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1.
Med. infant ; 30(2): 149-155, Junio 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1443658

ABSTRACT

A pesar de los avances en los protocolos de tratamiento y en las medidas de soporte en pacientes con Leucemia Mieloide Aguda (LMA), 27% presentan recaídas de la enfermedad. Esto se debe, entre otras causas, a la persistencia de pequeñas cantidades de células malignas (blastos) resistentes a la terapia. Estas pequeñas cantidades de blastos remanentes se denominan Enfermedad Mínima Residual (EMR). La determinación de EMR requiere de técnicas no solo muy sensibles, sino también específicas, y permite evaluar la respuesta individual a la terapia. La introducción de la EMR como parámetro de respuesta y estratificación está bien definida en Leucemia Linfoblástica Aguda (LLA). Por el contrario, aunque existen publicaciones sobre el impacto pronóstico de la EMR en LMA, aún no se encuentra incluida en forma sistemática en los protocolos nacionales actuales, entre otros motivos, por lo laborioso de la determinación y por la necesidad de validación de la misma. Debe tenerse en cuenta que el inmunofenotipo de los blastos mieloides suele ser más heterogéneo que el de los blastos en LLA, presentando, en muchos casos, subpoblaciones diferentes entre sí, lo cual dificulta su detección certera y no hay consenso definido en cuanto a la metodología más eficaz. En este trabajo describimos una nueva estrategia de marcación y análisis estandarizada en un estudio multicéntrico internacional para LMA y la utilidad de la EMR como parámetro de respuesta y de estratificación. Asimismo, detallamos los resultados preliminares de nuestra cohorte de pacientes (AU)


Despite the improvement in treatment and supportive care of patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), 27% of them relapse. This is due to the persistence of small amounts of malignant cells (blasts) resistant to therapy, among other causes. These small amounts of blasts are called Minimal Residual Disease (MRD). The determination of MRD requires not only techniques with high sensitivity but also with high specificity, and allows to evaluate the individual response to treatment. The introduction of MRD as a response parameter is well established in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL), and it is used in current stratification protocols. On the other hand, even though there are some reports regarding the prognostic impact of MRD in AML, it is still not included in the current national protocols due to the lack of validation of the determination, among other causes. This is due to the fact that the immunophenotype of myeloid blasts is more heterogeneous than in ALL, presenting different subpopulations, which difficults their accurate detection. Thus, there is still no consensus regarding the most effective approach. In this article, we describe a new staining and analysis strategy standardized by an international multicentric study, and the utility of EMR as a response and stratification parameter. Additionally, we show the preliminary results of our patient cohort. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/diagnosis , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/therapy , Immunophenotyping/instrumentation , Neoplasm, Residual/diagnosis , Flow Cytometry/instrumentation
2.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1437106

ABSTRACT

Clinicopathologic correlation of skin biopsies is relevant in a dermatology patient's management. The study aimed to conduct a clinicopathologic corellation of skin samples. Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional analysis of 2,396 skin biopsy specimens submitted between January 2015 and December 2021. Clinicopathologic correlation was done on only samples which had definitive clinical and histopathologic diagnosis. Data was analyzed with the R studio. Results: A total number of 2,396 skin biopsies were received from 2319 patients. Clinicopathologic correlation was conducted on 1,831 samples which had both definitive clinical and histopathological diagnoses. A definitive clinicopathologic correlation was obtained in 66.8% (1224/1831) and this was 64.8% for benign tumours, 60.4% for malignant tumours, 66.7% for inflammatory diseases, 70.8% for infections, 85.5% for scalp and hair disorders and 50% for dermal deposits. Conclusion: Clinicopathologic correlation of skin biopsies is high. Correlation is better with inflammatory diseases compared to neoplastic diseases


Subject(s)
Humans , Skin Diseases , Neoplasm, Residual , Skin , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pelvic Inflammatory Disease , Correlation of Data
3.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 419-422, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986808

ABSTRACT

Peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer serving as the most frequent form of metastasis, is one of the leading causes of death. A portion of surgically treated patients often suffer from small peritoneal residual metastasis, which will lead to recurrence and metastasis of gastric cancer patients after surgery. Given these, the prevention and treatment of peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer deserves more attention. Molecular residual disease (MRD) refers to the molecular abnormalities of tumor origin that cannot be found by traditional imaging or other laboratory methods after treatment, but can be found by liquid biopsy, representing the possibility of tumor persistence or clinical progress. In recent years, the detection of MRD based on ctDNA has gradually become a research hotspot in the prevention and treatment of peritoneal metastasis. Our team established a new method for MRD molecular diagnosis of gastric cancer, and reviewed the research achievements in this field.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Peritoneal Neoplasms/secondary , Liquid Biopsy , Neoplasm, Residual/genetics
4.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 527-532, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985903

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe the gene mutation profile of newly diagnosed pediatric B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) and analyze its effect on minimal residual disease (MRD). Methods: A total of 506 newly diagnosed B-ALL children treated in Institute of Hematology & Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from September 2018 to July 2021 were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. The enrolled children were divided into MRD ≥1.00% group and <1.00% group according to MRD results on the 19th day since chemotherapy, and MRD ≥0.01% group and <0.01% group according to MRD results on the 46th day. Clinical characteristics and gene mutations of two groups were compared. Comparisons between groups were performed with chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Independent risk factors of MRD results on the 19th day and the 46th day were analyzed by Logistic regression model. Results: Among all 506 patients, there were 318 males and 188 females. On the 19th day, there were 114 patients in the MRD ≥1.00% group and 392 patients in the MRD <1.00% group. On the 46th day, there were 76 patients in the MRD ≥0.01% group and 430 patients in the MRD <0.01% group. A total of 187 gene mutations were detected in 487 (96.2%) of 506 children. The most common gene mutations were signal transduction-related KRAS gene mutations in 111 cases (22.8%) and NRAS gene mutations in 99 cases (20.3%). Multivariate analysis showed that PTPN11 (OR=1.92, 95%CI 1.00-3.63), KMT2A (OR=3.51, 95%CI 1.07-11.50) gene mutations and TEL-AML1 (OR=0.48, 95%CI 0.27-0.87), BCR-ABL1 (OR=0.27, 95%CI 0.08-0.92) fusion genes and age >10 years (OR=1.91, 95%CI 1.12-3.24) were independent influencing factors for MRD ≥1.00% on the 19th day. BCORL1 (OR=2.96, 95%CI 1.18-7.44), JAK2 (OR=2.99, 95%CI 1.07-8.42) and JAK3 (OR=4.83, 95%CI 1.50-15.60) gene mutations and TEL-AML1 (OR=0.43, 95%CI 0.21-0.87) fusion gene were independent influencing factors for MRD ≥0.01% on the 46th day. Conclusions: Children with B-ALL are prone to genetic mutations, with abnormalities in the RAS signaling pathway being the most common. Signal transduction related PTPN11, JAK2 and JAK3 gene mutations, epigenetic related KMT2A gene mutation and transcription factor related BCORL1 gene mutation are independent risk factors for MRD.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Male , Humans , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Neoplasm, Residual/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Genomics , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
5.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 446-452, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985889

ABSTRACT

Objective: To summarize the clinical data and prognosis of children with Philadelphia chromosome-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph-like ALL) common genes. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study.Clinical data of 56 children with Ph-like ALL common gene cases (Ph-like ALL positive group) treated from January 2017 to January 2022 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Henan Children's Hospital, Henan Cancer's Hospital and Henan Provincial People's Hospital were collected, 69 children with other high-risk B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) at the same time and the same age were selected as the negative group. The clinical characteristics and prognosis of two groups were analyzed retrospectively. Comparisons between groups were performed using Mann-Whitney U test and χ2 test. Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival curve, Log-Rank test was used for univariate analysis, and the Cox regression model was used for multivariate prognosis analysis. Results: Among 56 Ph-like ALL positive patients, there were 30 males and 26 females, and 15 cases were over 10 years old. There were 69 patients in Ph-like ALL negative group. Compared with the negative group, the children in positive group were older (6.4 (4.2, 11.2) vs. 4.7 (2.8, 8.4) years), and hyperleukocytosis (≥50×109/L) was more common (25% (14/56) vs. 9% (6/69)), the differences were statistically significant (both P<0.05). In the Ph-like ALL positive group, 32 cases were positive for IK6 (1 case was co-expressed with IK6 and EBF1-PDGFRB), 24 cases were IK6-negative, of which 9 cases were CRLF2 positive (including 2 cases with P2RY8-CRLF2, 7 cases with CRLF2 high expression), 5 cases were PDGFRB rearrangement, 4 cases were ABL1 rearrangement, 4 cases were JAK2 rearrangement, 1 case was ABL2 rearrangement and 1 case was EPOR rearrangement. The follow-up time of Ph-like ALL positive group was 22 (12, 40) months, and 32 (20, 45) months for negative group. The 3-year overall survival (OS) rate of positive group was significantly lower than the negative group ((72±7) % vs. (86±5) %, χ2=4.59, P<0.05). Compared with the 24 IK6-negative patients, the 3-year event free survival (EFS) rate of 32 IK6 positive patients was higher, the difference was statistically significant ((88±9) % vs. (65±14) %, χ2=5.37, P<0.05). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the bone marrow minimal residual disease (MRD) not turning negative at the end of first induction (HR=4.12, 95%CI 1.13-15.03) independent prognostic risk factor for patient with Ph-like ALL common genes. Conclusions: Children with Ph-like ALL common genes were older than other high-risk B-ALL patients at diagnosis, with high white blood cells and lower survival rate. The bone marrow MRD not turning negative at the end of first induction were independent prognostic risk factor for children with Ph-like ALL common gene.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Child , Prognosis , Philadelphia Chromosome , Retrospective Studies , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta/genetics , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Neoplasm, Residual
6.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 207-219, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982585

ABSTRACT

The rearranged during transfection (RET) is a receptor protein tyrosine kinase. Oncogenic RET fusions or mutations are found most often in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and in thyroid cancer, but also increasingly in various types of cancers at low rates. In the last few years, two potent and selective RET protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), pralsetinib (BLU-667) and selpercatinib (LOXO-292, LY3527723) were developed and received regulatory approval. Although pralsetinib and selpercatinib gave high overall response rates (ORRs), < 10% of patients achieved a complete response (CR). The RET TKI-tolerated residual tumors inevitably develop resistance by secondary target mutations, acquired alternative oncogenes, or MET amplification. RET G810 mutations located at the kinase solvent front site were identified as the major on-target mechanism of acquired resistance to both selpercatinib and pralsetinib. Several next-generation of RET TKIs capable of inhibiting the selpercatinib/pralsetinib-resistant RET mutants have progressed to clinical trials. However, it is likely that new TKI-adapted RET mutations will emerge to cause resistance to these next-generation of RET TKIs. Solving the problem requires a better understanding of the multiple mechanisms that support the RET TKI-tolerated persisters to identify a converging point of vulnerability to devise an effective co-treatment to eliminate the residual tumors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Neoplasm, Residual , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret/genetics
7.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 654-658, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982112

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) status and prognosis value in patients with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) by flow cytometry (FCM).@*METHODS@#The clinical features of the 75 newly diagnosed ALL patients from September 2020 to December 2021 in our centre were retrospective analyzed, as well as the bone marrow (BM) and CSF minimal residual disease (MRD) data, and the CSF conventional cytology data. Central nervous system infiltration(CNSI) positive was as CSF MRD positive by FCM or leukemia cells detected by conventional cytology. The status of CSF were compared and analyzed by FCM and conventional cytology, the clinical features and the prognosis value of different CNSI status in these patients were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Among 75 newly diagnosed ALL, 16 cases (21%) with CNSI positive (CNSI+) were detected by FCM, while only 2 positive cases (3%) were detected by conventional cytology. The CNSI+ rate detected by FCM was significantly higher than conventional cytology(P<0.05). Compared with CNSI- ALL patients, the median age of CNSI+ ALL patients was significantly younger, and the median platelet count was significantly lower, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Up to follow-up time (August 31, 2022), four ALL patients were died, including 3 patients were CNSI- and 1 patient was CNSI+. Furthermore, three cases were primary disease relapse, including 1 case was CNSI+. There was no significant difference in overall survival (OS) rate and relapse-free survival (RFS) rate of the patients with different CNSI status.@*CONCLUSION@#Compared with conventional cytology, FCM is a more sensitive assay to evaluate the central nervous system status in ALL patients. After active treatment, there was no significant difference in OS and RFS between patients with different CNSI status at diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Retrospective Studies , Flow Cytometry , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Prognosis , Bone Marrow , Neoplasm, Residual , Recurrence
8.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 612-615, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982105

ABSTRACT

With the advent of precision medicine, next-generation sequencing (NGS) is playing an increasingly important role in clinical oncology diagnosis and treatment with its advantages of high sensitivity, high accuracy, high efficiency and operability. NGS reveals the genetic characteristics of acute leukemia(AL) patients by screening for specific disease-causing genes to identify occult as well as complex genetic mutations in patients with AL, leading to early diagnosis and targeted drug therapy for AL patients, as well as to predict disease recurrence by detecting mnimal residual disease (MRD) and analyzing mutated genes to determine patient prognosis. NGS plays an increasingly important role in the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis assessment in AL, providing a direction for the pursuit of precision medicine. This paper reviews the research progress of NGS in AL.


Subject(s)
Humans , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics , Acute Disease , Mutation , Recurrence , Neoplasm, Residual/genetics
9.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 327-332, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982062

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the efficacy and safety of venetoclax (VEN) combined with demethylating agents (HMA) in the treatment of relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (R/R AML).@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 26 adult R/R AML patients who received the combination of VEN with azacitidine (AZA) or decitabine (DAC) in Huai'an Second People's Hospital from February 2019 to November 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. The treatment response, adverse events as well as survival were observed, and the factors of influencing the efficacy and survival were explored.@*RESULTS@#The overall response rate (ORR) of 26 patients was 57.7% (15 cases), including 13 cases of complete response (CR) and CR with incomplete count recovery (CRi) and 2 cases of partial response (PR). Among the 13 patients who got CR/CRi, 7 cases achieved CRm (minimal residual disease negative CR) and 6 cases did not, with statistically significant differences in overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) between the two groups (P=0.044, 0.036). The median OS of all the patients was 6.6 (0.5-15.6) months, and median EFS was 3.4 (0.5-9.9) months. There were 13 patients in the relapse group and refractory group, respectively, with response rate of 84.6% and 30.8% (P=0.015). The survival analysis showed that the relapse group had a better OS than the refractory group (P=0.026), but there was no significant difference in EFS (P=0.069). Sixteen patients who treated for 1-2 cycles and 10 patients who treated for more than 3 cycles achieved response rates of 37.5% and 90.0%, respectively (P=0.014), and patients treated for more cycles had superior OS and EFS (both P<0.01). Adverse effects were mainly bone marrow suppression, complicated by various degrees of infection, bleeding, and gastrointestinal discomfort was common, but these could be all tolerated by patients.@*CONCLUSION@#VEN combined with HMA is an effective salvage therapy for patients with R/R AML and is well tolerated by patients. Achieving minimal residual disease negativity is able to improve long-term survival of patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Neoplasm, Residual/drug therapy , Bridged Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic/adverse effects , Recurrence , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use
10.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 313-319, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981544

ABSTRACT

How to improve the performance of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) signal acquisition and the accuracy to authenticate ultra low-frequency mutation are major challenges of minimal residual disease (MRD) detection in solid tumors. In this study, we developed a new MRD bioinformatics algorithm, namely multi-variant joint confidence analysis (MinerVa), and tested this algorithm both in contrived ctDNA standards and plasma DNA samples of patients with early non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Our results showed that the specificity of multi-variant tracking of MinerVa algorithm ranged from 99.62% to 99.70%, and when tracking 30 variants, variant signals could be detected as low as 6.3 × 10 -5 variant abundance. Furthermore, in a cohort of 27 NSCLC patients, the specificity of ctDNA-MRD for recurrence monitoring was 100%, and the sensitivity was 78.6%. These findings indicate that the MinerVa algorithm can efficiently capture ctDNA signals in blood samples and exhibit high accuracy in MRD detection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasm, Residual/pathology , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Computational Biology
11.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 38-45, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971037

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the clinical features and prognosis of high hyperdiploid (HHD) childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 1 414 children who were newly diagnosed with ALL and were admitted to five hospitals in Fujian Province of China from April 2011 to December 2020. According to karyotype, they were divided into two groups: HHD (n=172) and non-HHD (n=1 242). The clinical features and treatment outcome were compared between the two groups, and the factors influencing the prognosis were further explored.@*RESULTS@#Among the 1 414 children with ALL, 172 (12.16%) had HHD. Compared with the non-HHD group, the HHD group had significantly lower proportions of children with risk factors for poor prognosis at diagnosis (age of onset ≥10 years or <1 year, white blood cell count ≥50×109/L, and T-cell phenotype) or positive fusion genes (TEL-AML1, BCR-ABL1, E2A-PBX1, and MLL gene rearrangement) (P<0.05). The HHD group had a significantly higher proportion of children with minimal residual disease (MRD) <0.01% at the end of induction chemotherapy (P<0.05). The 10-year event-free survival (EFS) rate and overall survival (OS) rate in the HHD group were significantly higher than those in the non-HHD group (P<0.05). The univariate analysis showed that the number of chromosomes of 58-66, trisomy of chromosome 10, trisomy of chromosome 17, bone marrow MRD <1% on day 15 or 19 of induction chemotherapy, and bone marrow MRD <0.01% on day 33 or 46 of induction chemotherapy were associated with a higher EFS rate (P<0.05), and trisomy of chromosome 10 was associated with a higher OS rate (P<0.05). The multivariate Cox analysis showed that trisomy of chromosome 17 was closely associated with a high EFS rate (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The ALL children with HHD have few risk factors for poor prognosis at diagnosis and often have good prognosis. The number of chromosomes and trisomy of specific chromosomes are associated with prognosis in these children.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Trisomy , Prognosis , Treatment Outcome , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/diagnosis , Neoplasm, Residual , Disease-Free Survival
12.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 86-92, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970994

ABSTRACT

We aimed to study radiomics approach based on biparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for determining significant residual cancer after androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Ninety-two post-ADT prostate cancer patients underwent MRI before prostatectomy (62 with significant residual disease and 30 with complete response or minimum residual disease [CR/MRD]). Totally, 100 significant residual, 52 CR/MRD lesions, and 70 benign tissues were selected according to pathology. First, 381 radiomics features were extracted from T2-weighted imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps. Optimal features were selected using a support vector machine with a recursive feature elimination algorithm (SVM-RFE). Then, ADC values of significant residual, CR/MRD lesions, and benign tissues were compared by one-way analysis of variance. Logistic regression was used to construct models with SVM features to differentiate between each pair of tissues. Third, the efficiencies of ADC value and radiomics models for differentiating the three tissues were assessed by area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The ADC value (mean ± standard deviation [s.d.]) of significant residual lesions ([1.10 ± 0.02] × 10-3 mm2 s-1) was significantly lower than that of CR/MRD ([1.17 ± 0.02] × 10-3 mm2 s-1), which was significantly lower than that of benign tissues ([1.30 ± 0.02] × 10-3 mm2 s-1; both P < 0.05). The SVM feature models were comparable to ADC value in distinguishing CR/MRD from benign tissue (AUC: 0.766 vs 0.792) and distinguishing residual from benign tissue (AUC: 0.825 vs 0.835) (both P > 0.05), but superior to ADC value in differentiating significant residual from CR/MRD (AUC: 0.748 vs 0.558; P = 0.041). Radiomics approach with biparametric MRI could promote the detection of significant residual prostate cancer after ADT.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Androgens , Neoplasm, Residual , Retrospective Studies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods
13.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 621-626, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984758

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the effect of depth of remission of induction chemotherapy on the overall prognosis of limited stage small cell lung cancer (L-SCLC). Methods: The study was a retrospective, L-SCLC patients who contained complete imaging data and underwent consecutive standardized treatments at the Department of Thoracic Radiation and Medical Oncology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University between January 2013 and June 2021 were included. To delineate the volume of tumor before and after induction chemotherapy and to calculate the depth of remission caused by the induced chemotherapy. The time receiver operating characteristic (timeROC) method was used to determine the optimal predictors for prognosis, multi-factor analysis using Cox risk proportional model. Results: A total of 104 patients were included in this study. The median PFS and OS of this cohort were 13.7 months and 20.9 months, respectively. It was observed by timeROC analysis that residual tumor volume after induction chemotherapy had the optimal predictive value of PFS at 1 year (AUC=0.86, 95% CI: 0.78~0.94) and OS at 2 years (AUC=0.76, 95% CI: 0.65~0.87). Multivariate analysis showed residual tumor volume after induction chemotherapy was the independent prognostic factor to PFS (HR=1.006, 95% CI: 1.003~1.009, P<0.01) and OS (HR=1.009, 95% CI: 1.005~1.012, P<0.001). For those whose residual tumor volume remitted to less than 10 cm(3) after induction chemotherapy, the favorable long-term outcomes could be achieved, regardless of their initial tumor load. Conclusion: The depth of remission of induction chemotherapy could be a promising prognostic predictor to the L-SCLC and provide the individualized treatment guidance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Induction Chemotherapy , Retrospective Studies , Neoplasm, Residual , Prognosis
14.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 335-339, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984727

ABSTRACT

Objective: Risk factors related to residual cancer or lymph node metastasis after endoscopic non-curative resection of early colorectal cancer were analyzed to predict the risk of residual cancer or lymph node metastasis, optimize the indications of radical surgical surgery, and avoid excessive additional surgical operations. Methods: Clinical data of 81 patients who received endoscopic treatment for early colorectal cancer in the Department of Endoscopy, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from 2009 to 2019 and received additional radical surgical surgery after endoscopic resection with pathological indication of non-curative resection were collected to analyze the relationship between various factors and the risk of residual cancer or lymph node metastasis after endoscopic resection. Results: Of the 81 patients, 17 (21.0%) were positive for residual cancer or lymph node metastasis, while 64 (79.0%) were negative. Among 17 patients with residual cancer or positive lymph node metastasis, 3 patients had only residual cancer (2 patients with positive vertical cutting edge). 11 patients had only lymph node metastasis, and 3 patients had both residual cancer and lymph node metastasis. Lesion location, poorly differentiated cancer, depth of submucosal invasion ≥2 000 μm, venous invasion were associated with residual cancer or lymph node metastasis after endoscopic (P<0.05). Logistic multivariate regression analysis showed that poorly differentiated cancer (OR=5.513, 95% CI: 1.423, 21.352, P=0.013) was an independent risk factor for residual cancer or lymph node metastasis after endoscopic non-curative resection of early colorectal cancer. Conclusions: For early colorectal cancer after endoscopic non-curable resection, residual cancer or lymph node metastasis is associated with poorly differentiated cancer, depth of submucosal invasion ≥2 000 μm, venous invasion and the lesions are located in the descending colon, transverse colon, ascending colon and cecum with the postoperative mucosal pathology result. For early colorectal cancer, poorly differentiated cancer is an independent risk factor for residual cancer or lymph node metastasis after endoscopic non-curative resection, which is suggested that radical surgery should be added after endoscopic treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lymphatic Metastasis , Neoplasm, Residual , Retrospective Studies , Endoscopy , Risk Factors , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasm Invasiveness
15.
Rev. colomb. cancerol ; 27(Supl. 1): [6-25], 2023. tab, mapas
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1515975

ABSTRACT

La adición de la terapia dirigida a la quimioterapia citotóxica en pacientes con cáncer de mama ha mejorado significativamente los desenlaces oncológicos en las pacientes con tumores HER2 positivo. El uso de pertuzumab durante el manejo neoadyuvante incrementa significativamente la respuesta patológica completa y en la actualidad permite emplear regímenes libres de antraciclinas con una eficacia similar y menores efectos cardiovasculares (en especial sobre la fracción de eyección). El beneficio en supervivencia libre de enfermedad invasiva, de adicionar pertuzumab en el escenario adyuvante en las pacientes sin tratamiento anti HER2 previo, está limitado a aquellas con ganglios positivos. La implementación de esquemas con bloqueo dual anti HER2, durante el tratamiento inicial del cáncer de mama HER2 positivo, mejora significativamente el pronóstico oncológico en este grupo de pacientes.


The addition of targeted therapy to cytotoxic chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer has significantly improved oncologic outcomes in patients with HER2-positive tumors. The use of pertuzumab during neoadjuvant management significantly increases the complete pathological response and currently allows the use of anthracycline-free regimens with similar efficacy and fewer cardiovascular effects (especially on ejection fraction). The benefit of pertuzumab in disease-free survival in the adjuvant setting for patients without prior anti-HER2 treatment is limited to those with positive nodes. The implementation of schemes with dual anti-HER2 blockade during the initial treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer significantly improves the oncological outcomes in this group of patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Receptor, ErbB-2 , Neoplasm, Residual , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Trastuzumab
17.
African Health Sciences ; 22(3): 211-221, 2022-10-26. Figures, Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1401126

ABSTRACT

Background: Many previous studies on orbito-ocular lesions are skewed in favour of the neoplastic lesions in general and the malignant lesions in particular. This, therefore, creates a vacuum on the spectrum of these lesions, thus may result in problematic diagnostic bias by the ophthalmologist and pathologist. Objective: To give the spectrum and relative frequencies of orbito-ocular biopsies and by extension orbito-ocular lesions/diseases at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH). Materials and Methods: A retrospective descriptive study of all cases of orbito-ocular biopsies with histopathologic diagnosis. Results: There were 236 orbito-ocular biopsies. The male to female ratio was slightly in favour of the females. Orbito-ocular biopsies had a wide age range that spanned from the 1st to 10th decade, mean age in the 3rd decade (20-29years) and a peak age in the 1st decade (0-9 years). The neoplastic lesions were the prevalent indication for orbito-ocular biopsies (63.72%) while the conjunctiva (58.10%) was the most common site for orbito-ocular biopsies. Conclusion: This study noted a wide array of orbito-ocular lesions for which biopsies were done for histopathological diagnosis. This we hope will in no small measure increase the diagnostic precision of the ophthalmologist and the pathologists in our own environment


Subject(s)
Ophthalmic Artery , Optic Nerve Diseases , Optic Nerve Glioma , Ophthalmologists , Pathologists , Neoplastic Processes , Biopsy , Neoplasm, Residual , Neurodegenerative Diseases
18.
Ghana med. j ; 56(4): 295-302, 2022. tales, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1402088

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To review the Computed Tomography( CT )features of pediatric oncological patients with abdominal and pelvic tumours and correlate these findings with their histopathological diagnosis Design: This was a retrospective cross-sectional facility-based study. Setting: This study was conducted in the Pediatric Oncology Unit and Radiology Department of the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital Participants: Fifty-six pediatric oncology patients with contrast-enhanced abdominal and pelvic CT scans. Data Collection: The abdominal and pelvic CT scans findings, patient biodata, and histopathology reports of oncology patients over four years were reviewed Statistical analysis: Simple descriptive statistics using frequency distribution, percentages, means, and standard deviation were used to describe the various variables and presented tables. Results: The four commonest tumours were nephroblastoma, neuroblastoma, lymphoma, and hepatoblastoma. The mean age at diagnosis was 4.8 years, with a slightly higher male predominance. The majority of the tumours were extremely large at presentation. Overall, the CT ­ histopathology concordance was 79.2%. Conclusion: Abdominal and pelvic CT scans play an important role in the diagnostic workup of pediatric malignancies by ensuring early and accurate diagnosis of these tumour


Subject(s)
Humans , Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed , Integrative Pediatrics , Neoplasm, Residual , Abdominal Neoplasms , Neoplasms
19.
West Afr. j. med ; 39(11): 1134-1140, 2022. tales, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1410934

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most common cancer in Nigeria, and it affects mostly persons in their middle age. In a bid to gain some insight into the molecular characteristics of CRC in our environment, we set out to investigate the expression of COX-2 and HER-2 among Nigerian subjects. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the expression of COX-2 and HER2 and determine their correlation with clinicopathologic parameters in surgically resected histologically diagnosed cases of colorectal cancer. METHODS: Fifty-three paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of colorectal resections and corresponding patient information were retrieved from the archives of the Anatomic and Molecular Pathology Department of Lagos University Teaching Hospital.A 4-micron slide section was obtained from each specimen and immunohistochemistry for COX-2 and HER-2 expression was performed. RESULTS: Mean age of cases was 53.9years with an almost equal M:F ratio of 1.12:1. Half of the cases were moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma and 17% were high grade tumors.Eighty three percent of the tumours showed positive cytoplasmic COX-2 expression and extremely low membranous HER-2 positivity was observed in 2%. There was no significant correlation between COX-2 expression and age, gender, tumour location, tumour size, depth of invasion or lymph node status.However, COX-2 expression revealed a significant correlation with tumour grade (p= 0.013). CONCLUSION: This study detects a high COX-2 and low HER2 expression in colorectal cancer using immunohistochemistry,suggesting a possible role for COX-2 in CRC pathogenesis.This report should trigger further investigations of both markers vis-à-vis the management of CRC in our environment. WAJM 2022; 39(11): 1134­1140.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colorectal Neoplasms , Neoplasm, Residual , Immunohistochemistry , Adenocarcinoma , Genes, erbB-2 , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors
20.
Ethiop. j. health dev. (Online) ; 36(2): 1-10, 2022-06-07. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1380428

ABSTRACT

Breastcancerin females, which is consideredthe most dreadfuldisease in India andthe worldas compared toother gynaecological cancers,demands extensive care and proper medicationin order to control itsprogressive growth. In addition to the conventional care ofthe patients, Complementary andAlternative Medicine(CAM)is administeredin a controlled way through proper guidance and counselling in orderto attainimprovedphysical andmental health forthe patients.Objective: The aim of the study wasto assess the effectiveness of CAMcomprehensive nursing interventionsand their benefit forpatients who havebreast cancer and gynaecological tumours.Methods: Statistical data was used to map the adult womendiagnosed with breast and gynaecological cancer and who were set to start new chemotherapy treatments. A total of 450 patients from different states of East India were enrolled in the studyover a period of four years. The patients wereselectedbased on their preference for undergoing CAM.The research was conducted usingacross-sectionalanonymous self-administered questionnaireto examine women's perspectivestowards the use of CAM and itseffect on their mental andphysical health.Results:42%of the women preferred theuseofCAM astheir alternative treatment. Breast cancer patients disclosed that 48.1% of them had used CAM and 39% of women with gynaecological cancersstated that they had usedCAM. The results further indicated a less frequent deteriorationin the health of CAM users(38.4%) thantonon-users(55%). In terms of those who utilizedvitamins and nutritional diets,60% of the participants reported using a proper diet, including antioxidants, minerals, vitamins and herbs etc. 37% opted for spiritual healing through yoga, 26% utilized energy healing, 42.4% utilized acupuncture,72% preferred massagesand 23% of patients utilized chiropractic methods.The use of CAM was foundmainlyin the patients with proper education and awareness and those with a family history of cancer who were not receiving the necessary care from their previous primary physician.Conclusion:CAM still requiresextensive research in terms of its applications in dealing with patients and in orderto successfully launch programmes aimed at promoting its useworldwide andto eradicate all the other false notions about it.[Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2022; 36(2):000-000]Keywords: Breast Cancerand gynaecological tumours,Complementary And Alternative Medicine (CAM), Complementary Oncology,Quality Of Life, Nutritional Diet and Spiritual Healing, HRQL (Health-Related Quality Of Life).IntroductionCancer has been the primaryconcern in Indiafrom the onset,resulting in thousands of deaths due to the lack of adequatemedication and therapy.Breast cancer is considered to bea common invasive form of cancer which is responsible for the second highest mortality rate among the primaryfatal conditions of cancer-causing deaths in women. Under the National Cancer Registry Program,the breast, cervix, uteri,and oral cavity(7)are the most common cancer sitesin women. According to statistics, 50-60% of all cancers amongIndian women are commonly found inthe cervix uteri, breast, corpus uteri and ovaries,which are the main organs forcancer invasion. The percentage of women who experience these types of cancer is increases, with more women becoming susceptible to breast cancer, in women up to 3-8% suffer fromovarian cancer,0.5-4.8%have cancer of the corpus uteri, 1-3% have vulva and/or gestational trophoblastic tumours and a staggering75,000 or more women have breast cancer. With the advancements of the disease through time,research programs were also improved in order to enable the improvement of existing measures and/or the development of new measures aimed at combating the diseas and decreasing mortality rates. Apart from the conventional chemotherapy technique,various other programs have been introduced andencorporated into treatment regimes in order to improve the lives of those who are affected by cancer.Complementary andAlternative Medicine (CAM) emphasizesthe methods and practices that are therapeutic and which help diagnose or curethe disease,these methods are intended tocomplement the conventional methods and can be used in place of mainstream medicine. Women with breast cancer and other gynaecological tumoursare increasingly inclined towards the use of CAM. With the increasing number of cancer reports in Indiaand the world,and with the principal amount leading to mortality, women with proper education and awareness are inclined to choosealternative methods rather than the old conventional ones. The side-effects resulting from the chemotherapy are immense and toxic,which is one of the reasons women are inclined to choose.Various research projects and cumulative studies have been conducted in order to review and discoverthe


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Medical Oncology , Medicine , Neoplasm, Residual , Diet
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