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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 127-136, feb. 2024. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528822

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The objective of this study was to investigate the therapeutic wound healing potential and molecular mechanisms of shikonin as small molecules in vitro. A mouse burn model was used to explore the potential therapeutic effect of shikonin; we traced proliferating cells in vivo to locate the active area of skin cell proliferation. Through the results of conventional pathological staining, we found that shikonin has a good effect on the treatment of burned skin and promoted the normal distribution of skin keratin at the damaged site. At the same time, shikonin also promoted the proliferation of skin cells at the damaged site; importantly, we found a significant increase in the number of fibroblasts at the damaged site treated with shikonin. Most importantly, shikonin promotes fibroblasts to repair skin wounds by regulating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. This study shows that shikonin can effectively promote the proliferation of skin cell, and local injection of fibroblasts in burned skin can play a certain therapeutic role.


El objetivo de este trabajo fue investigar el potencial terapéutico de cicatrización de heridas y los mecanismos moleculares de la shikonina como moléculas pequeñas in vitro. Se utilizó un modelo de quemaduras en ratones para explorar el posible efecto terapéutico de la shikonina; Rastreamos las células en proliferación in vivo para localizar el área activa de proliferación de células de la piel. A través de los resultados de la tinción para patología convencional, encontramos que la shikonina tiene un buen efecto en el tratamiento de la piel quemada y promueve la distribución normal de la queratina de la piel en el sitio dañado. Al mismo tiempo, la shikonina también promovió la proliferación de células de la piel en el sitio dañado. Es importante destacar que encontramos un aumento significativo en la cantidad de fibroblastos en el sitio dañado tratado con shikonina. Lo más importante es que la shikonina promueve la función reparadora de fibroblastos en las heridas de la piel regulando la vía de señalización PI3K/ AKT. Este estudio muestra que la shikonina puede promover eficazmente la proliferación de células de la piel y que la inyección local de fibroblastos en la piel quemada puede desempeñar un cierto papel terapéutico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Wound Healing/drug effects , Burns/drug therapy , Naphthoquinones/administration & dosage , Skin , In Vitro Techniques , Naphthoquinones/pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Fibroblasts , Mice, Inbred C57BL
2.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 1026-1031, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941036

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the expression of c-Myc protein in cervical cancer HeLa cells and explore the effect of juglone on the proliferation and apoptosis of HeLa cells by affecting c-Myc ubiquitination.@*METHODS@#HeLa cells treated with different concentrations (0, 10, 20, or 50 μmol/L) of juglone or with 20 μmol/L juglone for different time lengths were examined for expression of c-Myc protein with Western blotting. The half-life of c-Myc protein was determined using cycloheximide (CHX) and c-Myc protein degradation was detected using coimmunoprecipitation. We also assessed the effects of 20 μmol/L juglone combined with 0, 1.0 or 2.0 μmol/L MG132 (a proteasome inhibitor) on c-Myc expression. The effects of 20 μmol/L juglone on the proliferation and apoptosis of HeLa cells with RNA interference-mediated knockdown of c-Myc were evaluated with MTT assay and flow cytometry.@*RESULTS@#Treatment with juglone significantly lowered c-Myc protein expression in HeLa cells in a concentration-and time-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Juglone obviously shortened the half-life of c-Myc protein, and the addition of MG132 significantly up-regulated the expression level of c-Myc protein (P < 0.05). Juglone treatment also promoted ubiquitination of c-Myc protein in HeLa cells. Compared with the cells transfected with a negative control construct, the cells transfected with si-c-Myc showed significantly decreased proliferation inhibition and a lowered cell rate with early apoptosis after juglone treatment (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Juglone inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of HeLa cells by affecting the ubiquitination of c-Myc protein.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Apoptosis , Cell Proliferation , HeLa Cells , Naphthoquinones , Ubiquitination , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/genetics
3.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 877-888, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922482

ABSTRACT

A new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has been identified as the etiologic agent for the COVID-19 outbreak. Currently, effective treatment options remain very limited for this disease; therefore, there is an urgent need to identify new anti-COVID-19 agents. In this study, we screened over 6,000 compounds that included approved drugs, drug candidates in clinical trials, and pharmacologically active compounds to identify leads that target the SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease (PLpro). Together with main protease (M


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Binding Sites , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Crystallography, X-Ray , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drug Repositioning , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Imidazoles/therapeutic use , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Mutagenesis, Site-Directed , Naphthoquinones/therapeutic use , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
4.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 43: e52784, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1460985

ABSTRACT

The selective activity of an antineoplastic drug is related to its ability to promote cytotoxic action on tumor cells and preserve the integrity of non-neoplastic cells. Beta-lapachone is extracted from the sawdust of Ipe wood, a thick bark tree from the Ipe wood found in the Brazilian Cerrado biome. This study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic action of beta-lapachone in an endothelial cell line. The EA.hy926 cells were seeded in two groups, G1 and G2, cultured and exposed to beta-lapachone at concentrations of 0.0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1 and 3 & 956;M for 24 hours. G1 remained under normal cultivation conditions and G2 was subjected to oxidative stress through an ischemia and reperfusion assay, in a deoxygenated sealed chamber. The cytotoxicity assay was performed using the tetrazolium reduction method. In G1, the cytotoxicity ranged from 0.0 to 10.0%; and in G2 between 0.0 and 6.3%. No statistically significant difference was observed between the obtained values. Moreover, we found no cytotoxic action of beta-lapachone on endothelial cells, and the results point out that the drug might have preserved the cell’s integrity against oxidative stress under the conditions of this experiment. This promising result suggests the possibility of beta-lapachone as a chemotherapy drug with selective activity.


Subject(s)
Endothelial Cells/physiology , Endothelial Cells/chemistry , Naphthoquinones , Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190389, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1091236

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Chagas disease, which is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is endemic to Latin America and mainly affects low-income populations. Chemotherapy is based on two nitrocompounds, but their reduced efficacy encourages the continuous search for alternative drugs. Our group has characterised the trypanocidal effect of naphthoquinones and their derivatives, with naphthoimidazoles derived from β-lapachone (N1, N2 and N3) being the most active in vitro. OBJECTIVES In the present work, the effects of N1, N2 and N3 on acutely infected mice were investigated. METHODS in vivo activity of the compounds was assessed by parasitological, biochemical, histopathological, immunophenotypical, electrocardiographic (ECG) and behavioral analyses. FINDINGS Naphthoimidazoles led to a decrease in parasitaemia (8 dpi) by reducing the number of bloodstream trypomastigotes by 25-50% but not by reducing mortality. N1 protected mice from heart injury (15 dpi) by decreasing inflammation. Bradycardia was also partially reversed after treatment with N1 and N2. Furthermore, the three compounds did not reverse hepatic and renal lesions or promote the improvement of other evaluated parameters. MAIN CONCLUSION N1 showed moderate trypanocidal and promising immunomodulatory activities, and its use in combination with benznidazole and/or anti-arrhythmic drugs as well as the efficacy of its alternative formulations must be investigated in the near future.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Trypanocidal Agents/therapeutic use , Naphthoquinones/therapeutic use , Chagas Disease/drug therapy , Nitroimidazoles/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Trypanocidal Agents/chemistry , Acute Disease , Naphthoquinones/chemistry , Parasitemia/drug therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Electrocardiography , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Nitroimidazoles/chemistry
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3422-3431, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828429

ABSTRACT

In this study, based on the transcriptome database of suspension cells of Arnebia euchroma, we explored two candidate cytochrome P450 enzyme genes that might relate to the shikonin biosynthesis downstream pathway when CYP76B74 sequence was referenced. We constructed interference-type hairy roots of candidate genes and cultured them. We measured the fresh weight, dry weight, total naphthoquinone content, shikonin and its derivatives content and expression levels of key enzyme genes involved in shikonin biosynthesis pathway. The effects of candidate genes on the growth and shikonin production of A. euchroma hairy roots were discussed, and the possible regulatory mechanisms that candidate genes affected shikonin synthesis were discussed. Through local Blast and phylogenetic analysis, two candidate CYP450 genes(CYP76B75 and CYP76B100) with high homology to CYP76B74 in A. euchroma were screened, and corresponding interference hairy roots were constructed. Compared with the control(RNAi-control), the fresh weight of CYP76B75 interfered hairy root(RNAi-CYP76B75) and CYP76B100 interfered hairy root(RNAi-CYP76B100) were significantly reduced, while dry weight were not affected, so the dry rate increased significantly. Except for β-acetoxyisovalerylalkannin, which is high in three groups of hairy roots, the contents of shikonin, deoxyshikonin, acetylshikonin, β,β'-dimethacrylicalkannin, β-hydroxyisovalerylshikonin,β-hydroxyisovalerylshikonin, isobutyrylshikonin and total naphthoquinones showed a consistent pattern: RNAi-CYP76B75>RNAi-CYP76B100>RNAi-control. Among them, the synthesis of β-hydroxyisovalerylshikonin was most significantly promoted by interfering with the expression of CYP76B75. The content of β-hydroxyisovalerylshikonin in RNAi-CYP76B75 was 11.7 times that of RNAi-control. RESULTS:: of real-time qPCR analysis showed that compared to RNAi-control, the expression levels of AePGT gene in RNAi-CYP76B75 and RNAi-CYP76B100 were not changed significantly, and the expression levels of CYP76B74 and AeHMGR were up-regulated. In addition, the expression level of CYP76B100 in RNAi-CYP76B75 was down-regulated, whereas in RNAi-CYP76B100, the expression of CYP76B75 was significantly up-regulated. Therefore, this study confirmed that when the expression of CYP76B75 and CYP76B100 were interrupted, the growth of hairy roots were suppressed, but the synthesis of shikonin were promoted. They might increase the shikonin biosynthesis by up-regulating the expression of CYP76B74 in the hairy roots of A. euchroma.


Subject(s)
Boraginaceae , Genetics , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Naphthoquinones , Phylogeny , Plant Roots , RNA , RNA Interference
7.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 1048-1052, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879350

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the clinical effect of platelet rich plasma (PRP) combined with β tricalcium phosphate bioceramic bone in the treatment of non traumatic necrosis of the femoral head in ARCO stageⅡ.@*METHODS@#From January 2017 to December 2018, 100 patients (160 hips) with ARCO stageⅡnon traumatic necrosis of the femoral head were divided into PRP group and control group. In PRP group, 50 patients (80 hips), 22 males and 28 females, aged from 18 to 65 (43.47± 7.23) years, with a course of 4 to 18 (15.8±2.9) months, underwent core decompression and bone grafting combined with PRP implantation. There were 50 cases (80 hips) in the control group, including 27 males and 23 females, aged 20 to 63 (45.72± 7.43) years, and the course of disease was 6 to 19 (14.9±3.8) months. Hip X-ay film was followed up after operation. Harris score and VAS score were used to evaluate the curative effect, and the survival rate of hip joint was recorded.@*RESULTS@#All patients had good wound healing, no infection, thrombosis and other complications. All patients were followed up for 12 to 14 (12.0±0.4) months. Twelve months after operation, the image expression of PRP group was better than that of control group(@*CONCLUSION@#Platelet-rich plasma(PRP) combined with artificialbone for core decompression and bone grafting can change the situation of simple artificial bone implantation and uncertain curative effect, improve the success rate of this operation, effectively reduce the collapse rate of femoral head necrosis in the early and middle stage, delay or even avoid hip replacement.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Artemisinins , Bone Transplantation , Decompression, Surgical , Femur Head/surgery , Femur Head Necrosis/surgery , Naphthoquinones , Platelet-Rich Plasma , Treatment Outcome
8.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(12): 2224-2232, dez. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-976429

ABSTRACT

Osteosarcoma is a malignant tumor of primitive bone cells with a high incidence in dogs and humans. The need for more effective drugs with less adverse consequences has pushed the development of chemotherapeutic agents from plants and other natural sources. The aim of this study was to verify the cytotoxic effects of beta-lapachone, a compound present in the sawdust of Tabebuia sp. (popularly known as ipê) wood, on canine osteosarcoma cells subcultured and treated in different concentrations (0.1µm, 0.3µm e 1.0µm) and exposure times (24h, 48h e 72h). Results were obtained through Trypan blue dye exclusion, tetrazolium reducing method, cell survival assay, Annexin V-FITC and Propidium Iodine labeling, JC-1 dye labeling and cell cycle kinetics e analysis. The group treated with 0.3µm beta-lapachone presented higher decrease in cell viability (80.27%, 24h, 47.41%, 48h and 35.19%, 72h) and greater progression of cytotoxicity (19.73%, 24h, 52.59%, 48h and 64.81%, 72h). The lower IC50 (0.180µm) was verified in the group treated for 72 hours. Cell growth after treatment decreased as concentration and time of exposure increased, with 0.50% survival fraction at the concentration of 1.0µm. Initial apoptosis was the most frequent type of cell death in all groups, reaching bottom in the 24-hour group treated with 0.1µm (4.26%) and peaking in the 72-hour group treated with 1.0µm (85.89%). Mitochondrial depolarization demonstrated a dose-dependent phenomenon, indicating the intrinsic apoptosis. Cell growth inhibition by blocking cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase related to the exposure the time. β-lapachone is cytotoxic for canine osteosarcoma cells, induces apoptosis and promotes cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase.(AU)


O osteossarcoma é o tumor maligno das células ósseas primitivas, com alta incidência em cães e humanos. A necessidade de medicamentos mais efetivos, com menor consequência adversa, tem gerado esforços para o desenvolvimento de agentes quimioterápicos compostos por plantas e outras fontes naturais. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar os efeitos citotóxicos da beta lapachona, um composto presente na serragem da madeira do ipê, sobre células de osteossarcoma canino subcultivadas e submetidas ao tratamento, de acordo com as diferentes concentrações (0.1µm, 0.3µm e 1.0µm) e tempo de exposição (24h, 48h e 72h). Os resultados foram obtidos por meio dos métodos de exclusão do corante azul de Tripan e de redução do tetrazólio, além dos ensaios de sobrevivência celular, de dupla marcação com Anexina V-FITC e Iodeto de Propídio, de marcação com o corante JC-1 e pela análise da cinética do ciclo celular. O grupo tratado com 0.3µm de beta lapachona apresentou melhor regressão da viabilidade celular (80,27%, 24h; 47,41%, 48h e 35,19%, 72h) e maior progressão da citotoxicidade (19,73%, 24h; 52,59%, 48h e 64,81%, 72h). O menor IC50 (0.180µm) ocorreu no grupo tratado por 72 horas. O crescimento celular após o tratamento foi menor, de acordo com o aumento da concentração e tempo de exposição, apresentando 0,50% de fração de sobrevivência na concentração de 1.0µm. A apoptose inicial foi o tipo de morte celular mais frequente em todos os grupos, menor no grupo de 24 horas tratado com 0.1µm (4,26%) e maior no grupo de 72 horas tratado com 1.0µm (85,89%). A despolarização mitocondrial ocorreu de maneira dose dependente, indicando a ocorrência de apoptose intrínseca. A β lapachona possui efeitos citotóxicos em células de osteossarcoma canino, induz apoptose e promove o bloqueio do ciclo celular na fase G0/G1.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Osteosarcoma/veterinary , Naphthoquinones , Apoptosis , Tabebuia/chemistry
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(3): 1016-1021, Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954224

ABSTRACT

To determine the effects of 70 % ethanolic extract of Eleutherine bulbosa (Mill.) L. bulbs contained naphtoquinone in blood pressure and lipids profile level of ovariectomized rats. Thin layer chromatography was performed to analyze the content of the Eleutherine bulbosa (Mill.) bulbs extracts using Chloroform : Methanol (7:1) as eluent. This study used white female Sprague-Dawley rats which were divided into 6 groups: SHAM and OVX, both given 0.5 % carboxymethyl cellulose; the positive control group that was given tamoxifen (0.36 mg/200 g B.W.); the three various of doses of extract namely dose 1, 2, and 3 that were given 8, 12, and 18 mg/200 g BW respectively on day 29 until 50. All groups were ovariectomized on day 1, except sham group. Measurement of blood pressure were performed on the day before ovariectomy using non-invasive tool CODA®; and on the second, third, and fourth weeks post-ovariectomy. Three weeks after treatment of hypoestrogen rats by the dose 18 mg/200 g B.W, Eleutherine bulbosa extracts could decrease the systolic blood pressure level to 28.06 %, the diastolic to 30.47 %. Lipid profile of Dose 3 also showed recovery of Triglyceride, LDL and also Total Cholesterol. Eleutherine bulbosa extracts could improve blood pressure of ovariectomized rats by controlling lipids profile level.


Para determinar los efectos del 70 % de extracto etanólico de Eleutherine bulbosa (Mill.) L. en bulbos que contenían naftoquinona, se analizó la presión arterial de ratas ovariectomizadas. Se realizó un estudio de cromatografía de capa fina para analizar el contenido de los extractos de bulbos de Eleutherine bulbosa (Mill.) usando cloroformo:metanol (7:1) como diluyente. En este estudio se utilizaron ratas blancas Sprague-Dawley hembras, que se dividieron en 6 grupos: SHAM y OVX, ambos grupos fueron administrados con carboximetilcelulosa al 0,5 %; grupo control positivo, recibió tamoxifeno (0,36 mg / 200 g de B.W.); y tres grupos restantes, que recibieron tres dosis diferentes de extracto, es decir, dosis 1, 2 y 3 a las que se les administró 8, 12 y 18 mg / 200 g de por peso, respectivamente el día 29 hasta el día 50. Todos los grupos fueron sometidos a ovariectomía en el día 1, excepto el grupo simulado. La medición de la presión arterial se realizó el día anterior a la ovariectomía con la herramienta no invasiva CODA®, y, posteriormente, en la segunda, tercera y cuarta semanas de realizada la ovariectomía. Tres semanas después del tratamiento aplicado a las ratas hipoestrógenas, con la dosis de 18 mg / 200 g por peso, los extractos de Eleutherine bulbosa podrían disminuir el nivel de presión arterial sistólica al 28,06 %, y la diastólica al 30,47 %. La dosis 3 del perfil lipídico mostró mejoría en los niveles de Triglicéridos, LDL y Colesterol Total. Los extractos de Eleutherine bulbosa podrían mejorar la presión sanguínea de ratas ovariectomizadas controlando el nivel del perfil lipídico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Naphthoquinones/pharmacology , Iridaceae/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Ovariectomy , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Naphthoquinones/analysis , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Estrogens/deficiency , Lipids/analysis
10.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 525-545, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812376

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to identify and characterize the major constituents in Juglans mandshurica Maxim. A simple, efficient and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF/MS) method was established and validated under positive and negative ion modes. The separation was performed on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) by gradient elution with a mobile phase (Phase A: 0.1% aqueous formic acid solution, Phase B: 0.1% formic acid acetonitrile solution). A total of 165 compounds were rapidly selected by Targeted and Non-Targeted Peak Finding approaches, and then tentatively identifled by comparing with reference substances or inferred through mass spectrometry fragment ion analysis and literature data. These compounds included 68 naphthalenequinones, 20 diarylheptanoids, 29 flavonoids, 20 triterpenes, and 28 phenolic acids. In conclusion, the present study provided an effective approach to identifying components in complex matrices of herbal medicines such as Juglans mandshurica Maxim.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Databases, Factual , Diarylheptanoids , Chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Flavonoids , Chemistry , Fruit , Chemistry , Hydroxybenzoates , Chemistry , Juglans , Chemistry , Molecular Structure , Naphthoquinones , Chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Triterpenes , Chemistry
11.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 525-545, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773587

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to identify and characterize the major constituents in Juglans mandshurica Maxim. A simple, efficient and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF/MS) method was established and validated under positive and negative ion modes. The separation was performed on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) by gradient elution with a mobile phase (Phase A: 0.1% aqueous formic acid solution, Phase B: 0.1% formic acid acetonitrile solution). A total of 165 compounds were rapidly selected by Targeted and Non-Targeted Peak Finding approaches, and then tentatively identifled by comparing with reference substances or inferred through mass spectrometry fragment ion analysis and literature data. These compounds included 68 naphthalenequinones, 20 diarylheptanoids, 29 flavonoids, 20 triterpenes, and 28 phenolic acids. In conclusion, the present study provided an effective approach to identifying components in complex matrices of herbal medicines such as Juglans mandshurica Maxim.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Databases, Factual , Diarylheptanoids , Chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Flavonoids , Chemistry , Fruit , Chemistry , Hydroxybenzoates , Chemistry , Juglans , Chemistry , Molecular Structure , Naphthoquinones , Chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Triterpenes , Chemistry
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4462-4468, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775320

ABSTRACT

Fourteen compounds, including rubiprasin D (1), rubiprasin B (2), rubiprasin C (3), oleanolic acid (4), methyl-5-hydroxy-dinaphtho[1, 2-2'3']furan-7, 12-dione-6-carboxylate (5), rubioncolin C (6), mollugin (7), furomollugin (8), 3-amino-2-methoxycarbonyl-1, 4-naphthoquinone (9), 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-9, 10-anthraquinone (10), 2-hydroxy-6-methyl-9, 10-anthraquinone (11), 1, 4-dihydroxy-2-hydroxymethyl-9, 10-anthraquinone (12), 2-hydroxy-1-methoxy-9, 10-anthraquinone (13), and 1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-6-methyl-9, 10-anthraquinone(14), were isolated from the methanol extract of the roots and rhizomes of Rubia oncotricha using various column chromatographies. Their structures were mainly determined on basis of NMR and MS spectroscopic data analyses. Among them, 1 is a new oleanane triterpene, and compounds 2-5, 9 and 11-13 were obtained from this plant for the first time. Cytotoxic and nematicidal activities of all these compounds were evaluated, and the results showed that only 4, 6, 11 and 12 exhibited cytotoxicities against A549, SGC-7901 and HeLa cancer cell lines. The IC₅₀ of 6 were 19.42, 2.74, 8.07 μmol·L⁻¹, respectively.


Subject(s)
Molecular Structure , Naphthoquinones , Plant Extracts , Plant Roots , Rhizome , Rubia
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(4): 299-308, Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841780

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Malaria persists as a major public health problem. Atovaquone is a drug that inhibits the respiratory chain of Plasmodium falciparum, but with serious limitations like known resistance, low bioavailability and high plasma protein binding. OBJECTIVES The aim of this work was to perform molecular modelling studies of 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinones analogues of atovaquone on the Qo site of P. falciparum cytochrome bc1 complex (Pfbc1) to suggest structural modifications that could improve their antimalarial activity. METHODS We have built the homology model of the cytochrome b (CYB) and Rieske iron-sulfur protein (ISP) subunits from Pfbc1 and performed the molecular docking of 41 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinones with known in vitro antimalarial activity and predicted to act on this target. FINDINGS Results suggest that large hydrophobic R2 substituents may be important for filling the deep hydrophobic Qo site pocket. Moreover, our analysis indicates that the H-donor 2-hydroxyl group may not be crucial for efficient binding and inhibition of Pfbc1 by these atovaquone analogues. The C1 carbonyl group (H-acceptor) is more frequently involved in the important hydrogen bonding interaction with His152 of the Rieske ISP subunit. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Additional interactions involving residues such as Ile258 and residues required for efficient catalysis (e.g., Glu261) could be explored in drug design to avoid development of drug resistance by the parasite.


Subject(s)
Plasmodium falciparum/drug effects , Electron Transport Complex III/chemistry , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Antimalarials/chemistry , Naphthoquinones/chemistry , Sequence Analysis, Protein
14.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 865-870, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812047

ABSTRACT

Two new dimeric naphthoquinones, 5',8'-dihydroxy-6,6'-dimethyl-7,3'-binaphthyl-1,4,1',4'-tetraone (1; Di-naphthodiospyrol D) and 5',8'-dihydroxy-5,8-dimethoxy-6,6'-dimethyl-7,3'-binaphthyl-1,4,1',4'-tetraone (2; Di-naphthodiospyrol E), along with known naphthoquinones diospyrin (3) and 8-hydroxy diospyrin (4) were isolated from the chloroform fraction of extract of Diospyros lotus roots. Their structures were elucidated by advanced spectroscopic analyses, including HSQC, HMBC, NOESY, and J-resolved NMR experiments. The fractions and compounds 1-4 were evaluated for urease activity and phosphodiesterase-I, carbonic anhydrase-II and α-chymotrypsin enzyme inhibitory activities. Compounds 1 and 2 and their corresponding fractions showed significant and selective inhibitory effects on urease activities. The IC values of 1 and 2 were 260.4 ± 6.37 and 381.4 ± 4.80 µmol·L, respectively, using thiourea (IC = 21 ± 0.11 µmol·L) as the standard inhibitor. This was the first report demonstrating that the naphthoquinones class showed urease inhibition.


Subject(s)
Biological Assay , Diospyros , Chemistry , Enzyme Inhibitors , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Molecular Structure , Naphthoquinones , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Plant Roots , Urease
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(10): e6586, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888930

ABSTRACT

Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), particularly in infants and children below 4 years of age. Shikonin is a bioactive compound with anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antibacterial activities derived from the roots of the Chinese medicinal herb Lithospermum erythrorhizon. This study aimed to examine the antiviral activity of PMM-034, a shikonin ester derivative, against EV71 in rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells. Cytotoxicity of PMM-034 on RD cells was determined using WST-1 assay. Dose- and time-dependent effects of PMM-034 on EV71 replication in RD cells were determined using plaque reduction assay. mRNA expression levels of EV71/VP1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α) were determined by real-time RT-PCR, and EV71/VP1 and phospho-p65 protein expressions were determined by western blot analysis. PMM-034 exhibited only weak cytotoxicity against RD cells. However, PMM-034 exhibited significant antiviral activity against EV71 in RD cells with 50% inhibitory concentration of 2.31 μg/mL. The VP1 mRNA and protein levels were significantly reduced in cells treated with PMM-034. Furthermore, relative mRNA expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α significantly decreased in the cells treated with PMM-034, while the phospho-p65 protein expression was also significantly lower in the treated cells. These results indicated that PMM-034 suppressed the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines in RD cells, exhibiting antiviral activity against EV71, as evidenced by the reduced VP1 mRNA and protein levels in PMM-034-treated cells. Thus, PMM-034 is a promising candidate for further development as an EV71 inhibitor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Enterovirus A, Human/drug effects , Naphthoquinones/pharmacology , Rhabdomyosarcoma/virology , Blotting, Western , Cell Line, Tumor , Cytokines/analysis , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Toxicity Tests , Viral Plaque Assay , Virus Replication/drug effects
16.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(4): 917-924, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828189

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of terpinen-4-ol, tyrosol, and β-lapachone against strains of Coccidioides posadasii in filamentous phase (n = 22) and Histoplasma capsulatum in both filamentous (n = 40) and yeast phases (n = 13), using the broth dilution methods as described by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of these compounds. The mechanisms of action of these compounds were also investigated by analyzing their effect on cell membrane permeability and ergosterol synthesis. The MIC and MFCf these compounds against C. posadasii, mycelial H. capsulatum, and yeast-like H. capsulatum, were in the following ranges: 350-5720 µg/mL, 20-2860 µg/mL, and 40-1420 µg/mL, respectively for terpinen-4-ol; 250-4000 µg/mL, 30-2000 µg/mL, and 10-1000 µg/mL, respectively, for tyrosol; and 0.48-7.8 µg/mL, 0.25-16 µg/mL, and 0.125-4 µg/mL, respectively for β-lapachone. These compounds showed a decrease in MIC when the samples were subjected to osmotic stress, suggesting that the compounds acted on the fungal membrane. All the compounds were able to reduce the ergosterol content of the fungal strains. Finally, tyrosol was able to cause a leakage of intracellular molecules.


Subject(s)
Phenylethyl Alcohol/analogs & derivatives , Terpenes/pharmacology , Naphthoquinones/pharmacology , Fungi/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Osmotic Pressure , Phenylethyl Alcohol/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cell Membrane Permeability/drug effects , Ergosterol/metabolism , Fungi/classification , Fungi/metabolism
17.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 582-589, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812589

ABSTRACT

Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) catalyzes the first rate-limiting step in converting nicotinamide to NAD(+), essential for a number of enzymes and regulatory proteins involved in a variety of cellular processes, including deacetylation enzyme SIRT1 which modulates several tumor suppressors such as p53 and FOXO. Herein we report that NQO1 substrates Tanshione IIA (TSA) and β-lapachone (β-lap) induced a rapid depletion of NAD(+) pool but adaptively a significant upregulation of NAMPT. NAMPT inhibition by FK866 at a nontoxic dose significantly enhanced NQO1-targeting agent-induced apoptotic cell death. Compared with TSA or β-lap treatment alone, co-treatment with FK866 induced a more dramatic depletion of NAD(+), repression of SIRT1 activity, and thereby the increased accumulation of acetylated FOXO1 and the activation of apoptotic pathway. In conclusion, the results from the present study support that NAMPT inhibition can synergize with NQO1 activation to induce apoptotic cell death, thereby providing a new rationale for the development of combinative therapeutic drugs in combating non-small lung cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Abietanes , Pharmacology , Apoptosis , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Cytokines , Genetics , Metabolism , Enzyme Inhibitors , Pharmacology , NAD , Metabolism , NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone) , Genetics , Metabolism , Naphthoquinones , Pharmacology , Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase , Genetics , Metabolism
18.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(3): 197-204, May-Jun/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-752593

ABSTRACT

Anthelmintics used for intestinal helminthiasis treatment are generally effective; however, their effectiveness in tissue parasitosis (i.e. visceral toxocariasis) is moderate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of lapachol, β-lapachone and phenazines in relation to the viability of Toxocara canis larvae. A concentration of 2 mg/mL (in duplicate) of the compounds was tested using microculture plates containing Toxocara canis larvae in an RPMI-1640 environment, incubated at 37 °C in 5% CO2 tension for 48 hours. In the 2 mg/mL concentration, four phenazines, lapachol and three of its derivatives presented a larvicide/larvistatic activity of 100%. Then, the minimum larvicide/larvistatic concentration (MLC) test was conducted. The compounds that presented the best results were nor-lapachol (MLC, 1 mg/mL), lapachol (MLC 0.5 mg/mL), β-lapachone, and β-C-allyl-lawsone (MLC, 0.25 mg/mL). The larvae exposed to the compounds, at best MLC with 100% in vitro activity larvicide, were inoculated into healthy BALB/c mice and were not capable of causing infection, confirming the larvicide potential in vitro of these compounds.


Os anti-helmínticos empregados no tratamento das helmintoses intestinais, de modo geral, são eficazes, porém nas parasitoses teciduais, como é o caso da toxocaríase visceral, a eficácia é moderada. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar in vitro a atividade do lapachol, β-lapachona e fenazinas derivadas da β-lapachona sobre a viabilidade de larvas de Toxocara canis. Os compostos foram testados na concentração de 2 mg/mL (em duplicata) em placas de microcultivo, contendo larvas de T. canis em meio RPMI-1640, sendo incubados, a 37 °C, em tensão de CO2 de 5%, por 48 horas. Na concentração de 2 mg/mL, quatro fenazinas, o lapachol e três derivados, apresentaram atividade larvicida/larvostática de 100%. A seguir, foi realizado o teste de concentração larvicida/larvostártica mínima (CLM). Os compostos que apresentaram os melhores resultados foram o nor-lapachol (CLM, 1 mg/mL), lapachol (CLM, 0,5 mg/mL), a β-lapachona e a β-C-alil-lausona (CLM, 0,25 mg/mL). As larvas expostas aos compostos, na melhor CLM 100% in vitro foram inoculadas em camundongos BALB/c saudáveis não sendo capazes de causar infecção, confirmando o potencial larvicida in vitro desses compostos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Anthelmintics/pharmacology , Naphthoquinones/pharmacology , Toxocara canis/drug effects , Larva/drug effects , Larva/growth & development , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests
19.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 946-949, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330205

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the effect of shikonin on the proliferation of human keratinocytes induced by IL-17 and secretion of chemokines, in order to discuss the mechanism of Shikonin in the treatment of psoriasis.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>In vitro cultured HaCaT cells were stimulated by IL-17A (200 μg x L(-1)) and mixed with different concentrations (2, 1 mg x L(-1)) of shikonin for 24 hours. The cell proliferation was detected by CCK-8 assay. Cell secretion inflammatory factor interleukin-23 (IL-23) was detected by ELISA. The expressions of intracellular chemokines CXCL1, CXCL2, CCL20 and 6-defensin 4 (DEFB4) were detected by Real-time PCR.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Shikonin (2,1 mg x L(-1)) could distinctly inhibit HaCaT cell proliferation induced by IL-17A, with statistical difference (P < 0.01). Each shikonin group showed decreases in the secretion of IL-23 and inhibition in expressions of intracellular CXCL1, CXCL2, CCL20 and DEFB4.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Shikonin could inhibit HaCaT cells proliferation induced by IL-17 and secretion of relevant cytokines and recruit leukocytes by inhibiting chemokines, so as to show the effect in treating psoriasis.</p>


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Chemokines , Genetics , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Interleukin-17 , Genetics , Metabolism , Keratinocytes , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Naphthoquinones , Pharmacology
20.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2228-2233, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-335629

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Shikonin is a major active chemical component extracted from Lithospermi Radix, an effective traditional herb in various types of wound healing. Shikonin can accelerate granulomatous tissue formation by the rat cotton pellet method and induce neovascularization in granulomatous tissue. The purpose of the study was to investigate its mechanism of action in human skin cells.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>MTS assay was used to measure cell growth. The collagen type I (COL1 ) mRNA expression and procollagen type I C-peptide (PIP) production were detected by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Immunofluorescence and western blot analyses were carried out to investigate nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. Cell-based proteasome activity assay was used to determine proteasome activity.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In this study, we found that 10 μmol/L shikonin stimulated the growth of normal human keratinocytes and 1 μmol/L shikonin promoted growth of human dermal fibroblasts. However, shikonin did not directly induce COL1 mRNA expression and PIP production in dermal fibroblasts in vitro. In addition, 1 μmol/L shikonin inhibited translocation of NF-κB p65 from cytoplasm to nucleus induced by tumor necrosis factor-α stimulation in dermal fibroblasts. Furthermore, shikonin inhibited chymotrypsin-like activity of proteasome and was associated with accumulation of phosphorylated inhibitor κB-α in dermal fibroblasts.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>These results suggested that shikonin may promote wound healing via its cell growth promoting activity and suppress skin inflammation via inhibitory activity on proteasome. Thus, shikonin may be a potential therapeutic reagent both in wound healing and inflammatory skin diseases.</p>


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fibroblasts , Keratinocytes , NF-kappa B , Metabolism , Naphthoquinones , Pharmacology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex , Skin , Cell Biology
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