. The American Society of Cardiology recently published a position paper about the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of this entity. Our group performed a narrative review reflecting the opinion of cardiology experts from different centers in Argentina. It aims physiopatologic and diagnostic aspect to understand the current approach in patients with MINOCA (myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries) e INOCA (demonstrated angina and ischemia but without coronary lesions that justify this syndrome).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Myocardial Ischemia/physiopathology , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Clinical Decision-Making , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Prognosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Cineangiography/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Risk Factors , Coronary Angiography/methods , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging
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