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1.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(2): 269-278, June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287279

ABSTRACT

Abstract Since their approval in 2011, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPis) are increasingly used to treat several advanced cancers. ICPis target certain cellular molecules that regulate immune response resulting in antitumor activity. The use of these new agents needs careful monitoring since they brought a whole new spectrum of adverse events. In this review, we aim to describe different endocrine dysfunctions induced by ICPis and to underline the importance of diagnosing and managing these adverse effects. Immune-related endocrine toxicities include thyroid dysfunction, hypophysitis and, less frequently, type 1 diabetes, primary ad renal insufficiency and hypoparathyroidism. Diagnosis of endocrine adverse events related to ICPis therapy can be challenging due to nonspecific manifestations in an oncological scenario and difficulties in the biochemical evaluation. Despite the fact that these endocrine adverse events could lead to life-threatening consequences, the availability of effective replacement treatment enables continuing therapy and together with an interdisciplinary approach will impact positively on survival.


Resumen Desde su aprobación en 2011, el uso de los inhibidores de los puntos de control inmunes (ICPis) se ha ex tendido para el tratamiento de diversas neoplasias en estadios avanzados. Los ICPis tienen como blanco ciertas moléculas de las células que regulan la respuesta inmune favoreciendo una actividad antitumoral. El uso de estos nuevos agentes requiere un monitoreo específico, ya que se han vinculado con un amplio y nuevo espectro de efectos adversos. El objetivo de esta revisión es describir las diferentes disfunciones endocrinas inducidas por los ICPis y destacar la importancia del diagnóstico y manejo oportuno de estos efectos adversos. Los efectos adversos inmunes endocrinos incluyen disfunción tiroidea, hipofisitis y con menor frecuencia, diabetes tipo 1, insuficiencia suprarrenal primaria e hipoparatiroidismo. El diagnóstico de eventos adversos endocrinos relacionados con la terapia ICPis es un desafío debido a su presentación clínica inespecífica en un escenario oncológico y a las dificultades en la evaluación bioquímica. Estos eventos adversos endocrinos podrían tener consecuencias potencialmente letales, pero la disponibilidad de un tratamiento de reemplazo eficaz permite continuar la terapia y, junto con un enfoque interdisciplinario, generar un impacto positivo en la supervivencia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Endocrine System Diseases/chemically induced , Hypophysitis/chemically induced , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Immunotherapy
2.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(2): 208-213, June 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287272

ABSTRACT

Resumen El manejo de las reacciones adversas inducidas por los inhibidores del punto de control inmunitario (IPCI) en cáncer, demanda un trabajo multidisciplinario. Revisamos las causas y el curso clínico de las consultas e internaciones debidas a reacciones adversas de los IPCI entre septiembre de 2015 y julio de 2019 en el Instituto Alexander Fleming. Se registraron los datos demográficos, diagnóstico oncológico, reacción adversa y su grado, requerimiento de internación, tratamiento, mortalidad y evaluación de la reexposición. Se registraron 124 reacciones adversas por IPCI en 89 pacientes. Sesenta y ocho recibían monoterapia y 21 terapia combinada. Las manifestaciones cutáneas fueron las más frecuentes, seguidas de las generales, endocrinas (con mayor frecuencia hipotiroidismo), colitis, neumonitis, neurológicas y hepatitis. Fueron graves (grado ≥ 3), 26 toxicidades en 25 pacientes. Se internaron 15, y 6 de ellos requirieron terapia intensiva. Un caso fue fatal. Recibieron glucocorticoides 34 (12 de ellos por vía intravenosa). Un paciente recibió micofenolato y uno inmuno globulina endovenosa. En 20 se discontinuó el tratamiento. Ocho se reexpusieron y uno de ellos debió suspender definitivamente. Se presenta en esta serie de casos nuestra experiencia con el diagnóstico y tratamiento de las reacciones adversas de una familia de drogas cuya utilización ha crecido en los últimos años.


Abstract The management of patients with immune-related adverse events (irAEs) frequently demands a multidisciplinary approach. We reviewed the causes and clinical course of medical visits and admissions at the Instituto Alexander Fleming due to irAEs between September 2015 and July 2019. Demographic data, diagnosis, toxicity and its severity, requirement of admission, treatment, mortality, and evaluation of the re-administration of immunotherapy were collected. We found 124 irAEs in 89 patients. Sixty-eight of them received monotherapy (76.4%) and 21 (23.6%) combination of drugs. Cutaneous manifestations were the most frequent cause of irAEs, followed by general manifestations, endocrine dysfunctions (hypothyroidism the most frequent), colitis, pneumonitis, neurologic dis orders, and hepatitis. In 26 adverse events (in 25 patients), severity grade was ≥ 3. Fifteen were admitted and 6 required ICU admission. One patient died. Thirty-four received glucocorticoids, 12 of them by intravenous route. One patient received mycophenolate and one IVIG. In 20, the treatment was discontinued; 8 were re-exposed, with definitive discontinuation in one patient. In this case series we report our experience in the diagnosis and management of adverse reactions related to a family of drugs whose use has grown in recent years.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Nervous System Diseases , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879146

ABSTRACT

Malignant tumor, an important factor threatening human life and health, brings huge economic burden to patients. At present, chemoradiotherapy is still the main treatment method for tumor diseases, but there are also great side effects when it plays a therapeutic role. Traditional Chinese medicine in the prevention and treatment of tumor diseases has many advantages such as few side effects, improving the physiological state of patients, and slowing down the side effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Berberine is an effective component of rhizoma coptidis, with a very good antitumor effect. It can inhibit tumor cell proliferation, promote tumor cell apoptosis, inhibit tumor metastasis and angiogenesis, regulate tumor autophagy, reverse multi-drug resistance of tumor, regulate the body immunity, and affect tumor metabolic reprogramming to play its role. Compared with chemical preparations, berberine has a wide range of sources, with high safety and easy access, and has great potential in the prevention and treatment of malignant tumors. In this article, we would mainly review the research progress on the antitumor mechanism of berberine in recent years.


Subject(s)
Berberine/pharmacology , Cell Proliferation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Neoplasms/drug therapy
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879118

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) is an important feature of cancer treatment in China. The methods to tap the advantages of TCM, reasonably evaluate and accurately apply Chinese patent medicines have become current research hotspots and difficulties. TCM takes syndrome differentiation and treatment as the core, with the characteristics of overall regulation and multi-targets efficacy. Therefore, the post-marketing survival benefit evaluation of Chinese patent medicines for cancer is different from that in modern medicine. The primary treatment goals in cancer patients include to improve the disease control rate and prolong their survival time. At present, Chinese patent medicines for cancer patients are lacking indepth studies on survival benefit at the post-marketing stage. In addition, the characteristics of individualized treatment with TCM have also increased the complexity of clinical research on TCM. Therefore, it is of certain practical significance and necessity to evaluate the survival benefit of Chinese patent medicines for cancer after marketing. Based on this, in this paper, we first summarized the technical methodological means of survival benefit evaluation at this stage, and then explored the post-marketing survival benefit evaluation of Chinese patent medicines for cancer from three aspects: the evaluation of cancer treatment effect based on survival time and quality of life, treatment-related toxicity and the auxiliary effect of TCM, and the improvement effect for tumor-related symptoms. Based on the practices of early clinical researches, and according to the insufficient efficacy evaluation of current clinical research on Chinese patent medicines, this paper proposed to improve the evaluation system for clinical researches on Chinese patent medicines, establish the evaluation method with TCM characteristics, clarify the dominant population, lay a theoretical foundation for the evaluation of post-marketing survival benefits of Chinese patent medicines for cancer in the future, and promote the modernization process of TCM.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Marketing , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Nonprescription Drugs/therapeutic use , Quality of Life
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 418-428, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878572

ABSTRACT

As an extremely important organelle in eukaryotic cells, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a key role in the synthesis and processing of biomacromolecules, material transport, ion homeostasis maintenance, signal transduction, exchange of materials and signals between organelles. Many important human diseases, such as cancers, autoimmune diseases, pathogenic infections, neurodegenerative diseases and diabetes, are closely related to ER dysfunction. With the development of nanotechnology, the exploration and application of ER-targeted nanodrugs gradually become a research hotspot in the field of nanomedicine, bioengineering, material chemistry and other fields. In this paper, the relationship between ER dysfunction and disease occurrence, the principle of designing ER-targeted nanodrugs and their biomedical application are reviewed. ER-targeted nanodrugs are designed based on nanodrug carriers or self-assembly of bioactive molecules. These nanodrugs could target the ER in an active or passive manner and function by disrupting or maintaining the ER functions. The ER-targeting nanodrugs have a wide application prospect in cancer therapy, immune regulation, nervous system repairment, and so on.


Subject(s)
Endoplasmic Reticulum , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Homeostasis , Humans , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Signal Transduction
6.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 78-91, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877499

ABSTRACT

Antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) is a type of targeted biological agent which connect cytotoxic drug to monoclonal antibody by a connector head, which enables monoclonal antibody acted as a carrier to efficiently transport small molecular cytotoxic drugs to target tumor cells. It is very important for clinicians to have an in-depth understanding of the molecular characteristics and mechanism of ADC drugs, rationally choose the appropriate dose, course of treatment and manage adverse reactions according to the indications during the clinical application of ADC drugs, which may even affect the survival of patients. Therefore, the consensus aims to conduct a systematic overview of commercially available ADC drugs, provide effective recommendations and references for clinicians to better apply and manage ADC drugs.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Consensus , Humans , Immunoconjugates/therapeutic use , Neoplasms/drug therapy
7.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 221-231, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880964

ABSTRACT

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) critically regulates several essential biological functions, such as cell growth, metabolism, survival, and immune response by forming two important complexes, namely, mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and complex 2 (mTORC2). mTOR signaling is often dysregulated in cancers and has been considered an attractive cancer therapeutic target. Great efforts have been made to develop efficacious mTOR inhibitors, particularly mTOR kinase inhibitors, which suppress mTORC1 and mTORC2; however, major success has not been achieved. With the strong scientific rationale, the intriguing question is why cancers are insensitive or not responsive to mTOR-targeted cancer therapy in clinics. Beyond early findings on induced activation of PI3K/Akt, MEK/ERK, and Mnk/eIF4E survival signaling pathways that compromise the efficacy of rapalog-based cancer therapy, recent findings on the essential role of GSK3 in mediating cancer cell response to mTOR inhibitors and mTORC1 inhibition-induced upregulation of PD-L1 in cancer cells may provide some explanations. These new findings may also offer us the opportunity to rationally utilize mTOR inhibitors in cancer therapy. Further elucidation of the biology of complicated mTOR networks may bring us the hope to develop effective therapeutic strategies with mTOR inhibitors against cancer.


Subject(s)
Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 , Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 2 , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Protein Kinase Inhibitors , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
8.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 33-42, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880945

ABSTRACT

Immunotherapy has recently led to a paradigm shift in cancer therapy, in which immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are the most successful agents approved for multiple advanced malignancies. However, given the nature of the non-specific activation of effector T cells, ICIs are remarkably associated with a substantial risk of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in almost all organs or systems. Up to 90% of patients who received ICIs combination therapy experienced irAEs, of which majority were low-grade toxicity. Cytotoxic lymphocyte antigen-4 and programmed cell death protein-1/programmed cell death ligand 1 inhibitors usually display distinct features of irAEs. In this review, the mechanisms of action of ICIs and how they may cause irAEs are described. Some unsolved challenges, however really engrossing issues, such as the association between irAEs and cancer treatment response, tumor response to irAEs therapy, and ICIs in challenging populations, are comprehensively summarized.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , Neoplasms/drug therapy
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879944

ABSTRACT

The metabolic reprogramming of tumor cells is characterized by increased uptake of various nutrients including glutamine. Glutamine metabolism provides the required substances for glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation and affects the homeostasis of carbohydrate,fat and protein metabolism to induce the chemoresistance of tumor cells. Combination of chemotherapeutic agents with inhibitors specific to different components of glutamine metabolic pathway has obtained favorable clinical results on various tumors. Glutamine metabolic pathway plays a role in drug resistance of tumor cells in various ways. Firstly,the dynamic change of glutamine transporters can directly affect intracellular glutamine content thereby causing drug resistance; secondly,tumor stromal cells including adipocyte,fibroblast and metabolite from tumor microenvironment would give rise to immune-mediated drug resistance; thirdly,the expression and activity of key enzymes in glutamine metabolism also has a critical role in drug resistance of tumors. This article reviews the effects of glutamine metabolic pathway in the development of tumor chemoresistance,in terms of transporters,tumor microenvironment and metabolic enzymes,to provide insight for improving the therapeutic efficacy for drug-resistant tumors.


Subject(s)
Cell Line, Tumor , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Glutamine/metabolism , Glycolysis , Humans , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Tumor Microenvironment
10.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178047

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O estado nutricional do paciente oncológico apresenta grande variação ao longo da doença, além de efeitos adversos relacionados ao trato gastrointestinal serem comuns durante o tratamento quimioterápico. Objetivo: Avaliar o estado nutricional e a presença de sintomas gastrointestinais em pacientes oncológicos submetidos à quimioterapia. Método: Estudo transversal com pacientes em tratamento no setor de Quimioterapia do Hospital Escola da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS, no período de abril a julho de 2019. Dados sociodemográficos e questões relacionadas à doença foram obtidos por meio de um questionário. Para avaliação do estado nutricional e dos sintomas gastrointestinais, utilizou-se a avaliação subjetiva global produzida pelo paciente. A análise dos dados foi realizada por meio de análise descritiva, e a associação entre variáveis categóricas, verificada pelo teste qui-quadrado de Pearson (p<0,05). Resultados:Foram avaliados 101 pacientes, com média de idade de 58,6 anos e maior prevalência de indivíduos do sexo feminino (58,4%), de cor branca (77,2%), casados (53,0%), pertencentes à classe C (50,4%). Encontrou-se maior prevalência dos cânceres do trato gastrointestinal (34,6%) e mama (27,8%). A maioria dos pacientes foi classificada como bem nutrido (66,3%), enquanto saciedade precoce (56,0%), xerostomia (54,0%), inapetência (42,0%) e náusea (37,0%) foram os sintomas mais citados. Não foi encontrada associação estatística entre o estado nutricional e qualquer um dos sintomas gastrointestinais. Conclusão: O estado nutricional da maioria dos pacientes foi classificado como bem nutrido, mas necessitando de atenção para a ocorrência dos sintomas gastrointestinais.


Introduction: The nutritional status of oncologic patients varies greatly throughout the disease, further to gastrointestinal tract related adverse effects that are common during chemotherapy treatment. Objective: Evaluate the nutritional status and the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms in oncologic patients undergoing chemotherapy. Method: Cross-sectional study with patients in treatment in the Chemotherapy Unit of the Hospital School of Pelotas Federal University (UFPel), RS, from April to July 2019. Sociodemographic data and questions related to the disease were obtained through a questionnaire. To assess the nutritional status and gastrointestinal symptoms the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment was utilized. Data analysis was performed through descriptive analysis, and the association between categorical variables was verified by Pearson's chi-square test (p<0.05). Results: A total of one hundred one patients was evaluated, mean age of 58.6 years, with higher prevalence of females (58.4%), Caucasian (77.2%), married (53.0%), belonging to class C (50.4%). Higher prevalence of gastrointestinal tract (34.6%) and breast (27.8%) cancer was found. Most patients were classified as well-nourished (66.3%), while early satiety (56.0%), xerostomia (54.0%), loss of apetite (42.0%), and nausea (37.0%) were the symptoms most cited. No statistical association was encountered between nutritional status and any of the gastrointestinal symptoms. Conclusion: The nutritional status of most patients was classified as well nourished, but attention is needed for the occurrence of gastrointestinal symptoms.


Introducción: El estado nutricional del paciente oncológico presenta variacones durante la enfermedad, además de los efectos adversos relacionados con el tracto gastrointestinal comunes durante la quimioterapia. Objetivo: Evaluar el estado nutricional y la presencia de síntomas gastrointestinales en pacientes con cáncer sometidos a quimioterapia. Método: Estudio transversal con pacientes tratados en el sector de quimioterapia del Hospital Escuela de la Universidad Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS, de abril a julio de 2019. Se obtuvieron datos sociodemográficos y relacionados con la enfermedad a través de un cuestionario. Para evaluar el estado nutricional y los síntomas gastrointestinales se utilizó la Evaluación Subjetiva Global Producida por el Paciente. Las análisis de los datos se realizó mediante análisis descriptiva, y la asociación entre variables categóricas se verificó mediante la prueba de chi-cuadrado de Pearson (p<0,05). Resultados: Se evaluaron 101 pacientes, con edad media de 58,6 años, mayor prevalencia de mujeres (58,4%), blancos (77,2%), casados (53,0%), pertenecientes a la clase C (50,4%). Se encontró una mayor prevalencia de cánceres del tracto gastrointestinal (34,6%) y de mama (27,8%). La mayoría de los pacientes se clasificó como bien nutrido (66,3%), mientras que saciedad temprana (56,0%), boca seca (54,0%), falta de apetito (42,0%) y náuseas (37,0%) fueron los síntomas más frecuentemente. No se encontró asociación estadística entre el estado nutricional y los síntomas gastrointestinales. Conclusión: El estado nutricional de la mayoría de los pacientes se clasificó como bien nutrido, pero necesita la atención a presencia de síntomas gastrointestinales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Nutritional Status , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Nutrition Assessment
11.
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 67(2): e-131234, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223566

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O câncer infantil gera um grande impacto para a saúde pública. A avaliação da composição corporal pela impedância bioelétrica fornece os valores de ângulo de fase, diretamente relacionados a alterações funcionais na membrana celular e que têm sido usados para avaliar o estado nutricional e o prognóstico. Objetivo: Avaliar a correlação entre o ângulo de fase e os parâmetros do estado nutricional de pacientes oncológicos pediátricos em tratamento. Método: Estudo transversal realizado em um hospital público universitário. O estado nutricional foi verificado por meio das medidas de peso, altura, circunferência do braço, dobra cutânea tricipital, índice de massa corporal e circunferência muscular do braço. O ângulo de fase foi determinado pela impedância bioelétrica. Resultados: Foram incluídos 13 pacientes com média de idade de 103,2±39,7 meses, sendo 61,5% do sexo masculino, com prevalência da leucemia entre os diagnósticos. Constatou-se que a maioria (53,8%) dos pacientes estava em eutrofia. Houve forte correlação do ângulo de fase com os parâmetros de massa magra (r=0,923; p=0,000), massa corporal celular (r=0,911; p=0,000), massa extracelular (r=0,897; p=0,000) e peso corporal (r=0,920; p=0,000). Conclusão: Observaram-se correlações expressivas entre o ângulo de fase e os indicadores antropométricos, reforçando a hipótese de que o ângulo de fase pode antecipar a identificação de alterações na composição corporal, possibilitando uma intervenção nutricional precoce e melhor prognóstico.


Introduction: Child cancer has a major impact on public health. The evaluation of body composition by bioelectric impedance provides the values of phase angle, causally related to functional changes in the cell membrane which have been used to evaluate nutritional status and prognosis. Objective: To evaluate the correlation between phase angle and parameters of the nutritional status of pediatric oncologic patients under treatment. Method: Cross-sectional study performed in a public university hospital. The nutritional status was evaluated by weight, height, arm circumference, triceps skin fold, body mass index and arm muscle circumference. The phase angle was determined by bioelectric impedance. Results: 13 patients were included with a mean age of 103.2±39.7 months, 61.5% males with prevalence of leukemia in the diagnoses. It was found that most (53.8%) of the patients were eutrophic. There was a strong correlation of the phase angle with the parameters of lean mass (r=0.923; p=0.000), cellular body mass (r=0.911; p=0.000), extracellular mass (r=0.897; p=0.000) and body weight (r=0.920; p=0.000). Conclusion: Expressive associations between phase angle and other anthropometric indicators were observed, reinforcing the hypothesis that it can anticipate the identification of changes in body composition, allowing early nutritional intervention and better prognosis.


Introducción: El cáncer infantil tiene un gran impacto en la salud pública. La evaluación de la composición corporal por impedancia bioeléctrica proporciona los valores del ángulo de fase, directamente relacionados con los cambios funcionales de la membrana celular y que se han utilizado para evaluar el estado nutricional y el pronóstico. Objetivo: Evaluar la correlación entre el ángulo de fase y los parámetros del estado nutricional de los pacientes oncológicos pediátricos en tratamiento. Método: Estudio transversal realizado en un hospital universitario público. El estado nutricional se evaluó por peso, altura, circunferencia del brazo, pliegue de la piel del tríceps, índice de masa corporal y circunferencia muscular del brazo. El ángulo de fase fue determinado por la impedancia bioeléctrica. Resultados: Se incluyeron 13 pacientes con una edad media de 103,2±39,7 meses, de los cuales el 61,5% eran hombres con prevalencia de leucemia entre los diagnósticos. Se descubrió que la mayoría (53,8%) de los pacientes eran eutróficos. Hubo una fuerte correlación del ángulo de fase con los parámetros de masa magra (r=0,923; p=0,000), masa corporal celular (r=0,911; p=0,000), masa extracelular (r=0,897; p=0,000) y peso corporal (r=0,920; p=0,000). Conclusión: Se observaron asociaciones expresivas entre el ángulo de fase y otros indicadores antropométricos, lo que refuerza la hipótesis de que puede anticiparse a la identificación de cambios en la composición corporal, lo que permite una intervención nutricional temprana y un mejor pronóstico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Nutritional Status , Electric Impedance/therapeutic use , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Body Composition
13.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 42: e20190495, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1156644

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the occurrence of occlusions in peripherally inserted central venous catheters in pediatric patients in antineoplastic chemotherapy. Method Retrospective cohort, with 156 medical records of patients aged 0-19 years who underwent outpatient chemotherapy between 2013 and 2017 by this catheter, in a hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied. Results 219 catheters were registered. Occlusion occurred in 141 (64.4%) catheters; 63 (44.7%) were removed because of occlusion, either alone or associated with another factor. Total occlusion alone led to the removal of 27 (12.3%) catheters. Occlusion was associated with: catheter dwell time, cyclophosphamide, neuroblastoma, bone metastasis and number of chemotherapy sessions. Conclusion Occlusion is an important complication because it occurred in more than half of the catheters and was one of the main reasons for withdrawal. The identified risk factors may guide the care to prevent this complication.


RESUMEN Objetivo Analizar la aparición de oclusiones en catéteres centrales de inserción periférica en niños y adolescentes sometidos a quimioterapia. Método Cohorte retrospectiva, con 156 registros de pacientes de 0 a 19 años que se sometieron a quimioterapia entre 2013 y 2017, en un hospital de Río de Janeiro. Se aplicaron estadísticas descriptivas e inferenciales. Resultados Se registraron 219 catéteres. La oclusión ocurrió en 141 (64.4%) catéteres; 63 (44.7%) se eliminaron por oclusión, ya sea solo o asociado con otro factor. La oclusión total sola condujo a la extracción de 27 (12.3%) catéteres. La oclusión se asoció con la duración de la estancia del catéter, ciclofosfamida, neuroblastoma, metástasis óseas y sesiones de quimioterapia. Conclusión La oclusión es una complicación importante, ocurrió en más de la mitad de los catéteres y fue una de las principales razones para la retirada. Los factores de riesgo pueden guiar la atención para prevenir esta complicación.


RESUMO Objetivo Analisar a ocorrência de oclusões em cateteres venosos centrais de inserção periférica nos pacientes infantojuvenis em quimioterapia antineoplásica. Método Coorte retrospectivo, com 156 prontuários de pacientes de 0 a 19 anos que realizaram quimioterapia ambulatorialmente entre 2013 e 2017 por este cateter, em hospital do município do Rio de Janeiro. Aplicou-se estatística descritiva e inferencial. Resultados Registraram-se 219 cateteres. A oclusão ocorreu em 141 (64,4%) cateteres; 63 (44,7%) foram retirados por causa da oclusão, seja isolada ou associada a outro fator. A oclusão total isoladamente foi motivo de retirada de 27 (12,3%) cateteres. A oclusão apresentou associação com: tempo de permanência do cateter, ciclofosfamida, neuroblastoma, metástase óssea e número de sessões de quimioterapia. Conclusão A oclusão é uma complicação importante, pois ocorreu em mais da metade dos cateteres e foi um dos principais motivos de retirada. Os fatores de risco identificados podem nortear o cuidado para prevenção desta complicação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Central Venous Catheters/adverse effects , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cohort Studies , Antineoplastic Agents
14.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 34: eAPE00583, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1278063

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar a qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde (QVRS) de pacientes oncológicos antes e três meses após o início do tratamento quimioterápico. Métodos: Tratou-se de um estudo de coorte prospectivo, exploratório. Foi utilizado um instrumento para caracterização sociodemográfi ca e clínica dos pacientes e outro para avaliação da QVRS denominado EORTC QLQ-C30, sendo este constituído por três escalas: funcionalidade, sintomas e saúde global. Participaram 79 indivíduos atendidos em um ambulatório para realização de quimioterapia. Testes estatísticos foram realizados para comparar o efeito do tratamento quimioterápico em relação à qualidade de vida. Resultados: O instrumento EORTC QLQ-C30 indicou adequada confi abilidade nos dois momentos de avaliação. No que tange à escala de funcionalidade, as funções física e cognitiva apresentaram melhora; e a função emocional, piora após três meses do tratamento. A escala de sintomas revelou piora, após três meses do início da quimioterapia, no que diz respeito aos sintomas de fadiga, náusea, dispneia, perda de apetite e diarreia. Conclusão: Neste estudo, os domínios mais afetados, após três meses de tratamento quimioterápico, estavam relacionados às funções da escala funcional e dos sintomas, portanto, intervenções multiprofi ssionais devem ser implementadas a esta população visando ao controle de tais variáveis.


Resumen Objetivo: Evaluar la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS) de pacientes oncológicos antes del inicio del tratamiento de quimioterapia y tres meses después. Métodos: Se trató de un estudio de cohorte prospectivo, exploratorio. Fue utilizado un instrumento para la caracterización sociodemográfica y clínica de los pacientes y otro para la evaluación de la CVRS denominado EORTC QLQ-C30, que está compuesto por tres escalas: funcionalidad, síntomas y salud global. Participaron 70 individuos atendidos en consultorios externos para la realización de quimioterapia. Se realizaron pruebas estadísticas para comparar el efecto del tratamiento de quimioterapia con relación a la calidad de vida. Resultados: El instrumento EORTC QLQ-C30 indicó fiabilidad adecuada en los dos momentos de evaluación. En lo que atañe a la escala de funcionalidad, la función física y la cognitiva presentaron mejora, y la función emocional empeoró después de tres meses de tratamiento. La escala de síntomas reveló empeoramiento, luego de tres meses del inicio de la quimioterapia, en lo que se refiere a los síntomas de fatiga, náuseas, disnea, pérdida de apetito y diarrea. Conclusión: En este estudio, los dominios más afectados luego de tres meses de tratamiento de quimioterapia se relacionaron con funciones de la escala funcional y de los síntomas; por lo tanto, intervenciones multiprofesionales deben ser implementadas en esta población con el objetivo de controlar dichas variables.


Abstract Objective: To assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients with cancer before and three months after starting chemotherapy treatment. Methods: This is a prospective and exploratory cohort study. An instrument was used for sociodemographic and clinical characterization of patients and another for assessing HRQoL called EORTC QLQ-C30. This instrument consists of functional, symptom, and global health status scales. Seventy-nine individuals attended at an outpatient clinic for chemotherapy. Statistical tests were performed to compare side effects of chemotherapy treatment on quality of life. Results: The EORTC QLQ-C30 indicated adequate reliability in two assessment moments. Concerning the functional scale, physical functioning and cognitive functioning improved, and emotional functioning worsened after three months of treatment. The symptom scale worsened three months after starting chemotherapy with respect to the symptoms of fatigue, nausea, dyspnea, appetite loss, and diarrhea. Conclusion: The most affected domains, after three months of chemotherapy treatment, were related to functional and symptom scales' functioning; therefore, multidisciplinary interventions should be implemented for this population in order to control such variables.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Quality of Life , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Patient Care Team , Activities of Daily Living , Interviews as Topic , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Evaluation Studies as Topic
15.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(8): e00002220, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339548

ABSTRACT

This study aims to evaluate changes in quality of life of cancer patients at the beginning of the first and the second cycle of chemotherapy (CT) in hospitals in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Longitudinal, prospective, descriptive study with a quantitative approach. We enrolled 230 patients, from a broader cohort, diagnosed with the five most frequent types of cancer (breast, colorectal, cervical, lung, and head and neck), aged 18 years or older, who were initiating CT for the first time. quality of life was assessed with the EORTC QLQ-C30 version 3, applied at the beginning of the first and second chemotherapy cycle. The paired Wilcoxon test was used to identify differences in quality of life between the two time points. A multivariate linear regression analysis was performed using the bootstrap method to investigate potential predictors of global health Status/quality of life. There was a significant increase in patients' emotional function scores (p < 0.001) as well as symptom scores for pain (p = 0.026), diarrhea (p = 0.018), and nausea/vomiting (p < 0.001) after initiation of CT. Widowhood was associated with improvements in the global health Status/quality of life (p = 0.028), whereas the presence of cervical cancer (p = 0.034) and being underweight (p = 0.033) were related to poorer global health status/quality of life scores. CT has detrimental effects on patients' physical health but, on the other hand, it leads to improvements in the emotional domain. Patients' individual characteristics at the beginning of CT are associated with changes in their quality of life. Our study could help identify these characteristics.


O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as mudanças na qualidade de vida de pacientes oncológicos no início do primeiro e segundo ciclos de quimioterapia (QT) em hospitais em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Foi realizado um estudo descritivo, prospectivo e longitudinal com uma abordagem quantitativa. Arrolamos 230 pacientes de uma coorte maior, diagnosticados com os cinco tipos de câncer mais frequentes (mama, colorretal, colo uterino, pulmão e cabeça e pescoço), com idade 18 anos ou mais e que estavam no início da QT. A qualidade de vida foi avaliada com o EORTC QLQ-C30, versão 3, aplicado no início do primeiro e segundo ciclos de QT. O teste pareado de Wilcoxon foi utilizado para identificar diferenças na qualidade de vida entre os dois momentos. Para investigar potenciais preditores de estado de saúde global/qualidade de vida, foi realizada uma análise de regressão linear multivariada com o método bootstrap. Houve um aumento significativo na pontuação da função emocional dos pacientes (p < 0,001) e de dor (p = 0,026), diarreia (p = 0,018) e náusea/vômito (p < 0,001) após o início da quimioterapia. Estado civil "viúvo/a" esteve associado a melhoras no estado de saúde global/qualidade de vida (p = 0,028), enquanto presença de câncer do colo uterino (p = 0,034) e baixo peso (p = 0,033) estiveram relacionados a piores resultados no estado de saúde global/qualidade de vida. A QT tem efeitos deletérios na saúde física dos pacientes, mas leva a melhorias no domínio emocional. As características individuais dos pacientes no início da QT estão associadas a mudanças na qualidade vida. Nosso estudo pode ajudar a identificar essas características.


El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar cambios en la calidad de vida de pacientes con cáncer, entre el principio del primero y segundo ciclo de quimioterapia (CT), en hospitales en Belo Horizonte, Brasil. Se llevó a cabo un estudio longitudinal, prospectivo, descriptivo con un enfoque cuantitativo. Participaron 230 pacientes, de una cohorte más amplia, diagnosticados con los cinco tipos de cáncer más frecuentes (pecho, colorrectal, cervical, pulmón, cabeza y cuello), con 18 años y más, que estaban comenzando CT por primera vez. La calidad de vida fue evaluada mediante EORTC QLQ-C30 versión 3, aplicada al comienzo del primer y segundo ciclo de quimioterapia. Se usó el test pareado de Wilcoxon para identificar las diferencias en calidad de vida entre dos puntos en el tiempo. Para investigar los predictores potenciales del estatus de salud global/calidad de vida, se realizó un análisis lineal multivariado, usando el método de Bootstrap. Hubo un aumento significativo en las puntuaciones de las funciones emocionales de los pacientes (p < 0,001), así como las puntuaciones para dolor (p = 0,026), diarrea (p = 0,018) y náusea/vómitos (p < 0,001) tras el comienzo de la quimioterapia. Ser viudo/a estuvo asociado con mejoras en el estatus de salud global/calidad de vida (p = 0,028), mientras que la presencia de cáncer cervical (p = 0,034) y estar por debajo del peso (p = 0,033) estuvieron relacionados con puntuaciones más bajas estatus de salud global/calidad de vida. La CT tiene efectos perjudiciales en la salud física de los pacientes, sin embargo, por otro lado, conduce a mejoras en el ámbito emocional. Las características individuales de pacientes al comienzo de la CT están asociadas con cambios en su calidad de vida. Nuestro estudio podría ayudar a identificar estas características.


Subject(s)
Humans , Quality of Life , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Brazil , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Hospitals
16.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64(spe): e21200795, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285573

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hesperidin is a natural compound which is found in citric fruits and presents antitumor and antimicrobial activities. However, the in vivo efficacy of Hesperidin is reduced due to its low oral bioavailability. Protein-based nanoparticles have been applied to improve biological parameters of drugs and natural compounds. Gliadin is a monomeric protein present in wheat. In this study, gliadin-based nanoparticles containing hesperidin were obtained by desolvation technique and a Taguchi orthogonal array design was employed to optimize the formulation. The independent variables were set as concentration of CaCl2 (0.5; 1 or 2%) and stabilizing agent (Pluronic F68, Tween 80 or sodium caseinate). The dependent variables consisted of mean diameter, polydispersity index, zeta potential, and encapsulation efficiency. The results showed significant effects on the dependent variables when 1% CaCl2 and Pluronic F68 were used. The optimized formulation was coated with chitosan to increase the physical stability of the nanoparticles. The final nanoparticles presented a mean diameter of 321 nm and polydispersity index of 0.217, and spherical shape. After coating, the Zeta potential was +21 mV, and the encapsulation efficiency was 73 %. The in vitro release assay showed that about 98% of the drug was released from the nanoparticles after 48 h. Moreover, the nanoparticles reduced hesperidin cytotoxicity on healthy cells (Vero cells) and improved the cytotoxicity on tumor cells (HeLa, PC-3 and Caco-2 cells). Results showed that the chitosan-coated gliadin nanoparticles are potential carriers for hesperidin delivery for cancer treatment.


Subject(s)
Chitosan/chemistry , Gliadin/chemistry , Hesperidin/pharmacology , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Nanoparticles
17.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(1): e20190374, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1124784

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo identificar em mulheres em idade reprodutiva, com câncer e durante o tratamento quimioterápico, as orientações sobre preservação de fertilidade e planejamento reprodutivo e conhecer as informações fornecidas pela equipe de saúde. Métodos estudo descritivo, realizado com mulheres na pré-menopausa, com diagnóstico de câncer e em tratamento quimioterápico. A coleta de dados foi realizada com apoio de um instrumento com informações sociodemográficas, sobre o câncer e seus tratamentos, informações referentes a preservação de fertilidade e uso de métodos contraceptivos antes e após o diagnóstico do câncer. A análise dos dados foi feita por meio de estatística descritiva. Resultados a média de idade das 49 participantes foi de 38,2 anos (DP=6,1) e 79,6% estavam em tratamento devido ao câncer de mama. Quanto as informações recebidas sobre a importância do planejamento reprodutivo, 77,6% das participantes referiram que foram orientadas e 59,2% receberam tais orientações da equipe médica. Entretanto, em relação ao aconselhamento sobre métodos para manter a fertilidade, apenas, 6,1% das participantes foram orientadas. Conclusão e Implicações para a prática Deve-se considerar a relevância do aconselhamento especializado e a da manutenção de tomada de decisões ativas da mulher sobre a preservação de sua fertilidade.


RESUMEN Objetivo identificar en mujeres en edad reproductiva, con cáncer y durante el tratamiento de quimioterapia, las orientaciones sobre preservación de la fertilidad y planificación reproductiva y conocer las informaciones proporcionadas por el equipo de salud. Métodos estudio descriptivo, realizado con mujeres premenopáusicas diagnosticadas con cáncer y sometidas a quimioterapia. La recolección de datos se realizó con apoyo de un instrumento con información sociodemográfica sobre el cáncer y sus tratamientos, información sobre la preservación de la fertilidad y uso de métodos anticonceptivos antes y después del diagnóstico del cáncer. El análisis de los datos se realizó mediante estadística descriptiva. Resultados la media de edad fue de 38,2 años (DE= 6,1), y 79,6% estaban en tratamiento para el cáncer de mama. Cuanto a la información recibida sobre la importancia de la planificación reproductiva, 77,6% de los participantes informaron que estaban orientados y 59,2% recibió orientación del equipo médico. Sin embargo, con respecto al asesoramiento sobre métodos para mantener la fertilidad, solo 6,1% de las participantes recibieron asesoramiento. Conclusión e Implicaciones para la práctica Debe tenerse en cuenta la importancia de la asesoría experta y el mantenimiento de una toma de decisiones activa por parte de las mujeres para preservar su fertilidad.


ABSTRACT Objective to identify in women of reproductive age, with cancer and during chemotherapy treatment, the guidelines on fertility preservation and reproductive planning and to know the information provided by the health team. Methods descriptive study, conducted with premenopausal women diagnosed with cancer and undergoing chemotherapy. Data collection was performed with the support of an instrument with sociodemographic information about cancer and its treatments, information regarding the preservation of fertility and the use of contraceptive methods before and after cancer diagnosis. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics. Results the average age of the 49 participants was 38.2 years (SD=6.1) and 79.6% were being treated for breast cancer. Regarding the information received about the importance of reproductive planning, 77.6% of participants reported that they were oriented and 59.2% received such guidance from the medical team. However, regarding counseling on methods to maintain fertility, only 6.1% of participants were counseled. Conclusion and Implications for practice consideration should be given to the importance of expert counseling and the maintenance of active decision making by women about preserving their fertility.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Family Planning (Public Health) , Fertility/drug effects , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Contraception/statistics & numerical data , Counseling , Pregnancy, Unplanned , Infertility, Female/chemically induced , Neoplasms/diagnosis
19.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(4): 354-360, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142334

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Cancer patients may have gastrointestinal changes that influence nutritional status. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the occurrence of gastrointestinal changes resulting from outpatient chemotherapy treatment in cancer patients. METHODS: In a retrospective longitudinal study, the nutritional status and chemotherapy gastrointestinal changes (nausea, vomit, diarrhea, constipation, mucositis, dysphagia, xerostomia, inappetence, dysgeusia and heartburn) in cancer patients (n=187) were investigated in an outpatient follow-up. For the study of the parameters over time, the generalized estimating equation (GEE) method was used. Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney tests and Spearman coefficient, at a significance level of 5% were also used. RESULTS: The majority of the patients were female (63.64%) and the mean age was 57.5±12.1 years. The most frequent symptoms were nausea (18.54%); inappetence (18.31%); intestinal constipation (11.58%); diarrhea (7.98%); xerostomia (7.59%) and vomiting (7.43%). The nutritional status did not exhibit any relevant changes (P=0.7594). However, a higher prevalence of eutrophy was observed, followed by overweight; vomiting exhibited a significant difference (P=0.0211). The nausea symptom exhibited a significant difference with a higher prevalence of colorectal neoplasia when compared to breast neoplasia (P=0.0062); as well as vomiting in lung and colorectal neoplasias (P=0.0022), and dysphagia, in head and neck neoplasia, when compared to other neoplasms (P<0.001). There was a statistically significant difference between the number of medical appointments and gender (P=0.0102) and between dysphagia and gender (P<0.0001). CONCLUSION: The study findings enhance the need for signs and symptoms follow up, as well as nutritional status follow up of patients undergoing outpatient chemotherapy.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Pacientes oncológicos podem apresentar alterações gastrointestinais que influenciam o estado nutricional. OBJETIVO: Investigar a ocorrência de alterações gastrointestinais decorrentes do tratamento ambulatorial de quimioterapia, em pacientes oncológicos. MÉTODOS: Num estudo longitudinal retrospectivo, investigou-se o estado nutricional e as alterações gastrointestinais (náuseas, vômito, diarreia, constipação, mucosite, disfagia, xerostomia, inapetência, disgeusia e pirose) de pacientes oncológicos (n=187), em acompanhamento ambulatorial de quimioterapia. Para o estudo dos parâmetros ao longo do tempo, utilizou-se o método das equações de estimação generalizadas (EEG). Também foram utilizados os testes de Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney e o coeficiente de Spearman, com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos pacientes era do sexo feminino (63,64%) e a média de idade foi 57,5±12,1 anos. Os sintomas mais frequentes foram náuseas (18,54%); inapetência (18,31%); constipação intestinal (11,58%); diarreia (7,98%); xerostomia (7,59%) e vômito (7,43%). O estado nutricional não apresentou alterações relevantes (P=0,7594). No entanto, observou-se maior prevalência de eutrofia, seguido do sobrepeso e o vômito apresentou diferença significativa (P=0,0211). O sintoma de náusea apresentou diferença significativa com maior prevalência na neoplasia colorretal, quando comparado à neoplasia de mama (P=0,0062); assim como o vômito nas neoplasias de pulmão e colorretal (P=0,0022). E a disfagia, na neoplasia de cabeça e pescoço, quando comparada às demais neoplasias (P<0,001). Houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre o número de consultas médicas e sexo (P=0,0102) e entre disfagia e sexo (P<0,0001). CONCLUSÃO: Os achados encontrados no estudo permitem reforçar a necessidade do acompanhamento de sinais e sintomas, bem como do estado nutricional, de pacientes em acompanhamento ambulatorial de quimioterapia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Aged , Outpatients , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Vomiting/etiology , Weight Loss , Nutritional Status , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Constipation/etiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Dyspepsia/etiology , Middle Aged , Nausea
20.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1142100

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El cáncer es una enfermedad asociada al envejecimiento y tiene una alta prevalencia en los adultos mayores. La valoración geriátrica integral (VGI) mejora los cuidados de los adultos mayores (AM) con cáncer. En contextos sanitarios con recursos limitados, no todos los AM podrán ser evaluados por un geriatra. Un modelo en 2 pasos, incluyendo el test G8, en la consulta habitual del oncólogo, permite seleccionar aquellos pacientes que se beneficiarán de una VGI. Esta puede aportar en la toma de decisiones del tratamiento oncológico específico. Objetivo: Evaluar el beneficio del test G8 y la VGI en ≥ 70 años con cáncer candidatos a recibir quimioterapia. Material y Métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, de corte transversal, de una muestra no probabilística de pacientes ≥ de 70 años con diagnóstico de cáncer y candidatos a recibir quimioterapia. Se aplicó el G8 por el oncólogo y se completó la VGI en los que presentaron alteración en algunas de las áreas evaluadas. Resultados: Se analizaron 32 pacientes. Se realizó G8 a todos, en 21 de ellos se completó la VGI. En estos, en reunión multidisciplinaria con oncólogo y geriatra se discutió el tratamiento. En el 38% de los pacientes se cambió la conducta oncológica tras contar con la valoración geriátrica integral. Conclusión: Creemos que la incorporación del G8 en la práctica clínica del oncólogo aporta una herramienta de cribado útil para identificar los pacientes ≥70 años que se benefician de una VGI previa al inicio de tratamiento oncoespecífico, optimizando de esta manera los recursos.


Introduction: Cancer is a disease associated with aging and has a high prevalence in older adults. Comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) improves the care of older adults (OA)with cancer. In healthcare settings with limited resources, not all OA may be evaluated by a geriatrician. A 2-step model, including the G8 test, in the usual oncologist consultation, allows selecting those patients who will benefit from CGA. This can contribute to decision-making regarding specific cancer treatment. Objective: To evaluate the benefit of the incorporation of the G8 test and CGA in the ≥ 70 years with cancer candidates for chemotherapy. Material and Methods: Observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study of a non-probability sample of patients ≥ 70 years of age with a diagnosis of cancer and candidates for chemotherapy. The G8 was applied by the oncologist and the CGA was completed in those who presented alteration in some of the evaluated areas. Results: 32 patients were analyzed. G8 was performed in all, in 21 of them the CGA was completed. In these, the treatment was discussed in a multidisciplinary meeting with an oncologist and a geriatrician. Oncological behavior was changed in 38% of patients after having a comprehensive geriatric evaluation. Conclusion: We believe that the incorporation of the G8 test in the clinical practice of the oncologist provides a useful screening tool to identify patients ≥70 years who benefit from CGA prior to the start of oncospecific treatment, thus optimizing resources.


Introdução: O câncer é uma doença associada ao envelhecimento e tem alta prevalência em idosos. A avaliação geriátrica ampla (AGA) melhora o atendimento a idosos com câncer. Em ambientes de saúde com recursos limitados, nem todos eles podem ser avaliadas por um geriatra. Um modelo de duas etapas, incluindo o teste G8, na consulta oncológica usual, permite selecionar os pacientes que serão beneficiados pela AGA. Isso pode contribuir para a tomada de decisões em relação ao tratamento específico do câncer. Objetivo: Avaliar o benefício da incorporação do teste G8 e AGA nos ≥ 70 anos com câncer, candidatos à quimioterapia. Material e Métodos: Estudo observacional, descritivo e transversal de uma amostra não probabilística de pacientes com idade ≥ 70 anos com diagnóstico de câncer e candidatos à quimioterapia. O G8 foi aplicado pelo oncologista e a AGA foi realizada naqueles que apresentaram alteração em algumas das áreas avaliadas. Resultados: 32 pacientes foram analisados. O G8 foi realizado em todos, em 21 deles a AGA foi aplicada. Nesses, o tratamento foi discutido em reunião multidisciplinar com oncologista e geriatra. O tratamento oncológico foi alterado em 38% dos pacientes após uma avaliação geriátrica amplia. Conclusão: Acreditamos que a incorporação do teste G8 na prática clínica do oncologista fornece uma ferramenta de triagem útil para identificar pacientes com idade ≥70 anos que se beneficiam da AGA antes do início do tratamento oncoespecífico, otimizando recursos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Geriatric Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Triage , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Uruguay , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Decision Making
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