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1.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(3): 375-381, jun. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346472

ABSTRACT

Los síndromes coronarios agudos sin lesiones coronarias han cobrado relevancia en los últimos años, pero aún no se dispone de datos locales. Analizamos un registro de pacientes con infarto agudo de miocardio, en 45 centros del país con residencias de cardiología. Se analizaron 1182 participantes de los cuales 33 (2.8%) no presentaron lesiones coronarias en angiografía, mientras que 89.5% tenían lesiones graves y 7.7% lesiones intermedias. La edad promedio de los pacientes sin lesiones coronarias fue 64.5 ± 13.0 años, 69.7% eran varones, sin diferencias respecto a aquellos con enfermedad epicárdica. La presentación electrocardiográfica más frecuente fue la desviación del segmento ST (13 supradesnivel y 10 infradesnivel del segmento). Además, este subgrupo presentó biomarcadores más bajos (CPK pico 203.5 UI/l, rango [RIC] 102- 422.5 vs. 895.5 UI/l RIC 350-1891, p < 0.0001). La mediana de días de internación fue 4.0 (RIC 3-5.5), siendo menor que la del grupo con enfermedad coronaria intermedia y grave (5.5 días, RIC 4-7, y 6 RIC 4-7, p = 0.003). Al alta, aquellos sin lesiones coronarias recibieron menor prescripción de IECA/ARA II (54.6% vs. 78.0% y 79.7%, p = 0.002) y estatinas (78.8% vs. 87.9% y 91.9%, p = 0.017). Ninguno de este subgrupo falleció durante la inter nación. Nuestros datos sugieren que los infartos sin lesiones coronarias significativas son frecuentes en nuestro medio, aunque probablemente se encuentren subdiagnosticados. Si bien su pronóstico parece más favorable, resulta importante señalar que recibieron menos fármacos para prevenir su recurrencia. Nuevos estudios son necesarios para profundizar el conocimiento de esta enfermedad.


Abstract Acute coronary syndromes without coronary lesions have gained relevance in recent years. However, local data on this condition is scarce. We aimed to explore this entity in a National registry of acute myocardial infarction that was carried out prospectively in hospitals with cardiology residence programs from Ar gentina. We included 1182 patients from 45 centers, where 33 did not present coronary lesions on angiography. The mean age was 64.5 ±13.0 and 69.7% were male, without differences compared to participants with epicardial disease. The most common electrocardiographic presentation was ST segment deviation. In addition, presented lower biomarkers (peak CPK 203.5 IU / l, range [IQR] 102-422.5 vs. 895.5 IU / l IQR 350-1891, p < 0.0001). The median hospitalization was 4.0 days (IQR 3-5.5), lower than the group with intermediate and severe coronary disease (5.5 days, RIC 4-7, and 6, RIC 4-7, p = 0.003). At discharge, less use of ACE/ARB (54.6% vs.78.0% y 79.7%, p = 0.002) and statins (78.8% vs. 87.9% y 91.9%, p = 0.017). No deaths during hospitalization were reported. Our data suggested that infarcts without significant coronary lesions are frequent, although they are probably underdiagnosed. Their prognosis seems to be more favorable, but they receive fewer drugs to prevent recurrence. New studies are necessary to deepen the knowledge of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Argentina/epidemiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Registries , Risk Factors , Coronary Angiography , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists
2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(3): 466-472, Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248875

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento O fenômeno de no-reflow após a intervenção coronária percutânea está associado a um pior prognóstico em pacientes com infarto do miocárdio com supradesnivelamento do segmento ST (IAMCSST). O escore SYNTAX é um bom preditor de no-reflow. Objetivo Nosso objetivo foi avaliar se a carga aterosclerótica (escore Gensini) e a carga trombótica na artéria coronária culpada melhorariam a capacidade do escore SYNTAX para detectar o no-reflow. Métodos Neste estudo coorte prospectivo, foram estudados pacientes com IAMCSST consecutivos que se apresentaram dentro de 12 horas a partir do início dos sintomas. O no-reflow foi definido como fluxo TIMI < 3 ou fluxo TIMI =3 mas grau de blush miocárdico (myocardial blush grade) < 2. A carga trombótica foi quantificada de acordo com o grau TIMI de trombo (0 a 5). Resultados Foram incluídos 481 pacientes no estudo, com idade média de 61±11 anos. O fenômeno de no-reflow ocorreu em 32,8% dos pacientes. O escore SYNTAX (OR=1,05, IC95% 1,01-1,08, p<0,01), a carga trombótica (OR=1,17, IC95% 1,06-1,31, p<0,01), e o escore Gensini (OR=1,37, IC95% 1,13-1,65, p<0,01) foram preditores independentes do no-reflow. Os escores combinados apresentaram uma maior área sob a curva quando comparados ao escore SYNTAX isolado (0,78 [0,73-0,82] vs 0,73 [0,68-0,78], p=0,03). A análise da melhora da reclassificação líquida (NRI) categórica (0,11 [0,01-0,22], p=0,02) e contínua (NRI>0) (0,54 [0,035-0,73], p<0.001) mostrou melhora na capacidade preditiva do no-reflow no modelo combinado, com melhora da discriminação integrada (IDI) de 0,07 (0,04-0,09, p<0,001). Conclusões Nossos achados sugerem que, em pacientes com IAMCSST submetidos à intervenção coronária percutânea, a carga aterosclerótica e a carga trombótica na artéria culpada adicionam valor preditivo ao escore SYNTAX na detecção do fenômeno no-reflow. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Abstract Background No-reflow after percutaneous coronary intervention is associated with poor prognosis in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). SYNTAX score is a good predictor of no-reflow. Objective We aimed to evaluate whether atherosclerotic burden (Gensini score) and thrombus burden in the culprit coronary artery would improve the ability of the SYNTAX score to detect no-reflow. Methods In this prospective cohort study, consecutive patients with STEMI who presented within 12 h of onset of symptoms were selected for this study. No-reflow was defined as TIMI flow < 3 o r TIMI flow = 3 but myocardial blush grade <2. Thrombus burden was quantified according to the TIMI thrombus grade scale (0 to 5). Results A total of 481 patients were included (mean age 61±11 years). No-reflow occurred in 32.8%. SYNTAX score (OR=1.05, 95%CI 1.01-1.08, p<0.01), thrombus burden (OR=1.17, 95%CI 1.06-1.31, p<0.01), and Gensini score (OR=1.37, 95%CI 1.13-1.65, p<0.01) were independent predictors of no-reflow. Combined scores had a larger area under the curve than the SYNTAX score alone (0.78 [0.73-0.82] vs 0.73 [0.68-0.78], p=0.03). Analyses of both categorical (0.11 [0.01-0.22], p=0.02), and continuous net reclassification improvement (NRI>0) (0.54 [0.035-0.73], p<0.001) showed improvement in the predictive ability of no-reflow in the combined model, with integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) of 0.07 (0.04-0.09, p<0.001). Conclusions Our findings suggest that, in patients with STEMI undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, atherosclerotic burden and thrombus burden in the culprit artery add predictive value to the SYNTAX score in detecting the no-reflow phenomenon. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Thrombosis , No-Reflow Phenomenon/diagnostic imaging , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Coronary Angiography , Middle Aged
4.
Clinics ; 76: e2732, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278936

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronary artery disease is the primary cause of death and is responsible for a high number of hospitalizations worldwide. Ventricular remodeling is associated with worse prognosis following ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and is a risk factor for ventricular dysfunction and heart failure. This study aimed to identify the predictors of ventricular remodeling following STEMI. Additionally, we evaluated the clinical, laboratory, and echocardiographic characteristics of patients with anterior wall STEMI who underwent primary percutaneous intervention in the acute phase and at 6 months after the infarction. METHODS: This prospective, observational, and longitudinal study included 50 patients with anterior wall STEMI who were admitted to the coronary care unit (CCU) of a tertiary hospital in Brazil between July 2017 and August 2018. During the CCU stay, patients were evaluated daily and underwent echocardiogram within the first three days following STEMI. After six months, the patients underwent clinical evaluation and echocardiogram according to the local protocol. RESULTS: Differences were noted between those who developed ventricular remodeling and those who did not in the mean±standard deviation levels of creatine phosphokinase MB isoenzyme (CKMB) peak (no remodeling group: 323.7±228.2 U/L; remodeling group: 522.4±201.6 U/L; p=0.008) and the median and interquartile range of E/E' ratio (no remodeling group: 9.20 [8.50-11.25] and remodeling group: 12.60 [10.74-14.40]; p=0.004). This difference was also observed in multivariate logistic regression. CONCLUSIONS: Diastolic dysfunction and CKMB peak in the acute phase of STEMI can be predictors of ventricular remodeling following STEMI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Brazil , Echocardiography , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Ventricular Function, Left , Ventricular Remodeling
5.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 33(4): eabc97, 20200000.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146296

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: O infarto do miocárdio é uma das principais causas de morbimortalidade no mundo, e 13,2% dos pacientes com síndrome coronariana aguda apresentam coronárias sem obstrução significativa, denominada MINOCA (do inglês Myocardial Infarction with Non-Obstructive Coronary Artery, Infarto do Miocárdio sem Doença Coronariana Obstrutiva). Apesar do MINOCA ter evolução mais favorável que o infarto do miocárdio por obstrução coronariana, seu prognóstico não é benigno. A ressonância magnética cardíaca é o exame que apresenta importância no diagnóstico das diversas causas de MINOCA, e seu valor prognóstico não está completamente elucidado. Objetivo: Avaliar o valor prognóstico da ressonância magnética cardíaca na detecção de eventos adversos maiores em pacientes com MINOCA. Métodos: Coorte prospectiva por meio de coleta de dados de pacientes admitidos na urgência de pacientes com hospital terciário, diagnosticados com MINOCA, no período de 2012 a 2019. Resultados: Foram avaliados 179 pacientes com seguimento médio de 45 ± 21 meses, sendo 52% do sexo masculino, com idade média de 57,3 ± 15,5 anos. Observou-se incidência de eventos adversos maiores de 17,9%. A taxa de mortalidade ao final do acompanhamento foi de 3,8%. Na análise multivariada, apenas a ressonância magnética cardíaca com resultado normal se mostrou como preditor independente de bom prognóstico (hazard ratio: 0,09; intervalo de confiança de 95% 0,01- 0,88; p = 0,04), com curva de Kaplan-Meier apresentando diferença significativa (log-rank x2 = 9,83; p = 0,02) na predição de eventos adversos maiores. Conclusão: A ressonância magnética cardíaca normal mostrou-se como variável independente de bom prognóstico nessa população, podendo ser útil na estratificação de risco de pacientes com MINOCA.


Background: Myocardial infarction is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and 13.2% of patients with acute coronary syndrome have normal or unobstructed coronary arteries, called MINOCA (Myocardial Infarction with Non-Obstructive Coronary Artery). Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is the gold standard for investigating the etiology of acute coronary syndrome. Although MINOCA has a more benign evolution than myocardial infarction due to coronary obstruction, its prognostic factors are not completely elucidated. Objective: To evaluate prognosis, predictive factors and describe the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with MINOCA. Methods: Prospective cohort through data collection of patients admitted to the emergency department of a tertiary hospital, diagnosed with MINOCA from 2012 to 2019. The mean follow-up was 45 months, the outcomes considered were: death, rehospitalization due to cardiac causes, recurrence of chest pain, myocardial revascularization (MACE).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Hypertension/complications , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Multivariate Analysis , Cohort Studies , Outcome Assessment, Health Care
6.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(3): 253-270, jun. 2020. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125077

ABSTRACT

Una de cada 4 coronariografías realizadas por isquemia miocárdica presenta lesiones menores al 50% Este dato desencadenó un creciente interés en la comunidad médica. La Sociedad Americana de Cardiología publicó recientemente un artículo que describe la posición consensuada de un grupo de expertos sobre la fisiopatología, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de esta entidad. Nuestro trabajo refleja una revisión narrativa y la posición de un grupo de expertos pertenecientes a diferentes instituciones con servicios de Cardiología jerarquizados. Aborda aspectos fisiopatológicos y diagnósticos para comprender el enfoque actual del tratamiento, tanto en pacientes que ingresan con diagnóstico de MINOCA (infa rto de miocardio con lesiones angiográficas no graves) o de INOCA (angina e isquemia demostradas, pero sin lesiones coronarias que justifiquen este síndrome).


One in every four coronarographies performed to study myocardial ischemia shows coronary angiographic stenosis less than 50%. This data triggered an increasing interest in the medical community. The American Society of Cardiology recently published a position paper about the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of this entity. Our group performed a narrative review reflecting the opinion of cardiology experts from different centers in Argentina. It aims physiopatologic and diagnostic aspect to understand the current approach in patients with MINOCA (myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries) e INOCA (demonstrated angina and ischemia but without coronary lesions that justify this syndrome).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Myocardial Ischemia/physiopathology , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Clinical Decision-Making , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Prognosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Cineangiography/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Risk Factors , Coronary Angiography/methods , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging
8.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 425-430, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877916

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Previously, we developed a novel Coronary Artery Tree description and Lesion EvaluaTion (CatLet©) angiographic scoring system, which was capable of accounting for the variability in the coronary anatomy and assisting in the risk-stratification of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Our preliminary study revealed that the CatLet score better predicted clinical outcomes for AMI patients than the Synergy between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery score. However, the reproducibility of the CatLet score in both inter- and intra-observer remains to be evaluated.@*METHODS@#A total of 30 consecutive AMI patients, admitted in September of 2015, were independently assessed by two experienced interventional cardiologists to evaluate the inter-observer reproducibility of the CatLet score. Another set of 49 consecutive AMI patients, admitted between September and October in 2014, were assessed by one of the two interventional cardiologists on two occasions 3 months apart to evaluate the intra-observer reproducibility of the CatLet score. The weighted kappa was used to express the degree of agreement.@*RESULTS@#The weighted kappa values (95% confidence interval) for the intra- and inter-observer reproducibility of the CatLet Score were 0.82 (0.59-1.00, Z = 7.23, P 22). Regarding the adverse characteristics pertinent to lesions and dominance parameters, the kappa values for the inter-observer variability were 0.80 (0.56-1.00, Z = 6.47, P < 0.001) for total number of lesions, 0.57 (0.28-0.85, Z = 3.03, P < 0.001) for bifurcation, 0.69 (0.43-0.96, Z = 5.06, P < 0.001) for heavy calcification, 1.00 (0.72-1.00, Z = 6.93, P < 0.001) for tortuosity, 0.54 (0.26-0.82, Z = 3.78, P < 0.001) for thrombus, 0.69 (0.48-0.91, Z = 6.29, P < 0.001) for right coronary artery dominance, 0.69 (0.41-0.96, Z = 4.91, P < 0.001) for left anterior descending artery length, and 0.22 (0.06-0.51, Z = 1.56, P = 0.06) for diagonal size. Equivalent values for the intra-observer variability were moderate to almost perfect (range 0.54-1.00).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The reproducibility of the CatLet angiographic scoring system for evaluation of the coronary angiograms ranged from substantial to excellent. The high reproducibility of the CatLet angiographic scoring system will boost its clinical application to patients with AMI.


Subject(s)
Coronary Angiography , Coronary Artery Disease , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Observer Variation , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Trees
10.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 23(3): 221-226, set-dez. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1046191

ABSTRACT

A Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS) aponta as doenças cardiovasculares como a principal causa de morte no mundo, caracterizando um grave problema na saúde pública. Os três tipos de doenças que mais acarretam em óbito são: acidente vascular cerebral, seguido de infarto agudo do miocárdio e outras doenças isquêmicas do coração.Apesar dos avanços terapêuticos das últimas décadas, o infarto ainda apresenta altas taxas de mortalidade. Para as pessoas com doenças cardiovasculares ou com alto risco cardiovascular é fundamental o diagnóstico precoce da doença. A cintilografia de perfusão miocárdica é um método de investigação diagnóstica e prognóstico não invasivo de várias doenças cardiovasculares. Esse exame consiste na administração de um radiofármaco para obtenção de imagens de perfusão cardíaca. Dois traçadores marcados com Tecnécio-99m são amplamente utilizados na clínica, porém, esses dois radiofármacos não atendem aos requisitos de um agente de perfusão ideal, por sofrerem significativa excreção biliar, produzindo artefatos na imagem, o que pode inteferir um diagnóstico preciso, já que a qualidade é comprometida, e prolongando o tempo de obtenção da imagem após a administração do radiotraçador. Para superar essa lacuna, pesquisadores vêm estudando novos complexos catiônicos marcados com o Tecnécio. O objetivo desse artigo é fazer uma revisão, abordando a literatura sobre os radiofármacos que estão sendo estudados, suas vantagens e desvantagens sobre os traçadores já utilizados, e sobre sua potencial utilização na obtenção de imagem de perfusão cardíaca.


The World Health Organization (WHO) acknowledges cardiovascular diseases as the leading cause of death in the world, being regarded as a serious public health issue. The three types of diseases with the greatest mortality are: stroke, followed by acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and other ischemic heart diseases. Despite the therapeutic advances of the last decades, AMI still presents high mortality rates. Early diagnosis is essential for people with cardiovascular diseases or with a high cardiovascular risk. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy is a method of diagnostic investigation and noninvasive prognosis of various cardiovascular diseases. This examination consists in the administration of a radiopharmaceutical drug to obtain images of cardiac perfusion. Two tracers labeled with Technetium-99m are widely used, however, these two radiopharmaceuticals do not meet the requirements of an ideal perfusion agent, because they have a high liver absorption, producing artifacts in the image, which can disrupt a precise diagnosis, since the quality is compromised, and prolonging the imaging time after administration of the radioisotope. To overcome this gap, researchers have been studying new cationic complexes marked with technetium. The objective of this article is to review the literature on the radiopharmaceuticals being studied, their advantages and disadvantages on the tracers already used, and their potential use in obtaining a cardiac perfusion image.


Subject(s)
Technetium/pharmacokinetics , Radiopharmaceuticals/pharmacokinetics , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging/instrumentation , Radioactive Tracers , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Radionuclide Imaging/instrumentation , Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi/adverse effects , Cardiac Imaging Techniques/instrumentation , Liver/drug effects , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging
11.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(6): 775-778, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057498

ABSTRACT

Abstract Ventricular free wall rupture is a fatal mechanical complication of acute myocardial infarction. In some cases it can be represented as subacute clinic and may not cause death in a few minutes. Acute pseudo-aneurysms are extremely unstable and bound to fatal rupture. Herein we report a male patient who suffered dyspnea and mild chest pain, 4 weeks after acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cardiovascular Surgical Procedures/methods , Heart Rupture, Post-Infarction/surgery , Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Heart Rupture, Post-Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography , Suture Techniques , Coronary Angiography , Heart Ventricles/surgery , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging
12.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(3): 201-204, June 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020060

ABSTRACT

El infarto agudo de miocardio es la principal causa de muerte en el mundo, siendo la obstrucción coronaria aterosclerótica el hallazgo más frecuente. Sin embargo, el 6% de los pacientes no presenta lesiones angiográficamente significativas, definidas por obstrucción de la luz vascular mayor al 50%. Estos casos se han definido bajo el término MINOCA (myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries). Suelen ocurrir en mujeres jóvenes, con factores de riesgo cardiovascular, elevación de biomarcadores cardíacos e infradesnivel del segmento ST en el electrocardiograma. Las principales etiologías son la miocarditis, el síndrome de Takotsubo y el infarto subendocárdico. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 65 años con antecedentes de hipertensión arterial y bloqueo completo de rama izquierda previo, que ingresó con ángor, imagen de bloqueo completo de rama izquierda en el electrocardiograma con criterios de Sgarbossa negativos y biomarcadores cardíacos positivos. En el ecocardiograma evidenció trastorno en la motilidad de la pared inferolateral y en la coronariografía solo una lesión no significativa (40%) en segmento proximal de la arteria circunfleja. La cardiorresonancia, en la secuencia de realce tardío de gadolinio, mostró retención de contraste subendocárdico a nivel de los segmentos inferolateral medial con extensión lateroapical compatible con infarto correspondiente a territorio de arteria circunfleja. Este caso ilustra un ejemplo de MINOCA secundario a infarto subendocárdico con trombólisis espontánea, en el que la presentación clínica fue típica, sin embargo en la coronariografía no se observaron lesiones significativas, por lo que fue necesario complementar con otro método de imágenes: la cardiorresonancia.


Myocardial infarction is the leading cause of death in the world, being the coronary atherosclerotic obstruction the main finding. Although 6% of all the patients had no significant coronary arteries disease on coronary angiography, defined by lumen vascular obstruction greater than 50%. This type of cases was defined by the term MINOCA (myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries). They are usually young women, with cardiovascular risk factors, high cardiac biomarkers with non-ST elevation in the electrocardiogram. The main etiologies are myocarditis, Takotsubo syndrome and subendocardial myocardial infarction. We present the case of a 65 years-old woman with history of hypertension and complete left bundle branch block, who was admitted to the emergency department with typical chest pain, complete left bundle branch block in the electrocardiogram, with negative Sgarbossa criteria and positive cardiac biomarkers. The echocardiography evidenced inferolateral regional wall motion abnormalities, and the coronary angiography a single non-significative lesion (40%) in the proximal segment of the circumflex artery. Cardiac magnetic resonance evidenced subendocardial late gadolinium enhancement in inferolateral medial with latero-apical extension segments consistent with circumflex artery-related infarction. This case illustrates an example of MINOCA secondary to myocardial infarction with posterior spontaneous thrombolysis, in which the clinical presentation was typical, however the coronary angiography showed non obstructive lesions. Therefore, another complementary imaging methods were needed such as the cardiac magnetic resonance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography , Risk Factors , Coronary Angiography , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Coronary Vessels/physiology , Electrocardiography , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology
13.
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine ; 77(3): 5167-5172, 2019. ilus
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1272794

ABSTRACT

Background: Speckle-tracking echocardiography has emerged as a unique technique for accurately evaluating myocardial function by analyzing the motion of speckles identified. Speckle-tracking measured under stress may offer an opportunity to improve the detection of dynamic regional abnormalities and myocardial viability. Objective: The aim of the current study was to evaluate stress speckle tracking to detect myocardial viability in comparison to cardiac MRI in post-STEMI patients. Patients and methods: 74 patients were prospectively enrolled in 18-month's study. Dobutamine stress echocardiography was performed 4 days post-infarction accompanied with automated functional imaging analysis of left ventricle during rest and then during low dose stress. All patients underwent a follow up stress echocardiography at 3 months with speckle tracking analysis. Cardiac MRI took place concomitantly at 4 days post-infarction and 3 months. Results: Investigating strain rate obtained with stress speckle tracking after revascularization predicted the extent of myocardial scar, determined by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. A good correlation was found between the global strain and total infarct size (R 0.75, p< 0.001). Furthermore, a clear inverse relationship was found between the segmental strain and the transmural extent of infarction in each segment. Meanwhile it provided 81.82% sensitivity and 82.6% specificity to detect transmural from non-transmural infarction at a cut-off value of -10.15. Conclusion: Strain rate obtained from speckle tracking during stress is a novel method of detecting myocardial viability after STEMI. Moreover, it carries a promising role in post-myocardial infarction risk stratification with a reasonable prediction of reversible cardiac-related hospital re-admission


Subject(s)
Echocardiography, Stress , Egypt , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging
14.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 111(6): 784-793, Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973807

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The role of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) in the follow-up of asymptomatic patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is not established. Objectives: To evaluate the prognostic value and clinical use of MPS in asymptomatic patients after PCI. Methods: Patients who underwent MPS consecutively between 2008 and 2012 after PCI were selected. The MPS were classified as normal and abnormal, the perfusion scores, summed stress score (SSS), and summed difference score (SDS) were calculated and converted into percentage of total perfusion defect and ischemic defect. The follow-up was undertaken through telephone interviews and consultation with the Mortality Information System. Primary endpoints were death, cardiovascular death, and nonfatal acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and secondary endpoint was revascularization. Logistic regression and COX method were used to identify the predictors of events, and the value of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 647 patients were followed for 5.2 ± 1.6 years. 47% of MPS were normal, 30% were abnormal with ischemia, and 23% were abnormal without ischemia. There were 61 deaths, 27 being cardiovascular, 19 non-fatal AMI, and 139 revascularizations. The annual death rate was higher in those with abnormal perfusion without ischemia compared to the groups with ischemia and normal perfusion (3.3% × 2% × 1.2%, p = 0.021). The annual revascularization rate was 10.3% in the ischemia group, 3.7% in those with normal MPS, and 3% in those with abnormal MPS without ischemia. The independent predictors of mortality and revascularization were, respectively, total perfusion defect greater than 6%, and ischemic defect greater than 3%. Forty-two percent of the patients underwent MPS less than 2 years after PCI, and no significant differences were observed in relation to those who underwent it after that period. Conclusion: Although this information is not contemplated in guidelines, in this study MPS was able to predict events in asymptomatic after PCI patients, regardless of when they were performed.


Resumo Fundamentos: O papel da cintilografia de perfusão miocárdica (CPM) no seguimento de pacientes assintomáticos após intervenção coronariana percutânea (ICP) não está estabelecido. Objetivos. Avaliar o valor prognóstico e o uso clínico da CPM em pacientes assintomáticos após ICP. Métodos: Foram selecionados pacientes que realizaram CPM consecutivamente entre 2008 e 2012 após ICP. As CPM foram classificadas em normais e anormais, os escores de perfusão, escore somado do estresse (SSS) e escore somado da diferença (SDS) foram calculados e convertidos em porcentagem de defeito perfusional total e de defeito isquêmico. O seguimento foi por meio de entrevistas telefônicas e consulta ao Sistema de Informação de Mortalidade. Desfechos primários foram morte, morte cardiovascular e infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM) não fatal e desfecho secundário foi revascularização. Regressão logística e método de COX foram utilizados para identificar os preditores de eventos e o valor de p < 0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. Resultados: 647 pacientes foram acompanhados por 5,2 ± 1,6 anos. 47% das CPM foram normais, 30% anormais com isquemia e 23% anormais sem isquemia. Ocorreram 61 mortes, 27 cardiovasculares, 19 IAM não fatais e 139 revascularizações. A taxa anual de óbitos foi superior naqueles com perfusão anormal sem isquemia comparada aos grupos com isquemia e perfusão normal (3,3% × 2% × 1,2%, p = 0,021). A taxa anual de revascularização foi 10,3% no grupo com isquemia, 3,7% naqueles com CPM normal e 3% naqueles com CPM anormal sem isquemia. Foram preditores independentes de mortalidade e revascularização, respectivamente, defeito perfusional total maior que 6% e defeito isquêmico maior que 3%. Quarenta e dois por cento dos pacientes realizaram CPM menos de 2 anos após ICP e não foram observadas diferenças relevantes em relação aos que realizaram após esse período. Conclusão: Embora esta informação não esteja contemplada em diretrizes, neste estudo a CPM foi capaz de predizer eventos em pacientes assintomáticos após ICP, independente do momento de realização.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging/methods , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Prognosis , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Survival Analysis , Predictive Value of Tests , Surveys and Questionnaires , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Age Factors , Diabetes Complications/complications , Exercise Test/methods , Hypertension/complications , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Myocardial Revascularization/statistics & numerical data
15.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(4): 373-380, Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888046

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Physical exercise should be part of the treatment of post-acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. Objective: To evaluate the effects of two training prescription models (continuous x interval) and its impact on ventricular function in rats after AMI with normal ventricular function. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were evaluated by echocardiography 21 days after the AMI. Those with LVEF = 50% (n = 29) were included in the study and randomized to control group (CG n = 10), continuous training group (CTG n = 9) or interval training group (ITG, n = 10). Then, a swimming test with control of lactate production was performed. Based on its result, the lactate threshold (LT) was established to define the training intensities. After six weeks, the animals were reassessed by echocardiography and lactate production. Outcome measures were end-diastolic diameter (EDD), end-systolic diameter (ESD), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, %) lactate at rest, lactate without overload, and lactate with 12g and 13.5g of additional load. Group comparisons of quantitative variables of the study were performed by one-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA). The Newman-Keuls test was used for multiple comparisons of the groups. Within-group comparisons of dependent variables between the two training protocols were performed by Student's t-test. Normality of the variables was tested by the Shapiro-Wilks test. Values of p < 0.05 indicated statistical significance. Results: EDD, ESD, and LVEF before and after the training period were similar in within-group comparisons. However, EDD was significantly different (p=0.008) in the CG. Significant differences were found for L12g (p=0.002) and L13.5g (p = 0.032) in the ITG, and for L12g (p = 0.014) in the CG. No differences were found in the echocardiographic parameters between the groups. Significant differences were found in lactate without overload (p = 0.016) and L12 (p = 0.031) in the second assessment compared with the first, and between the groups - ITG vs. CG (p = 0.019) and CTG vs. CG (p = 0.035). Conclusion: Both methods produced a training effect without altering ventricular function.


Resumo Fundamento: O exercício físico deve fazer parte do tratamento de pacientes pós-infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM). Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos de treinamento produzidos por dois modelos distintos (contínuo x intervalado) e sua repercussão sobre a função ventricular de ratos pós-IAM com função ventricular normal. Métodos: Quarenta ratos Wistar pós-IAM foram avaliados ecocardiograficamente 21 dias após o evento. Aqueles com FEVE = 50% (n = 29) foram incluídos e randomizados: controle (GC n = 10), treinamento contínuo (GTC n = 9) e treinamento intervalado (GTI n = 10). Após, foi realizado um teste de natação com controle de lactato. A partir do resultado foi definido o limiar de lactato (LL) para determinar as intensidades do treinamento. Após seis semanas, foram reavaliados com ecocardiografia e controle de lactato. Como desfecho, foram avaliados: diâmetros diastólico e sistólico final (DDF, DSF, mL), fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo (FEVE, %), lactato de repouso, livre de carga (LC), lactato com 12 g e 13,5 g de carga adicional. Para a comparação dos grupos em relação às variáveis quantitativas do estudo, foi considerado o modelo de análise da variância com um fator (ANOVA). Nas comparações múltiplas dos grupos foi usado o teste de Newman-Keuls. Na comparação entre as duas avaliações, dentro de cada grupo, foi usado o teste t de Student para amostras dependentes. A condição de normalidade das variáveis foi avaliada pelo teste de Shapiro-Wilks. Valores de p < 0,05 indicaram significância estatística. Resultados: Com relação à análise intragrupos, entre o período pré- e pós-treinamento foi identificado semelhança para DDF, DSF, FEVE, porém o GC apresentou diferença significativa para a variável DDF (p = 0,008). Houve diferença do GTI para L12g (p = 0,002) e L13,5g (p = 0,032) e para o GTC na variável L12g (p = 0,014). Não houve diferença para as variáveis ecocardiográficas entre os grupos. Houve diferença nas variáveis LC e L12g na segunda avaliação (p = 0,016 e p = 0,031, respectivamente) e entre os grupos: GTI vs. GC (p = 0,019) e GTC vs. GC (p = 0,035). Conclusão: Os dois métodos produziram efeito de treinamento sem alterar a função ventricular.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Physical Conditioning, Animal/methods , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , High-Intensity Interval Training/methods , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Reference Values , Stroke Volume/physiology , Swimming/physiology , Systole/physiology , Time Factors , Echocardiography , Random Allocation , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Lactic Acid/blood , Diastole/physiology , Exercise Test/methods , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging
16.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(3): 278-288, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888039

ABSTRACT

Abstract Many non-invasive methods, such as imaging tests, have been developed aiming to add a contribution to existing studies in estimating patients' prognosis after myocardial injury. This prognosis is proportional to myocardial viability, which is evaluated in coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction patients only. While myocardial viability represents the likelihood of a dysfunctional muscle (resulting from decreased oxygen supply for coronary artery obstruction), hibernation represents post-interventional functional recovery itself. This article proposes a review of pathophysiological basis of viability, diagnostic methods, prognosis and future perspectives of myocardial viability. An electronic bibliographic search for articles was performed in PubMed, Lilacs, Cochrane and Scielo databases, according to pre-established criteria. The studies showed the ability of many imaging techniques in detecting viable tissues in dysfunctional areas of left ventricle resulting from coronary artery injuries. These techniques can identify patients who may benefit from myocardial revascularization and indicate the most appropriate treatment.


Resumo Diversos métodos não invasivos, como novos exames de imagem, vem sendo aprimorados, a fim de somar esforços com os atuais em estimar o prognóstico de pacientes pós-injúria miocárdica. Este prognóstico é proporcional à viabilidade miocárdica, a qual tem sua avaliação reservada para pacientes portadores de doença arterial coronariana e insuficiência ventricular esquerda. Enquanto a viabilidade miocárdica se mostra como a capacidade de recuperação funcional do músculo com disfunção por redução de oxigênio fornecido por artérias coronárias obstruídas, a hibernação consiste na própria recuperação funcional após intervenções. Este artigo propõe uma revisão sobre as bases fisiopatológicas do processo de viabilidade, métodos diagnósticos disponíveis, prognóstico e perspectivas para o futuro acerca dessa condição. Realizou-se pesquisa de busca bibliográfica informatizada em bases eletrônicas de dados, como PubMed, Lilacs, Cochrane e Scielo, onde foram selecionados os estudos de acordo com critérios pré-determinados. Os estudos demonstram a capacidade de várias técnicas de imagem de identificar tecido viável em regiões disfuncionais do ventrículo esquerdo em decorrência de lesões em artérias coronárias. Estas técnicas podem identificar pacientes com potencial benefício da revascularização miocárdica e orientar o tratamento mais adequado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tissue Survival/physiology , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Myocardium/pathology , Prognosis , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Coronary Artery Disease/pathology , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Echocardiography/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/pathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Myocardial Revascularization
17.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 252-257, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713096

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Coronary flow reserve (CFR) is recognized as an indicator of myocardial perfusion. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between CFR in the non-infarcted myocardium and the incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 100 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were enrolled in the present study, and divided into MACE and non-MACE groups according to the incidence of 12-month MACEs. Left ventricular function and CFR were analyzed using two-dimensional echocardiography and myocardial contrast echocardiography at one week after PCI. Cardiac troponin I levels were assayed to estimate peak concentrations thereof. RESULTS: The MACE group was associated with lower CFR, compared to the non-MACE group (2.41 vs. 2.77, p < 0.001). In the multivariable model, CFR in the non-infarcted myocardium was an independent predictor of 12-month MACE (hazard ratio: 0.093, 95% confidence interval: 0.020–0.426, p=0.002) after adjustment for baseline demographic and clinical characteristics. CONCLUSION: CFR in the non-infarcted myocardium is a useful marker for predicting 12-month MACEs in patients with AMI undergoing primary PCI.


Subject(s)
Aged , Coronary Circulation/physiology , Echocardiography , Female , Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging , Myocardium/pathology , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Proportional Hazards Models , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology
18.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 77(5): 358-364, oct. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-894500

ABSTRACT

La reperfusión mecánica simple (RMS) es la lograda en la angioplastia primaria al atravesar la oclusión en la arteria responsable de infarto con la guía intracoronaria. Para evaluar los determinantes de la RMS, su implicación en el pronóstico y su relación con la histopatología del trombo rescatado, fueron analizados los casos de 601 pacientes con infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST y oclusión total de la arteria responsable de infarto (flujo TIMI 0). Se consideraron dos grupos según la presencia de RMS, definida por la visualización de contraste distal a la lesión luego de atravesarla con la guía intracoronaria. Se realizó el análisis histopatológico de los trombos en un subgrupo de 160 pacientes tratados con tromboaspiración. En 303 (50.4%) pacientes se obtuvo RMS. La RMS se asoció a menor ventana al tratamiento (248 vs. 286 minutos, p = 0.001), menor deterioro de la función sistólica ventricular izquierda inicial y shock al ingreso (9.2 vs.16.4%, p = 0.008), mayor tasa de éxito (94.7 vs. 78.5%, p < 0.0001) y de rescate de trombos (70/81 vs. 27/79 pacientes, p < 0.0001). La arteria responsable de infarto más frecuente fue la coronaria derecha. La RMS se asoció con menor tamaño del trombo, menor concentración de leucocitos y eritrocitos y mayor contenido de células inflamatorias, cristales de colesterol y colágeno provenientes de la placa. La RMS es un predictor independiente de éxito y su relación con la anatomía del trombo podría redefinir la indicación de la tromboaspiración.


Simple mechanical reperfusion (SMR) is defined as reperfusion achieved after wire insertion at the occluded infarct-related artery in primary angioplasty. The determinants and prognostic implications of SMR and its relationship with the histopathology of the rescued thrombus were evaluated in 601 patients with acute myocardial infarction showing ST elevation and pre-procedural total occlusion of the infarct-related artery (TIMI flow 0). Two groups were considered according to the presence of SMR, defined as the visualization of contrast material after crossing the occlusion with the guide wire. SMR was achieved in 303 patients (50.4%) and was found to be associated with less time to treatment (248 vs. 286 minutes; p = 0.001), less deteriorated initial left ventricular function and shock at admission (9.2 vs. 16.4%; p = 0.008), higher successful rate (94.7% vs. 78.5%; p < 0,0001) and of higher rate of thrombus rescue: 70/81 vs. 27/79 patients (p < 0.0001). The right coronary artery was the most frequent infarct-related artery. Histopathology of the retrieved thrombi was available for 160 patients treated with thrombus aspiration. SMR was associated with smaller thrombus, lower contents of leukocytes and erythrocytes, and higher thrombus content of inflammatory cells, cholesterol and collagen crystals from the atheromatous plaque. SMR is an independent predictor of procedure success and its relationship with the anatomy of the thrombus could redefine the indication of thrombus aspiration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Coronary Thrombosis/surgery , Myocardial Reperfusion/methods , Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Prognosis , Coronary Thrombosis/pathology , Treatment Outcome , Coronary Angiography , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging
19.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 108(5): 458-469, May 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838739

ABSTRACT

Abstract The study of myocardial viability is of great importance in the orientation and management of patients requiring myocardial revascularization or angioplasty. The technique of delayed enhancement (DE) is accurate and has transformed the study of viability into an easy test, not only for the detection of fibrosis but also as a binary test detecting what is viable or not. On DE, fibrosis equal to or greater than 50% of the segmental area is considered as non-viable, whereas that below 50% is considered viable. During the same evaluation, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) may also use other techniques for functional and perfusion studies to obtain a global evaluation of ischemic heart disease. This study aims to highlight the current concepts and broadly emphasize the use of CMR as a method that over the last 20 years has become a reference in the detection of infarction and assessment of myocardial viability.


Resumo O estudo de viabilidade miocárdica é de grande importância para a orientação e manejo de pacientes que necessitam de cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica ou angioplastia. A técnica de realce tardio (RT) é precisa e transformou o estudo de viabilidade em um teste fácil, não só para a detecção de fibrose, mas também como um modelo binário para a detecção do que é ou não é viável. Uma fibrose identificada pelo RT é considerada como não viável quando igual ou maior do que 50% da área segmentar e como viável quando menor que 50%. A ressonância magnética cardíaca (RMC) também pode lançar mão de outras técnicas para estudo funcional e de perfusão para uma avaliação global da doença isquêmica do coração no mesmo exame. Este estudo tem como objetivo destacar os conceitos atuais e enfatizar amplamente o uso da RMC como um método que nos últimos 20 anos se tornou referência na detecção de infarto e avaliação de viabilidade miocárdica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tissue Survival/physiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/standards , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/trends , Contrast Media/standards , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Cardiomyopathies/physiopathology , Cardiomyopathies/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Myocardial Revascularization
20.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 76(5): 321-325, Oct. 2016. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-841602

ABSTRACT

La estimulación por marcapasos se asocia con eventos adversos graves. En la siguiente serie de casos se evaluó la disincronía mecánica intraventricular izquierda (DMVI) en la estimulación endocárdica prolongada del ventrículo derecho a nivel septal. Se estudiaron 6 personas con marcapasos implantados no antes de un año utilizando SPECT gatillado con 99mTc-MIBI y análisis de fase en reposo. Se registraron variables clínicas, duración del QRS, tasa y modo de estimulación ventricular, presencia y extensión de isquemia y/o infarto, volúmenes cavitarios y FEVI en reposo. Utilizando V-Sync de Emory Cardiac Toolbox se obtuvieron el ancho de banda (AB) y el desvío estándar de fase (DEF) en reposo (grados), comparándolos con una población control. La estimulación endocárdica prolongada en el septum ventricular derecho se asoció con marcada DMVI, aun cuando la función sistólica estaba conservada. Aquellos con FEVI moderada/gravemente disminuida (caracterizados por diámetros cavitarios mayores, infarto o isquemia grave) exhibieron mayor disincronía que aquellos con FEVI conservada/levemente disminuida (AB: 177.3o vs. 88.3o; DEF: 53.1o vs. 33.8o). En los casos con cardiopatía isquémica portadores de marcapasos, el AF es una herramienta válida de potencial utilidad para evaluar la disincronía asociada al infarto y, eventualmente, aportar a la decisión oportuna del pasaje al modo de estimulación biventricular.


Pacemaker stimulation is associated with unpredictable severe cardiac events. We evaluated left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony (LVMD) during prolonged septal right ventricular pacing. We performed 99mTc-MIBI gated-SPECT and phase analysis in 6 patients with pacemakers implanted at least one year before scintigraphy due to advanced atrioventricular block. Using V-Sync of Emory Cardiac Toolbox we obtained phase bandwidth (PBW) and standard deviation (PSD) from rest phase histogram. Clinical variables, QRS duration, rate and mode of pacing in septal right ventricle wall, chamber diameters, presence and extension of myocardial scar and ischemia and rest LVEF were recorded. Prolonged septal endocardial pacing is associated with marked LVMD, even when systolic function was preserved. More severe dyssynchrony was found in patients with impaired LVEF, higher left ventricle diameters, extensive infarct or severe ischemia than in patients with preserved LVEF (PBW: 177.3o vs. 88.3o; PSD: 53.1o vs. 33.8o). In the patients with ischemic heart disease and pacemaker, gated-SPECT phase analysis is a valid and potentially useful technique to evaluate LMVD associated with myocardial scar and to decide the upgrading to biventricular pacing mode.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pacemaker, Artificial/adverse effects , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Septum/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Electrocardiography , Ventricular Septum/diagnostic imaging , Atrioventricular Block/surgery , Cardiac-Gated Single-Photon Emission Computer-Assisted Tomography , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging
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