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1.
Med. infant ; 30(3): 270-273, Septiembre 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1515962

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La ifosfamida es un agente alquilante utilizado para el tratamiento de enfermedades oncohematológicas. Entre sus eventos adversos agudos se encuentra la neurotoxicidad. Esta puede presentarse desde el inicio de la infusión hasta tres días después. El tratamiento consiste en suspender la administración y asegurar una adecuada hidratación. Objetivo: Describir eventos neurológicos asociados al uso de ifosfamida en pacientes pediátricos con enfermedades oncohematológicas. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, retrospectivo y transversal. Los datos se obtuvieron de historias clínicas de pacientes internados en el Hospital Garrahan que infundieron ifosfamida y desarrollaron síntomas neurológicos. Se analizaron edad, diagnóstico de base, dosis de ifosfamida, síntomas neurológicos y su relación con la infusión, tratamiento instaurado, exámenes complementarios y posibles factores de riesgo asociados. Resultados: Se registraron un total de catorce eventos neurológicos en doce pacientes, sin diferencia de sexo, con una mediana de edad de 9,5 años. La enfermedad de base más prevalente fue osteosarcoma. Las convulsiones fueron el síntoma más frecuente (50%), seguido de somnolencia y paresias. La combinación de ifosfamida y etopósido con/sin carboplatino se asoció en un 36% cada uno. El 64% desarrolló neurotoxicidad dentro de las primeras cuatro horas. Ningún paciente presentó alteraciones en los exámenes complementarios. Todos presentaron recuperación ad integrum. Conclusión: Este estudio brinda información acerca del tiempo de aparición de esta complicación, lo cual facilitará su detección precoz y tratamiento oportuno (AU)


Introduction: Ifosfamide is an alkylating agent used for the treatment of cancer. Among its acute adverse events is neurotoxicity. This can occur from the beginning of the infusion up to three days afterwards. Treatment consists of discontinuing administration and ensuring adequate hydration. Objective: To describe neurological events associated with the use of ifosfamide in children with cancer. Materials and methods: Observational, descriptive, retrospective, and cross-sectional study. Data were obtained from clinical records of patients admitted to the Garrahan Hospital who received ifosfamide infusion and developed neurological symptoms. Age, baseline diagnosis, ifosfamide dose, neurological symptoms and their relationship with the infusion, treatment, complementary tests, and possible associated risk factors were analyzed. Results: A total of fourteen neurological events were recorded in twelve patients, without difference in sex and with a median age of 9.5 years. The most prevalent underlying disease was osteosarcoma. Seizures were the most frequent symptom (50%), followed by drowsiness and paresis. The combination of ifosfamide and etoposide with/without carboplatin was associated in 36% each. Sixty-four percent developed neurotoxicity within the first four hours. None of the patients presented with abnormalities in the complementary examinations. All recovered ad integrum. Conclusion: This study provides information about the time of onset of this complication, which will facilitate its early detection and timely treatment (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/diagnosis , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/etiology , Ifosfamide/adverse effects , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Seizures/chemically induced , Incidence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating/adverse effects
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 231-236, feb. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430516

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the drugs necessary for the treatment of the 10 most common types of cancer. The leading adverse effect limiting clinical use of DOX is cardiotoxicity. Given that literature data indicate a protective role of carotenoids in doxorubicin-induced toxicity, in our study we compared the cardioprotective effect of a mixture of pumpkin carotenoids and a commercially available antioxidant preparation. Animals were distributed in 8 groups (Control - S; NADES - N; Doxorubicin - Dox; Carotenoids - Car; CardiofortIN - CF; NADES-Doxorubicin - N-Dox; Carotenoids-Doxorubicin - Car-Dox; CardiofortIN-Doxorubicin - CF-Dox). Histological sections were stained with the hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and analyzed for the presence of myocardial damage by doxorubicin damage score (DDS). From the heart tissue homogenate were determined the intensity of lipid peroxidation and specific antioxidative enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase; catalase; glutathione S-transferase; glutathione peroxidase). In Car-DOX and CF-DOX groups, lipid peroxidation is significantly reduced compared to DOX group. Pretreatment of animals with carotenoids and in lesser extent with CardiofortIN led to higher antioxidative enzymes activity, compared to DOX group. Pretreated with carotenoids, only 50 % of animals had some degree of myocardial damage, and no animals had extensive damage. CardiofortIN pretreatment showed less protective effect. Pretreatment with carotenoid extract, reduced DDS significantly, so Car-DOX group has changes equivalent to mild myocardial damage. Although CardiofortIN pretreatment lowered DDS score values, animals still had moderate level of myocardium damage. This in vivo study and its findings indicate that carotenoids extracted from pumpkin may be a promising cardioprotective agent against doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity, at least in part mediated through inhibition of DOX-induced oxidative stress.


La doxorrubicina (DOX) es uno de los fármacos necesarios para el tratamiento de los 10 tipos más comunes de cáncer. El principal efecto adverso que limita el uso clínico de DOX es la cardiotoxicidad. Debido a que los datos de la literatura indican un papel protector de los carotenoides en la toxicidad inducida por doxorrubicina, en nuestro estudio comparamos el efecto cardioprotector de una mezcla de carotenoides de calabaza y una preparación antioxidante disponible comercialmente. Los animales se distribuyeron en 8 grupos (Control - S; NADES - N; Doxorrubicina - Dox; Carotenoides - Car; CardiofortIN - CF; NADES-Doxorrubicina - N-Dox; Carotenoides-Doxorrubicina - Car-Dox; CardiofortIN- Doxorrubicina - CF-Dox). Las secciones histológicas se tiñeron con hematoxilina-eosina (HE) y se analizaron para detectar la presencia de daño miocárdico mediante la puntuación de daño por doxorrubicina (DDS). A partir del homogeneizado de tejido cardíaco se determinó la intensidad de la peroxidación lipídica y la actividad enzimática antioxidante específica (superóxido dismutasa, catalasa, glutatión S-transferasa, glutatión peroxidasa). En los grupos Car-DOX y CF-DOX, la peroxidación lipídica se redujo significativamente en comparación con el grupo DOX. El pre tratamiento de los animales con carotenoides y, en menor medida, con CardiofortlN condujo a una mayor actividad de las enzimas antioxidantes, en comparación con el grupo DOX. Al ser pre tratados con carotenoides, solo el 50 % de los animales tenían algún grado de daño miocárdico y ningún animal tenía daño extenso. El pre tratamiento con CardiofortIN mostró un efecto protector menor. El pre tratamiento con extracto de carotenoides redujo significativamente el DDS, por lo que el grupo Car-DOX mostró cambios equivalentes a un daño miocárdico leve. Aunque el pre tratamiento con CardiofortIN redujo los valores de la puntuación DDS, los animales aún tenían un nivel moderado de daño al miocardio. Este estudio in vivo y sus hallazgos indican que los carotenoides extraídos de la calabaza pueden ser un agente cardioprotector prometedor contra la cardiotoxicidad inducida por doxorrubicina, al menos en parte mediada por la inhibición del estrés oxidativo inducido por DOX.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Carotenoids/administration & dosage , Doxorubicin/toxicity , Cucurbita/chemistry , Cardiotoxicity/prevention & control , Cardiotonic Agents , Lipid Peroxidation , Catalase , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Glutathione Peroxidase , Glutathione Transferase , Antibiotics, Antineoplastic/toxicity , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antioxidants
3.
REME rev. min. enferm ; 27: 1519, jan.-2023. Fig.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1527383

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: compreender o conhecimento e a percepção de enfermeiros quanto à sedação paliativa em oncologia. Método: estudo qualitativo, exploratório e descritivo, com delineamento transversal. Participaram do estudo 16 enfermeiros atuantes na oncologia de um hospital de referência localizado ao norte do Rio Grande do Sul. A coleta de dados ocorreu por meio de entrevista gravada com duração de aproximadamente 10 minutos, sendo aplicado um roteiro de perguntas fechadas com a finalidade de caracterizar os enfermeiros participantes da pesquisa, e perguntas abertas e específicas para contemplar o objetivo do estudo. O método utilizado para o diagnóstico e verificação dos dados da pesquisa foi a análise de conteúdo de Bardin. Os dados foram analisados e codificados por meio do software NVivo 10, que gerou categorias de similaridade e correlações. Resultados: surgiram cinco categorias intituladas "Conhecimento sobre sedação paliativa; Percepção sobre sedação paliativa na oncologia; Sentimentos em relação à sedação paliativa aos pacientes oncológicos; Vivência em relação à sedação paliativa em pacientes oncológicos e Participação do enfermeiro no procedimento de sedação paliativa". Conclusão: o enfermeiro atua de forma efetiva e fundamental na prestação do cuidado e na avaliação do paciente em sedação paliativa, mas ainda encontram-se diversos obstáculos relacionados à participação na tomada de decisões. Evidencia-se a importância de novas pesquisas sobre a temática, como também a implementação de protocolos que subsidiem na indicação da sedação paliativa.(AU)


Objective: to understand the knowledge and perception of nurses dealing with palliative sedation in oncology. Method: this is a qualitative, exploratory, and descriptive study, with a cross-sectional design. The study included 16 nurses working in oncology at a reference hospital located in the north of Rio Grande do Sul. Data were collected through recorded interviews lasting approximately 10 minutes, with a script of closed questions being applied to characterize the nurses participating in the research, and open and specific questions, to contemplate the objective of the study. The method used for the diagnosis and verification of research data was Bardin's content analysis. Data were analyzed and coded using the NVivo 10 software, which generated categories of similarity and correlations. Results: five categories emerged: (i) Knowledge about palliative sedation; (ii) Perception of palliative sedation in oncology; (iii) Feelings regarding palliative sedation in cancer patients; (iv) Experience with palliative sedation in cancer patients; and (v) Participation of the nurse in the palliative sedation procedure. Conclusion: nurses act effectively and fundamentally in providing care and evaluating patients undergoing palliative sedation, but there are still several obstacles related to their participation in decision-making. The importance of new research on the subject is evident, as well as the implementation of protocols that support the indication of palliative sedation.(AU)


Objetivo: comprender el conocimiento y la percepción de los enfermeros sobre la sedación paliativa en oncología. Método: estudio cualitativo, exploratorio y descriptivo, con diseño transversal. El estudio abarcó 16 enfermeros que trabajaban en oncología en un hospital de referencia localizado en el norte de Rio Grande do Sul. La colecta de datos ocurrió por medio de entrevista grabada con duración aproximada de 10 minutos, siendo aplicado un guión de preguntas cerradas con la finalidad de caracterizar los enfermeros participantes de la investigación, y preguntas abiertas y específicas para contemplar el objetivo del estudio. El método utilizado para el diagnóstico y verificación de los datos de la investigación fue el análisis de contenido de Bardin. Los datos fueron analizados y codificados utilizando el software NVivo 10, que generó categorías de similitud y correlaciones. Resultados: surgieron cinco categorías tituladas "Conocimientos sobre sedación paliativa; Percepción de la sedación paliativa en oncología; Sentimientos con respecto a la sedación paliativa para pacientes con cáncer; Experiencia con sedación paliativa en pacientes oncológicos y participación de Enfermeros en el procedimiento de sedación paliativa". Conclusión: el enfermero actúa de forma eficaz y fundamental en la prestación del cuidado y en la evaluación del paciente en sedación paliativa, pero aún existen varios obstáculos relacionados con la participación en la toma de decisiones. Es evidente la importancia de seguir investigando sobre el tema, así como la implementación de protocolos que sustenten la indicación de la sedación paliativa.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Oncology Nursing , Palliative Care , Conscious Sedation/nursing , Deep Sedation/nursing , Hospice and Palliative Care Nursing , Analgesia , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Surveys and Questionnaires , Clinical Decision-Making , Relational Autonomy , Nurses
4.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(1): 493-510, Jan-Abr. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1416551

ABSTRACT

A quimioterapia do câncer pode ocasionar reações adversas medicamentosas (RAM), podendo resultar de interações medicamentosas (IM) e impactar na adesão. O presente estudo relatou as RAM apresentadas por pacientes em quimioterapia (QT) e propôs estratégias de intervenções. Este trabalho foi aprovado em comité de ética (5.160.503), sendo incluídos 23 pacientes em quimioterapia (oral- VO e/ou endovenosa- EV) e todos foram entrevistados. Recebiam apenas o QTEV, 20 pacientes e 2 QTEV e VO, a maioria em tratamento paliativo (50%), predomínio de estadiamento IV, sendo as doenças mais presentes de pâncreas (27,3%), estômago (22,7%) e mama (18,2%) e esquema mais usado foi Carboplatina + Paclitaxel. As principais comorbidades foram diabetes e hipertensão arterial. As interações medicamentosas foram classificadas em graves (45%), moderadas (55%) e intencional (75%), sendo necessário introdução de medicamentos de suporte (61%). Houve RAM de maior gravidade, neutropenia, sendo necessário a suspensão temporária, e de menor gravidade náuseas. Houve um óbito relacionado a evolução de doença e, talvez, o tratamento possa ter contribuído. Ao final, foram feitas as intervenções para cada caso e validado o formulário para a consulta farmacêutica a pacientes oncológicos.


Cancer chemotherapy can cause adverse drug reactions (ADRs), which can result from drug interactions (IM) and impact adherence. The present study reported the ADRs presented by patients undergoing chemotherapy (CT) and proposed intervention strategies. This work was approved by the ethics committee (5,160,503), and 23 patients on chemotherapy (oral-VO and/or intravenous-IV) were included and all were interviewed. Only received CTIV, 20 patients and 2 CTIV and VO, most in palliative treatment (50%), predominance of stage IV, being the most common diseases of pancreas (27.3%), stomach (22.7%) and breast (18.2%) and the most used regimen was Carboplatin + Paclitaxel. The main comorbidities were diabetes and arterial hypertension. Drug interactions were classified as severe (45%), moderate (55%) and intentional (75%), requiring the introduction of supportive drugs (61%). There were more severe ADRs, neutropenia, requiring temporary suspension, and less severe nausea. There was one death related to the evolution of the disease and, perhaps, the treatment may have contributed. At the end, interventions were made for each case and the form for the pharmaceutical consultation to cancer patients was validated.


La quimioterapia contra el cáncer puede causar reacciones adversas a los medicamentos (RAM), que pueden ser consecuencia de interacciones farmacológicas (IM) y repercutir en la adherencia. El presente estudio reportó las RAM presentadas por pacientes en quimioterapia (QT) y propuso estrategias de intervención. Este trabajo fue aprobado en comité de ética (5.160.503), se incluyeron 23 pacientes en quimioterapia (oral- VO y/o endovenosa-EV) y todos fueron entrevistados. Recibieron sólo QTEV, 20 pacientes y 2 QTEV y VO, la mayoría en tratamiento paliativo (50%), predominio de estadiaje IV, siendo las enfermedades más presentes las de páncreas (27,3%), estómago (22,7%) y mama (18,2%) y el esquema más utilizado fue Carboplatino + Paclitaxel. Las principales comorbilidades fueron la diabetes y la hipertensión arterial. Las interacciones farmacológicas se clasificaron como graves (45%), moderadas (55%) e intencionadas (75%), requiriendo la introducción de fármacos de apoyo (61%). La RAM más grave fue la neutropenia, que requirió la suspensión temporal, y la menos grave las náuseas. Hubo una muerte relacionada con la evolución de la enfermedad y, tal vez, el tratamiento pudo haber contribuido. Al final, se realizaron intervenciones para cada caso y se validó el formulario de consulta farmacéutica a pacientes oncológicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Patients , Drug Therapy , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Palliative Care , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Carboplatin/adverse effects , Paclitaxel/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus , Drug Interactions , Hypertension , Nausea/drug therapy , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neutropenia/drug therapy
5.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 519-524, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984752

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the safety and efficacy of troxatabine in advanced or relapsed malignant tumors resistant to standard therapy in China. Methods: This is a phase Ⅰ prospective study. During dose escalation, patients in Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences received a single-dose intravenous infusion of troxacitabine. The planned dosing groups were 1.8, 3.6, 4.8, 6.4 and 8.0 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8 every 3 weeks. The data of all patients were collected for safety analyses. Safety and tolerability were evaluated by monitoring adverse events. Results: Nineteen patients were enrolled from April 2018 to May 2019. The major adverse events were fatigue (89.5%, 17/19), leukopenia (84.2%, 16/19) and neutropenia (78.9%, 15/19). The dose limiting toxicity was neutropenia. The maximum tolerated dose was 6.4 mg/m(2). The best effect was stable disease (43.8%). The half-life of elimination phase from 15.91 hours to 76.63 hours in each dose group. Conclusions: The toxicity of troxacitabine is well tolerant. We recommend that the dose for Phase Ⅱ clinical trial should be 6.4 mg/m(2).


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Maximum Tolerated Dose , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neutropenia/chemically induced , Prospective Studies
6.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 117-119, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971648

ABSTRACT

Nano-ayurvedic medicine is an emerging field in which nanoparticles are functionalized with active principles of potent ayurvedic herbs to enhance their efficacy and target-specific delivery. Scientific advances in the past couple of decades have revealed the molecular mechanisms behind the anticancer potential of several ayurvedic herbs, attributed chiefly to their secondary metabolites including polyphenols and other active substances. With the advancement of nanotechnology, it has been established that size-, shape-, and surface-chemistry-optimized nanoparticles can be utilized as synergizing carriers for these phytochemicals. Nano-ayurvedic medicine utilizes herbs that are commonly used in Ayurveda to functionalize different nanoparticles and thereby enhance their potency and target specificity. Studies have shown that the active phytochemicals of such herbs can be coated onto the nanoparticles of different metals, such as gold, and that they work more efficiently than the free herbal extract, for example, in inhibiting cancer cell proliferation. Recently, an Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy (AYUSH)-based clinical trial in humans indicated the anticancer potential of such formulations. Nano-ayurvedic medicine is emerging as a potential treatment option for hyperproliferative diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Homeopathy , Naturopathy , Yoga , Neoplasms/drug therapy
7.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 1017-1022, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987016

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the correlation between aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) rs671 polymorphisms and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV).@*METHODS@#A total of 90 Chinese patients with malignant tumors receiving chemotherapy for the first time were recruited in this study. The occurrence of CINV was observed within 120 h after treatment with docetaxel and cis-platinum chemotherapy (DP regimen). The data of the patients (including age, gender, tumor stage, habitual alcohol consumption, motion sickness, morning sickness, and average sleep time prior to chemotherapy) were collected through a questionnaire. ALDH2 rs671 polymorphisms of the patients were analyzed using a multiple single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping, and the Hardy-Weinberg equation was used for genetic linkage analysis. The correlations between the factors including ALDH2 rs671 polymorphisms and the occurrence of CINV were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The incidence of CINV was 48.9% among the patients receiving their first chemotherapy with DP regimen. Univariate analysis indicated that the genetic polymorphisms of ALDH2 rs671 were significantly correlated with the occurrence of CINV (P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic analysis indicated that ALDH2 rs671 mutation (OR: 3.019, 95% CI: 1.056-8.628, P < 0.05) and average sleep time prior to chemotherapy no longer than 6 h (OR: 2.807, 95% CI: 1.033-7.628, P < 0.05) were risk factors for CINV in patients with malignant tumors receiving the first chemotherapy with DP regimen.@*CONCLUSION@#ALDH2 gene mutation at rs671 is a risk factor contributing to the occurrence of CINV, and understanding of the underlying mechanism may help to more effectively control the occurrence of CINV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aldehyde Dehydrogenase, Mitochondrial/genetics , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Nausea/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Vomiting/genetics , Neoplasms/drug therapy
8.
Rev. Bras. Cancerol. (Online) ; 69(2): e-233826, abr.-jun. 2023.
Article in Spanish, Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1509739

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Náuseas e vômitos induzidos por quimioterapia (NVIQ) são importantes efeitos colaterais dos tratamentos antineoplásicos. Algumas plantas medicinais vêm sendo estudadas no manejo desses efeitos, como o gengibre (Zingiber officinale). Objetivo: Realizar uma revisão acerca do uso via oral do gengibre no manejo de NVIQ em pacientes com câncer. Método: Revisão integrativa da literatura realizada na base de dados MEDLINE, em setembro de 2022, adotando a combinação das palavras-chave "Zingiber officinale" e "Cancer". Foram também aplicados filtros na seleção para incluir ensaios clínicos aleatórios publicados entre 2012 e 2022. Resultados: Ao todo, foram analisados nove estudos. O gengibre apresenta potencial de reduzir NVIQ em pacientes com câncer, refletindo positivamente na qualidade de vida e na melhora do apetite e da fadiga. Os estudos não observaram efeitos adversos da administração do gengibre. Conclusão: O uso por via oral do gengibre demonstra ser uma estratégia segura para o manejo de NVIQ em pacientes com câncer, na dose de 1 g/dia do gengibre em pó, podendo ser utilizado como terapia complementar juntamente com regimes antieméticos padrões


Introduction: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) are important side effects of antineoplastic treatments. Some medicinal plants have been studied in the management of these effects, such as ginger (Zingiber officinale). Objective: Review the oral use of ginger in the management of CINV in cancer patients. Method: Integrative literature review carried out at the MEDLINE database, in September 2022, utilizing the combination of the keywords "Zingiber officinale" and "Cancer", filters were also applied to include randomized clinical trials published between 2012 and 2022. Results: In all, nine studies were analyzed. Ginger has the potential to reduce CINV in cancer patients, reflecting positively on quality-of-life, improved appetite and fatigue. The studies have not found any adverse effect after administering ginger. Conclusion: The oral use of ginger proves to be an effective strategy for the management of CINV in cancer patients, in the dosage regimen of 1 g/day of powdered ginger, and can be used as a complementary therapy along with standard antiemetic regimens


Introducción: Las náuseas y los vómitos inducidos por la quimioterapia (NVIQ) son efectos secundarios importantes de los tratamientos antineoplásicos. Se han estudiado algunas plantas medicinales en el manejo de estos efectos, como el jengibre (Zingiber officinale). Objetivo: Realizar una revisión integradora de la literatura sobre el uso oral del jengibre en el manejo de las NVIQ en pacientes oncológicos. Método: Revisión integradora de la literatura realizada en la base de datos MEDLINE, en septiembre de 2022, adoptando la combinación de las palabras clave "Zingiber officinale" y "Cancer". También se aplicaron filtros en la selección para incluir ensayos clínicos aleatorizados publicados entre 2012 y 2022. Resultados: En total, se analizaron nueve estudios. El jengibre tiene el potencial de reducir las NVIQ en pacientes con cáncer, lo que se refleja positivamente en la mejora de la calidad de vida, apetito y fatiga. Los estudios no han observado ningún efecto adverso por la administración del jengibre. Conclusión: El uso del jengibre por vía oral demuestra ser una estrategia segura para el manejo de NVIQ en pacientes con cáncer, usando una dosis de 1 g/día de jengibre en polvo, y puede usarse como terapia complementaria junto con los regímenes antieméticos estándar


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Plants, Medicinal , Ginger/adverse effects , Phytotherapy , Neoplasms/drug therapy
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1304-1313, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981139

ABSTRACT

CLDN6 is a member of the CLDNs family that is specifically and highly expressed in cancers such as ovarian, testicular, endocervical, liver and lung adenocarcinoma, but hardly expressed in adult normal tissues. CLDN6 is able to activate multiple signaling pathways, which take part in the development and progression of cancer, including promoting tumor growth, migration and invasion, and promoting chemoresistance in cancer. In recent years, CLDN6 has received much attention as a novel target for cancer therapeutics. Many types of anticancer drugs targeting CLDN6 have been developed, including antibody-conjugated drugs (ADC), monoclonal antibodies, bispecific antibodies, and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell immunotherapy (CAR-T). This paper briefly summarizes the structure, expression and function of CLDN6 in tumors, and reviews the current status and ideas of developing targeted CLDN6 anticancer drugs.


Subject(s)
Signal Transduction , Immunotherapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Neoplasms/drug therapy
10.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 575-583, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980725

ABSTRACT

Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia (CIN) is a common hematological adverse events and dose-limiting toxicities of chemotherapy. CIN may lead to dose reduction and delay of chemotherapeutic agents, febrile neutropenia and severe infection, which results in increased treatment cost, reduced efficacy of chemotherapy, and even life-threatening morbidities. Assessment of risk of CIN, early detection of FN and infection, and proper prevention and treatment play a crucial role in reducing the occurrence of CIN-related morbidities, improving patient treatment safety and anticancer efficacy. Based on evidence and expert opinion, the expert committee of Chinese Anti-Cancer Association issued "the consensus on diagnosis and treatment of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia in China (2023 edition)", which is an update version of the 2019 edition, aiming to provide reference for the diagnosis and treatment of CIN for Chinese oncologists.


Subject(s)
Humans , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor , Consensus , Neutropenia/prevention & control , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2352-2359, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981311

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the mechanism of Yanghe Decoction(YHD) against subcutaneous tumor in pulmonary metastasis from breast cancer, which is expected to lay a basis for the treatment of breast carcinoma with YHD. The chemical components of medicinals in YHD, and the targets of the components were retrieved from Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP) and SwissTargetPrediction. The disease-related targets were searched from GeneCards and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man(OMIM). Excel was employed to screen the common targets and plot the Venn diagram. The protein-protein interaction network was constructed. R language was used for Gene Ontology(GO) term enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment. A total of 53 female SPF Bablc/6 mice were randomized into normal group(same volume of normal saline, ig), model group(same volume of normal saline, ig), and low-dose and high-dose YHD groups(YHD, ig, 30 days), with 8 mice in normal group and 15 mice in each of the other groups. Body weight and tumor size was measured every day. Curves for body weight variation and growth of tumor in situ were plotted. In the end, the subcutaneous tumor sample was collected and observed based on hematoxylin and eosin(HE) staining. The mRNA and protein levels of hypoxia inducible factor-1α(HIF-1α), pyruvate kinase M2(PKM2), lactate dehydrogenase A(LDHA), and glucose transporter type 1(GLUT1) were detected by PCR and Western blot. A total of 213 active components of YHD and 185 targets against the disease were screened out. The hypothesis that YHD may regulate glycolysis through HIF-1α signaling pathway to intervene in breast cancer was proposed. Animal experiment confirmed that the mRNA and protein levels of HIF-1α, PKM2, LDHA, and GLUT1 in the high-and low-dose YHD groups were lower than those in the model group. YHD has certain inhibitory effect on subcutaneous tumor in pulmonary metastasis from breast cancer in the early stage, which may intervene pulmonary metastasis from breast cancer by regulating glycolysis through HIF-1α signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Female , Mice , Animals , Glucose Transporter Type 1/genetics , Network Pharmacology , Animal Experimentation , Saline Solution , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Signal Transduction , Glycolysis , RNA, Messenger , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Molecular Docking Simulation
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1455-1462, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970617

ABSTRACT

With Zang-Fu organs, meridians, Qi and blood, and body fluid as the physiological and pathological basis, traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) theory is guided by the holistic concept and characterized by syndrome differentiation. It has made significant contributions to human health maintenance and disease prevention. Modern TCM preparation is developed on the basis of inheriting and developing TCM preparations using modern science and technology under the guidance of TCM theory. At present, the incidence and mortality of common tumors are increasing. TCM has rich clinical experience in the treatment of tumors. However, in the current stage, some TCM preparations have a tendency to deviate from the guidance of TCM theory. With the modernization of TCM, it is worth considering how TCM theory guides modern TCM preparations. Taking tumor treatment as an example, this paper introduced the development of TCM nano-preparation under the influence of modern nanotechnology, summarized the research on the development of modern TCM nano-preparation from the aspects of TCM holistic concept, TCM treatment principles, and TCM theory application, and discussed the application prospect of TCM nano-preparation in overall therapy, drug pairing, carrier selection, and targeted substance selection under the guidance of TCM theory. This paper provides new references for further developing the combination of tradition and modernization of TCM nano-preparation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Biological Products , Nanotechnology , Neoplasms/drug therapy
13.
Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore ; : 8-16, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970003

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#Three doses of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines have been recommended for cancer patients to reduce the risk of severe disease. Anti-neoplastic treatment, such as chemotherapy, may affect long-term vaccine immunogenicity.@*METHOD@#Patients with solid or haematological cancer were recruited from 2 hospitals between July 2021 and March 2022. Humoral response was evaluated using GenScript cPASS surrogate virus neutralisation assays. Clinical outcomes were obtained from medical records and national mandatory-reporting databases.@*RESULTS@#A total of 273 patients were recruited, with 40 having haematological malignancies and the rest solid tumours. Among the participants, 204 (74.7%) were receiving active cancer therapy, including 98 (35.9%) undergoing systemic chemotherapy and the rest targeted therapy or immunotherapy. All patients were seronegative at baseline. Seroconversion rates after receiving 1, 2 and 3 doses of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination were 35.2%, 79.4% and 92.4%, respectively. After 3 doses, patients on active treatment for haematological malignancies had lower antibodies (57.3%±46.2) when compared to patients on immunotherapy (94.1%±9.56, P<0.05) and chemotherapy (92.8%±18.1, P<0.05). SARS-CoV-2 infection was reported in 77 (28.2%) patients, of which 18 were severe. No patient receiving a third dose within 90 days of the second dose experienced severe infection.@*CONCLUSION@#This study demonstrates the benefit of early administration of the third dose among cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Treatment Outcome , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Hematologic Neoplasms , Vaccination , RNA, Messenger , Antibodies, Viral , Immunogenicity, Vaccine
14.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 397-405, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982380

ABSTRACT

Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) controls cellular anabolism, and mTOR signaling is hyperactive in most cancer cells. As a result, inhibition of mTOR signaling benefits cancer patients. Rapamycin is a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug, a specific mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) inhibitor, for the treatment of several different types of cancer. However, rapamycin is reported to inhibit cancer growth rather than induce apoptosis. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) is the gatekeeper for mitochondrial pyruvate oxidation. PDHc inactivation has been observed in a number of cancer cells, and this alteration protects cancer cells from senescence and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+‍) exhaustion. In this paper, we describe our finding that rapamycin treatment promotes pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 subunit alpha 1 (PDHA1) phosphorylation and leads to PDHc inactivation dependent on mTOR signaling inhibition in cells. This inactivation reduces the sensitivity of cancer cells' response to rapamycin. As a result, rebooting PDHc activity with dichloroacetic acid (DCA), a pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) inhibitor, promotes cancer cells' susceptibility to rapamycin treatment in vitro and in vivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sirolimus/pharmacology , Dichloroacetic Acid/pharmacology , Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases , Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 , Neoplasms/drug therapy
15.
São Paulo; s.n; 2023. 80 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1434675

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: A Fadiga Relaciona ao Câncer (FRC) é uma "sensação persistente e subjetiva de cansaço e esgotamento físico, emocional, e/ou cognitivo, relacionado com o câncer ou o tratamento do mesmo, que não é proporcional à atividade recente e que interfere na capacidade funcional". A FRC, que atinge até 80% dos pacientes, é relatada principalmente por pacientes em tratamento quimioterápico. OBJETIVO: Comparar a fadiga relacionada ao câncer de pessoas com tumores sólidos em tratamento com imunoterapia ou quimioterapia. METODOLOGIA: Foi um estudo observacional transversal analítico, em pacientes adultos, de ambos os sexos, com câncer sólido, que no momento da coleta estavam exclusivamente em tratamento com quimioterápicos ou imunoterápicos. Os voluntários foram separados em dois grupos: grupo Imunoterapia e grupo Quimioterapia. Os instrumentos de avaliação foram: questionário de Avaliação Funcional da Terapia de Doenças Crônicas ­ Fadiga (FACIT-F), que avalia a percepção de fadiga da pessoa em tratamento do câncer. A dinamometria com o dinamômetro Jamar® para avaliar força de preensão manual e teste de velocidade da marcha de 4 metros (VM4M) para avaliar a velocidade da marcha. RESULTADOS: Em relação a velocidade da marcha, o grupo imuno apresentou velocidade média de 1,43 m/s e o grupo quimio apresentou velocidade média de 1,41m/s. Esses resultados apresentam que os pacientes avaliados não apresentaram lentidão de marcha e não tem diferença estatística entre os grupos (p=0.43). Em relação à força de preensão manual, observamos que não tem diferença estatística entre os grupos estudados (p=0,13 mão direita e p=0,10 mão esquerda), porém observamos que o grupo Imunoterapia contém valores maiores de média e mediana para a força de preensão palmar em ambas as mãos, permitindo afirmar que nos pacientes estudados em tratamentos com imunoterápicos apresentaram maior força de preensão manual. Em relação ao inventário de fadiga observa-se que, na amostra estudada, a média do escore final comprova que o grupo Imunoterapia tem menor ocorrência de fadiga (p=0.01). CONCLUSÃO: Não houve diferença estatística entre os grupos na velocidade da marcha e na força de preensão manual. No inventário de fadiga o grupo imunoterapia apresentou menor ocorrência de fadiga com diferença significativa.


INTRODUTION: Cancer Relational Fatigue (CRF) is a "persistent and subjective feeling of tiredness and physical, emotional, and/or cognitive exhaustion, related to cancer or its treatment, which is not proportional to recent activity and which interferes in functional capacity". CRF that meets up to 80% of patients is mainly reported by chemotherapy treatment. Patients being treated with immunotherapics report less fatigue. OBJECTIVE: Compare cancer-related fatigue in people with solid tumors undergoing exclusive immmunotherapy or chemotherapy treatments. This was an observational, cross-sectional and analytical study conducted with adult patients of both genders. The volunteers were distributed in two groups, namely, Immunotherapy and Chemotherapy. The assessment instruments were as follows: Functional Assessment Questionnaire of Chronic Illness Therapy ­ Fatigue (FACIT-F), dynamometry with a Jamar® dynamometer to assess hand grip strength and the 4-meter gait speed (4MGS) test. RESULTS: In relation to gait speed, the Immunotherapy group presented a mean speed of 1.43 m/s while the mean speed in the Chemotherapy group was 1.41 m/s. These results indicate that the patients evaluated did not present low gait speed and do not statistically differ between the groups (p=0.43). In relation to hand grip strength, we did not observe any significant difference between the groups under study (p=0.13 right hand and p=0.10 left hand). However, we noticed that the Immunotherapy group has higher mean and median values for hand grip strength in both hands, allowing us to assert that the patients studied in immunotherapy treatments presented greater hand grip strength. In relation to the fatigue inventory, in the sample studied it is observed that the final score mean proves that the Immunotherapy group presents lower occurrence of fatigue (p=0.01). CONCLUSION: There was no statistical difference between the groups in gait speed and handgrip strength. In the fatigue inventory, the immunotherapy group had a lower occurrence of fatigue with a significant difference.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Fatigue , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Hand Strength , Immunotherapy
16.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(2): 118-121, abril 2022. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1363788

ABSTRACT

Se realizó un estudio observacional y prospectivo en el Hospital Garrahan, cuyos objetivos fueron conocer la portación asintomática del coronavirus de tipo 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (SARS-CoV-2, por su sigla en inglés) en niños oncológicos y/o en sus cuidadores al hospitalizarse para realizar quimioterapia, y describir el impacto en la continuación del tratamiento en aquellos con prueba positiva para SARS-CoV-2 o con síntomas compatibles con la infección por el virus durante la internación. Se incluyeron los pacientes con enfermedad oncohematológica y sus cuidadores, a quienes se les realizó una prueba de detección de SARS-CoV-2 por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcripción inversa. Se analizaron 733 hospitalizaciones. La tasa de positividad para SARS-CoV-2 fue del 2,2 % (IC95%: 1,35-3,52). Todos los pacientes con prueba detectable completaron la quimioterapia. El 7,7 % de los pacientes presentó síntomas compatibles de caso sospechoso con prueba no detectable y el 77 % de ellos pudo continuar su tratamiento.


An observational, prospective study was carried out at Hospital Garrahan. Its objectives were to establishtherateofasymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among children with cancer and/or their caregivers during hospitalization for chemotherapy, and describe the impact of ongoing treatment among those positive for SARS-CoV-2 or with symptoms compatible with infection during hospitalization. Patients with onco-hematological disease and their caregivers were included. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2 was done. A total of 733 hospitalizations were analyzed. The SARS-CoV-2 positivity rate was 2.2% (95% confidence interval: 1.35-3.52). All patients with a detectable test result completed chemotherapy. Also, 7.7% of patients developed symptoms compatible with a suspected case although they had an undetectable test result, and 77% of them were able to continue treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , COVID-19 , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Early Detection of Cancer , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitalization
17.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(1): 20-28, feb. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388328

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La prevalencia de microorganismos multirresistentes es un problema de salud pública que continúa creciendo a lo largo del mundo. Existe una población principalmente susceptible de ser colonizada y posteriormente infectarse, son los pacientes oncológicos. OBJETIVO: Identificar las características clínicas y patológicas de los pacientes oncológicos y su relación con la infección con microorganismos productores de BLEE y EPC. PACIENTES Y MÉTODOS: Se condujo un estudio retrospectivo y de carácter analítico entre el primero de enero de 2019 y el 30 de junio de 2020 en tres unidades hemato-oncológicas. RESULTADOS: Incluyó a 3.315 pacientes, de los cuales 217 (6,5%) se encontraban colonizados por microorganismos productores de BLEE y EPC; de éstos, 106/217 (48,8%) presentaron al menos un episodio de infección. El microorganismo más frecuentemente aislado fue Klebsiella pneumoniae, en 29/106 (27,4%). De los infectados, 18/106 (17%) presentaron infección por el mismo microorganismo colonizador. La mucositis (p = 0,002), edad mayor a 65 años (p = 0,041), hipoalbuminemia (p < 0,01), neutropenia (p < 0,01) y la presencia dispositivos invasivos (p < 0,01) demostraron una relación con el desarrollo de infección. CONCLUSIÓN: La presencia de hipoalbuminemia (OR 3,3, IC 1,5-7,1, p < 0,01), dispositivos invasivos (OR 5,8, IC 3.0-11,4, p < 0,01) y neutropenia (OR 4,1, IC 1,5-11,4, p < 0,01) predicen el desarrollo de infecciones.


BACKGROUND: The prevalence of multi-resistant microorganisms is a public health problem that continues to grow globally. There is a population that is mainly susceptible to being colonized and subsequently infected, and these are cancer patients. AIM: To identify the clinical and pathological characteristics of cancer patients and their relationship with infection with ESBL and CPE producing microorganisms. METHODS: A retrospective and analytical study was conducted between January 1, 2019 and June 30, 2020 in three hematooncological units. RESULTS: We included 3315 patients of which 217 (6.5%) were colonized by microorganisms producing ESBL and CPE. Of these, 106/217 (48.8%) had at least one episode of infection. The most frequently isolated microorganism was Klebsiella pneumoniae 29/106 (27.4%). Of those infected, 18/106 (17%) presented infection by the same colonizing microorganism. Mucositis (p = 0.002), age over 65 years (p = 0.041), hypoalbuminemia (p < 0.01), neutropenia (p < 0.01) and the presence of invasive devices (p < 0.01) demonstrated a relationship with development of infection. The presence of hypoalbuminemia (OR 3.3, CI 1.5-7.1, P < 0.01), invasive devices (OR 5.8, CI 3.0-11.4, p < 0.01) and neutropenia (OR 4.1, CI 1.5-11.4, p < 0.01) predict the development of infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Hypoalbuminemia/drug therapy , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/drug therapy , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neutropenia/drug therapy , beta-Lactamases , Carbapenems/therapeutic use , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Retrospective Studies , Enterobacteriaceae , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
18.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(1): 59-69, feb. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388333

ABSTRACT

Resumen La enterocolitis neutropénica (ECN) es una enfermedad heterogénea de foco digestivo, pero afectación sistémica, que corresponde a una condición clínica grave que amenaza la vida de pacientes inmunocomprometidos, particularmente oncológicos pediátricos. De patogenia aún poco definida y aunque de causa multifactorial, la ECN se asocia a los efectos citotóxicos de la quimioterapia empleada y se caracteriza por la triada clásica que incluye fiebre, neutropenia y dolor abdominal, donde la principal injuria se localiza en la mucosa intestinal, provocando su alteración como barrera y facilitando la invasión bacteriana intramural. La ECN constituye un reto diagnóstico para el equipo tratante, que requiere ser oportuno y contar con apoyo de un óptimo laboratorio general e imagenológico, para iniciar un completo manejo multidisciplinario en unidades y centros de alta complejidad. Se presenta una revisión actualizada del tema incorporando aspectos epidemiológicos, factores de riesgo, elementos de apoyo diagnóstico, consideraciones terapéuticas y medidas de prevención a fin de aportar en el conocimiento de esta patología, y reducir morbimortalidad en estos pacientes.


Abstract Neutropenic enterocolitis (NEC) is a heterogeneous disease of the gastrointestinal tract with systemic response, that corresponds to a severe and life-threatening clinical condition in immunocompromised patients, especially in childhood cancer. The pathologic features are poorly understood, although its multifactorial cause of NEC is well established and it is associated with the cytotoxic effects of the chemotherapy agents used and recognized by the classic triad of fever, neutropenia, and abdominal pain, secondary to gastrointestinal injuries that alters mucosal permeability and helps intramural bacterial invasion. NEC is truly a clinical challenge that requires an early diagnosis and a multidisciplinary approach including basic laboratory and imagological tests in high complexity centers. We present a current review, adding epidemiological aspects, risks factors, diagnostic support elements, therapeutic considerations, and preventive measures in order to provide knowledge of this disease and help to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with it.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Enterocolitis, Neutropenic/diagnosis , Enterocolitis, Neutropenic/etiology , Enterocolitis, Neutropenic/drug therapy , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neutropenia/complications , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Immunocompromised Host , Enterocolitis/complications , Enterocolitis/diagnosis , Enterocolitis/drug therapy
19.
An. bras. dermatol ; 97(1): 14-21, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360096

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Mucocutaneous adverse events are common during anticancer treatment, with variable consequences for the patient and their therapeutic regimen. Objective: To evaluate the most common adverse events, as well as the drugs associated with their appearance and the consequences for cancer treatment. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out through the analysis of patients treated at the Clinical Dermatology Unit of a public oncologic hospital. Results: A total of 138 patients with 200 adverse events were evaluated. The most commonly identified adverse events were nail and periungual changes (20%), papulopustular eruptions (13%), acneiform eruptions (12%), hand-foot syndrome (6.5%), hand-foot skin reaction (6%), and xerosis (6%). The most frequently associated antineoplastic treatment groups were classical chemotherapy (46.2%), target therapy (32.3%), and other non-antineoplastic drugs used in neoplasia protocols (16.5%). Of the total number of patients, 17.4% had their treatment suspended or changed due to a dermatological adverse event. Study limitations: Retrospective study and analysis of patients who were referred for specialized dermatological examination only, not allowing the assessment of the actual incidence of adverse events. Conclusion: A wide variety of dermatological manifestations are secondary to antineoplastic treatment with several different drugs resulting, not rarely, in the interruption or modification of therapeutic regimens.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Skin , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals
20.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(1): 93-99, ene. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389623

ABSTRACT

Professors James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo were awarded with the 2018 Nobel Prize in Medicine for their contributions in cancer immunotherapy. The latter is a breakthrough in cancer therapy, aimed to overcome tumor-induced immunosuppression, leading to the reactivation of the immune system against cancer cells. Under physiological conditions, the CTLA-4 and PD-1 proteins expressed on T-cells and discovered by the awarded scientists, lead to immune tolerance. Cancer cells exploit these control points to enhance the inhibition of T-cells. The expression of PD ligands (PD-L1) in tumor cells and CTLA-4 ligands in antigen presenting cells, which bind the PD-1 receptor and CTLA-4 respectively, block anti-tumor immunity. This situation led to a biotechnological race focused on the development of effective antibodies able to "turn-on" the immune system cheated by the tumor. Anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 antibodies improve life-expectancy in cancer patients. In this review, we perform an historical overview of Professors Allison and Honjo contribution, as well as the immunological basis of this new and powerful therapeutic strategy, highlighting the clinical benefits of such intervention.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Neoplasms/drug therapy , CTLA-4 Antigen/therapeutic use , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy , Nobel Prize
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