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Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 765-773, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010084


Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world, and its treatment strategy is mainly surgery combined with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, long-term chemotherapy will result in drug resistance, which is also one of the difficulties in the treatment of lung cancer. Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent and lipid peroxidation-driven non-apoptotic cell death cascade, occurring when there is an imbalance of redox homeostasis in the cell. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is key for cellular antioxidant responses. Numerous studies suggest that Nrf2 assumes an extremely important role in regulation of ferroptosis, for its various functions in iron, lipid, and amino acid metabolism, and so on. In this review, a brief overview of the research progress of ferroptosis over the past decade will be presented. In particular, the mechanism of ferroptosis and the regulation of ferroptosis by Nrf2 will be discussed, as well as the role of the Nrf2 pathway and ferroptosis in tumor drug resistance, which will provide new research directions for the treatment of drug-resistant lung cancer patients.

Humans , Ferroptosis , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Iron
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5337-5344, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008731


This study aims to explore the effects of Shenqi Dihuang Decoction on high-glucose induced ferroptosis and the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2(Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1(HO-1)/glutathione peroxidase 4(GPX4) axis in human renal tubular epithelial cells(HK-2) and to clarify the underlying mechanism. The cell injury model was established by exposing HK-2 to high glucose, and the Shenqi Dihuang Decoction-medicated serum was prepared. The optimal concentration and intervention time of Shenqi Dihuang Decoction were determined. HK-2 were divided into normal, high glucose, and low-, medium-, and high-dose Shenqi Dihuang Decoction groups. After interventions, the cell proliferation rate in each group was determined and the cell morphology and mitochondrial ultrastructure were observed. Then, the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species(ROS), ferrous ion(Fe~(2+)), glutathione(GSH), and malondialdehyde(MDA) and the protein levels of Nrf2, HO-1, GPX4, and xCT were measured. The optimal concentration and intervention time of Shenqi Dihuang Decoction-medicated serum were determined to be 10% and 24 h, respectively. Compared with the high glucose group, high-dose Shenqi Dihuang Decoction promoted the proliferation of HK-2. The cells in the low-, medium-, and high-dose Shenqi Dihuang Decoction groups presented tight arrangement, an increased cell count, improved morphology from a spindle-fiber shape to a cobblestone shape, and improved morphology and structure of mitochondrial membrane and cristae, compared with those in the high glucose group. Meanwhile, all the doses of Shenqi Dihuang Decoction inhibited ROS elevation to mitigate the peroxidation damage, lowered the Fe~(2+) and MDA levels and elevated the GSH level to inhibit lipid peroxidation, and activated the antioxidant pathway to upregulate the protein levels of Nrf2, HO-1, xCT, and GPX4. In conclusion, Shenqi Dihuang Decoction-medicated serum can inhibit high-glucose induced ferroptosis of HK-2 in vitro, which involves the antioxidant effect and the activation of the Nrf2/HO-1/GPX4 pathway.

Humans , Ferroptosis , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics , Reactive Oxygen Species , Epithelial Cells , Antioxidants , Glutathione , Glucose
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 464-473, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010956


OBJECTIVE@#Acute liver failure (ALF) is characterized by severe liver dysfunction, rapid progression and high mortality and is difficult to treat. Studies have found that sulforaphane (SFN), a nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) agonist, has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer effects, and has certain protective effects on neurodegenerative diseases, cancer and liver fibrosis. This paper aimed to explore the protective effect of SFN in ALF and it possible mechanisms of action.@*METHODS@#Lipopolysaccharide and D-galactosamine were used to induce liver injury in vitro and in vivo. NRF2 agonist SFN and histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) inhibitor ACY1215 were used to observe the protective effect and possible mechanisms of SFN in ALF, respectively. Cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Fe2+, glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected. The expression of HDAC6, NRF2, glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 4 (ACSL4) and solute carrier family 7 member 11 (SLC7A11) were detected by Western blotting and immunofluorescence.@*RESULTS@#Our results show that NRF2 was activated by SFN. LDH, Fe2+, MDA and ACSL4 were downregulated, while GSH, GPX4 and SLC7A11 were upregulated by SFN in vitro and in vivo, indicating the inhibitory effect of SFN on ferroptosis. Additionally, HDAC6 expression was decreased in the SFN group, indicating that SFN could downregulate the expression of HDAC6 in ALF. After using the HDAC6 inhibitor, ACY1215, SFN further reduced HDAC6 expression and inhibited ferroptosis, indicating that SFN may inhibit ferroptosis by regulating HDAC6 activity.@*CONCLUSION@#SFN has a protective effect on ALF, and the mechanism may include reduction of ferroptosis through the regulation of HDAC6. Please cite this article as: Zhang YQ, Shi CX, Zhang DM, Zhang LY, Wang LW, Gong ZJ. Sulforaphane, an NRF2 agonist, alleviates ferroptosis in acute liver failure by regulating HDAC6 activity. J Integr Med. 2023; 21(5): 464-473.

Humans , Ferroptosis , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics , Liver Failure, Acute/drug therapy , Isothiocyanates/pharmacology , Glutathione , Histone Deacetylase 6
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2210-2220, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007633


BACKGROUND@#Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is the most common malignant tumor of biliary tract. Isoliquiritigenin (ISL) is a natural compound with chalcone structure extracted from the roots of licorice and other plants. Relevant studies have shown that ISL has a strong anti-tumor ability in various types of tumors. However, the research of ISL against GBC has not been reported, which needs to be further investigated.@*METHODS@#The effects of ISL against GBC cells in vitro and in vivo were characterized by cytotoxicity test, RNA-sequencing, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection, lipid peroxidation detection, ferrous ion detection, glutathione disulphide/glutathione (GSSG/GSH) detection, lentivirus transfection, nude mice tumorigenesis experiment and immunohistochemistry.@*RESULTS@#ISL significantly inhibited the proliferation of GBC cells in vitro . The results of transcriptome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis showed that ferroptosis was the main pathway of ISL inhibiting the proliferation of GBC, and HMOX1 and GPX4 were the key molecules of ISL-induced ferroptosis. Knockdown of HMOX1 or overexpression of GPX4 can reduce the sensitivity of GBC cells to ISL-induced ferroptosis and significantly restore the viability of GBC cells. Moreover, ISL significantly reversed the iron content, ROS level, lipid peroxidation level and GSSG/GSH ratio of GBC cells. Finally, ISL significantly inhibited the growth of GBC in vivo and regulated the ferroptosis of GBC by mediating HMOX1 and GPX4 .@*CONCLUSION@#ISL induced ferroptosis in GBC mainly by activating p62-Keap1-Nrf2-HMOX1 signaling pathway and down-regulating GPX4 in vitro and in vivo . This evidence may provide a new direction for the treatment of GBC.

Animals , Mice , Humans , Carcinoma in Situ , Chalcones/pharmacology , Ferroptosis , Gallbladder Neoplasms/genetics , Glutathione Disulfide , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1 , Mice, Nude , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics , Reactive Oxygen Species
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 745-752, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927958


The present study analyzed the correlations between curcumin(Cur), nuclear factor E2 related factor 2(NRF2)-dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase(DDAH)-asymmetric dimethylarginine(ADMA)-nitric oxide(NO) pathway, and endothelial-mesenchymal transition(EndMT) based on SD rats with cardiac fibrosis, and explored the effect and mechanism of Cur in resisting cardiac fibrosis to provide an in-depth theoretical basis for its clinical application in the treatment of heart failure. The cardiac fibrosis model was induced by subcutaneous injection of isoprenaline(Iso) in rats. Thirty-two rats were randomly divided into a control group, a model group, a low-dose Cur group(100 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), and a high-dose Cur group(200 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), with eight in each group. After 21 days of treatment, cardiac function was detected by echocardiography, degree of cardiac fibrosis by Masson staining, expression of CD31 and α-SMA by pathological staining, expression of VE-cadherin, vimentin, NRF2, and DDAH by Western blot, and ADMA level by HPLC. Compared with the model group, the Cur groups showed alleviated cardiac fibrosis, accompanied by increased CD31 and VE-cadherin expression and decreased α-SMA and vimentin expression, indicating relieved EndMT. Additionally, DDAH and NRF2 levels were elevated and ADMA and NO expression declined. Cur improves cardiac fibrosis by inhibiting EndMT presumedly through the NRF2-DDAH-ADMA-NO pathway.

Animals , Rats , Amidohydrolases/metabolism , Curcumin , Fibrosis , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 721-731, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922755


Chitooligosaccharide-zinc (COS·Zn) is a powerful anti-oxidant and anti-aging scavenger, whose anti-oxidative ability immensely exceeds vitamin C. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the protective effects of COS·Zn against premature ovarian failure (POF) and potential mechanisms. Female KM adult mice were divided into the following groups: a treatment group (150 mg·kg

Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , Chitosan , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics , Nuclear Proteins , Oligosaccharides , Primary Ovarian Insufficiency/drug therapy , Signal Transduction , Zinc
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1460-1466, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879051


This project aimed to explore the protective effect of ginsenoside Rg_1 on hypoxia/reoxygenation(H/R)-induced H9 c2 cardiomyocyte injury and its underlying signaling pathway. The H/R model of H9 c2 cardiomyocytes was established and then the cells were divided into different treatment groups. CCK-8(cell counting kit-8) was used to detect the activity of cardiomyocytes; Brdu assay was used to detect the proliferation of H9 c2 cells; the caspase-3 activity was tested, and then the protein expression was assessed by Western blot. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate the apoptosis level of cardiomyocytes. Ginsenoside Rg_1 inhibited H/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and caspase-3 activity, promoted nuclear transcription of nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2(Nrf2), and enhanced the expression of the downstream heme oxygenase-1(HO-1). Ginsenoside Rg_1 could increase Nrf2 nuclear transcription and HO-1 expression with the increase of concentration(10, 20, 40, 60 μmol·L~(-1)). However, the protective effect of ginsenoside Rg_1 on cardiomyocytes was significantly weakened after the transfection of Nrf2-siRNA. Ginsenoside Rg_1 could protect cardiomyocytes by activating the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

Humans , Apoptosis , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Heme Oxygenase-1/genetics , Hypoxia , Myocytes, Cardiac , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 66(1): 1-11, 20200129.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095406


Introdução: O fator nuclear eritroide 2 relacionado ao fator 2 (Nrf2) desempenha papel fundamental na expressão de genes mediados por elemento de resposta antioxidante (ERA); sendo assim, é uma via importante para proteger as células de substâncias carcinogênicas. Objetivo: Realizar uma revisão integrativa da literatura acerca da ação quimiopreventiva dos fitoquímicos por meio da regulação do fator de transcrição Nrf2. Método: O levantamento de artigos para a revisão integrativa da literatura sobre essa temática foi realizado nos periódicos indexados nas bases de dados: Google Acadêmico, PubMed, SciELO, ScienceDirect e SpringerLink, utilizando-se os descritores advindos do MeSH: fitoquímicos, radicais livres, estresse oxidativo, carcinogênese, quimioprevenção e Nrf2. Os critérios de seleção foram artigos publicados de 2000 a 2019, relacionados, ou que investiguem diretamente a atuação de fitoquímicos no fator de transcrição Nrf2, e a prevenção do desenvolvimento de câncer. Resultados: Foram selecionados 58 artigos que estavam relacionados com o objetivo da revisão. Os estudos revisados apontaram que fitoquímicos, tais como resveratrol, curcumina, isotiocianato, luteolina, entre outros, atuam na ativação da via Nrf2, utilizando diferentes mecanismos, sendo eles dependentes ou independentes da proteína repressora Kelch-Like Epichlorohydrin-Associated Protein 1. Conclusão: Diante disso, conclui-se que a modulação do fator de transcrição Nrf2 é um mecanismo que se configura como um importante mediador no que concerne compostos nocivos ao organismo humano, e que a atuação dos fitoquímicos nessa via contribui para a redução do risco de câncer. No entanto, ainda não são completamente elucidados todos os mecanismos utilizados pelos fitoquímicos, sendo necessários ulteriores estudos na área

Introduction: The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) plays a fundamental role in the expression of genes mediated by antioxidant response element (ARE), thus it is an important pathway to protect the cells from carcinogenic substances. Objective: To perform an integrative literature review on the quimiopreventive action of phytochemicals through regulation of the transcription factor Nrf2. Method: Search of papers for the integrative literature review about this theme conducted in journals indexed in the databases: Academic Google, PubMed, SciELO, ScienceDirect and Springer Link, using the MeSH descriptors: phytochemicals, free radicals, oxidative stress, carcinogenesis, chemoprevention and Nrf2. The selection criteria were articles published from 2000 to 2019, related to or that directly investigate the role of phytochemicals in the transcription factor Nrf2, and the prevention of cancer development. Results: 58 articles were selected, all related to the objective of the review. The reviewed studies showed that phytochemicals, such as resveratrol, curcumin, isothiocyanate, luteolin, among others, act on the activation of the Nrf2 pathway, using different mechanisms, which are dependent or independent of the repressor protein Kelch-Like Epichlorohydrin-Associated Protein 1. Conclusion: Therefore, the conclusion is that the modulation of the transcription factor Nrf2 is a mechanism that configures itself as an important mediator for harmful compounds to the human organism, and that the action of phytochemicals, in this pathway, contributes to the reduction of cancer risk. However, all the mechanisms used by phytochemicals, are not completely elucidated, and further studies are needed in the area

Introducción: El factor nuclear eritroide 2 relacionado con el factor 2 (Nrf2) desenvuelve un papel fundamental en la expresión de los genes mediados por él elemento de respuesta antioxidante (ERA), por lo tanto, es una vía importante para proteger las células de las sustancias carcinógenas. Objetivo: Realizar una revisión integradora de la literatura sobre la acción quimiopreventiva de los fitoquímicos mediante la regulación del factor de transcripción Nrf2. Método: El levantamiento de artículos para la revisión integral de la literatura sobre este tema se realizó en revistas indexadas en las bases de datos: Google Académico, PubMed, Scielo, ScienceDirect y SpringerLink, usando los descriptores MeSH: fitoquímicos, radicales libres, estrés oxidativo, carcinogénesis, quimioprevención y Nrf2. Los criterios de selección fueron artículos publicados entre 2000 y 2019, relacionados o que investigan directamente el papel de los fitoquímicos en el factor de transcripción Nrf2 y la prevención del desarrollo del câncer. Resultados: 58 artículos relacionados con el objetivo de la revisión fueron seleccionados. Los estudios revisados mostraron que los fitoquímicos, como el resveratrol, la curcumina, el isotiocito, la luteolina, entre otros, actúan sobre la activación de la vía Nrf2, utilizando diferentes mecanismos, que son dependientes o independientes de la proteína represora Kelch-Like Epichlorohydrin-Associated Protein 1. Conclusión: Por lo tanto, se concluí que la modulación del factor de transcripción Nrf2 es un mecanismo que se configura como un importante mediador en relación con los compuestos nocivos para el cuerpo humano, y que la acción de los fitoquímicos en esta vía contribuye a reducir el riesgo de cáncer. Sin embargo, todos los mecanismos utilizados por los fitoquímicos aún no se han dilucidado por completo, por lo que se necesitan más estudios en esta área

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Carcinogenesis/drug effects , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Oxidative Stress , Diet , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/therapeutic use , Antioxidant Response Elements , Free Radicals , Antioxidants
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 37(3): 378-389, jul.-set. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-888478


Resumen Introducción. Dada la resistencia de Plasmodium a los medicamentos antipalúdicos, es necesario encontrar nuevas alternativas terapéuticas para su tratamiento y control. Con base en el saber indígena colombiano, se recopilaron extractos de plantas del Vaupés medio con potencial efecto antipalúdico. Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto mutagénico y genotóxico, y la expresión de los genes Rad51C, Xiap, P53 yNrf2, inducidos por cuatro extractos etanólicos con actividad anti-Plasmodium(R001, T002, T015 y T028). Materiales y métodos. Se evaluó el potencial mutagénico de cuatro extractos etanólicos con efecto antiplasmódico utilizando el test de Ames y el efecto genotóxico, con un ensayo del cometa; asimismo, se analizó la expresión de los genes Rad51C, Xiap, P53 y Nrf2 en células HepG2. Resultados. Los extractos no fueron mutágenos en la cepa TA98 de Salmonella typhimurium en presencia y ausencia de actividad metabólica de la fracción S9. En la cepa TA100, los extractos R001, T015 y T028 se comportaron como mutágenos débiles en presencia de S9, con índices mutagénicos de 1,58; 1,38; 1,53 y 1,61, respectivamente; T015 tuvo el mismo comportamiento en ausencia de S9, con un índice mutagénico de 1,36. En el ensayo del cometa, todos los extractos provocaron daño de categorías 1 o 2, con colas de cometas entre 36,7 y 51,48 µm de longitud; sin embargo, el índice dedaño genético sugirió que los tratamientos afectaron la mayoría de las células. En los genes en estudio, los extractos R001 y T028 indujeron una sobreexpresiónde 1,84 a 3,99 frente a las células sin tratar de los genes Xiap y P53. Conclusiones. Los resultados evidenciaron que el extracto T002 fue el más seguro, ya que presentó actividad anti-Plasmodium, no fue citotóxico en las células HepG2, no fue mutágeno, causó daño de categoría 1 en el ADN y no modificó la expresión de los genes evaluados.

Abstracts Introduction: Due to Plasmodium resistance to antimalarial drugs, it is important to find new therapeutic alternatives for malaria treatment and control. Based on the knowledge of Colombian indigenous communities, we collected extracts of plants with potential antimalarial effects from the middle Vaupés region. Objective: To evaluate the mutagenic and genotoxic effects, as well as the gene expression of Rad51C, Xiap, P53 and Nrf2 induced by four ethanolic extracts with antimalarial activity (R001, T002, T015 and T028). Materials and methods: We evaluated four ethanolic extracts with antimalarial activity using the Ames test to assess mutagenicity, and the comet assay on HepG2 cells to determine the genotoxicicity. We also evaluated the expression of Rad51C, Xiap, P53 and Nrf2 from HepG2 cells stimulated with the four extracts. Results: None of the four extracts was mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 strain in the presence and absence of S9 metabolic activity. Extracts R001, T015 and T028 were weakly mutagenic on the TA100 strain in the presence of S9, with mutagenic indexes (MI) of 1.58, 1.53 and 1.61, respectively. The T015 strain showed the same behavior without S9 with an MI of 1.36. The results of the comet assay showed that the four extracts produced category 1 or 2 damage, with comets between 36.7 and 51.48 µm in length. However, the genetic damage index suggested that most of the cells were affected by the treatments. Regarding gene expression, extracts R001 and T028 induced an overexpression of genes Xiap and P53 with an 1.84 to 3.99 fold-change compared with untreated cells. Conclusions: These results revealed that the T002 extract was the safest as it had antimalarial activity and was not cytotoxic on HepG2 cells. Moreover, it was not mutagenic and it only produced category 1 damage on the DNA. Also, the extract did not induce a change in the expression of the tested genes.

Humans , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/biosynthesis , DNA-Binding Proteins/biosynthesis , X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein/biosynthesis , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/biosynthesis , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Plasmodium falciparum/drug effects , Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects , Salmonella typhimurium/genetics , Solvents , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics , Colombia , Comet Assay , Ethanol , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein/genetics , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics , Hep G2 Cells , Activation, Metabolic , Genes, Bacterial/drug effects , Mutagenicity Tests , Antimalarials/isolation & purification
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : e142-2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-42471


Bucillamine is used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This study investigated the protective effects of bucillamine against cisplatin-induced damage in auditory cells, the organ of Corti from postnatal rats (P2) and adult Balb/C mice. Cisplatin increases the catalytic activity of caspase-3 and caspase-8 proteases and the production of free radicals, which were significantly suppressed by pretreatment with bucillamine. Bucillamine induces the intranuclear translocation of Nrf2 and thereby increases the expression of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS) and glutathione synthetase (GSS), which further induces intracellular antioxidant glutathione (GSH), heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2). However, knockdown studies of HO-1 and SOD2 suggest that the protective effect of bucillamine against cisplatin is independent of the enzymatic activity of HO-1 and SOD. Furthermore, pretreatment with bucillamine protects sensory hair cells on organ of Corti explants from cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity concomitantly with inhibition of caspase-3 activation. The auditory-brainstem-evoked response of cisplatin-injected mice shows marked increases in hearing threshold shifts, which was markedly suppressed by pretreatment with bucillamine in vivo. Taken together, bucillamine protects sensory hair cells from cisplatin through a scavenging effect on itself, as well as the induction of intracellular GSH.

Animals , Male , Mice , Rats , Antioxidants/metabolism , Apoptosis/drug effects , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 8/metabolism , Cell Line , Cisplatin/toxicity , Cysteine/analogs & derivatives , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Gene Knockdown Techniques , Glutathione/metabolism , Heme Oxygenase-1/genetics , Intracellular Space/metabolism , Metabolic Detoxication, Phase II/genetics , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics , Nitric Oxide/biosynthesis , Organ of Corti/drug effects , RNA Interference , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/genetics
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 787-797, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-122637


Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is a chemoresistant intrahepatic bile duct carcinoma with a poor prognosis. The aims of this study were to identify molecular pathways that enhance sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide (PTL)-induced anticancer effects on CC cells. The effects of PTL on apoptosis and hemoxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction were examined in CC cell lines. The enhancement of PTL-mediated apoptosis by modulation of HO-1 expression and the mechanisms involved were also examined in an in vitro cell system. Low PTL concentrations (5 to 10 micrometer) led to Nrf2-dependent HO-1 induction, which attenuated the apoptogenic effect of PTL in Choi-CK and SCK cells. PTL-mediated apoptosis was enhanced by the protein kinase C-alpha inhibitor Ro317549 (Ro) through inhibition of expression and nuclear translocation of Nrf2, resulting in blockage of HO-1 expression. Finally, HO-1 silencing resulted in enhancement of apoptotic cell death in CC cells. The combination of PTL and Ro efficiently improved tumor growth inhibition compared to treatment with either agent alone in an in vivo subcutaneous tumor model. In conclusion, the modulation of HO-1 expression substantially improved the anticancer effect of PTL. The combination of PTL and Ro could prove to be a valuable chemotherapeutic strategy for CC.

Humans , Active Transport, Cell Nucleus/drug effects , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Nucleus/metabolism , Cholangiocarcinoma/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects , Enzyme Activation , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Heme Oxygenase-1/genetics , Lactones/chemistry , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics , Protein Kinase C-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , Sesquiterpenes/chemistry , Signal Transduction/drug effects