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1.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 39(1): 64-69, 20240102. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1526806

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El melanoma es la proliferación maligna de melanocitos asociado a un comportamiento agresivo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar las variables histológicas del melanoma cutáneo. Métodos. Estudio observacional retrospectivo, transversal descriptivo, realizado con reportes de patologías de pacientes con diagnóstico de melanoma cutáneo en un laboratorio de patología en Cali, Colombia, entre 2016-2021. Se incluyeron las variables edad, sexo, localización, subtipo, espesor de Breslow, ulceración, márgenes, mitosis, invasión linfovascular, neurotrofismo, regresión tumoral, nivel de Clark e infiltración tumoral por linfocitos. Resultados. Se obtuvieron 106 reportes y fueron excluidos 54 por duplicación. Se incluyeron 52 registros, la media de edad fue de 61 años, con una mayor frecuencia de mujeres (55,8 %). De los 33 casos donde se especificó el subtipo histológico, el más frecuente fue el de extensión superficial (66,6 %), seguido del acral lentiginoso (18,1 %) y nodular con (15,2 %). La localización más frecuente fue en extremidades (61,5 %). El espesor de Breslow más común fue IV (34,6 %) y el nivel de Clark más frecuente fue IV (34,6 %). La ulceración estuvo en el 40,4 %. El subtipo nodular fue el de presentación más agresiva, donde el 100 % presentaron espesor de Breslow IV. Conclusiones. El subtipo de melanoma más común en nuestra población fue el de extensión superficial; el segundo en frecuencia fue el subtipo acral lentiginoso, que se localizó siempre en extremidades. Más del 50 % de los melanomas tenían espesor de Breslow mayor o igual a III, lo que impacta en el pronóstico.


Background. Melanoma is the malignant proliferation of melanocytes associated with aggressive behavior. The objective of this study was to determine the histological variables of cutaneous melanoma. Methods. Observational, cross-sectional, descriptive, retrospective study carried out with reports of pathologies with a diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma in a pathology laboratory in Cali between 2016-2021. The variables were age, sex, location, subtype, Breslow thickness, ulceration, margins, mitosis, lymphovascular invasion, neurotropism, tumoral regression, Clark level and tumor infiltration by lymphocytes. Results. One hundred and six reports were obtained and 54 were excluded due to duplication. A descriptive analysis was made on the 52 records that were included, the mean age was 61 years, with a higher frequency in women with 55.8%. Of the 33 cases where the histological subtype was specified, the most frequent was superficial extension with 66.6%, followed by acral lentiginous with 18.1% and nodular with 15.2%. The most frequent location was in the extremities (61.5%); the most common Breslow was IV (34.6%), and the most frequent Clark was IV (34.6%). Ulceration was in 40.4%. The nodular subtype was the most aggressive presentation where 100% presented Breslow IV. Conclusions. The most common subtype of melanoma was that of superficial extension. In our population, the second most frequent was the acral lentiginous subtype, which was always located on the extremities. More than 50% of the melanomas had Breslow greater than or equal to III, which affects the prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pathology , Melanoma , Neoplasm Staging , Neoplasm Grading , Histology , Mitosis
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1558-1563, oct. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521033

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: In solid and malignant tumors, innate and adaptive immunity are combined in antitumor responses. This study aimed to analyze the activation of plasma cells and the correlation between the infiltration of B and T lymphocytes with the degree of malignancy or Gleason grade in human prostate biopsies diagnosed with cancer. Prostate cancer biopsies were obtained from the Clinical Hospital of Universidad de Chile (n=70), according to the bioethical norms of the institution. Histological sections of 5µm thickness were processed for immunohistochemistry with primary antibodies against BL and total TL (HRP/DAB). Recognition and quantification were performed under a Leica DM750 optical microscope. Microsoft Excel and GraphPad software were used for the statistical study. Correlation coefficient (Pearson) and mean comparison tests (Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn) and p≤ 0.05 were developed. B and T lymphocyte populations were inversely interregulated in prostate cancer (Gleason) (r= -0.46). Their relationship with Gleason grade is variable according to lymphocyte type (LB vs. Gleason r= -0.0.47 and LT vs. Gleason r= -0.21). Histological diagnosis of prostate cancer correlates with a predominance of LT. The malignancy of the pathology correlates with a predominance of LTs, according to the Gleason grade. The increased knowledge of B and T lymphocyte infiltration and plasma cell activation could be used to better target clinical trials on treatments based on immune system responses. Immunotherapy could be a new paradigm to apply better antitumor therapy strategies.


En tumores sólidos y malignos, la inmunidad innata y adaptativa se combinan en respuestas antitumorales. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar la activación de células plasmáticas y la correlación entre la infiltración de linfocitos B y T con el grado de malignidad o grado de Gleason en biopsias de próstata humana diagnosticadas con cáncer. Las biopsias de cáncer de próstata se obtuvieron del Hospital Clínico de la Universidad de Chile (n=70), de acuerdo con las normas bioéticas de la institución. Secciones histológicas de 5 µm de espesor fueron procesadas para inmunohistoquímica con anticuerpos primarios contra LB y LT total (HRP/DAB). El reconocimiento y las cuantificaciones se realizaron bajo un microscopio óptico Leica DM750. Para el estudio estadístico se utilizaron los programas Microsoft Excel y GraphPad. Se desarrollaron pruebas de coeficiente de correlación (Pearson) y comparación de medias (Kruskal-Wallis y Dunn) y p≤ 0.05. Los resultados muestran que las poblaciones de linfocitos B y T están inversamente interreguladas en el cáncer de próstata (r= -0,4578). Su relación con el grado de Gleason es variable según el tipo de linfocito (LB vs Gleason r= -0,47* y LT vs Gleason r= -0,21). Se concluye que la malignidad del cáncer de próstata se correlaciona con un predominio de LT, versus el grado de Gleason. El mayor conocimiento de la infiltración de linfocitos B y T y la activación de células plasmáticas podría aprovecharse para una mejor orientación de ensayos clínicos en tratamientos basados en las respuestas del sistema inmunitario. La inmunoterapia podría ser un nuevo paradigma para aplicar mejores estrategias de terapias antitumorales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Plasma Cells , Prostatic Neoplasms/immunology , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , T-Lymphocytes , Biopsy , Immunohistochemistry , B-Lymphocytes , Immunomodulation , Neoplasm Grading , Microscopy
3.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2023. 26 p. ilus., tab..
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1555121

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: Os sarcomas são tumores malignos raros e compreendem um grupo heterogêneo de tumores, com mais de 60 subtipos histológicos. A importância da classificação do grau histológico é fundamental para a definição da linha de tratamento a ser seguida. A busca por métodos que aumentem a acurácia na definição de alto grau deve ser constante. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o papel da Ressonância Nuclear Magnética na predição do grau histológico nos sarcomas de partes moles. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, transversal e retrospectivo. Critérios de inclusão foram pacientes com mais de 18 anos, submetidos a biópsia por agulha grossa guiada ou revisão de biópsia externa, exame de RNM e a ressecção do tumor primário no ACCCC. Exclusão de pacientes submetidos a biópsia cirúrgica. Principais variáveis foram: tamanho do tumor, idade, localização, subtipo histológico, grau histológico da biópsia e da peça cirúrgica ­ sendo utilizado classificação em alto grau (G2 e G3 da FNCLCC) e baixo grau (G1). Os critérios radiológicos da RNM (tamanho, definição das margens (regular ou irregular), heterogeneidade de sinal em T2 (maior 50% ou menor 50%), sinal de alta intensidade peritumoral em T2 (edema peritumoral presente ou ausente), realce pós-contraste peritumoral (presente ou ausente) foram avaliados por dois radiologistas da nossa instituição. Além disso, foi realizado o cálculo de um score para avaliação de predição do alto grau histológico, por meio da somatória dos critérios positivos analisados (considerando ser de 0 (zero), quando nenhum critério foi identificado a 5 (cinco) quando todos os critérios forem positivos). Utilizamos teste de associação Qui-quadrado entre os itens da RNM e o grau histológico da peça cirúrgica e, em seguida, utilizamos teste de regressão logística a fim de identificar a associação independente, de modo a avaliar o valor da RNM na predição do grau histológico. O nível de significância adotado foi de 5%. RESULTADOS: Sessenta e oito pacientes foram incluídos no estudo. Trinta mulheres e 38 homens. A biópsia identificou 54 tumores de alto grau e 14 tumores de baixo grau. Já na peça cirúrgica tivemos 52 tumores de alto grau e 16 de baixo grau. A via mais comum de biópsia foi biópsia por agulha grossa guiada por ultrassonografia com 54,4% dos casos. O subtipo mais comum foi o lipossarcoma com 17(25%) casos, seguido pelo sarcoma sinovial 17,6% e leiomiossarcoma 10,3%, assim como localização em extremidade com 64,7%. Identificamos uma maioria de tumores maiores que 5cm, correspondendo à 89,7%. A regularidade das margens 43 (63,2%) foram regular, e apenas 25 (36,8%) consideradas irregular. Já na avaliação da heterogeneidade tumoral em T2 foram 36 (52,9%) heterogêneos contra 32 (47,1%) com menos 50% de heterogeneidade. O sinal de alta intensidade peritumoral em T2 estava presente em 45 (66,2%) das vezes, ao passo que, o realce pós-contraste peritumoral estava presente em 31 (45,6%). O score ficou: dois com score 0 (zero), 10 com score 1 (um), 16 com score 2 (dois), 13 com score 3 (três), 18 com score 4 (quatro) e nove com score 5 (cinco). Os critérios da RNM que demonstraram associação com grau histológico foram sinal de alta intensidade peritumoral em T2 (p<0,001) e realce peritumoral pós-contraste (p=0,006). Na regressão logística a presença de sinal de alta intensidade peritumoral em T2 (OR 11,8) e o realce pós-contraste peritumoral (OR 8,8) também foram preditivos de tumor de alto grau. Apesar de os demais critérios da RNM não apresentarem associação com o grau histológico, ao se aplicar oscore (somatório dos achados dos critérios na RNM) encontramos, que a cada ponto a mais aumentase a chance de tumor de alto grau em 2 vezes (OR 2,0; p 0,014). CONCLUSÃO: A utilização da RNM como ferramenta para predizer o grau histológico dos sarcomas de partes moles se demonstrou eficiente. Os critérios relacionados ao padrão de crescimento infiltrativo tumoral identificados na RNM como sinal de alta intensidade peritumoral em T2 e realce pós-contraste peritumoral foram positivos para predizer alto grau histológico.


INTRODUCTION: Sarcomas are rare malignant tumors and comprise a heterogeneous group of tumors, with more than 60 histological subtypes. The importance of classifying the histological grade is fundamental for defining the line of treatment to be followed. The search for methods that increase the accuracy in the definition of high degree must be constant. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in predicting the histological grade in soft tissue sarcoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is an observational, cross-sectional retrospective study. Inclusion criteria were patients over 18 years old who underwent guided core needle biopsy or external pathology review, MRI exam, and primary tumor surgery at the ACCCC from January 2015 to June 2022. Patients who underwent surgical biopsy were excluded. The main variables were tumor size, age, location, histological subtype, histological grade of the biopsy and of the surgical specimen­ using a classification of high grade as G2 and G3 of the FNCLCC and low grade as G1. MRI radiological criteria (size, margin definition (regular or irregular), heterogeneity of the T2 signal (greater than 50% or less than 50%), high intensity peritumoral signal on T2 (peritumoral edema present or absent), post- peritumoral contrast (present or absent) were evaluated by two radiologists from our institution. In addition, a score was calculated to evaluate the prediction of histological grade, through the sum of the positive criteria analyzed (considering it to be 0 (zero), when no criterion was identified to 5 (five) when all criteria are positive). We used the Chi-square association test between the MRI items and the histological grade of the surgical specimen, and then we used the logistic regression test to identify the independent association. P values < 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, sixty-eight patients wereincluded. Thirty women and 38 men. The biopsy identified 54 highgrade tumors and 14 low-grade tumors. In the surgical specimen, we had 52 high-grade and 16 low-grade tumors. The most common type of biopsy was ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy with 54.4% of cases. Liposarcoma with 17 (25%) cases were most frequently, followed by synovial sarcoma 17.6% and leiomyosarcoma 10.3%, as well as location in the extremity with 64.7%. We identified most tumors larger than 5cm, corresponding to 89.7%. The regularity of the margins 43 (63.2%) were regular, and only 25 (36.8%) considered irregular. In the evaluation of tumor heterogeneity in T2, there were 36 (52.9%) against 32 (47.1%). Peritumoral high-intensity T2-weighted signal was present in 45 (66.2%), whereas peritumoral post-contrast enhancement was present in 31 (45.6%). The score was: two with score 0 (zero), 10 with score 1 (one), 16 with score 2 (two), 13 with score 3 (three), 18 with score 4 (four) and nine with score 5 (five). The MRI criteria that demonstrated an association with histological grade were peritumoral high-intensity T2-weighted signal (p<0.001) and peritumoral post-contrast enhancement (p=0.006). In logistic regression, the presence of peritumoral high-intensity T2-weighted signal (OR 11.8) and peritumoral post-contrast enhancement (OR 8.8) were also predictive of high-risk tumor. Although the other MRI criteria are not associated with the histological grade, when applying the score (sum of the MRI findings of the criteria), we found that each additional point increases the chance of a high-grade tumor by 2 times (OR 2.0; p 0.014). CONCLUSION: The use of MRI as a tool to predict the histological grade of soft tissue sarcomas proved to be efficient. The criteria related to the infiltrative tumor growth pattern identified on MRI as peritumoral high-intensity T2-weighted signal and peritumoral post-contrast enhancement were positive for predicting histological high grade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sarcoma , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Neoplasm Grading
4.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 345-349, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981944

ABSTRACT

The long-term survival outcomes of radical prostatectomy (RP) in Chinese prostate cancer (PCa) patients are poorly understood. We conducted a single-center, retrospective analysis of patients undergoing RP to study the prognostic value of pathological and surgical information. From April 1998 to February 2022, 782 patients undergoing RP at Queen Mary Hospital of The University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong, China) were included in our study. Multivariable Cox regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier analysis with stratification were performed. The 5-year, 10-year, and 15-year overall survival (OS) rates were 96.6%, 86.8%, and 70.6%, respectively, while the 5-year, 10-year, and 15-year PCa-specific survival (PSS) rates were 99.7%, 98.6%, and 97.8%, respectively. Surgical International Society of Urological Pathology PCa grades (ISUP Grade Group) ≥4 was significantly associated with poorer PSS (hazard ratio [HR] = 8.52, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.42-51.25, P = 0.02). Pathological T3 stage was not significantly associated with PSS or OS in our cohort. Lymph node invasion and extracapsular extension might be associated with worse PSS (HR = 20.30, 95% CI: 1.22-336.38, P = 0.04; and HR = 7.29, 95% CI: 1.22-43.64, P = 0.03, respectively). Different surgical approaches (open, laparoscopic, or robotic-assisted) had similar outcomes in terms of PSS and OS. In conclusion, we report the longest timespan follow-up of Chinese PCa patients after RP with different approaches.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostate/pathology , Prostatectomy , Prognosis , Neoplasm Grading
5.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 1062-1071, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921846

ABSTRACT

Glioma is the most common malignant brain tumor and classification of low grade glioma (LGG) and high grade glioma (HGG) is an important reference of making decisions on patient treatment options and prognosis. This work is largely done manually by pathologist based on an examination of whole slide image (WSI), which is arduous and heavily dependent on doctors' experience. In the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, grade of glioma is closely related to hypercellularity, nuclear atypia and necrosis. Inspired by this, this paper designed and extracted cell density and atypia features to classify LGG and HGG. First, regions of interest (ROI) were located by analyzing cell density and global density features were extracted as well. Second, local density and atypia features were extracted in ROI. Third, balanced support vector machine (SVM) classifier was trained and tested using 10 selected features. The area under the curve (AUC) and accuracy (ACC) of 5-fold cross validation were 0.92 ± 0.01 and 0.82 ± 0.01 respectively. The results demonstrate that the proposed method of locating ROI is effective and the designed features of density and atypia can be used to predict glioma grade accurately, which can provide reliable basis for clinical diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Glioma/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neoplasm Grading , Support Vector Machine
6.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1576-1583, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887585

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Various prediction tools have been developed to predict biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP); however, few of the previous prediction tools used serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadir after RP and maximum tumor diameter (MTD) at the same time. In this study, a nomogram incorporating MTD and PSA nadir was developed to predict BCR-free survival (BCRFS).@*METHODS@#A total of 337 patients who underwent RP between January 2010 and March 2017 were retrospectively enrolled in this study. The maximum diameter of the index lesion was measured on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cox regression analysis was performed to evaluate independent predictors of BCR. A nomogram was subsequently developed for the prediction of BCRFS at 3 and 5 years after RP. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and decision curve analyses were performed to identify the advantage of the new nomogram in comparison with the cancer of the prostate risk assessment post-surgical (CAPRA-S) score.@*RESULTS@#A novel nomogram was developed to predict BCR by including PSA nadir, MTD, Gleason score, surgical margin (SM), and seminal vesicle invasion (SVI), considering these variables were significantly associated with BCR in both univariate and multivariate analyses (P < 0.05). In addition, a basic model including Gleason score, SM, and SVI was developed and used as a control to assess the incremental predictive power of the new model. The concordance index of our model was slightly higher than CAPRA-S model (0.76 vs. 0.70, P = 0.02) and it was significantly higher than that of the basic model (0.76 vs. 0.66, P = 0.001). Time-dependent ROC curve and decision curve analyses also demonstrated the advantages of the new nomogram.@*CONCLUSIONS@#PSA nadir after RP and MTD based on MRI before surgery are independent predictors of BCR. By incorporating PSA nadir and MTD into the conventional predictive model, our newly developed nomogram significantly improved the accuracy in predicting BCRFS after RP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Neoplasm Grading , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery , Nomograms , Prognosis , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Seminal Vesicles
7.
Clinics ; 76: e3198, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345808

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to evaluate the ability of deep learning algorithms to detect and grade prostate cancer (PCa) in radical prostatectomy specimens. METHODS: We selected 12 whole-slide images of radical prostatectomy specimens. These images were divided into patches, and then, analyzed and annotated. The annotated areas were categorized as follows: stroma, normal glands, and Gleason patterns 3, 4, and 5. Two analyses were performed: i) a categorical image classification method that labels each image as benign or as Gleason 3, Gleason 4, or Gleason 5, and ii) a scanning method in which distinct areas representative of benign and different Gleason patterns are delineated and labeled separately by a pathologist. The Inception v3 Convolutional Neural Network architecture was used in categorical model training, and a Mask Region-based Convolutional Neural Network was used to train the scanning method. After training, we selected three new whole-slide images that were not used during the training to evaluate the model as our test dataset. The analysis results of the images using deep learning algorithms were compared with those obtained by the pathologists. RESULTS: In the categorical classification method, the trained model obtained a validation accuracy of 94.1% during training; however, the concordance with our expert uropathologists in the test dataset was only 44%. With the image-scanning method, our model demonstrated a validation accuracy of 91.2%. When the test images were used, the concordance between the deep learning method and uropathologists was 89%. CONCLUSION: Deep learning algorithms have a high potential for use in the diagnosis and grading of PCa. Scanning methods are likely to be superior to simple classification methods.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Deep Learning , Prostatectomy , Neural Networks, Computer , Neoplasm Grading
8.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(10): 642-648, Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144161

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate the agreement between the histopathological diagnoses of preoperative endometrial samples and surgical specimens and correlate the agreement between the diagnoses with the impact on surgical management and the survival of patients with endometrial adenocarcinomas. Methods Sixty-two patients treated for endometrial cancer at a university hospital from 2002 to 2011 were retrospectively evaluated. The histopathological findings of preoperative endometrial samples and of surgical specimens were analyzed. The patients were subjected to hysterectomy as well as adjuvant treatment, if necessary, and clinical follow-up, according to the institutional protocol. Lesions were classified as endometrioid tumor (type 1) grades 1, 2, or 3 or non-endometrioid carcinoma (type 2). Results The agreement between the histopathological diagnoses based on preoperative endometrial samples and surgical specimens was fair (Kappa: 0.40; p < 0.001). However, the agreement was very significant for tumor type and grade, in which a higher concordance occurred at a higher grade. The percentage of patients with lymph nodes affected was 19.2%;. Although most patients presenting with disease remission or cure were in the early stages (90.5%;), there were no significant differences between those patients who had a misdiagnosis (11/16; 68.8%;) and those who had a correct diagnosis (25/33; 75.8%;) based on preoperative endometrial sampling (p = 0.605). Conclusion Our findings corroborate the literature and confirm the under staging of preoperative endometrial samples based on histopathological assessment, especially for lower grade endometrial tumors. We suggest that the preoperative diagnosis should be complemented with other methods to better plan the surgical management strategy.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar a concordância entre os diagnósticos histopatológicos de amostras endometriais pré-operatórias e cirúrgicas de pacientes com adenocarcinomas endometriais e avaliar o impacto da concordância entre os diagnósticos no planejamento cirúrgico e sobrevida das pacientes. Métodos Dados de 62 pacientes com câncer de endométrio operadas entre 2002 a 2011 em um hospital universitário foram avaliadas retrospectivamente. As pacientes foram submetidas à histerectomia e tratamento adjuvante, se necessário, e acompanhadas clinicamente de acordo com o protocolo institucional. Foram avaliados os resultados das análises histopatológicas das amostras endometriais pré-operatórias e cirúrgicas. As lesões foram classificadas como tumor endometrioide (tipo 1) graus 1, 2 ou 3 ou carcinoma não endometrioide (tipo 2). Resultados De modo geral, houve uma concordância baixa entre os diagnósticos histopatológicos das amostras endometriais pré-operatórias e cirúrgicas (Kappa: 0,40; p < 0,001). Entretanto, uma alta concordância entre os diagnósticos foi observada nos tumores de graus mais elevados. Comprometimento de linfonodos ocorreu em 19,2%; das pacientes e a maioria das que apresentaram remissão ou cura foram diagnosticadas nos estágios iniciais da doença (90,5%;). Não houve diferença significativa na taxa de remissão ou cura entre as pacientes que tiveram concordância (25/33; 75,8%;) ou divergência (11/16; 68,8%;) entre os resultados histopatológicos pré-operatórios e cirúrgicos (p = 0,605). Conclusão Nossos achados corroboram a literatura e confirmam o sub-estadiamento de amostras endometriais pré-operatórias com base na avaliação histopatológica, especialmente para tumores endometriais de baixo grau. Outros métodos complementares são necessários para um diagnóstico pré-operatório mais preciso a fim de melhorar o planejamento cirúrgico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Endometrial Neoplasms/pathology , Pathology, Surgical , Brazil/epidemiology , Survival Analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Endometrial Neoplasms/mortality , Preoperative Period , Neoplasm Grading , Hysterectomy , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 882-887, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124870

ABSTRACT

The different pathologies of the prostate, involve the presence of a new microenvironment where inflammatory cells are actively recruited. This research explores the presence of mast cells and eosinophils associated with age and the evaluation of prostate cancer progress (Gleason Index). Forty two biopsies of anonymized patients, with confirmed prostate cancer, were used for histological analysis for eosinophils and mast cells and subsequent determination of Gleason index according to age. The results of the histological analyzes show the presence of eosinophils and mast cells in prostate biopsies with confirmed cancer. In the multiple correlation studies, a high correlation was observed between the presence of lymphocytes and the age of the patient diagnosed with prostate cancer, same correlation was observed between the patient's age and higher Gleason Index (Pearson and Spearman p< 0.05). It is concluded that in prostate biopsies from Chilean patients with confirmed cancer, eosinophilia and tissue mastocytosis were observed. Correlation analyzes show a direct correlation between older patients, higher Gleason index and presence of mast cell. Regarding eosinophilia, only a correlation between age and Gleason index was observed Further studies are suggested to determine that the presence of eosinophils and mast cells can be used as early bioindicators of prostate cancer.


Las diferentes patologías de próstata, involucran la presencia de un nuevo microambiente donde las células inflamatorias son activamente reclutadas. La presente investigación explora la presencia de mastocitos y eosinófilos asociadas a la edad y la evaluación del progreso del cáncer de próstata según índice de Gleason. Cuarenta y dos biopsias de pacientes anonimizados, con cáncer prostático confirmados, fueron utilizadas para su análisis histológico para eosinófilos y mastocitos y posterior determinación del índice de Gleason según edad. Los resultados de los análisis histológicos, muestran la presencia de eosinófilos y mastocitos en biopsias de próstata con cáncer confirmado. En los estudios de correlación múltiple, se observó una alta correlación entre la presencia de linfocitos, mastocitos y la edad del paciente diagnosticado con cáncer prostático, igual correlación se observó entre la edad del paciente y mayor índice de Gleason (Pearson y Spearman p<0,05). Se concluyó que en las biopsias de próstata de pacientes chilenos con cáncer confirmado, se observó eosinofilia y mastocitosis tisular. Los análisis de correlación muestran una correlación directa entre pacientes de mayor edad, índice de Gleason más alto y la presencia de mastocitos. Con respecto a la eosinofilia, solo se observó una correlación entre la edad y el índice de Gleason. Se sugieren estudios adicionales para determinar que la presencia de eosinófilos y mastocitos puede usarse como bioindicadores tempranos del cáncer de próstata.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostate/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Biopsy , Mastocytosis/pathology , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Chile , Age Factors , Eosinophilia/pathology , Early Detection of Cancer , Neoplasm Grading
10.
Salud pública Méx ; 62(3): 255-261, May.-Jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377311

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Determinar distribución, localización y cambios de la frecuencia de tumores astrocíticos (TA) en un instituto mexicano de neurología. Material y métodos: Se revisaron los registros institucionales de TA de cinco décadas. Se compararon las relaciones TA/egresos quirúrgicos (EQ) y TA/total de tumores del sistema nervioso central (TSNC) de 1995 a 2014. Resultados: Se analizaron 2 287 TA (1 356 en hombres y 931 en mujeres). El glioma más común fue el glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), que estuvo presente en adultos jóvenes con una frecuencia mayor a la reportada en otros estudios. La relación TA/EQ y TA/TNSC fue similar entre 1995 y 2014. Conclusiones: En general, la frecuencia de TA atendidos en el Instituto es similar a la reportada internacionalmente. No obstante, los casos de TA en el subgrupo de adultos jóvenes con GBM son más frecuentes (40%) que las incidencias reportadas en otros estudios (menores al 5%). No se encontró variación significativa en la frecuencia de TA durante las últimas dos décadas.


Abstract: Objective: To determine distribution, localization and frequency variations of astrocytic tumors (AT) in a Mexican Institute of neurology. Materials and methods: Institutional registries of AT from five decades were analyzed. AT/Surgical discharges (SD) and AT/Central Nervous System Tumors (CNST) from 1995 to 2014 were compared. Results: Two thousand two hundred and eighty-seven AT (1 356 men and 931 women) were analyzed. The most common glioma was glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), found in young adults with a higher frequency to that reported in other studies. Relation of AT/SD, as well as, relation of AT/CNST was similar between 1995 and 2014. Conclusions: In general, the frequency of AT attended at the Institute is similar to that found worldwide, being only higher the number of GBM in younger adults. There was not significant variation in the frequency of AT during the time studied.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Astrocytoma/epidemiology , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/epidemiology , Astrocytoma/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/pathology , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Glioblastoma/pathology , Glioblastoma/epidemiology , Academies and Institutes/statistics & numerical data , Neoplasm Grading , Mexico/epidemiology , Neurology/statistics & numerical data
11.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(1): 34-41, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056354

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Prostate cancer screening in the elderly is controversial. The Brazilian government and the National Cancer Institute (INCA) do not recommend systematic screening. Our purpose was to assess prevalence and aggressiveness of prostate cancer in men aged 70 years and above, on the first Latin American database to date. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study (n=17,571) from 231 municipalities, visited by Mobile Cancer Prevention Units of a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) based opportunistic screening program, between 2004 and 2007. The criteria for biopsy were: PSA>4.0ng/ml, or PSA 2.5-4.0ng/ml with free/total PSA ratio ≤15%, or suspicious digital rectal examination findings. The screened men were stratified in two age groups (45-69 years, and ≥70 years). These groups were compared regarding prostate cancer prevalence and aggressiveness criteria (PSA, Gleason score from biopsy and TNM staging). Results: The prevalence of prostate cancer found was 3.7%. When compared to men aged 45-69 years, individuals aged 70 years and above presented cancer prevalence about three times higher (prevalence ratio 2.9, p<0.01), and greater likelihood to present PSA level above 10.0ng/ml at diagnosis (odds ratio 2.63, p<0.01). The group of elderly men also presented prevalence of histologically aggressive disease (Gleason 8-10) 3.6 times higher (p<0.01), and 5-fold greater prevalence of metastases (PR 4.95, p<0.05). Conclusions: Prostate cancer screening in men aged over 70 may be relevant in Brazil, considering the absence of systematic screening, higher prevalence and higher probability of high-risk disease found in this age range of the population studied.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Mass Screening/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Biopsy , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Risk Assessment , Digital Rectal Examination , Early Detection of Cancer , Neoplasm Grading , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging
12.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(1): 92-100, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056355

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the role of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in differentiating bland thrombus from tumor thrombus of the inferior vena cava (IVC) in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively investigated 30 consecutive patients who underwent robot-assisted radical nephrectomy with IVC thrombectomy and had pathologically confirmed RCC. All patients underwent US and CEUS examination. Two off-line readers observed and recorded thrombus imaging information and enhancement patterns. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for bland thrombus were assessed. Results: Of the 30 patients, no adverse events occurred during administration of the contrast agent. Early enhancement of the mass within the IVC lumen on CEUS was an indicator of tumor thrombus. Bland thrombus showed no intraluminal flow on CEUS. There were eight (26.7%) patients with bland thrombus, including three level II, two level III, and three level IV. There were three cases with cephalic bland thrombus and five cases with caudal bland thrombus. Three caudal bland thrombi extended to the iliac vein and underwent surgical IVC interruption. Based on no intraluminal flow, for bland thrombus, CEUS had 87.5% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 96.7% accuracy, 100% positive predictive value and 95.6% negative predictive value. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates the potential of CEUS in the differentiation of bland and tumor thrombus of the IVC in patients with RCC. Since CEUS is an effective, inexpensive, and non-invasive method, it could be a reliable tool in the evaluation of IVC thrombus in patients with RCC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Vena Cava, Inferior/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Doppler/methods , Venous Thrombosis , Kidney Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Vena Cava, Inferior/surgery , Vena Cava, Inferior/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/pathology , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Thrombectomy/methods , Contrast Media , Venous Thrombosis/surgery , Venous Thrombosis/pathology , Tumor Burden , Neoplasm Grading , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Middle Aged
13.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(1): 26-33, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056358

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Clear cell papillary (CCP) renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a new subtype of RCC that was formally recognized by the International Society of Urological Pathology Vancouver Classification of Renal Neoplasia in 2013. Subsequently, CCP RCC was added to the 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Urinary System and Male Genital Organs. In this study, we retrospectively investigated the computed tomography (CT) findings of pathologically diagnosed CCP RCC. Materials and Methods: This study included 12 patients pathologically diagnosed with CCP RCC at our institution between 2015 and 2017. We reviewed the patient's CT data and analyzed the characteristics. Results: Nine solid masses and 3 cystic masses with a mean tumor size of 22.7±9.2mm were included. Solid masses exhibited slight hyper-density on unenhanced CT with a mean value of 34±6 Hounsfield units (HU), good enhancement in the corticomedullary phase with a mean of 195±34HU, and washout in the nephrogenic phase with a mean of 133±29HU. The walls of cystic masses enhanced gradually during the corticomedullary and nephrogenic phases. Solid and cystic masses were preoperatively diagnosed as clear cell RCC and cystic RCC, respectively. Conclusions: The CT imaging characteristics of CCP RCCs could be categorized into either the solid or cystic type. These masses were diagnosed radiologically as clear cell RCC and cystic RCC, respectively.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Carcinoma, Papillary/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Kidney Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Immunohistochemistry , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Tumor Burden , Neoplasm Grading , Kidney Neoplasms , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology
14.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(1): 42-52, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056364

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Tables predicting the probability of a positive bone scan in men with non-metastatic, castrate-resistant prostate cancer have recently been reported. We performed an external validation study of these bone scan positivity tables. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients seen at a tertiary care medical center (1996-2012) to select patients with non-metastatic, castrate-resistant prostate cancer. Abstracted data included demographic, anthropometric, and disease-specific data such as patient race, BMI, PSA kinetics, and primary treatment. Primary outcome was metastasis on bone scan. Multivariable logistic regression was performed using generalized estimating equations to adjust for repeated measures. Risk table performance was assessed using ROC curves. Results: We identified 6.509 patients with prostate cancer who had received hormonal therapy with a post-hormonal therapy PSA ≥2ng/mL, 363 of whom had non-metastatic, castrate-resistant prostate cancer. Of these, 187 patients (356 bone scans) had calculable PSA kinetics and ≥1 bone scan. Median follow-up after castrate-resistant prostate cancer diagnosis was 32 months (IQR: 19-48). There were 227 (64%) negative and 129 (36%) positive bone scans. On multivariable analysis, higher PSA at castrate-resistant prostate cancer (4.67 vs. 4.4ng/mL, OR=0.57, P=0.02), shorter time from castrate-resistant prostate cancer to scan (7.9 vs. 14.6 months, OR=0.97, P=0.006) and higher PSA at scan (OR=2.91, P <0.0001) were significantly predictive of bone scan positivity. The AUC of the previously published risk tables for predicting scan positivity was 0.72. Conclusion: Previously published risk tables predicted bone scan positivity in men with non-metastatic, castrate-resistant prostate cancer with reasonable accuracy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Bone Neoplasms/secondary , Bone Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/diagnostic imaging , Reference Values , Time Factors , Bone and Bones/diagnostic imaging , Logistic Models , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Risk Assessment , Neoplasm Grading , Middle Aged
15.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190198, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056596

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pathological parameters have been indicated as tumor prognostic factors in oral carcinoma. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of pathological parameters on prognosis of patients affected only by tongue and/or floor of the mouth squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Methodology: In total, 380 patients treated in the Brazilian National Cancer Institute (INCA) from 1999 to 2006 were included. These patients underwent radical resection followed by neck dissection. The clinical and pathological characteristics were recorded. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model were used in survival analysis. Overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS) and disease-free interval (DFI) were estimated. Cox residuals were evaluated using the R software version 3.5.2. Worst OS, CSS and DFI were observed in patients with tumors in advanced pathological stages (p<0.001), with the presence of perineural invasion (p<0.001) and vascular invasion (p=0.005). Results: Advanced pathological stage and the presence of a poorly differentiated tumor were independent prognostic factors for OS and CSS. However, advanced pathological stage and perineural invasion were independent predictors of a shorter OS, DFI and CSS. Conclusion: Pathological stage and perineural invasion were the most significant pathological variables in survival analysis in tongue and/or floor of the mouth SCC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Mouth Neoplasms/pathology , Tongue Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Mouth Floor/pathology , Neck Dissection/methods , Time Factors , Mouth Neoplasms/surgery , Mouth Neoplasms/mortality , Tongue Neoplasms/surgery , Tongue Neoplasms/mortality , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/mortality , Regression Analysis , Disease-Free Survival , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Neoplasm Grading/methods , Neoplasm Staging
16.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 35(4): 639-646, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147910

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Los tumores neuroendocrinos comprenden una amplia familia tumoral, siendo de mayor frecuencia aquellos localizados en el tracto gastrointestinal, los pulmones, el timo y el páncreas. Ocurren con poca frecuencia y cursan con un comportamiento biológico variable. El objetivo del presente estudio fue describir las características demográficas y clínicas de los pacientes con esta entidad en un hospital de alta complejidad. Métodos. Estudio descriptivo con revisión de historias clínicas correspondientes a pacientes con tumor neuroendocrino, cuya muestra histológica fue analizada en el Departamento de Patología del Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe, Medellín, Colombia, entre 2010 y 2015. Se describen frecuencias de localización, grado de diferenciación y perfil de inmunohistoquímica. Resultados. Se revisaron 111 historias, de las que el 51,5 % correspondió a pacientes masculinos, con una mediana de edad al momento del diagnóstico de 48 años. Las comorbilidades más frecuentes fueron: hipertensión arterial (38,6 %), hipotiroidismo (15,8 %) y diabetes mellitus (11,9 %). El antecedente de neoplasia estuvo presente en el 13,9 % de los casos. Un 59,4 % de las muestras correspondieron a tumores primarios, el 34,8 % estaban localizados en el páncreas. El hígado fue el órgano más comprometido por metástasis (73,3 %). De los tumores neuroendocrinos, el 27 % correspondió a tumores grado 1 del tracto gastrointestinal o del páncreas, el 36 % a grado 2 y el 27,9 % a grado 3. El 3,6 % correspondió a tumores pulmonares de grado bajo o intermedio y el 5,4 % a tumores pulmonares de alto grado. Los marcadores tumorales con mayor positividad fueron sinaptofisina (97,2 %), citoqueratinas AE1/AE3 (95 %), CD56 (91,3 %) y cromogranina (87,8 %). Discusión. Los tumores neuroendocrinos tienen características clínicas e histopatológicas diversas. Conocer las características de los pacientes afectados permite una aproximación de la epidemiología local aplicable a futuras investigaciones


Introduction. Neuroendocrine tumors comprise a broad family of tumors, the most common being those located in the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, thymus, and pancreas. They occur infrequently and have a variable biological behavior. The objective of this study was to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with this entity in a highly complex hospital.Methods. Descriptive study with review of medical records corresponding to patients with neuroendocrine tu-mors, whose histological sample was analyzed in the Pathology Department of the Pablo Tobón Uribe Hospital in Medellín between 2010 and 2015. Frequencies of location, degree of differentiation and immune-histochemistry profile are described.Results. One hundred eleven histories were reviewed, of which 51.5% corresponded to male patients, with a median age at diagnosis of 48 years. The most frequent comorbidities were arterial hypertension (38.6%), hypothyroidism (15.8%) and diabetes mellitus (11.9%). Medical history of neoplasia was present in 13.9% of the cases. 59.4% of the samples corresponded to primary tumors, 34.8% were located in the pancreas. The liver was the organ most compromised by metastasis (73.3%). Of the neuroendocrine tumors, 27% corresponded to grade 1 tumors of the gastrointestinal tract or pancreas, 36% to grade 2 and 27.9% to grade 3; 3.6% corresponded to low or intermediate grade lung tumors and 5.4% to high-grade lung tumors. The tumor markers with the highest positivity were synaptophysin (97.2%), cytokeratins AE1/AE3 (95%), CD56 (91.3%) and chromogranin (87.8%).Discusion. Neuroendocrine tumors have diverse clinical and histopathologic features. Knowing the characteristics of affected patients allows an approximation of local epidemiology applicable to future research


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine , Immunohistochemistry , Neoplasm Grading , Neoplasm Staging
17.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 625-631, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942048

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the clinicopathological characteristics of prostate cancer patients undertaking radical prostatectomy with single positive core biopsy, and to optimize the rational choice of therapeutic strategy.@*METHODS@#In the study, 53 patients with single positive core prostate biopsy and treated by radical prostatectomy from January 2010 to December 2018, were analyzed retrospectively. The mean age was (69.7±6.9) years (54-81 years), the mean prostate specific antigen (PSA) level was (9.70±5.24) μg/L (1.69-25.69 μg/L), and the mean prostate volume was (50.70±28.39) mL (12.41-171.92 mL). Thirty-nine out of 54 (73.6%) patients presented Gleason score with 6, 11 patients (20.8%) had Gleason score of 7 and 3 patients (5.7%) showed Gleason score ≥8. For clinical stages, 6 out of the 53 patients (11.3%) had prostate cancer in cT1, 44 cases (83.0%) had prostate cancer in cT2, and 3 cases (5.7%) in cT3.The patients were divided into subgroups according to age, preoperative PSA level, Gleason score, percentage of tumor in single needle tissue and clinical stage, and the differences of their clinicopathological characteristics were compared.@*RESULTS@#Postoperative Gleason score of 6, 7 and ≥8 were found in 20 cases (37.7%), 21 cases (39.6%) and 10 cases (18.9%) respectively, another 2 cases (3.8%) were pT0 prostate cancer; pathological stages of T0, T2a, T2b, T2c and T3 were found in 2 cases (3.8%), 9 cases (17.0%), 2 cases (3.8%), 29 cases (54.7%) and 11 cases (20.8%) respectively; 11 cases (20.8%) had positive surgical margin, 10 cases (18.9%) had extracapsular invasion of prostate, and 1 case (1.9%) showed seminal vesicle invasion. Forty-two cases (79.2%) had multifocal lesions and 37 cases (69.8%) presented bilateral lesion. Compared with the biopsy Gleason score, the postoperative Gleason score was downgrated in 3 cases (5.7%), unchanged in 28 cases (52.8%), and upgraded in 20 cases (37.7%), of which 2 cases (3.8%) were pT0. Compared with the clinical stage, the postoperative pathological stage decreased in 2 cases (3.8%), unchanged in 10 cases (18.9%), and upgraded in 41 cases (77.4%). According to the postoperative pathology, the patients were divided into two groups: microfocus cancer group (n=8) and non-microfocus cancer group (n=45). The difference between the two groups in the percentage of tumor in the single-needle tissue ≤5% was statistically significant (P=0.014). Other parameter diffe-rences including age, prostate volume, and preoperative prostate special antigen density (PSAD) and Gleason scores were not statistically significant (P>0.05). The method to determine the location of cancer at the apex of prostate according to biopsy results showed 41.4% (12/29) false negative rate and 50.0% (12/24) false positive rate. There was statistically significant difference between the actual cases of lymph node dissection and reserved nerve and the cases of scheme selection in theory according to the postoperative pathology (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The proportion of single needle cancer tissue less than or equal to 5% is a predictor of prostate microfocal cancer. 37.7% cases had pathological upgrading and 77.4% cases had pathological staging upgrading. When choosing the operation scheme, such as sexual nerve reserved, lymph node dissection and apex operation skill, it is necessary to comprehensively analyze multiple factors, such as tumor risk classification, prediction factors of nomogram, multi-parameter MRI and intraoperative situation and so on.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Biopsy, Needle , Neoplasm Grading , Neoplasm Staging , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms , Retrospective Studies
18.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 234-239, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941993

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical value of serum isoform [-2] proprostate-specific antigen (p2PSA) and its derivatives %p2PSA and prostate health index (PHI) in predicting aggressive prostate cancer (PCa).@*METHODS@#The pre-operation serum and basic clinical data of 322 patients with PCa (including 143 patients diagnosed with PCa by transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy and 179 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy) in Peking University First Hospital were collected from August 2015 to May 2018. Serum total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA), free prostate antigen (fPSA) and fPSA/tPSA (f/t) and the p2PSA level of all these patients were measured on automatic immune analyzers DxI800, and then %p2PSA and PHI were calculated. The prostate pathologic result was considered as the gold standard to evaluate the Gleason score of the patients with PCa. Receiver operator curves (ROC) were used to assess the ability of p2PSA, %p2PSA and PHI to predict aggressive PCa (pathologic Gleason score≥7) compared with those traditional markers tPSA, fPSA and f/t.@*RESULTS@#Among these patients, the p2PSA, %p2PSA and PHI median levels were significantly higher in patients with pathologic Gleason score≥7 than those with Gleason score<7 (p2PSA: 30.22 ng/L vs. 18.33 ng/L; %p2PSA: 2.50 vs. 1.27; PHI: 91.81 vs. 35.44; all P<0.01). The area under curve (AUC) of %p2PSA and PHI (0.770, 0.760) in predicting Gleason score≥7 were higher than those of the traditional indicators tPSA, fPSA and f/t (AUC were 0.648, 0.536 and 0.693, respectively). Among those patients diagnosed with PCa by transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy, the AUC of %p2PSA and PHI (AUC were 0.808 and 0.801, respectively) in predicting Gleason score≥7 were higher than those of the traditional indicators tPSA, fPSA and f/t (AUC were 0.729, 0.655 and 0.665 respectively). Among those patients undergoing radical prostatectomy, PHI and %p2PSA also had the trend of higher predictive value than those of the traditional indicators. The AUC of %p2PSA and PHI were 0.798 and 0.744, respectively while the AUC of tPSA, fPSA and f/t were 0.625, 0.507 and 0.697, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#Compared with traditional markers tPSA, fPSA and f/t, %p2PSA and PHI had much higher predictive value for aggressive PCa, which may help clinicians to evaluate the therapeutic regime and make more appropriate management plan for the patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Neoplasm Grading , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms , Protein Isoforms , ROC Curve
19.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 217-221, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009755

ABSTRACT

Biochemical recurrence (BCR) is important for measuring the oncological outcomes of patients who undergo radical prostatectomy (RP). Whether transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) has negative postoperative effects on oncological outcomes remains controversial. The primary aim of our retrospective study was to determine whether a history of TURP could affect the postoperative BCR rate. We retrospectively reviewed patients with prostate cancer (PCa) who had undergone RP between January 2009 and October 2017. Clinical data on age, prostate volume, serum prostate-specific antigen levels (PSA), biopsy Gleason score (GS), metastasis stage (TNM), D'Amico classification, and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification were collected. Statistical analyses including Cox proportional hazard models and sensitivity analyses which included propensity score matching, were performed, and the inverse-probability-of-treatment-weighted estimator and standardized mortality ratio-weighted estimator were determined. We included 1083 patients, of which 118 had a history of TURP. Before matching, the non-TURP group differed from the TURP group with respect to GS (P= 0.047), prostate volume (mean: 45.19 vs 36.00 ml, P < 0.001), and PSA level (mean: 29.41 vs 15.11 ng ml-1, P= 0.001). After adjusting for age, PSA level, T stage, N stage, M stage, and GS, the TURP group showed higher risk of BCR (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.27, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13-3.94, P= 0.004). After matching (ratio 1:4), patients who underwent TURP were still more likely to develop BCR according to the adjusted propensity score (HR: 2.00, 95% CI: 1.05-3.79, P= 0.034). Among patients with PCa, those with a history of TURP were more likely to develop BCR after RP.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Grading , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Transurethral Resection of Prostate/adverse effects
20.
urol. colomb. (Bogotá. En línea) ; 29(3): 115-122, 2020. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1410586

ABSTRACT

Objetivo Mundialmente, el cáncer de próstata es la segunda neoplasia maligna más frecuente en hombres a nivel mundial y la primera en Colombia. Se determinaron las características clínico-patológicas de los casos de cáncer de próstata diagnosticados en un hospital de la región caribe colombiana. Métodos Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo en la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Cartagena, Colombia. Se analizaron las características clínicas y patológicas de todos los pacientes diagnosticados con cáncer de próstata en el Hospital Universitario del Caribe durante los años 2007 a 2014. Resultados Se documentaron 394 casos, con edad promedio de 71,13 años (DE ± 8,25). El puntaje de Gleason fue mayor o igual a 8 en el 31,7%. En biopsias hubo localización bilateral del tumor en un 73,5% y compromiso tumoral mayor al 40% del tejido en el 73,2% de los casos. En un 5,8% de los pacientes, hubo valores de PSA normales. Se dio una asociación estadísticamente significativa entre el PSA y el examen digital rectal (p = 0,0009), puntaje de Gleason (p < 0,0001) y porcentaje de compromiso tumoral en biopsias (p < 0,0012). La combinación PSA más examen digital rectal obtuvo una sensibilidad del 96%. Conclusiones Gran parte de los casos de cáncer de próstata se diagnostican en estadios avanzados. La mayor sensibilidad para el diagnóstico clínico la tiene el uso del PSA más el examen digital rectal, sin dejar de lado la experiencia clínica que permite diagnosticarlo aún con PSA o examen digital rectal normales. Esos hallazgos deben promover la educación de la población.


Objective Worldwide, prostate cancer is the second most common malignant neoplasm diagnosed in men, in Colombia is the most common. The objective was to determine clinical and histopathological characteristics based upon the cases of prostate cancer diagnosed in a hospital of the Colombian Caribbean coast. Methods A retrospective study was conducted in the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Cartagena, Colombia. Clinical and pathological characteristics were analyzed in all patients diagnosed with prostate cancer at the Hospital Universitario del Caribe between January 2007 and December 2014. Results A total of 394 cases were documented. Mean presentation age was 71,1 years (SD ± 8,25). A Gleason score greater than 8 was reported in 31.7% of the cases. Biopsies showed bilateral tumor localization in 73.5% and percent tumor involvement greater than 40% in 73.2% of cases. 5.8% of patients presented with normal PSA values. A statistically significant difference was found between PSA and: digital rectal exam (p = 0.0009), Gleason Score (p < 0.0001) and percent tumor involvement in biopsies (p < 0.0012). PSA and digital rectal examination had a sensitivity of 96%. Conclusions A large proportion of prostate cancer cases are diagnosed in advanced stages. The highest sensitivity for the clinical diagnosis is made by the combined use of PSA and digital rectal examination, without ignoring the clinical experience that allows the diagnosis of cancer even in cases with normal PSA and/or digital rectal examination. These findings may increase awareness for the early diagnosis of the disease in the population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms , Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasm Grading , Biopsy , Clinical Diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Colombia , Digital Rectal Examination
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