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1.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 87(3): 298-304, May-Jun. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285695

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction The antiinflammatory effects of macrolides, especially clarithromycin, have been described in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis without polyps and also other chronic inflammatory airway diseases. There is no consensus in the literature regarding the effectiveness of clarithromycin in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with sinonasal polyposis and the national literature does not report any prospective studies on the efficacy of clarithromycin in chronic rhinosinusitis in our population. Objective To evaluate the effect of clarithromycin in the adjunctive treatment of recurrent chronic rhinosinusitis with sinonasal polyposis refractory to clinical and surgical treatment. Methods Open prospective study with 52 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and recurrent sinonasal polyposis. All subjects received nasal lavage with 20 mL 0.9% SS and fluticasone nasal spray, 200 mcg / day, 12/12 h for 12 weeks; and clarithromycin 250 mg 8/8 h for 2 weeks and, thereafter, 12/12 h for 10 weeks. The patients were assessed by SNOT 20, NOSE and Lund-Kennedy scales before, immediately after treatment and 12 weeks after treatment. The patients were also evaluated before treatment with paranasal cavity computed tomography (Lund-Mackay) and serum IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE and eosinophil levels. The outcomes evaluated were: SNOT-20, NOSE and Lund-Kennedy. Results Most patients were women, aged 47 (15) years (median / interquartile range), and 61.5% (32/52) had asthma. All patients completed the follow-up after 12 weeks and 42.3% (22/52) after 24 weeks. Treatment resulted in a quantitative decrease in the SNOT-20 [2.3 (1.6) vs. 1.4 (1.6); Δ = −0.9 (1.1); p < 0.01]; NOSE [65 (64) vs. 20 (63); Δ = −28 (38), p < 0.01] and Lund-Kennedy [11 (05) vs. 07 (05); Δ = −2 (05); p < 0.01] scores. SNOT-20 showed a qualitative improvement (>0.8) in 54% (28/52, p < 0.04) of patients, a group that showed lower IgE level [108 (147) vs. 289 (355), p < 0.01]. The group of patients who completed follow-up 12 weeks after the end of treatment (n = 22) showed no worsening of outcomes. Conclusion Long-term adjuvant use of low-dose clarithromycin for chronic rhinosinusitis patients with recurrent sinonasal polyposis refractory to clinical and surgical treatment has resulted in improved quality of life and nasal endoscopy findings, especially in patients with normal IgE levels. This improvement persisted in the patient group evaluated 12 weeks after the end of the treatment.


Resumo Introdução Os efeitos anti-inflamatórios dos macrolídeos são reconhecidos, principalmente da claritromicina para os pacientes com rinossinusite crônica sem pólipos e outras doenças inflamatórias crônicas das vias aéreas em outras populações. Não existe consenso na literatura quanto a sua prescrição para os pacientes de rinossinusite crônica com polipose nasossinusal e a literatura nacional não dispõe de estudos prospectivos sobre a eficácia da claritromicina na rinossinusite crônica em nossa população. Objetivo Avaliar o efeito da claritromicina no tratamento adjuvante da rinossinusite crônica recorrente com polipose nasossinusal refratária ao tratamento clínico e cirúrgico. Método Estudo prospectivo aberto, com 52 pacientes, portadores de rinossinusite crônica com polipose nasossinusal recorrente. Todos os indivíduos receberam lavagem nasal com SF 0,9% 20 mL e fluticasona spray nasal, 200 mcg/dia, 12/12 horas por 12 semanas; e claritromicina 250 mg, de 8/8 horas, por 2 semanas e posteriormente 12/12 horas, por 10 semanas. Os pacientes foram avaliados através do SNOT 20, do NOSE e Lund-Kennedy antes, pós-tratamento imediato e 12 semanas após o tratamento. Os pacientes também foram avaliados antes do tratamento por tomografia computadorizada das cavidades paranasais (Lund-Mackay) e dosagem sérica de IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE e eosinófilos. Os desfechos avaliados foram: SNOT-20, NOSE e Lund-Kennedy. Resultados A maioria dos pacientes era mulher, idade de 47 (15) anos (mediana/intervalo interquartílico) e 61,5% (32/52) portadores de asma. Todos os pacientes completaram o seguimento após 12 semanas e 42,3% (22/52) após 24 semanas. O tratamento resultou em uma diminuição quantitativa do SNOT-20 [2,3 (1,6) vs. 1,4 (1,6); Δ = -0,9 (1,1); p< 0,01]; do NOSE [65 (64) vs. 20 (63); Δ = -28 (38), p< 0,01] e do Lund-Kennedy [11 (05) vs. 07 (05); Δ = -2 (05); p< 0,01]. O SNOT-20 mostrou uma melhoria qualitativa (> 0,8) em 54% (28/52, p< 0,04) dos pacientes, grupo que evidenciou menor nível de IgE [108 (147) vs. 289 (355), p< 0,01]. O grupo de pacientes que completou o seguimento 12 semanas após o término do tratamento (n = 22) não mostrou uma pioria dos desfechos. Conclusão O uso prolongado adjuvante da claritromicina em baixas doses para pacientes com rinossinusite crônica com polipose nasossinusal recorrente refratária ao tratamento clínico e cirúrgico resultou em melhoria na qualidade de vida e endoscopia nasal, principalmente em pacientes com níveis de IgE normal. Essa melhoria se sustentou no grupo de pacientes avaliado 12 semanas após o término do tratamento.


Subject(s)
Rhinitis/drug therapy , Nasal Polyps/complications , Nasal Polyps/drug therapy , Quality of Life , Chronic Disease , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Clarithromycin , Endoscopy
2.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(6): 743-747, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142588

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, a prevalent disease affecting around 2% of the world population, is characterized by symptomatic inflammation of the nasal mucosa and impairment of quality of life. Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps has a multifactorial etiology, involving a dysfunctional host response to environmental factors. Thus, inflammatory models may be useful to shed light on the pathophysiology of this disease. Micronucleus count has been used to screen DNA damage in various tissues. Objective: To investigate the association between frequency of micronucleus in exfoliated cells from the nasal cavity of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and disease severity. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 21 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and 19 controls without disease. None of the participants were smokers. Results: Mean micronucleus count was 3.690 per 1000 cells (±2.165) in individuals with vs. 1.237 per 1000 cells (±0.806) in controls; (Student's t test = 4.653, p< 0.001). Nasal surgery in the past 5 years and aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease were not associated with nicronucleus count (p= 0.251). Conclusion: Micronucleus count seems to be linked to chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, providing a new perspective for the evaluation of this disorder.


Resumo Introdução: A rinossinusite crônica com pólipos nasais, doença prevalente que afeta cerca de 2% da população mundial, é caracterizada por inflamação sintomática da mucosa nasal e comprometimento da qualidade de vida. A rinossinusite crônica com pólipos nasais tem etiologia multifatorial, envolvendo resposta disfuncional do hospedeiro a fatores ambientais. Assim, modelos inflamatórios podem ser úteis para esclarecer a fisiopatologia dessa doença. A contagem de micronúcleos tem sido usada para rastrear danos no DNA em vários tecidos. Objetivo: Investigar a associação entre a frequência de micronúcleos em células esfoliadas da cavidade nasal de pacientes com rinossinusite crônica com pólipos nasais e a gravidade da doença. Método: Estudo transversal que incluiu 21 pacientes com rinossinusite crônica com pólipos nasais e 19 controles sem doença. Nenhum dos participantes era fumante. Resultados: A contagem média de micronúcleos foi de 3,690 por 1.000 células (± 2,165) nos indivíduos doentes e 1,237 por 1.000 células (± 0,806) nos controles (teste t de Student = 4,653; p < 0,001). A cirurgia nasal nos últimos 5 anos e a doença respiratória exacerbada por aspirina não foram associadas à contagem de micronúcleos (p = 0,251). Conclusão: A contagem de micronúcleos parece estar ligada à rinossinusite crônica com pólipos nasais, proporcionando uma nova perspectiva para a avaliação dessa doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sinusitis/complications , Rhinitis/complications , Nasal Polyps/complications , Quality of Life , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Epithelial Cells
3.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 78(2): 157-160, jun. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-961608

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El síndrome de Churg-Strauss (SCS) es una vasculitis necrotizante sistémica de etiología desconocida, que afecta vasos sanguíneos de pequeño y mediano tamaño. Característicamente se definen tres estadios: prodrómico, hipereosinofílico y una etapa de vasculitis sistémica. Dentro del prodrómico se encuentran manifestaciones del área otorrinolaringológica, que suelen preceder por años a las manifestaciones propias de las vasculitis. Entre ellas destacan la otitis media crónica, rinitis alérgica y rinosinusitis crónica poliposa. Reportamos el caso de un paciente de sexo masculino de 64 años con poliposis nasosinusal bilateral, con biopsia compatible con SCS, encontrándose en estado prodrómico de la enfermedad. Además, presentamos una revisión de la literatura sobre esta patología.


ABSTRACT Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a necrotizing systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology, which involves small and medium-sized vessels. It is characterized by three stages: prodromic, hypereosinophilic and systemic vasculitis. In the prodromal stage we can find otolaryngological manifestations (including chronic otitis media, allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis with polyps) that usually precede the proper manifestations of the vasculitis by years. Here, we report a 64-year old male patient with sinonasal polyps and biopsy compatible with CSS, being in the prodromal stage of the illness. Also, we present a review of this disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Churg-Strauss Syndrome/drug therapy , Churg-Strauss Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Nasal Polyps/complications , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Vasculitis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Rhinitis/drug therapy , Diagnosis, Differential
4.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 83(6): 677-682, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889333

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Nasal polyposis is often found in patients with cystic fibrosis. Objective: To assess the incidence of nasal polyposis, the response to medical treatment, recurrence and the need for surgical intervention in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis during a three-year follow-up. Methods: Clinical symptoms (pulmonary, pancreatic insufficiency, malnutrition, nasal obstruction), two positive sweat chloride tests, and genotype findings in 23 patients with cystic fibrosis were analyzed. All patients underwent nasal endoscopy every 12 months from January 2005 to December 2007, to assess the presence and grade of Nasal Polyps. Nasal polyposis, when present, were treated with topical corticosteroids for 6-12 months, with progress being evaluated within the 3 years of follow-up. Results: In the first evaluation, nasal polyposis was diagnosed in 30.43% of patients (3 bilateral and 4 unilateral), recurrent pneumonia in 82.6%, pancreatic insufficiency in 87%, and malnutrition in 74%. The presence of nasal polyposis was not associated with chloride values in the sweat, genotype, clinical signs of severity of cystic fibrosis, or nasal symptoms. In the three-year period of follow up, 13 patients (56.52%) had at least one event of polyposis, with the youngest being diagnosed at 32 months of age. Only one patient underwent surgery (polypectomy), and there was one diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Conclusion: The study showed a high incidence of nasal polyposis. Monitoring through routine endoscopy in patients with cystic fibrosis, even in the absence of nasal symptoms, is highly recommended. The therapy with topical corticosteroids achieved good results. Thus, an interaction between pediatricians and otolaryngologists is necessary.


Resumo Introdução: A polipose nasal é frequentemente encontrada em pacientes portadores de fibrose cística. Objetivo: Avaliar a incidência de polipose nasal, a resposta ao tratamento clínico, a recorrência e a necessidade de intervenção cirúrgica em crianças e adolescentes com fibrose cística durante um seguimento de 3 anos. Método: Os sintomas clínicos (pulmonar, insuficiência pancreática, desnutrição, obstrução nasal), duas pesquisas de cloro no suor positivas e genótipo de 23 pacientes com fibrose cística foram descritos. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos à endoscopia nasal a cada 12 meses de janeiro de 2005 a dezembro de 2007, para avaliação de presença e grau de polipose nasal. A polipose nasal, quando presente, foi tratada com corticosteroide tópico de 6 a 12 meses e avaliada a evolução nos 3 anos de seguimento. Resultados: Na primeira avaliação, a polipose nasal foi diagnosticada em 30,43% dos pacientes (três bilaterais e quatro unilaterais), pneumonia recorrente em 82,6%, insuficiência pancreática em 87% e a desnutrição em 74%. A presença de polipose nasal não se associou aos valores de cloro no suor, genótipo, sinais clínicos de gravidade da fibrose cística ou sintomas nasais. Nos três anos de seguimento, 13 pacientes (56,52%) apresentaram pelo menos um evento de polipose, o mais jovem foi diagnosticado aos 32 meses. Apenas um paciente foi submetido à cirurgia (polipectomia) e houve um diagnóstico de carcinoma da nasofaringe. Conclusão: O estudo mostrou alta incidência de polipose nasal. O acompanhamento por meio de exames endoscópicos de rotina em pacientes fibrocisticos, mesmo na ausência de sintomas nasais, é altamente recomendado. A terapia com corticoide tópico mostrou bons resultados. Assim, faz-se necessária a interação entre pediatras e otorrinolaringologistas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Nasal Polyps/epidemiology , Cystic Fibrosis/epidemiology , Recurrence , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil/epidemiology , Nasal Polyps/complications , Nasal Polyps/pathology , Nasal Polyps/drug therapy , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Cystic Fibrosis/complications , Natural Orifice Endoscopic Surgery/methods , Nasal Cavity/pathology , Nasal Cavity/diagnostic imaging
6.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 83(1): 66-72, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839397

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Eosinophilic and noneosinophilic Nasal polyps (NPs) are different subtypes of NPs and require different treatment methods. Objective To compare the histologic characteristics, mRNA and protein expression between Nasal Polyps with and without eosinophilia. Methods NPs tissues were obtained from eighty-six NPs patients during surgery. Eosinophilic and noneosinophilic NPs were distinguished according to immunochemical results of the specimen. The histological, mRNA and protein expression features were compared between the two groups. Results In eosinophilic NPs, we observed a significantly higher GATA-3, IL-5, IL-4, IL-13 mRNA and protein expression. In noneosinophilic NPs, IL-17, IL-23 and RORc mRNA and protein expression were increased. Immunohistochemistry tests showed, more mast cells and less neutrophils in eosinophilic NPs compared with noneosinophilic NPs. Eosinophilic NPs patient presented more severe symptom scores when compared to noneosinophilic NPs. Conclusion We demonstrate for the first time that Th2 is the predominant reaction in eosinophilic NPs while Th17 is the predominant reaction in noneosinophilic NPs. Our study may provide new treatment strategy for NPs.


Resumo Introdução Pólipos nasais (PNs) eosinofílicos e não eosinofílicos são diferentes subtipos de PNs e requerem diferentes métodos de tratamento. Objetivo Comparar as características histológicas e a expressão de mRNAs e proteínas entre PNs com e sem eosinofilia. Método Amostras de PNs foram obtidos de 86 pacientes durante a cirurgia. PNs eosinofílicos e não eosinofílicos foram diferenciados segundo os resultados imunoistoquímicos de cada amostra. As características histológicas e de expressão de mRNAs e de proteínas foram comparadas entre os dois grupos. Resultados Em PNs eosinofílicos, observamos uma expressão significativamente maior dos mRNAs e proteínas GATA-3, IL-5, IL-4 e IL-13. Nos PNs não eosinofílicos, aumentou a expressão dos mRNAs e das proteínas IL-17, IL-23 e RORc. Nos testes imunoistoquímicos, observamos maior número de mastócitos e menor número de neutrófilos nos PNs eosinofílicos, em comparação com PNs não eosinofílicos. Os pacientes com PNs eosinofílicos obtiveram escores de sintomas mais graves vs. PNs não eosinofílicos. Conclusão Demonstramos, pela primeira vez, uma reação Th2 predominante em PNs eosinofílicos e uma reação Th17 predominante em PNs não eosinofílicos. Nosso estudo pode proporcionar novas estratégias terapêuticas para a rinossinusite crônica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Sinusitis/immunology , Rhinitis/immunology , Nasal Polyps/immunology , Eosinophils/immunology , Sinusitis/complications , Transcription Factors , Severity of Illness Index , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Rhinitis/complications , Nasal Polyps/complications , Nasal Polyps/metabolism , Nasal Polyps/pathology , Chronic Disease , Cytokines/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Eosinophilia/complications , Eosinophilia/metabolism , Eosinophilia/pathology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
8.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 80(3): 202-207, May-June/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-712980

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Establishing a diagnosis in patients with olfactory disturbances has always been challenging for physicians.One reason for this is the rarity of some of the diseases that affect this sense, such as Kallmann's syndrome and post-viral olfactory loss. OBJECTIVE: To identify the major causes of olfactory disturbances and to describe the diagnostic evaluation in outpatients attended to at an ambulatory clinic specialized in olfaction disorders. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed in outpatients with primary olfactory complaint attended to between June 1, 2011 and September 30, 2013 in a center specialized in olfactory disorders. Patient history, nasofibroscopy, and the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) comprised the examination. RESULTS: Sixty-two patients were evaluated. The major causes were chronic rhinosinusitis (31%); rhinitis, primarily the allergic type (19%); post-viral olfactory loss (13%); and post-traumatic loss (8%). UPSIT scores were statistically different among different etiologies (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The major diagnoses that should be part of the physician assessment when a patient complains of olfactory disturbance are chronic rhinosinusitis with and without polyps, allergic rhinitis, post-viral olfactory loss, and post-traumatic loss. .


INTRODUÇÃO: Estabelecer um diagnóstico em pacientes com distúrbios olfatórios foi sempre um desafio aos médicos. Uma das razões para isso é a raridade de algumas doenças que afetam esse sentido como a Síndrome de Kallmann e a perda olfatória pós-viral. OBJETIVO: Identificar as principais causas das doenças olfatórias e descrever sua condução diagnóstica em um ambulatório direcionado a esses distúrbios. MÉTODO: Análise retrospectiva de pacientes ambulatoriais com queixa olfatória primária atendida entre 1º de junho de 2011 e 30 de setembro de 2013 em centro especializado. História clínica, nasofibroscopia e o Teste de Identificação do Olfato da Universidade da Pensilvânia (UPSIT) compuseram a avaliação. Sempre que necessário, foram solicitadas tomografia de seios paranasais e ressonância magnética de crânio. RESULTADOS: Sessenta e dois pacientes foram avaliados. As causas mais comuns encontradas foram respectivamente: rinossinusite crônica (31%), rinites (19%), principalmente a rinite alérgica, perda olfatória pós-viral (13%) e pós-traumática (8%). As pontuações no UPSIT foram estatisticamente diferentes entre as cinco principais causas (p = 0,01). CONCLUSÕES: Os principais diagnósticos que devem fazer parte na investigação médica diante de um paciente com queixa olfatória são: rinossinusite crônica com e sem polipose nasal, rinite alérgica, perda olfatória pós-viral e pós-traumática. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Craniocerebral Trauma/complications , Nasal Polyps/complications , Retrospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Rhinitis/complications , Sinusitis/complications
9.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1683-1690, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-180225

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To analyze the outcome of endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) after preoperative systemic steroid (PSS) treatment for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with nasal polyposis (NP) and to investigate and compare clinicopathological factors associated with the outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of 468 patients with CRS with NP who underwent primary ESS between January 2005 and October 2011. 124 patients who met the inclusion criteria were included. Beginning from 2008, our clinic administered steroid preoperatively in patients of CRS with NP, thus there were 84 patients with preoperative systemic steroid (PSS group) and another 40 patients without such regimen (no PSS group). To evaluate the outcome after ESS, poor outcome and complication were analyzed according to the following parameters: age, sex, follow-up duration, eosinophilic infiltration, atopy, asthma, Lund-Mackay score, and polyp grade. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in poor outcome rates between the PSS and no PSS group (35.0% vs. 47.6%, p=0.185). There was no significant difference in complication rates between the PSS and no PSS group (10% vs. 6%, p=0.468). As with the multivariate analysis of the clincopathological factors to the poor outcome rate, presence of asthma and eosinophilic infiltration were significantly related (odds ratio as 6.555 and 4.505, respectively), whereas PSS was confirmed as less likely related (odds ratio 0.611). CONCLUSION: Low dose PSS administration does not seem to have an effect on the outcome after ESS in patients who have CRS with NP. Eosinophilic infiltration and presence of asthma are important predictors of surgical outcome.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Asthma/complications , Chronic Disease , Endoscopy/methods , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Male , Middle Aged , Nasal Polyps/complications , Odds Ratio , Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Paranasal Sinuses/pathology , Prednisone/administration & dosage , Retrospective Studies , Rhinitis/complications , Sinusitis/complications , Treatment Outcome
10.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 79(5): 616-619, Sep-Oct/2013. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-688616

ABSTRACT

Polipose nasossinusal (PNS) é uma afecção inflamatória crônica das cavidades nasais/paranasais que afeta 1%-4% da população. Pólipos parecem ser uma manifestação inflamatória crônica da mucosa do seio nasal/paranasal em indivíduos alérgicos e não alérgicos; porém, a patogênese da PNS permanece desconhecida. A interleucina-17A (IL-17A) é uma citocina chave em muitas doenças inflamatórias. Pouca atenção tem sido dada ao papel da IL-17A em distúrbios inflamatórios crônicos. OBJETIVO: Investigar a expressão da IL-17A na PNS e verificar se ela é um marcador de bom ou mau prognóstico. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo de 25 pacientes com PNS foram submetidas à técnica de imuno-histoquímica. Após realizarem teste cutâneo, todos os pacientes foram divididos em grupos atópicos e não atópicos e classificados em asmáticos ou não asmáticos. RESULTADOS: A expressão de IL-17A foi observada nos pacientes atópicos e não atópicos; porém, o número de células positivas com IL-17A foi maior nos pólipos nasais de pacientes atópicos que nos não atópicos (p = 0,0128). CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados indicam que a IL-17A pode desempenhar papel importante na patologia da PNS. Considerando as propriedades inflamatórias da IL-17A, este estudo sugere que a IL-17A pode aumentar a susceptibilidade a atopia e asma. .


Sinonasal polyposis (SNP) is a chronic inflammatory pathology of the nasal/paranasal cavities which affects from 1%-4% of the population. Although polyps seem to be a manifestation of chronic inflammation of nasal/paranasal sinus mucosa in both allergic and non-allergic subjects, the pathogenesis of nasal polyposis remains unknown. Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is a key inflammatory cytokine in many disorders. Little attention has been paid to the role of IL-17A in chronic inflammatory disorders. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of IL-17A in the SNP and verify if this expression is a marker of good or bad prognosis. METHOD: Prospective study with 25 patients presenting with SNP were subjected to the immunohistochemistry technique. After a skin prick test, all patients were divided into atopic and nonatopic groups, and asthmatic or non-asthmatic. RESULTS: The IL-17A expression was observed in both atopic and nonatopic patients. The numbers of IL-17A positive cells were greater in nasal polyps of atopic patients than nonatopic (p = 0.0128). CONCLUSION: These results indicate that IL-17A may play an important role in the pathology of SNP. Considering the inflammatory properties of IL-17A, this study suggests that it could increase susceptibility to atopy and asthma. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Asthma/metabolism , /metabolism , Nasal Polyps/metabolism , Asthma/complications , Biomarkers/metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Immunohistochemistry , Nasal Polyps/complications , Prognosis , Prospective Studies
11.
Tehran University Medical Journal [TUMJ]. 2013; 71 (8): 524-529
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-143041

ABSTRACT

Nasal polyp [NP] is a benign mucosal mass located in both sinuses and nares which is mostly seen in association with cystic fibrosis, asthma or oversensitivity to aspirin. The prominent histological feature of NP is inflammatory cell infiltration with eosinophil predominance. Superantigens role in causing NP complications is already proven. Superantigens, which are mostly originated from Streptococci and Staphylococci, activate T cells strongly and increase the process of production and release of cytokines, and secretion of IgE from B cells, which in turn directly affects proinflammatory cells such as eosinophils, both in their tissues infiltration and functions. The samples are collected from patients referring to ENT clinic in Rasoul Akram training Hospital in Tehran after thorough clinical and paraclinical examinations. For control group the samples collected from patients undergoing rhinoplasty. All the samples kept frozen and sent to immunology lab. The DNA of the excised tissues extracted and amplified by using the superantigens specific primers and PCR product detected by gel electrophoresis. The date analyzed by using mean and SD and CHI[2] analytical tools. Fifteen healthy individuals, 25 patients with rhinosinusitis and 24 with polyposis entered this trial. Group A Streptococcus toxin detection was significantly more frequent in those with nasal polyp and rhinosinusitis compared to healthy individuals [P=0.001 and 0.005, respectively], but the results were almost the same for those with nasal polyp and rhinosinusitis [P=0.4]. Streptococci may play an important role in induction or clinical exacerbation of polyposis and group A Streptococcus pyogenes exotoxin [SPEs] with superantigenic effects may have a crucial role in etiology and pathogenesis of polyps with or without rhinosinusitis. It is postulated that, T cells polyclonal activation by SPEs may cause recruitment of inflammatory cells in nasal mucosa. These inflammatory cells include IgE producing B cells leading to allergic and inflammatory reactions in NP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Nasal Polyps/complications , Streptococcus pyogenes/immunology , Sinusitis/immunology , Nasal Mucosa/pathology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Allergy and Immunology , Immunoglobulin E , Exotoxins/immunology , Chronic Disease
12.
Acta cir. bras ; 27(9): 645-649, Sept. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-646732

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare gene expression of the chemokines RANTES and eotaxin-2, its receptor, CCR-3, adhesion molecule ICAM-1 and its receptor LFA-1 in eosinophilic polyps and in control normal nasal mucosa. METHODS: Gene expression was quantified by Real Time PCR in polyps (n=35) and in healthy nasal mucosa (n=15). RESULTS: Eosinophilic polyps showed a higher expression of eotaxin-2 and RANTES, but not of CCR-3, ICAM-1 or LFA-1 compared to control nasal mucosa. CONCLUSION: Eosinophilic polyps present greater expression of eotaxin-2 and RANTES, but not of CCR-3, ICAM-1 or LFA-1 compared to control nasal mucosa.


OBJETIVO: Comparar a expressão gênica das quimiocinas RANTES e eotaxina-2, do seu receptor CCR-3, da molécula de adesão ICAM-1 e do seu receptor LFA-1 entre pólipos nasais eosinofílicos (PE) (n=35) e mucosa nasal controle (n=15). MÉTODOS: Quantificou-se a expressão gênica dos mediadores citados pela técnica de PCR em tempo real em PEs e em mucosas de concha média de pacientes sem doenças nasais ou alteração endoscópica. RESULTADOS: Pólipos eosinofílicos apresentam maior expressão de eotaxina-2 e RANTES, mas não de CCR-3, ICAM-1 e LFA-1, quando comparados as mucosas nasais controles. CONCLUSÃO: Pólipos eosinofícios apresentaram maior expressão de eotaxin-2 and RANTES, mas não de CCR-3, ICAM-1 ou LFA-1,comparada à mucosa nasal controle.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nasal Polyps/metabolism , Rhinitis/metabolism , Sinusitis/metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Chronic Disease , /genetics , /metabolism , /genetics , /metabolism , Gene Expression , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/genetics , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1/genetics , Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1/metabolism , Nasal Mucosa , Nasal Polyps/complications , Polymerase Chain Reaction , /genetics , /metabolism , Rhinitis/complications , Sinusitis/complications
13.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 76(1): 25-28, jan.-fev. 2010. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-541432

ABSTRACT

Embora o perfil das citocinas na polipose nasossinusal seja bem documentado, pouco se sabe sobre estas proteínas quando associadas à Fibrose Cística. Objetivos: Avaliar a expressão das citocinas IL¬4, IL¬5, IL¬6, IL¬8, GM¬C-SF e IFN--y analisada pela RT¬-PCR, nos pólipos de pacientes com Fibrose Cística. Material e método: Estudo transversal, prospectivo, de 24 pacientes, 13 com Fibrose Cística e polipose nasossinusal (Grupo Fibrose Cística) e 11 com exame otorrinolaringológico normal (Grupo Controle). A média de idade foi de 21 anos (3¬-57), 12 eram do sexo masculino e 12 do sexo feminino. O perfil das citocinas foi pesquisado nos fragmentos de mucosa (Grupo Controle) ou pólipo nasal (Grupo Fibrose Cística) através da RT-¬PCR. Foram estudadas as transcrições para as citocinas IL¬4, IL¬5, IL¬6, IL¬8, IFN¬y e GM¬-CSF ajustadas pelo valor da β¬ actina. Resultados: As interleucinas 5, 6, 8 e GM¬-CSF foram semelhantes nos dois grupos (p>0,05). Menores valores de IFNy¬ (p=0,03) e forte tendência de aumento de IL¬4 (p=0,06) foram observados no grupo Fibrose Cística. Conclusão: As células inflamatórias e estruturais podem produzir RNA mensageiro para IL¬4, bloqueando a produção de outras citocinas com IFN-y¬, sugerindo a participação destes mecanismos na formação dos pólipos da Fibrose Cística.


Although the cytokine profile in nasal polyposis is well documented, little is known about cytokines associated to cystic fibrosis. AIM: Assess the expression of cytokines IL¬4, IL¬5, IL¬6, IL¬8, GM¬-CSF and IFN¬-y, analyzed through RT-PCR, in the polyps of patients with cystic fibrosis. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional, prospective study was carried out with 24 patients, 13 of whom had cystic fibrosis and nasal polyposis (Cystic Fibrosis Group) and 11 had normal otorhinolaryngological exams (Control Group). The average age was 21 years (3¬57); 12 participants were males and 12 were females. The cytokine profile was studied in mucosal fragments (Control Group) or nasal polyps (Cystic Fibrosis Group) through RT¬PCR. Transcriptions were studied for cytokines IL¬4, IL¬5, IL¬6, IL¬8, IFN¬y and GM¬CSF, adjusted for the β¬-actin value. Results: Interleukins 5, 6, 8 and GM¬CSF were similar in both groups (p>0.05). There were lower values of IFN-y¬ (p=0.03) and a strong tendency toward an increase in IL¬4 (p=0.06) in the Cystic Fibrosis Group. Conclusion: Inflammatory and structural cells may produce messenger RNA for IL¬4, blocking the production of other cytokines such as IFN-y, suggesting the participation of this mechanism in the formation of polyps in cystic fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cystic Fibrosis/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Nasal Polyps/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cystic Fibrosis/complications , Nasal Polyps/complications , Prospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/analysis , Young Adult
14.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 69(2): 103-108, ago. 2009. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-554733

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La poliposis nasosinusal (PN) es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica de la mucosa. Apoyado en los hallazgos clínicos, histológicos e inmunológicos, se postula a la alergia como un factor etiopatogénico, lo cual no ha sido plenamente demostrado. Objetivo: Evaluar la presencia de hipersensibilidad a aeroalergenos en pacientes con PN y compararla con pacientes normales. Material y método: Se realizó prick test a aeroalergenos a todos los pacientes utilizando 30 alérgenos frecuentes en el área metropolitana de Santiago, incluyendo pólenes de árboles, malezas y pastos, ácaros, epitelio de animales y hongos habituales. Este test se amplió con el uso de tres hongos habitualmente no evaluados (Stemphyllium, Pullularia, Helminthosporium). Se utilizó la prueba de Chi cuadrado con una significancia de 0,05. Resultados: El 71 por ciento de los pacientes con PN (n =73) y el 66 por ciento del grupo control (n =44) presentaban un test cutáneo positivo, sin diferencia estadística significativa. El patrón de sensibilización a aeroalergenos fue similar, salvo para los alérgenos fúngicos: los pacientes con PN estaban sensibilizados en 40 por ciento a Pullularia, 30 por ciento a Stemphyllium, y 10 por ciento a Helminthosporium. En tanto que los controles no presentaron sensibilización a estos hongos no habituales. Discusión y conclusiones: Existe una alta tasa de sensibilización a aeroalergenos en pacientes normales y con PN, lo que sugiere un probable rol de la alergia en la patogénesis de la poliposis nasal. Destaca un patrón diferente de sensibilización a alérgenos fúngicos, cuya relevancia clínica debe ser evaluada a futuro.


Introduction: Nasal polyposis (NP) is a chronic inflammatory disease that leads to tissue oedema and eventually polyps. The pathogenesis of NP has not been fully understood yet, but there are clinical, histological, and immunological findings that suggest that allergy plays a role. Aim: The aim of this study was to find out the prevalence of airborne allergen hypersensitivity in patients with nasal polyposis. Material and method: Skin prick test (SPT) was performed to patients with NP and to a control group (CRS). Thirty frequent airborne allergens of the Santiago de Chile metropolitan area, including tree, grass and weed pollens, house dust mites, animal dander and common fungal allergens were tested. This SPT was extended by using three fungal allergens that usually are not evaluated (Stemphyllium, Pullularia, Helminthosporium). Chi square test was used to compare both groups of patients. Results: 71 percent of NP patients (n=73) versus 66 percent of the controls (n=44) had a positive SPT, although there was no statistical significance. The only difference in sensitization was for fungal allergens. In NP patients, sensitization to Pullularia was about 40 percent>, 30 percent> to Stemphyllium, and 10 percent to Helminthosporium. CRS patients were not sensitized to uncommon fungal allergens. Conclusions: We found a high frequency of sensitization to airborne allergen in CRS and NP patients that suggest a probable role of allergic inflammation in the pathogenesis of nasal polyposis. Stands out a different pattern of sensitization to fungal allergens in the NP group; the clinical relevance of this finding awaits future evaluation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Allergens/adverse effects , Paranasal Sinus Diseases/complications , Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Hypersensitivity/etiology , Nasal Polyps/complications , Allergens/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Chi-Square Distribution , Chile/epidemiology , Data Collection , Fungi/immunology , Mycoses/complications , Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal/complications , Skin Tests
15.
Annals Abbassi Shaheed Hospital and Karachi Medical and Dental College. 2009; 14 (2): 97-101
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-111141

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of fungal infection in nasal polyps and highlight the role of fungal culture in comparison with the histological evaluation in identifying fungal infections This was a descriptive study conducted over a period of one year from 1st January 2008 to 31st December 2008 during which consecutive samples of nasal polyps were examined. Only those samples were included in the study which were received in two containers, containing 10% formalin and normal saline, for histopathological examination and microbiological evaluation respectively. Results were recorded on a proforma containing age, sex, histological findings and results of culture. A total of 42 samples were studied. Nasal polyps were found to be more common in males as compared to females. They were predominantly common in adults with mean age of 23.7 years. Positive culture for fungus was seen in 25 cases with Aspergillus spp was the most common isolate seen in 19 cases. Out of 25 culture positive cases, only 12 were identified on histology slides using special stains. There was increased prevalence of fungal infections in nasal polyps and this may explain the etiology as well as the frequent recurrences associated with nasal polyps. The importance of fungal culture has been highlighted in final identification of fungus. So it is recommended that all nasal polyps be simultaneously examined both histopathologically and microbiologically for effective clinical management


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Mycoses/epidemiology , Nasal Polyps/complications , Recurrence , Mycoses , Culture Media , Mycoses/pathology
16.
Rev. bras. otorrinolaringol ; 72(2): 242-246, mar.-abr. 2006. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-434172

ABSTRACT

A cirurgia endoscópica nasal atualmente é o tratamento preconizado na rinossinusite crônica. O sucesso no alívio dos sintomas e a melhora da qualidade de vida dos pacientes são os objetivos principais desse estudo. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Estudo de coorte histórico longitudinal. METODOLOGIA: Os pacientes encaminhados ao Hospital das Clínicas-UFPE para tratamento cirúrgico endoscópico de rinossinusite crônica (RSC) responderam questionários durante o ano de 2003-2004. Os sintomas pré e pós-operatórios foram graduados e comparados utilizando uma escala de 5 pontos. RESULTADOS: Foram 24 questionários respondidos. Onze pacientes apresentavam RSC e 13 RSC associada a polipose nasossinusal. A qualidade de vida estava prejudicada em todos os entrevistados, e melhorou consideravelmente em 54,2 por cento dos casos. Todos recomendariam a cirurgia a outras pessoas com problemas nasais semelhantes e apenas 3 pacientes não operariam novamente. Os sintomas com maiores índices de melhora foram: obstrução nasal (83,3 por cento), cacosmia (80 por cento), hiposmia/anosmia (63,15 por cento), e cefaléia (62 por cento). Os pacientes com polipose associada apresentaram mais queixas no pré-operatório e no pós-operatório e revelaram uma tendência a um maior grau de melhora nos principais sintomas referidos em comparação àqueles com RSC. CONCLUSÃO: Os principais sintomas avaliados melhoraram após a cirurgia endoscópica, mas a magnitude da melhora foi inferior ao esperado. A presença de rinite alérgica, o não-uso do spray nasal e o controle ambiental precário podem ter influenciado esse resultado em nosso meio. Os pacientes com polipose nasal obtiveram melhora sintomática e da qualidade de vida, na maioria dos sintomas, superior aos pacientes com RSC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Endoscopy/methods , Nasal Polyps/surgery , Quality of Life , Rhinitis/surgery , Sinusitis/surgery , Chronic Disease , Cohort Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Nasal Polyps/complications , Surveys and Questionnaires , Rhinitis/complications , Sinusitis/complications , Treatment Outcome
17.
Rev. bras. otorrinolaringol ; 71(4): 464-466, jul.-ago. 2005. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-419329

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Mostrar que alterações estruturais da cavidade nasal, como desvio do septo do nariz e a hipertrofia dos cornetos inferiores, são altamente incidentes em pacientes com síndrome da apnéia e hipopnéia do sono e devem ser abordados associados aos procedimentos específicos da síndrome. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico retrospectivo. CASUíSTICA E MÉTODO: Realizamos um estudo retrospectivo em 200 pacientes, 196 homens e 4 mulheres, atendidos no ambulatório de otorrinolaringologia do Hospital Prof. Edmundo Vasconcelos e Unidade Paulista de Otorrinolaringologia, todos com controle polissonográfico, exame físico otorrinolaringológico, endoscópico e o tratamento cirúrgico com procedimentos nasais e faríngeos. RESULTADOS: Todos tiveram procedimento cirúrgico faríngeo: uvulopalatofaringoplastia ou uvulopalatoplastia, e no nariz: 176 septoplastias com turbinectomia parcial (88 por cento) e 24 turbinectomias isoladas (12 por cento), com resultados satisfatórios. CONCLUSÃO: Podemos concluir que as alterações estruturais da cavidade nasal têm alta incidência nos pacientes com SAHOS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/etiology , Nasal Cavity/abnormalities , Nasal Septum/abnormalities , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/surgery , Brazil , Cartilage/abnormalities , Cartilage/pathology , Nasal Cavity/surgery , Hypertrophy/complications , Polysomnography , Nasal Polyps/complications , Nasal Polyps/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Snoring/etiology , Nasal Septum/surgery , Treatment Outcome
18.
KMJ-Kuwait Medical Journal. 2005; 37 (3): 182-184
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-73007

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the effectiveness of endoscopic excision of the antrochoanal polyp and its role in decreasing the recurrence rate. Retrospective. Medical records of thirty patients with antrochoanal polyp [ACP] diagnosed and treated at King Abdulaziz University Hospital [KAUH] in Riyadh between January 1996 and December 2002 were retrospectively studied. Factors such as gender, age, presenting complaints, findings, pathology, management and recurrence rates were included in this study. Out of thirty patients, 17 were male and their ages ranged from six to 45 years with a mean age of 17.37 years. Nasal obstruction was the most common presenting symptom. Endoscopic transnasal removal of ACP was performed in 25 patients as primary surgery. Revision endoscopic removal was done in three patients and two of those who had failure of revision surgery had combined transcanine and endonasal endoscopic removal. All candidates had follow up from nine to 42 months with mean average time of 24 months. Recurrence was confirmed in five patients [four of them after primary surgery and one patient after revision surgery]. However those who underwent combined approach had no recurrence. Endoscopic approach compared to previous modalities of treatment has the capability to ensure complete removal of the ACP and decrease its rate of recurrence. Its safety in children is considerable in capable hands. Power instrumentation with combined transcanine and middle meatal antrostomy approach is another way to deal with difficult cases and those with recurrence


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Nasal Polyps/complications , Endoscopy/methods , Oropharynx/surgery , Oropharynx/pathology , Retrospective Studies
19.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-42909

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is controversy of creating the drainage lumen in endoscopic sinus surgery for diffuse nasal polyposis. OBJECTIVE: To compare the patency rate of drainage lumen between large middle meatal antrostomy and undisturbed maxillary ostium in endoscopic sinus surgery for nasal polyposis. SETTING: Department of Otolaryngology, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. DESIGN: Randomized double-blind control trial. SUBJECT: Patients diagnosed at the King Chulalongorn hospital who had chronic maxillary sinusitis developed by nasal polyposis. METHOD: Sixty patients who had similar degree of bilateral nasal polyps and chronic maxillary sinusitis were enrolled. The sides of which each surgical technique would be applied were randomized by simple randomization. The patients did not know which treatment technique was applied to which side of the nose. The evaluator evaluated the objective endoscopic examination from the recorded videotape of each side separately at the third month till one year after surgery without notifying the patients. RESULTS: The patency rate of a large middle meatal antrostomy was 71.7 per cent-85 per cent compared to 61.7 per cent-65 per cent of the undisturbed maxillary ostium. There was a statistically significant difference only in early phase evaluation between the two surgical techniques (p-value = 0.002). Thirty-six of 60 cases (60%) had good results with adequate drainage lumens, no infection and no recurrent polyps at the final evaluation. Early and small nasal polyps (grade I polyp) was the main correlation factor to the success of endoscopic sinus surgery for nasal polyposis (p-value = 0.017). The occlusion of the drainage system after surgery was mainly from recurrent polyps. CONCLUSION: The large middle antrostomy group had a better statistically significant patency rate than undisturbed maxillary ostium only in the early phase after surgery. Recurrent polyp was the main cause of stenosis. Early surgical intervention of the small nasal polyposis had a better result compared to large diffuse nasal polyps.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Chronic Disease , Double-Blind Method , Ear, Middle/surgery , Endoscopy , Female , Humans , Male , Maxillary Sinus/surgery , Maxillary Sinusitis/etiology , Middle Aged , Nasal Polyps/complications , Outcome Assessment, Health Care
20.
Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol ; 1999 Dec; 17(4): 261-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-36619

ABSTRACT

Nasal endoscopy was carried out in 83 patients with perennial allergic rhinitis to evaluate endonasal anatomic variation and to find the correlation between the symptoms of patients and the endoscopic findings. All of the patients had nasal symptoms, 7.2% of the patients were runner, 7.2% were blocker and 85.6% were both. 86.75% of the patients had allergy-related symptoms, i.e. throat symptoms (73.5%), sinus headache (50.6%), and smell disturbance (10.8%). 95.2% of patients had abnormal endoscopic findings, i.e. deviated nasal septum (72.3%), abnormal middle turbinate (49.4%), narrowing of the entrance into the frontal recess (30.1%), septal spur (25.3%), obstruction of the entrance into the frontal recess (19.3%), nasal polyps (15.7%), mucopurulent discharge (14.5%), inferior turbinate hypertrophy (10.8%), abnormal uncinate process (9.6%), abnormal ethmoid bullae (7.2%), and enlargement of aggar nasi cells (2.4%). There was no significant correlation between each symptom and each endoscopic finding. However, there was a significant correlation between sinus headache and all of the combined abnormal endoscopic findings (P<0.05). These findings suggested that variations in endonasal anatomy was not by itself a pathology or a cause of symptoms. However, a combination of these variations may narrow the cleft of the ostiomeatal unit and cause contact area or stenosis, which predisposed patients to persistent symptoms, recurrent infection or resistance to therapy in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis. The endoscope might be a very useful tool for allergists, immunologists, and rhinologists, who work in the nose to deal with these cases.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Chi-Square Distribution , Child , Endoscopy , Female , Headache/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasal Obstruction/complications , Nasal Polyps/complications , Nasal Septum/pathology , Nose/pathology , Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial/complications , Turbinates/pathology
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