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2.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(3): 95-104, sept. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128985

ABSTRACT

La relación entre inmunidad y cáncer es compleja. Las células tumorales desarrollan mecanismos de evasión a las respuestas del sistema inmunitario. Esta capacidad permite su supervivencia y crecimiento. La inmunoterapia ha transformado el tratamiento oncológico mejorando la respuesta inmunitaria contra la célula tumoral. Esta se basa en el bloqueo de los puntos de control inmunitario mediante anticuerpos monoclonales contra la molécula inhibidora CTLA-4 (antígeno 4 del linfocito T citotóxico [CTLA-4]) y la proteína 1 de muerte celular programada y su ligando (PD-1/PD-L1). Aunque los inhibidores de los puntos de control inmunitario (ICIs) son fármacos bien tolerados, tienen un perfil de efectos adversos conocido como eventos adversos inmunorrelacionados (EAI). Estos afectan varios sistemas, incluyendo las glándulas endocrinas. Los eventos adversos endocrinos más frecuentes son la disfunción tiroidea, la insuficiencia hipofisaria, la diabetes mellitus autoinmune y la insuficiencia suprarrenal primaria. El creciente conocimiento de estos efectos adversos endocrinos ha llevado a estrategias de tratamiento efectivo con el reemplazo hormonal correspondiente. El objetivo de esta revisión es reconocer la incidencia de estas nuevas endocrinopatías, la fisiopatología, su valoración clínica y el manejo terapéutico. (AU)


The relationship between immunity and cancer is complex. Tumor cells develop evasion mechanisms to the immune system responses. This ability allows their survival and progression. Immunotherapy has transformed cancer treatment by improving the immune response against tumor cells. This is achieved by blocking immune checkpoints with monoclonal antibodies against cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 and its ligand (PD-1 / PD-L1). Although the immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are well tolerated drugs, they have a profile of adverse effects known as immune-related adverse events (irAES). These involve diverse systems, including the endocrine glands. The most frequent endocrine immune-related adverse events are thyroid and pituitary dysfunction, autoimmune diabetes mellitus and primary adrenal insufficiency. The increasing knowledge of these irAES has led to effective treatment strategies with the corresponding hormonal replacement. The objective of this review is to recognize the incidence of these new endocrinopathies, the physiopathology, their clinical evaluation, and therapeutic management. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Endocrine System Diseases/chemically induced , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , Thyroid Diseases/diagnosis , Thyroid Diseases/chemically induced , Thyroid Diseases/pathology , Thyroid Diseases/therapy , Thyroxine/administration & dosage , Triiodothyronine/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Adrenal Insufficiency/diagnosis , Adrenal Insufficiency/chemically induced , Adrenal Insufficiency/pathology , Adrenal Insufficiency/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/chemically induced , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Endocrine System Diseases/diagnosis , Endocrine System Diseases/physiopathology , Endocrine System Diseases/therapy , Hypophysitis/diagnosis , Hypophysitis/chemically induced , Hypophysitis/pathology , Hypophysitis/therapy , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Insulin/therapeutic use , Methimazole/therapeutic use , Mineralocorticoids/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Neoplasms/immunology
5.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 24: 22, 2018. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954854

ABSTRACT

Cnidarians produce toxins, which are composed of different polypeptides that induce pharmacological effects of biotechnological interest, such as antitumor, antiophidic and anti-clotting activities. This study aimed to evaluate toxicological activities and potential as antitumor and antiophidic agents contained in total extracts from five cnidarians: Millepora alcicornis, Stichodactyla helianthus, Plexaura homomalla, Bartholomea annulata and Condylactis gigantea (total and body wall). Methods: The cnidarian extracts were evaluated by electrophoresis and for their phospholipase, proteolytic, hemorrhagic, coagulant, fibrinogenolytic, neuromuscular blocking, muscle-damaging, edema-inducing and cytotoxic activities. Results: All cnidarian extracts showed indirect hemolytic activity, but only S. helianthus induced direct hemolysis and neurotoxic effect. However, the hydrolysis of NBD-PC, a PLA2 substrate, was presented only by the C gigantea (body wall) and S. helianthus. The extracts from P. homomalla and S. helianthus induced edema, while only C gigantea and S. helianthus showed intensified myotoxic activity. The proteolytic activity upon casein and fibrinogen was presented mainly by B. annulata extract and all were unable to induce hemorrhage or fibrinogen coagulation. Cnidarian extracts were able to neutralize clotting induced by Bothrops jararacussu snake venom, except M. alcicornis. All cnidarian extracts were able to inhibit hemorrhagic activity induced by Bothrops moojeni venom. Only the C. gigantea (body wall) inhibited thrombin-induced coagulation. All cnidarian extracts showed antitumor effect against Jurkat cells, of which C. gigantea (body wall) and S. helianthus were the most active; however, only C. gigantea (body wall) and M. alcicornis were active against B16F10 cells. Conclusion: The cnidarian extracts analyzed showed relevant in vitro inhibitory potential over the activities induced by Bothrops venoms; these results may contribute to elucidate the possible mechanisms of interaction between cnidarian extracts and snake venoms.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Antivenins/toxicity , Cnidarian Venoms/pharmacology , Crotalid Venoms/immunology , Bothrops , Neoplasms/immunology
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(3): 7214, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889052

ABSTRACT

A biosimilar is a biologic product that is similar to a reference biopharmaceutical product, the manufacturing process of which hinders the ability to identically replicate the structure of the original product, and therefore, it cannot be described as an absolute equivalent of the original medication. The currently available technology does not allow for an accurate copy of complex molecules, but it does allow the replication of similar molecules with the same activity. As biosimilars are about to be introduced in oncology practice, these must be evaluated through evidence-based medicine. This manuscript is a position paper, where the Brazilian Society of Clinical Oncology (SBOC) aims to describe pertinent issues regarding the approval and use of biosimilars in oncology. As a working group on behalf of SBOC, we discuss aspects related to definition, labeling/nomenclature, extrapolation, interchangeability, switching, automatic substitution, clinical standards on safety and efficacy, and the potential impact on financial burden in healthcare. We take a stand in favor of the introduction of biosimilars, as they offer a viable, safe, and cost-effective alternative to the biopharmaceutical products currently used in cancer. We hope this document can provide valuable information to support therapeutic decisions that maximize the clinical benefit for the thousands of cancer patients in Brazil and can contribute to expedite the introduction of this new drug class in clinical practice. We expect the conveyed information to serve as a basis for further discussion in Latin America, this being the first position paper issued by a Latin American Oncology Society.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biosimilar Pharmaceuticals/therapeutic use , Medical Oncology , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Biosimilar Pharmaceuticals/economics , Biosimilar Pharmaceuticals/standards , Brazil , Clinical Trials as Topic , Evidence-Based Medicine , Neoplasms/immunology , Pharmacovigilance , Societies, Medical
7.
Clinics ; 73(supl.1): e557s, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974950

ABSTRACT

Technological developments have allowed improvements in radiotherapy delivery, with higher precision and better sparing of normal tissue. For many years, it has been well known that ionizing radiation has not only local action but also systemic effects by triggering many molecular signaling pathways. There is still a lack of knowledge of this issue. This review focuses on the current literature about the effects of ionizing radiation on the immune system, either suppressing or stimulating the host reactions against the tumor, and the factors that interact with these responses, such as the radiation dose and dose / fraction effects in the tumor microenvironment and vasculature. In addition, some implications of these effects in cancer treatment, mainly in combined strategies, are addressed from the perspective of their interactions with the more advanced technology currently available, such as heavy ion therapy and nanotechnology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiation, Ionizing , Radiotherapy/adverse effects , Immune System/radiation effects , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Radiotherapy/trends , Cell Death/radiation effects , Apoptosis/radiation effects , Apoptosis/immunology , Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation , Immunotherapy/methods , Immunotherapy/trends , Necrosis/etiology
8.
Clinics ; 73(supl.1): e479s, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952830

ABSTRACT

While cancer immunotherapy has gained much deserved attention in recent years, many areas regarding the optimization of such modalities remain unexplored, including the development of novel approaches and the strategic combination of therapies that target multiple aspects of the cancer-immunity cycle. Our own work involves the use of gene transfer technology to promote cell death and immune stimulation. Such immunogenic cell death, mediated by the combined transfer of the alternate reading frame (p14ARF in humans and p19Arf in mice) and the interferon-β cDNA in our case, was shown to promote an antitumor immune response in mouse models of melanoma and lung carcinoma. With these encouraging results, we are now setting out on the road toward translational and preclinical development of our novel immunotherapeutic approach. Here, we outline the perspectives and challenges that we face, including the use of human tumor and immune cells to verify the response seen in mouse models and the incorporation of clinically relevant models, such as patient-derived xenografts and spontaneous tumors in animals. In addition, we seek to combine our immunotherapeutic approach with other treatments, such as chemotherapy or checkpoint blockade, with the goal of reducing dosage and increasing efficacy. The success of any translational research requires the cooperation of a multidisciplinary team of professionals involved in laboratory and clinical research, a relationship that is fostered at the Cancer Institute of Sao Paulo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Genetic Therapy/methods , Reading Frames/genetics , Interferon-beta/therapeutic use , Gene Transfer Techniques , Immunotherapy/methods , Neoplasms/therapy , Cell Death/genetics , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16/genetics , Tumor Suppressor Protein p14ARF/genetics , Neoplasms/immunology
9.
Clinics ; 73(supl.1): e429s, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952824

ABSTRACT

The immunologic landscape of tumors has been continuously unveiled, providing a new look at the interactions between cancer cells and the immune system. Emerging tumor cells are constantly eliminated by the immune system, but some cells establish a long-term equilibrium phase leading to tumor immunoediting and, eventually, evasion. During this process, tumor cells tend to acquire more mutations. Bearing a high mutation burden leads to a greater number of neoantigens with the potential to initiate an immune response. Although many tumors evoke an immune response, tumor clearance by the immune system does not occur due to a suppressive tumor microenvironment. The mechanisms by which tumors achieve the ability to evade immunologic control vary. Understanding these differences is crucial for the improvement and application of new immune-based therapies. Much effort has been placed in developing in silico algorithms to predict tumor immunogenicity and to characterize the microenvironment via high-throughput sequencing and gene expression techniques. Each sequencing source, transcriptomics, and genomics yields a distinct level of data, helping to elucidate the tumor-based immune responses and guiding the fine-tuning of current and upcoming immune-based therapies. In this review, we explore some of the immunological concepts behind the new immunotherapies and the bioinformatic tools to study the immunological aspects of tumors, focusing on neoantigen determination and microenvironment deconvolution. We further discuss the immune-based therapies already in clinical use, those underway for future clinical application, the next steps in immunotherapy, and how the characterization of the tumor immune contexture can impact therapies aiming to promote or unleash immune-based tumor elimination.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunotherapy/methods , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/therapy , Genetic Therapy , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic , Combined Modality Therapy , Tumor Escape/immunology , Cancer Vaccines/therapeutic use , Tumor Microenvironment/immunology , Mutation , Antigens, Neoplasm/analysis , Neoplasms/genetics
10.
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(6): 830-835, Nov.-Dec. 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887132

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The stimulation of the immune system, in order to generate an attack against cancer cells, similarly to that which occurs in infectious disease, has long been matter of interest in oncology; however, only limited success has been achieved, with different treatment strategies tested in recent years. The development of new immune checkpoint inhibitors is currently changing this scenario, and immunotherapy is becoming a real choice among traditional cytotoxic treatments to fight cancer. Recent reports have shown efficacy and safety with the use of pembrolizumab, nivolumab, and ipilimumab for the treatment of different neoplasms, especially melanoma. In this article, we propose a review of the mechanisms of action involved in cancer immunology, the response evaluation of immunotherapies, and its toxicity profile, as well as a summary of the main clinical trials that led to the adoption of these new drugs for melanoma treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy/methods , Melanoma/immunology , Melanoma/drug therapy , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Treatment Outcome , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , CTLA-4 Antigen/antagonists & inhibitors , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/antagonists & inhibitors , Ipilimumab/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use
11.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 44(5): 452-456, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896606

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective : to evaluate the action of Transfer Factor on the immune response of patients with malignant neoplasm submitted to surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Method: we analyzed the variations of leukocytes, total lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes and CD4 counts in 60 patients submitted to immunostimulation with a single, daily dose of 0.5mg sublingual Transfer Factor, started simultaneously with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Results: there were statistically significant increases in the counts of all cell lines studied, more pronounced after 12 months of use of the medication. Conclusion: the Transfer Factor restored immune response and showed no side effects.


RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar a ação do Fator de Transferência na resposta imunológica de pacientes portadores de neoplasia maligna submetidos à cirurgia, quimioterapia e radioterapia. Método: análise das variações dos valores dos leucócitos, linfócitos totais, linfócitos T e CD4 em 60 pacientes submetidos à imunoestimulação com Fator de Transferência administrado em dose única de 0,5mg por via sublingual, diariamente e iniciada simultaneamente à quimioterapia e/ou radioterapia. Resultados: houve um aumento no número de todas as linhagens celulares estudadas que foi mais acentuada após 12 meses de uso da medicação. A análise estatística realizada com o software Graph Pad Instat, testadas pelo método Kolmogorov and Smirnov, mostrou que os resultados foram significativos. Conclusão: o Fator de Transferência restabeleceu a resposta imune e não apresentou efeitos colaterais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Transfer Factor/therapeutic use , Immunocompromised Host/drug effects , Neoplasms/surgery , Neoplasms/immunology , Middle Aged
12.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 33(2): 127-134, abr. 2016. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-784862

ABSTRACT

Background: Voriconazole (VCZ) serum drug levels (SDL) vary widely and are associated with increased mortality when they are below the therapeutic range for invasive aspergillosis (IA). Aim: To describe VCZ SDL in oncology pediatric patients in order to reach adequate concentrations for prophylaxis (≥ 0.5 mg/L) and treatment (≥ 1.0 y 2.0 mg/L) for IA and their relationship with toxicity. Patients and Methods: Retrospective analysis of VCZ SDL and toxicities recorded in oncology pediatric patients between February 2013 and November 2014. The daily dosage and SDLs were analyzed according to administration route: intravenous (IV) and oral (PO), type of therapy (prophylaxis and treatment) and patient age (< 12 y ≥ 12 years old). Results: 112 through levels from 26 patients were analyzed and the average age was 9.3 years-old. The SDL obtained from the IV route were 43.7%. There were more SDL ≥ 0.5 mg/L and ≥ 1.0 mg/L with the IV route than the PO route (p < 0.05). Patients younger than 12-years-old received a higher dosage than those ≥ 12 years old (median 18.6 and 9.2 mg/kg/d, respectively, p < 0.05). To reach SDL ≥ 0,5 mg/L with the PO route, a dosage of 200 mg every 12 hours showed the best results for all patients (80-100% SDL ≥ 0.5 mg/L). With an IV dosage between 14 and 20 mg/kg/day in patients > 12-years-old, 80% of the SDL were ≥ 1 mg/L and ≥ 2 mg/L. In patients younger than 12-year-old, dosages between 8-30 mg/ kg/day showed similar results (50-63% of SDL ≥ 1 mg/L and 36-40% of SDL ≥ 2 mg/L). Eight patients (30.8%) presented an adverse drug reaction and no relationship with the SDL was found. Conclusión: A VCZ standard dosage of 200 mg every 12 hours PO showed the best results for IA prophylaxis in all patients. Patients younger than 12-years-old would require higher dosages than the doses used in this study to attain adequate SDL for IA treatment. No relation with SDL and adverse reactions was found.


Introducción: Las concentraciones plasmáticas (CPs) de voriconazol (VCZ) son erráticas y en el caso de encontrarse bajo rango terapéutico para el tratamiento de aspergilosis invasora (AI) se asocian a un aumento de mortalidad. Objetivo: Analizar las CPs de VCZ obtenidas en pacientes pediátricos para alcanzar valores que se estiman efectivos para profilaxis (≥ 0,5 mg/L) y tratamiento (≥ 1,0 y 2,0 mg/L) de AI y su relación con toxicidades. Pacientes y Métodos: Análisis retrospectivo de CPs de VCZ y toxicidades asociadas obtenidas en pacientes oncológicos pediátricos desde febrero de 2013 hasta noviembre 2014. Se analizó la dosis diaria y CPs de acuerdo a la vía de administración: intravenosa (iv) u oral (vo), tipo de terapia (profilaxis y tratamiento) y edad (< 12 y ≥ 12 años). Resultados: Se analizaron 112 CPs valle de 26 pacientes, con una edad promedio de 9,3 años. El 43,7% de las CPs correspondió a administración iv. Se obtuvieron más CPs ≥ 0,5 mg/L y ≥ 1,0 mg/L con la vía iv en relación a vo (p < 0,05). Pacientes bajo 12 años de edad recibieron mayor dosis en comparación a los ≥ 12 años (medianas 18,6 y 9,2 mg/kg/día, respectivamente, p < 0,05). La dosis vo más efectiva para alcanzar CPs ≥ 0,5 mg/L fue de 200 mg cada 12 h en todos los pacientes (80-100% de CPs ≥ 0,5 mg/L). En pacientes ≥ 12 años con dosis iv entre 14 y 20 mg/kg/día, 80% de las CPs fueron ≥ 1 mg/L y ≥ 2 mg/L. En pacientes bajo 12 años de edad, dosis entre 8-30 mg/ kg/día generaron similares resultados (50-63% para CPs ≥ 1 mg/L y 36-40% para CPs ≥ 2 mg/L). Ocho pacientes (30,8%), tuvieron alguna reacción adversa al fármaco, no encontrándose relación con la CP alcanzada. Conclusión: Una dosis estándar vo de 200 mg c/12 h de VCZ mostró los mejores resultados para profilaxis de AI en todos los pacientes. Pacientes bajo 12 años de edad requerirían dosis mayores a las utilizadas en este estudio para obtener CPs efectivas para tratamiento de AI. No se encontró relación entre CPs tóxicas y reacciones adversas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Voriconazole/administration & dosage , Voriconazole/blood , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/blood , Neoplasms/immunology , Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Reference Values , Administration, Oral , Retrospective Studies , Age Factors , Treatment Outcome , Drug Monitoring , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Pharmacovigilance , Immunocompetence/drug effects , Injections, Intravenous , Neoplasms/microbiology
13.
Salvador; s.n; 2016. 79 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001016

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: O câncer do colo do útero é uma doença que apresenta um alto potencial de cura quando diagnosticado e tratado precocemente. Entretanto, sua morbimortalidade em todo o mundo ainda é elevada, constituindo-se um grande problema de Saúde Pública. O diagnóstico tardio desta neoplasia e o atraso no início do tratamento são fatores que comprometem a sobrevivência das mulheres acometidas. Assim, os determinantes para o retardo no atendimento especializado e no início do tratamento precisam ser melhor compreendidos para a efetiva assistência a essas mulheres. OBJETIVO: Descrever as características demográficas, socioeconômicas, clínicas e relacionadas ao acesso a serviços de saúde de mulheres com câncer do colo do útero e investigar a associação destas características com o retardo para um atendimento especializado e para o início do tratamento. METODOLOGIA: Trata-se de um estudo de coorte onde foram incluídas mulheres com câncer do colo do útero atendidas no Hospital Aristides Maltez, no período de 2011 a 2014...


INTRODUCTION: Cervical cancer is a disease that presents a high potential of cure when is diagnosed and treated early. However, their morbidity and mortality worldwide is still high, becoming a major public health problem. The late diagnosis of this tumor and the delay in the start of treatment are factors that compromise the survival of affected women. Thus, the decisive for the delay in specialized care and early treatment need to be better understood for effective assistance to these women. OBJECTIVE: To describe the demographic, socioeconomic , clinical and the access to health care characteristcs of women with cervical cancer and to investigate the association of these characteristics with the delay for specialized care and treatment initiation. METHODOLOGY: This is a cohort study where were included women with cervical cancer treated at Hospital Aristides Maltez, from 2011 to 2014...


Subject(s)
Humans , Cervix Uteri/anatomy & histology , Cervix Uteri/surgery , Cervix Uteri/cytology , Cervix Uteri/injuries , Cervix Uteri/pathology , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/radiotherapy
14.
Afr. j. lab. med. (Online) ; 5(1): 1-7, 2016. tab
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1257308

ABSTRACT

Background: Cancer is becoming a major cause of mortality in low- and middle-income countries. Unlike infectious disease; malignancy and other chronic conditions require significant supportive infrastructure for diagnostics; staging and treatment. In addition to morphologic diagnosis; diagnostic pathways in oncology frequently require immunohistochemistry (IHC) for confirmation. We present the experience of a tertiary-care hospital serving rural western Kenya; which developed and validated an IHC laboratory in support of a growing cancer care service. Objectives; methods and outcomes: Over the past decade; in an academic North-South collaboration; cancer services were developed for the catchment area of Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital in western Kenya. A major hurdle to treatment of cancer in a resource-limited setting has been the lack of adequate diagnostic services. Building upon the foundations of a histology laboratory; strategic investment and training were used to develop IHC services. Key elements of success in this endeavour included: translation of resource-rich practices to are source-limited setting; such as using manual; small-batch IHC instead of disposable- and maintenance-intensive automated machinery; engagement of outside expertise to develop reagent-efficient protocols and supporting all levels of staff to meet the requirements of an external quality assurance programme. Conclusion: Development of low- and middle-income country models of services; such as the IHC laboratory presented in this paper; is critical for the infrastructure in resource-limited settings to address the growing cancer burden. We provide a low-cost model that effectively develops these necessary services in a challenging laboratory environment


Subject(s)
Cancer Care Facilities , Kenya , Neoplasms/chemistry , Neoplasms/immunology
15.
Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics [The]. 2016; 17 (2): 149-154
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-180232

ABSTRACT

Immune system [IS] is comprised of molecules, cells, tissues and organs involved in host defense mechanism from infectious agents or tumor cells. On crossing the cell barriers by these infectious agents, the defense mechanism is alerted by the immune system to respond against these invading microbes. Innate immune response [IIR] and acquired immune response [AIR] are working in parallel to control these invading microbes. IIR is composed of various types of phagocytes and lymphocytes, while AIR is comprised of T and B lymphocytes. All the cells of the immune system cooperatively work against infectious agents and cancerous cells but Natural killer [NK] cells are playing an important role to respond to tumor by enhancing the expression of complementary domain [CD86] on dendritic cells [DCs] and production of IL-12. NK cells demolished tumor through perforin and granzyme, which are important for immune surveillance and death of tumor cells induced by cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor [TNF], Fas ligand [CD178], interferon-c [IFN-[gamma]] and IL-10. These cytokines have inhibited proliferation of tumor by inducing antiangiogenic factors and maintaining cross talk with other immune cells. Natural products like transfer factor plus, immune modulator mix, ascorbic acid, Ganoderma lucidum, Agaricus blazei teas, nitrogenated soy extract, Andrographis paniculata and several phytochemicals enhanced the efficiency of NK cells in controlling cancers. Further studies will unravel the impact of NK cells in cancer control and how NK efficiency can be further enhanced


Subject(s)
Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Phytochemicals/pharmacology
16.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(8): 665-675, 08/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753050

ABSTRACT

Neutrophils are widely known as proinflammatory cells associated with tissue damage and for their early arrival at sites of infection, where they exert their phagocytic activity, release their granule contents, and subsequently die. However, this view has been challenged by emerging evidence that neutrophils have other activities and are not so short-lived. Following activation, neutrophil effector functions include production and release of granule contents, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Neutrophils have also been shown to produce a wide range of cytokines that have pro- or anti-inflammatory activity, adding a modulatory role for this cell, previously known as a suicide effector. The presence of cytokines almost always implies intercellular modulation, potentially unmasking interactions of neutrophils with other immune cells. In fact, neutrophils have been found to help B cells and to modulate dendritic cell (DC), macrophage, and T-cell activities. In this review, we describe some ways in which neutrophils influence the inflammatory environment in infection, cancer, and autoimmunity, regulating both innate and adaptive immune responses. These cells can switch phenotypes and exert functions beyond cytotoxicity against invading pathogens, extending the view of neutrophils beyond suicide effectors to include functions as regulatory and suppressor cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Cell Plasticity/immunology , Immunomodulation/immunology , Neutrophil Activation/immunology , Neutrophils/physiology , Immune System Diseases/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology
17.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 59(3): 210-214, 06/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-751317

ABSTRACT

Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic expression of adipokines in the adipocytes of monosodium glutamate (MSG)-treated obese rats submitted to physical activity.Materials and methods Obesity was induced by neonatal MSG administration. Exercised rats (MSG and control) were subjected to swim training for 30 min for 10 weeks, whereas their respective controls remained sedentary. Total RNA was obtained from sections of the mesenteric adipose tissue of the rats. mRNA levels of adiponectin (Adipoq), tumor necrosis factor alpha (Tnf), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (Ppara), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg) adipokines were quantified by quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR).Results In the exercise-trained control group, the expression of Adipoq increased compared to the sedentary control, which was not observed in the MSG-obese rats. Increased levels of Tnf in MSG-obese rats were not reversed by the swim training. The expression of Ppara was higher in sedentary MSG-obese rats compared to the sedentary control. Swimming increased this adipokine expression in the exercise-trained control rats compared to the sedentary ones. mRNA levels of Pparg were higher in the sedentary MSG-rats compared to the sedentary control; however, the exercise did not influenced its expression in the groups analyzed.Conclusions In conclusion, regular physical activity was not capable to correct the expression of proinflammatory adipokines in MSG-obese rat adipocytes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Molecular Mimicry/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factors , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vaccines/chemistry , Vaccines/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/chemistry , /immunology , /chemistry , /metabolism , Cancer Vaccines/chemistry , Cancer Vaccines/immunology , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Genetic Vectors/immunology , Immunotherapy , Ligands , Lentivirus/genetics , Lentivirus/immunology , Macaca mulatta , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/therapy , Protein Multimerization , TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand/chemistry , Toll-Like Receptors/agonists , Tumor Necrosis Factors/chemistry , Vaccines, Synthetic/chemistry , Viral Matrix Proteins/immunology
19.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 28(1): 48-52, 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-742757

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few studies evaluated the association between nutritional disorders, quality of life and weight loss in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. AIM: To identify nutritional changes in patients undergoing bariatric surgery and correlate them with weight loss, control of comorbidities and quality of life. METHOD: A prospective cohort, analytical and descriptive study involving 59 patients undergoing bariatric surgery was done. Data were collected preoperatively at three and six months postoperatively, evaluating nutritional aspects and outcomes using BAROS questionnaire. The data had a confidence interval of 95%. RESULTS: The majority of patients was composed of women, 47 (79.7%), with 55.9% of the series with BMI between 40 to 49.9 kg/m². In the sixth month after surgery scores of quality of life were significantly higher than preoperatively (p<0.05) and 27 (67.5 %) patients had comorbidities resolved, 48 (81.3 %) presented BAROS scores of very good or excellent. After three and six months of surgery 16 and 23 presented some nutritional disorder, respectively. There was no relationship between the loss of excess weight and quality of life among patients with or without nutritional disorders. CONCLUSION: Nutritional disorders are uncommon in the early postoperative period and, when present, have little or no influence on quality of life and loss of excess weight. .


RACIONAL: Poucos estudos avaliam a associação entre distúrbios nutricionais, qualidade de vida e perda de peso em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia bariátrica. OBJETIVO: Identificar alterações nutricionais em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia bariátrica e correlacioná-las com perda de peso, controle de comorbidades e qualidade de vida. MÉTODO: Estudo de coorte, prospectivo, analítico e descritivo envolvendo 59 pacientes submetidos à cirurgia bariátrica. Os dados foram coletados no pré-operatório e aos três e seis meses pós- operatórios, quantificando aspectos nutricionais e utilizando o Bariatric Analysis and Reporting Outcomes System (BAROS) como ferramenta de sucesso. Os dados usaram intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: O total de mulheres foi 47 (79,7%), sendo 55,9% com IMC entre 40-49,9 kg/m². No sexto mês depois da operação os escores de qualidade de vida foram significativamente maiores do que no pré-operatório (p<0,05) e 27 (67,5%) pacientes tinham todas comorbidades resolvidas, 48 (81,3%) apresentaram conceito BAROS muito bom ou excelente. Após três e seis meses 16 e 23 pacientes apresentaram algum distúrbio nutricional, respectivamente. Não houve relação entre a perda do excesso de peso e qualidade de vida entre pacientes com ou sem distúrbio nutricional. CONCLUSÃO: os distúrbios nutricionais são pouco frequentes no pós-operatório precoce e, quando presentes, têm pouca ou nenhuma influência na qualidade de vida e na perda do excesso de peso. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Polysaccharides/immunology , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity , Cell Line, Tumor , Epitopes , Fas Ligand Protein/analysis , Fas Ligand Protein/immunology , Glycosylation , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred DBA , Mannose/analysis , Vaccination
20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-156533

ABSTRACT

Ionizing radiation is a non-specific, but most widely used therapeutic method for cancer treatment. However, a minor fraction of tumor cell population manages to survive after radiation. Radiation efficacy depends on adequate oxygen supply. Rapid growing tumors cause hypoxia that upregulates many pro-survival pathways. At clinical doses, radiation activates inflammatory pathways and causes oxidative stress that plays a positive role during angiogenesis. Selective targeting of signaling mechanisms may radiosensitize tumors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Hypoxia/immunology , Cell Hypoxia/radiation effects , Cell Proliferation/radiation effects , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Models, Immunological , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/radiotherapy , /immunology , /radiotherapy , Oxygen/immunology , Radiation, Ionizing , Radiotherapy, Conformal/methods , Treatment Outcome
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