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3.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(3): 95-104, sept. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128985

ABSTRACT

La relación entre inmunidad y cáncer es compleja. Las células tumorales desarrollan mecanismos de evasión a las respuestas del sistema inmunitario. Esta capacidad permite su supervivencia y crecimiento. La inmunoterapia ha transformado el tratamiento oncológico mejorando la respuesta inmunitaria contra la célula tumoral. Esta se basa en el bloqueo de los puntos de control inmunitario mediante anticuerpos monoclonales contra la molécula inhibidora CTLA-4 (antígeno 4 del linfocito T citotóxico [CTLA-4]) y la proteína 1 de muerte celular programada y su ligando (PD-1/PD-L1). Aunque los inhibidores de los puntos de control inmunitario (ICIs) son fármacos bien tolerados, tienen un perfil de efectos adversos conocido como eventos adversos inmunorrelacionados (EAI). Estos afectan varios sistemas, incluyendo las glándulas endocrinas. Los eventos adversos endocrinos más frecuentes son la disfunción tiroidea, la insuficiencia hipofisaria, la diabetes mellitus autoinmune y la insuficiencia suprarrenal primaria. El creciente conocimiento de estos efectos adversos endocrinos ha llevado a estrategias de tratamiento efectivo con el reemplazo hormonal correspondiente. El objetivo de esta revisión es reconocer la incidencia de estas nuevas endocrinopatías, la fisiopatología, su valoración clínica y el manejo terapéutico. (AU)


The relationship between immunity and cancer is complex. Tumor cells develop evasion mechanisms to the immune system responses. This ability allows their survival and progression. Immunotherapy has transformed cancer treatment by improving the immune response against tumor cells. This is achieved by blocking immune checkpoints with monoclonal antibodies against cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 and its ligand (PD-1 / PD-L1). Although the immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are well tolerated drugs, they have a profile of adverse effects known as immune-related adverse events (irAES). These involve diverse systems, including the endocrine glands. The most frequent endocrine immune-related adverse events are thyroid and pituitary dysfunction, autoimmune diabetes mellitus and primary adrenal insufficiency. The increasing knowledge of these irAES has led to effective treatment strategies with the corresponding hormonal replacement. The objective of this review is to recognize the incidence of these new endocrinopathies, the physiopathology, their clinical evaluation, and therapeutic management. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Endocrine System Diseases/chemically induced , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , Thyroid Diseases/diagnosis , Thyroid Diseases/chemically induced , Thyroid Diseases/pathology , Thyroid Diseases/therapy , Thyroxine/administration & dosage , Triiodothyronine/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Adrenal Insufficiency/diagnosis , Adrenal Insufficiency/chemically induced , Adrenal Insufficiency/pathology , Adrenal Insufficiency/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/chemically induced , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Endocrine System Diseases/diagnosis , Endocrine System Diseases/physiopathology , Endocrine System Diseases/therapy , Hypophysitis/diagnosis , Hypophysitis/chemically induced , Hypophysitis/pathology , Hypophysitis/therapy , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Insulin/therapeutic use , Methimazole/therapeutic use , Mineralocorticoids/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Neoplasms/immunology
4.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(3): 229-236, may.-jun. 2020. graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249899

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los anticuerpos terapéuticos son proteínas recombinantes empleadas en el tratamiento del cáncer. Existe una nueva generación de anticuerpos monoclonales con actividad contra las células cancerosas, conocidos como anticuerpos conjugados a fármacos. Estas moléculas están integradas por tres elementos: un anticuerpo monoclonal, un fármaco citotóxico con alta potencia y un enlazador químico que los une. El anticuerpo reconoce antígenos tumorales, por lo que permite la entrega dirigida del agente citotóxico hacia las células cancerosas. Tras el reconocimiento de su antígeno, el anticuerpo conjugado a fármaco es endocitado por las células blanco, donde se induce la degradación lisosomal de la fracción proteica y se libera el fármaco citotóxico. En el presente artículo se revisan las características generales de los anticuerpos conjugados a fármacos y se describe la evidencia clínica de la eficacia y seguridad de los primeros cuatro aprobados por las agencias reguladoras de Estados Unidos y Europa.


Abstract Therapeutic antibodies are recombinant proteins used in the treatment of cancer. There is a new generation of monoclonal antibodies with activity against cancer cells, known as antibody-drug conjugates. These molecules are made up of three elements: a monoclonal antibody, a highly potent cytotoxic drug, and a chemical linker that binds them together. The antibody recognizes tumor antigens, thereby allowing targeted delivery of the cytotoxic agent to cancer cells. After recognizing its antigen, the antibody-drug conjugate is endocytosed by the target cells, where the protein fraction is degradated into lysosomes, releasing the cytotoxic drug. This article reviews antibody-drug conjugates general characteristics and describes the clinical evidence of efficacy and safety of the first four approved by regulatory agencies in the United States and Europe.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunoconjugates/administration & dosage , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Biotechnology , Immunoconjugates/adverse effects , Immunoconjugates/pharmacology , Antigens, Neoplasm/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology
7.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 78(5): 336-348, oct. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-976122

ABSTRACT

La activación del sistema inmunológico en pacientes con cáncer ha sido un objetivo histórico en el campo de la oncología. En las últimas décadas, nuestro entendimiento de la respuesta inmunológica antitumoral ha promovido el desarrollo de novedosas estrategias terapéuticas dando como resultado un cambio de paradigma en el tratamiento del cáncer. La utilización de agentes bloqueantes de puntos de chequeo del sistema inmunológico como PD-1/PD-L1 y CTLA-4, de agonistas de moléculas co-estimuladoras como CD137 y OX-40 y la transferencia adoptiva de células T antitumorales modificadas genéticamente han generado importantes beneficios clínicos, reflejados en respuestas objetivas y durader as, en enfermos sin tratamientos convencionales disponibles. Sin embargo, un gran número de pacientes no responde a dichas terapias generando resistencia o sufriendo recaídas de la enfermedad debido a la aparición de circuitos inhibitorios o compensatorios. La combinación racional de estrategias terapéuticas permite eliminar mecanismos de resistencia, mientras que la identificación de biomarcadores predictivos facilita la selección de pacientes respondedores a dichos tratamientos. Recientes ensayos clínicos y estudios pre-clínicos permiten vislumbrar un escenario optimista con importantes desafíos en la implementación de estrategias de inmunoterapia en cáncer.


Recent under-standing of the mechanisms that control immune system homeostasis and orchestrate antitumor responses has prompted the development of novel immunotherapeutic modalities. These include antibodies that target immune checkpoints such as PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA-4, agonistic antibodies of costimulatory molecules such as CD137 and OX-40 and the adoptive transfer of genetically-modified antitumor T cells. However, a large number of patients do not respond to these therapies and develop resistance as a result of activation of compensatory circuits. Rational combination of immunotherapeutic modalities will help overcome resistance and will increase the number of patients who will benefit from these treatments. Moreover, identification of predictive biomarkers will allow selection of patients responding to these treatments. Emerging clinical trials and pre-clinical studies have shown exciting results anticipating new horizons in the design and implementation of cancer immunotherapeutic modalities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunotherapy/trends , Neoplasms/therapy , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Tumor Microenvironment/immunology , CTLA-4 Antigen , Immunotherapy/methods , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology
8.
Clinics ; 73(supl.1): e557s, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974950

ABSTRACT

Technological developments have allowed improvements in radiotherapy delivery, with higher precision and better sparing of normal tissue. For many years, it has been well known that ionizing radiation has not only local action but also systemic effects by triggering many molecular signaling pathways. There is still a lack of knowledge of this issue. This review focuses on the current literature about the effects of ionizing radiation on the immune system, either suppressing or stimulating the host reactions against the tumor, and the factors that interact with these responses, such as the radiation dose and dose / fraction effects in the tumor microenvironment and vasculature. In addition, some implications of these effects in cancer treatment, mainly in combined strategies, are addressed from the perspective of their interactions with the more advanced technology currently available, such as heavy ion therapy and nanotechnology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiation, Ionizing , Radiotherapy/adverse effects , Immune System/radiation effects , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Radiotherapy/trends , Cell Death/radiation effects , Apoptosis/radiation effects , Apoptosis/immunology , Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation , Immunotherapy/methods , Immunotherapy/trends , Necrosis/etiology
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941734

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical characteristics of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with malignant tumor.@*METHODS@#Retrospective summary was made of 1 562 in patients of RA from January 2011 to June 2017. In the study, 74 RA patients with malignant tumor were reviewed and analyzed, and the general conditions, tumor types, RA and tumor onset sequence, and the medication situation were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The incidence of malignant tumor in the patients with rheumatoid arthritis in our center was 4.16%. The 74 patients were complicated with malignant tumor, of whom 53 were female, and 21 male. The age of RA at presentation was (52.6±17.8) years. The average disease duration of malignant tumor was (63.4 ± 12.7) years. The onset time of rheumatoid arthritis was earlier than that of malignant tumors in 51 cases (51/74), with an average of (17.2±14.2) years between 2 and 60 years. The incidence of malignant tumor was earlier than that of rheumatoid arthritis in 16 cases (16/74), with an average of (6.2±5.9) years between 1 and 21 years, of which 10 cases were sex hormone related tumors. Seven cases (7/74) were diagnosed with RA at the same time, and the time interval between the two diseases was within 1 year. All the patients were over 60 years old with digestive tract tumors. All the 7 patients showed polyarthritis, significantly increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein, including 4 rheumatoid factor positive cases and 2 anti-CCP antibody positive cases. The effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and traditional drugs to improve the condition of the disease was poor in the 7 patients, and the condition was relieved after using low-dose glucocorticoids. Gastrointestinal tumors, breast and reproductive system tumors were the most common, followed by respiratory, urological and blood system tumors.@*CONCLUSION@#The risk in patients of rheumatoid arthritis complicated with malignant tumor is higher than that of the general population. A variety of factors play an important role in cancer risk of RA, including disease activity, some estrogen metabolites, the use of drugs and so on. Therefore, all RA patients should be screened for malignant tumor during diagnosis, and malignant tumor surveillance is mandatory for all rheumatoid arthritis patients after diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Autoantibodies , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/immunology , Peptides, Cyclic , Retrospective Studies , Rheumatoid Factor/blood
10.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 24: 22, 2018. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954854

ABSTRACT

Cnidarians produce toxins, which are composed of different polypeptides that induce pharmacological effects of biotechnological interest, such as antitumor, antiophidic and anti-clotting activities. This study aimed to evaluate toxicological activities and potential as antitumor and antiophidic agents contained in total extracts from five cnidarians: Millepora alcicornis, Stichodactyla helianthus, Plexaura homomalla, Bartholomea annulata and Condylactis gigantea (total and body wall). Methods: The cnidarian extracts were evaluated by electrophoresis and for their phospholipase, proteolytic, hemorrhagic, coagulant, fibrinogenolytic, neuromuscular blocking, muscle-damaging, edema-inducing and cytotoxic activities. Results: All cnidarian extracts showed indirect hemolytic activity, but only S. helianthus induced direct hemolysis and neurotoxic effect. However, the hydrolysis of NBD-PC, a PLA2 substrate, was presented only by the C gigantea (body wall) and S. helianthus. The extracts from P. homomalla and S. helianthus induced edema, while only C gigantea and S. helianthus showed intensified myotoxic activity. The proteolytic activity upon casein and fibrinogen was presented mainly by B. annulata extract and all were unable to induce hemorrhage or fibrinogen coagulation. Cnidarian extracts were able to neutralize clotting induced by Bothrops jararacussu snake venom, except M. alcicornis. All cnidarian extracts were able to inhibit hemorrhagic activity induced by Bothrops moojeni venom. Only the C. gigantea (body wall) inhibited thrombin-induced coagulation. All cnidarian extracts showed antitumor effect against Jurkat cells, of which C. gigantea (body wall) and S. helianthus were the most active; however, only C. gigantea (body wall) and M. alcicornis were active against B16F10 cells. Conclusion: The cnidarian extracts analyzed showed relevant in vitro inhibitory potential over the activities induced by Bothrops venoms; these results may contribute to elucidate the possible mechanisms of interaction between cnidarian extracts and snake venoms.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Antivenins/toxicity , Cnidarian Venoms/pharmacology , Crotalid Venoms/immunology , Bothrops , Neoplasms/immunology
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(3): 7214, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889052

ABSTRACT

A biosimilar is a biologic product that is similar to a reference biopharmaceutical product, the manufacturing process of which hinders the ability to identically replicate the structure of the original product, and therefore, it cannot be described as an absolute equivalent of the original medication. The currently available technology does not allow for an accurate copy of complex molecules, but it does allow the replication of similar molecules with the same activity. As biosimilars are about to be introduced in oncology practice, these must be evaluated through evidence-based medicine. This manuscript is a position paper, where the Brazilian Society of Clinical Oncology (SBOC) aims to describe pertinent issues regarding the approval and use of biosimilars in oncology. As a working group on behalf of SBOC, we discuss aspects related to definition, labeling/nomenclature, extrapolation, interchangeability, switching, automatic substitution, clinical standards on safety and efficacy, and the potential impact on financial burden in healthcare. We take a stand in favor of the introduction of biosimilars, as they offer a viable, safe, and cost-effective alternative to the biopharmaceutical products currently used in cancer. We hope this document can provide valuable information to support therapeutic decisions that maximize the clinical benefit for the thousands of cancer patients in Brazil and can contribute to expedite the introduction of this new drug class in clinical practice. We expect the conveyed information to serve as a basis for further discussion in Latin America, this being the first position paper issued by a Latin American Oncology Society.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biosimilar Pharmaceuticals/therapeutic use , Medical Oncology , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Biosimilar Pharmaceuticals/economics , Biosimilar Pharmaceuticals/standards , Brazil , Clinical Trials as Topic , Evidence-Based Medicine , Neoplasms/immunology , Pharmacovigilance , Societies, Medical
12.
Clinics ; 73(supl.1): e479s, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952830

ABSTRACT

While cancer immunotherapy has gained much deserved attention in recent years, many areas regarding the optimization of such modalities remain unexplored, including the development of novel approaches and the strategic combination of therapies that target multiple aspects of the cancer-immunity cycle. Our own work involves the use of gene transfer technology to promote cell death and immune stimulation. Such immunogenic cell death, mediated by the combined transfer of the alternate reading frame (p14ARF in humans and p19Arf in mice) and the interferon-β cDNA in our case, was shown to promote an antitumor immune response in mouse models of melanoma and lung carcinoma. With these encouraging results, we are now setting out on the road toward translational and preclinical development of our novel immunotherapeutic approach. Here, we outline the perspectives and challenges that we face, including the use of human tumor and immune cells to verify the response seen in mouse models and the incorporation of clinically relevant models, such as patient-derived xenografts and spontaneous tumors in animals. In addition, we seek to combine our immunotherapeutic approach with other treatments, such as chemotherapy or checkpoint blockade, with the goal of reducing dosage and increasing efficacy. The success of any translational research requires the cooperation of a multidisciplinary team of professionals involved in laboratory and clinical research, a relationship that is fostered at the Cancer Institute of Sao Paulo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Genetic Therapy/methods , Reading Frames/genetics , Interferon-beta/therapeutic use , Gene Transfer Techniques , Immunotherapy/methods , Neoplasms/therapy , Cell Death/genetics , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16/genetics , Tumor Suppressor Protein p14ARF/genetics , Neoplasms/immunology
13.
Clinics ; 73(supl.1): e429s, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952824

ABSTRACT

The immunologic landscape of tumors has been continuously unveiled, providing a new look at the interactions between cancer cells and the immune system. Emerging tumor cells are constantly eliminated by the immune system, but some cells establish a long-term equilibrium phase leading to tumor immunoediting and, eventually, evasion. During this process, tumor cells tend to acquire more mutations. Bearing a high mutation burden leads to a greater number of neoantigens with the potential to initiate an immune response. Although many tumors evoke an immune response, tumor clearance by the immune system does not occur due to a suppressive tumor microenvironment. The mechanisms by which tumors achieve the ability to evade immunologic control vary. Understanding these differences is crucial for the improvement and application of new immune-based therapies. Much effort has been placed in developing in silico algorithms to predict tumor immunogenicity and to characterize the microenvironment via high-throughput sequencing and gene expression techniques. Each sequencing source, transcriptomics, and genomics yields a distinct level of data, helping to elucidate the tumor-based immune responses and guiding the fine-tuning of current and upcoming immune-based therapies. In this review, we explore some of the immunological concepts behind the new immunotherapies and the bioinformatic tools to study the immunological aspects of tumors, focusing on neoantigen determination and microenvironment deconvolution. We further discuss the immune-based therapies already in clinical use, those underway for future clinical application, the next steps in immunotherapy, and how the characterization of the tumor immune contexture can impact therapies aiming to promote or unleash immune-based tumor elimination.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunotherapy/methods , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/therapy , Genetic Therapy , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic , Combined Modality Therapy , Tumor Escape/immunology , Cancer Vaccines/therapeutic use , Tumor Microenvironment/immunology , Mutation , Antigens, Neoplasm/analysis , Neoplasms/genetics
14.
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(6): 830-835, Nov.-Dec. 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887132

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The stimulation of the immune system, in order to generate an attack against cancer cells, similarly to that which occurs in infectious disease, has long been matter of interest in oncology; however, only limited success has been achieved, with different treatment strategies tested in recent years. The development of new immune checkpoint inhibitors is currently changing this scenario, and immunotherapy is becoming a real choice among traditional cytotoxic treatments to fight cancer. Recent reports have shown efficacy and safety with the use of pembrolizumab, nivolumab, and ipilimumab for the treatment of different neoplasms, especially melanoma. In this article, we propose a review of the mechanisms of action involved in cancer immunology, the response evaluation of immunotherapies, and its toxicity profile, as well as a summary of the main clinical trials that led to the adoption of these new drugs for melanoma treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy/methods , Melanoma/immunology , Melanoma/drug therapy , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Treatment Outcome , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , CTLA-4 Antigen/antagonists & inhibitors , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/antagonists & inhibitors , Ipilimumab/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use
15.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 44(5): 452-456, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896606

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective : to evaluate the action of Transfer Factor on the immune response of patients with malignant neoplasm submitted to surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Method: we analyzed the variations of leukocytes, total lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes and CD4 counts in 60 patients submitted to immunostimulation with a single, daily dose of 0.5mg sublingual Transfer Factor, started simultaneously with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Results: there were statistically significant increases in the counts of all cell lines studied, more pronounced after 12 months of use of the medication. Conclusion: the Transfer Factor restored immune response and showed no side effects.


RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar a ação do Fator de Transferência na resposta imunológica de pacientes portadores de neoplasia maligna submetidos à cirurgia, quimioterapia e radioterapia. Método: análise das variações dos valores dos leucócitos, linfócitos totais, linfócitos T e CD4 em 60 pacientes submetidos à imunoestimulação com Fator de Transferência administrado em dose única de 0,5mg por via sublingual, diariamente e iniciada simultaneamente à quimioterapia e/ou radioterapia. Resultados: houve um aumento no número de todas as linhagens celulares estudadas que foi mais acentuada após 12 meses de uso da medicação. A análise estatística realizada com o software Graph Pad Instat, testadas pelo método Kolmogorov and Smirnov, mostrou que os resultados foram significativos. Conclusão: o Fator de Transferência restabeleceu a resposta imune e não apresentou efeitos colaterais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Transfer Factor/therapeutic use , Immunocompromised Host/drug effects , Neoplasms/surgery , Neoplasms/immunology , Middle Aged
16.
Colomb. med ; 48(3): 138-147, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-890869

ABSTRACT

Abstract The immune system interacts closely with tumors during the disease development and progression to metastasis. The complex communication between the immune system and the tumor cells can prevent or promote tumor growth. New therapeutic approaches harnessing protective immunological mechanisms have recently shown very promising results. This is performed by blocking inhibitory signals or by activating immunological effector cells directly. Immune checkpoint blockade with monoclonal antibodies directed against the inhibitory immune receptors CTLA-4 and PD-1 has emerged as a successful treatment approach for patients with advanced melanoma. Ipilimumab is an anti-CTLA-4 antibody which demonstrated good results when administered to patients with melanoma. Gene therapy has also shown promising results in clinical trials. Particularly, Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-mediated delivery of the HSV thymidine kinase (TK) gene to tumor cells in combination with ganciclovir (GCV) may provide an effective suicide gene therapy for destruction of glioblastomas, prostate tumors and other neoplasias by recruiting tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes into the tumor. The development of new treatment strategies or combination of available innovative therapies to improve cell cytotoxic T lymphocytes trafficking into the tumor mass and the production of inhibitory molecules blocking tumor tissue immune-tolerance are crucial to improve the efficacy of cancer therapy.


Resumen El sistema inmune interactúa íntimamente con los tumores durante el proceso del desarrollo de la enfermedad y su progresión a metástasis. Esta compleja comunicación entre el sistema inmune y las células tumorales puede prevenir o promover el crecimiento del tumor. Los nuevos enfoques terapéuticos que aprovechan los mecanismos inmunológicos, ya sea por el bloqueo de señales inhibitorias o por la activación directa de células efectoras, han mostrado resultados prometedores. El bloqueo de puntos de control inmunológicos (immune-checkpoints) con anticuerpos monoclonales dirigidos contra receptores que normalmente inhiben el sistema inmune, como CTLA-4 o PD-1, ha resultado ser un tratamiento exitoso para pacientes con melanoma avanzado. El fármaco ipilimumab es un anticuerpo anti-CTLA-4 que ha demostrado buenos resultados terapéuticos en pacientes con melanoma. Por otro lado, la terapia génica también ha mostrado resultados prometedores en ensayos clínicos. En especial, la administración de la enzima timidina quinasa del virus Herpes simplex (HSV-TK) en combinación con el fármaco ganciclovir (GCV) ha mostrado ser una terapia suicida muy efectiva para la destrucción de diferentes neoplasias incluyendo glioblastomas y tumores prostáticos, por un mecanismo que involucra el reclutamiento de linfocitos infiltrantes de tumor. Es importante la búsqueda de nuevas estrategias o la combinación de terapias innovadoras, con el fin de involucrar tanto la atracción de linfocitos citotóxicos así como el empleo de moléculas que inhiban la inmunotolerancia del tejido tumoral para mejorar la eficiencia de los tratamientos contra el cáncer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Genetic Therapy/methods , Immunotherapy/methods , Neoplasms/therapy , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Combined Modality Therapy/methods , CTLA-4 Antigen , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/metabolism , Immune System , Immunity, Cellular , Neoplasms/immunology
17.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 76(5): 307-314, Oct. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-841598

ABSTRACT

En los últimos años la inmunoterapia ha revolucionado el tratamiento de pacientes con cáncer avanzado. El mayor conocimiento de la biología tumoral y de la inmunología ha permitido desarrollar tratamientos racionales manipulando el sistema inmunitario con importante impacto clínico. Entre otras estrategias de inmunoterapia contra el cáncer se ha explorado el uso de vacunas terapéuticas basadas en células dendríticas (CD). Las CD son células de origen hematopoyético, que expresan constitutivamente moléculas presentadoras de antígeno, y son funcionalmente las inductoras más potentes de la activación y proliferación de linfocitos T a los que presentan antígenos. Los linfocitos T CD8+ proliferan y adquieren capacidad citotóxica cuando reconocen su antígeno específico presentado en la superficie de CD, aunque solo algunos tipos de CD pueden presentar antígenos internalizados desde el exterior celular a precursores de linfocitos T citotóxicos (a esta función se la llama presentación cruzada). Explotar la inducción de una respuesta inmunitaria adaptativa eficaz se considera una buena opción por su especificidad y prolongada duración de la respuesta. Las CD, gracias a su particular capacidad de presentación antigénica y de estimulación linfocitaria, son capaces de revertir la respuesta inmunitaria antitumoral deficiente que presentan algunos pacientes con cáncer. Las CD se pueden obtener a partir de distintas fuentes, empleando diversos protocolos para generar diferenciación y maduración, y se administran por diversas vías como son subcutánea, intravenosa o intranodal. La gran variedad de protocolos en los que se aplican las CD explica los resultados clínicos tan heterogéneos que se han comunicado hasta la fecha.


In recent years immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of patients with advanced cancer. The increased knowledge in the tumor immune-biology has allowed developing rational treatments by manipulation of the immune system with significant clinical impact. This rapid development has significantly changed the prognosis of many tumors without treatment options up to date. Other strategies have explored the use of therapeutic vaccines based on dendritic cells (DC) by inducing antitumor immunity. DC are cells of hematopoietic origin, constitutively expressing molecules capable to present antigens, that are functionally the most potent inducers of the activation and proliferation of antigen specific T lymphocytes. The CD8+ T cells proliferate and acquire cytotoxic capacity after recognizing their specific antigen presented on the surface of DC, although only some types of DC can present antigens internalized from outside the cell to precursors of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (this function is called cross-presentation) requiring translocation mechanisms of complex antigens. The induction of an effective adaptive immune response is considered a good option given its specificity, and prolonged duration of response. The DC, thanks to its particular ability of antigen presentation and lymphocyte stimulation, are able to reverse the poor antitumor immune response experienced by patients with cancer. The DC can be obtained from various sources, using different protocols to generate differentiation and maturation, and are administered by various routes such as subcutaneous, intravenous or intranodal. The wide variety of protocols resulted in heterogeneous clinical responses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Cancer Vaccines/immunology , Neoplasms/therapy , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Antigen Presentation/immunology , Antigens, Neoplasm/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology
18.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 53(3): 175-179, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787352

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background Occult hepatitis B infection is characterized by negative hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and also detectable hepatitis B virus (HBV) -DNA, with or without hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc). HBV reactivation in individuals under immunosuppressive therapy is critical, occurring in occult HBV. Objective In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of occult HBV infection among hepatitis B surface antigen negative in cancer patients before receiving chemotherapy. Methods Sera from 204 cancer patients who were negative for HBsAg, were tested for anti-HBc antibodies. The samples that were negative for HBsAg but positive for anti-HBc also examined for HBV-DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results Of the 204 HBsAg negative blood samples, 11 (5.4%) samples were positive for anti-HBc antibodies. HBV-DNA was detected in 9/11 (81%) of anti-HBc positive samples. Occult HBV infection in hematological cancers was more than solid cancers, 4.8% and 4.3% respectively. There was no significant difference in HBc antibody positivity based on vaccination, previous blood transfusions, history of familial hepatitis or biochemical parameters (ALT, AST, total and direct bilirubin levels) (P>0.05). Conclusion Screening of occult HBV infection by HBsAg, HBV DNA and anti HB core antibody should be suggested as a routine investigation in cancer patients before receiving chemotherapy.


RESUMO Contexto A infecção oculta da hepatite B caracteriza-se por antígeno de superfície da hepatite B (AgHBs) negativo com vírus detectável da hepatite B (HBV) -DNA, com ou sem anticorpo de núcleo da hepatite B (anti-HBc). A reativação do HBV em indivíduos sob terapia imunossupressora é crítica, originando a infecção oculta pelo VHB. Objetivo Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a prevalência de infecção oculta pelo VHB entre em pacientes com câncer e com antígeno de superfície da hepatite B negativo antes de receber quimioterapia. Métodos Soro de 204 pacientes com câncer que foram negativos para AgHBs, foram testados para anticorpos anti-HBc. As amostras que foram negativos para AgHBs, mas positivo para anti-HBc foram também examinadas para HBV-DNA, por reação em cadeia da polimerase. Resultados Entre 204 amostras de sangue AgHBs negativas, 11 (5,4%) foram positivos para anticorpos anti-HBc. HBV-DNA foi detectado em 9/11 (81%) das amostras positivas de anti-HBc. Infecção oculta de VHB em câncer hematológico foi maior que em cânceres sólidos, 4,8% e 4,3% respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa na positividade anti-HBc, com base na vacinação, transfusões de sangue anteriores, história de hepatite familiar ou parâmetros bioquímicos (ALT, AST, total e níveis de bilirrubina total) (P & gt; 0,05). Conclusão A triagem de infecção oculta por AgHBs, HBV-DNA e anti-anticorpo de núcleo HB deve ser sugerida como uma investigação de rotina em pacientes com câncer antes de receber a quimioterapia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , DNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Hepatitis B virus/isolation & purification , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/immunology , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/immunology , Iran/epidemiology , Middle Aged
19.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 33(2): 127-134, abr. 2016. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-784862

ABSTRACT

Background: Voriconazole (VCZ) serum drug levels (SDL) vary widely and are associated with increased mortality when they are below the therapeutic range for invasive aspergillosis (IA). Aim: To describe VCZ SDL in oncology pediatric patients in order to reach adequate concentrations for prophylaxis (≥ 0.5 mg/L) and treatment (≥ 1.0 y 2.0 mg/L) for IA and their relationship with toxicity. Patients and Methods: Retrospective analysis of VCZ SDL and toxicities recorded in oncology pediatric patients between February 2013 and November 2014. The daily dosage and SDLs were analyzed according to administration route: intravenous (IV) and oral (PO), type of therapy (prophylaxis and treatment) and patient age (< 12 y ≥ 12 years old). Results: 112 through levels from 26 patients were analyzed and the average age was 9.3 years-old. The SDL obtained from the IV route were 43.7%. There were more SDL ≥ 0.5 mg/L and ≥ 1.0 mg/L with the IV route than the PO route (p < 0.05). Patients younger than 12-years-old received a higher dosage than those ≥ 12 years old (median 18.6 and 9.2 mg/kg/d, respectively, p < 0.05). To reach SDL ≥ 0,5 mg/L with the PO route, a dosage of 200 mg every 12 hours showed the best results for all patients (80-100% SDL ≥ 0.5 mg/L). With an IV dosage between 14 and 20 mg/kg/day in patients > 12-years-old, 80% of the SDL were ≥ 1 mg/L and ≥ 2 mg/L. In patients younger than 12-year-old, dosages between 8-30 mg/ kg/day showed similar results (50-63% of SDL ≥ 1 mg/L and 36-40% of SDL ≥ 2 mg/L). Eight patients (30.8%) presented an adverse drug reaction and no relationship with the SDL was found. Conclusión: A VCZ standard dosage of 200 mg every 12 hours PO showed the best results for IA prophylaxis in all patients. Patients younger than 12-years-old would require higher dosages than the doses used in this study to attain adequate SDL for IA treatment. No relation with SDL and adverse reactions was found.


Introducción: Las concentraciones plasmáticas (CPs) de voriconazol (VCZ) son erráticas y en el caso de encontrarse bajo rango terapéutico para el tratamiento de aspergilosis invasora (AI) se asocian a un aumento de mortalidad. Objetivo: Analizar las CPs de VCZ obtenidas en pacientes pediátricos para alcanzar valores que se estiman efectivos para profilaxis (≥ 0,5 mg/L) y tratamiento (≥ 1,0 y 2,0 mg/L) de AI y su relación con toxicidades. Pacientes y Métodos: Análisis retrospectivo de CPs de VCZ y toxicidades asociadas obtenidas en pacientes oncológicos pediátricos desde febrero de 2013 hasta noviembre 2014. Se analizó la dosis diaria y CPs de acuerdo a la vía de administración: intravenosa (iv) u oral (vo), tipo de terapia (profilaxis y tratamiento) y edad (< 12 y ≥ 12 años). Resultados: Se analizaron 112 CPs valle de 26 pacientes, con una edad promedio de 9,3 años. El 43,7% de las CPs correspondió a administración iv. Se obtuvieron más CPs ≥ 0,5 mg/L y ≥ 1,0 mg/L con la vía iv en relación a vo (p < 0,05). Pacientes bajo 12 años de edad recibieron mayor dosis en comparación a los ≥ 12 años (medianas 18,6 y 9,2 mg/kg/día, respectivamente, p < 0,05). La dosis vo más efectiva para alcanzar CPs ≥ 0,5 mg/L fue de 200 mg cada 12 h en todos los pacientes (80-100% de CPs ≥ 0,5 mg/L). En pacientes ≥ 12 años con dosis iv entre 14 y 20 mg/kg/día, 80% de las CPs fueron ≥ 1 mg/L y ≥ 2 mg/L. En pacientes bajo 12 años de edad, dosis entre 8-30 mg/ kg/día generaron similares resultados (50-63% para CPs ≥ 1 mg/L y 36-40% para CPs ≥ 2 mg/L). Ocho pacientes (30,8%), tuvieron alguna reacción adversa al fármaco, no encontrándose relación con la CP alcanzada. Conclusión: Una dosis estándar vo de 200 mg c/12 h de VCZ mostró los mejores resultados para profilaxis de AI en todos los pacientes. Pacientes bajo 12 años de edad requerirían dosis mayores a las utilizadas en este estudio para obtener CPs efectivas para tratamiento de AI. No se encontró relación entre CPs tóxicas y reacciones adversas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Voriconazole/administration & dosage , Voriconazole/blood , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/blood , Neoplasms/immunology , Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Reference Values , Administration, Oral , Retrospective Studies , Age Factors , Treatment Outcome , Drug Monitoring , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Pharmacovigilance , Immunocompetence/drug effects , Injections, Intravenous , Neoplasms/microbiology
20.
Salvador; s.n; 2016. 79 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001016

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: O câncer do colo do útero é uma doença que apresenta um alto potencial de cura quando diagnosticado e tratado precocemente. Entretanto, sua morbimortalidade em todo o mundo ainda é elevada, constituindo-se um grande problema de Saúde Pública. O diagnóstico tardio desta neoplasia e o atraso no início do tratamento são fatores que comprometem a sobrevivência das mulheres acometidas. Assim, os determinantes para o retardo no atendimento especializado e no início do tratamento precisam ser melhor compreendidos para a efetiva assistência a essas mulheres. OBJETIVO: Descrever as características demográficas, socioeconômicas, clínicas e relacionadas ao acesso a serviços de saúde de mulheres com câncer do colo do útero e investigar a associação destas características com o retardo para um atendimento especializado e para o início do tratamento. METODOLOGIA: Trata-se de um estudo de coorte onde foram incluídas mulheres com câncer do colo do útero atendidas no Hospital Aristides Maltez, no período de 2011 a 2014...


INTRODUCTION: Cervical cancer is a disease that presents a high potential of cure when is diagnosed and treated early. However, their morbidity and mortality worldwide is still high, becoming a major public health problem. The late diagnosis of this tumor and the delay in the start of treatment are factors that compromise the survival of affected women. Thus, the decisive for the delay in specialized care and early treatment need to be better understood for effective assistance to these women. OBJECTIVE: To describe the demographic, socioeconomic , clinical and the access to health care characteristcs of women with cervical cancer and to investigate the association of these characteristics with the delay for specialized care and treatment initiation. METHODOLOGY: This is a cohort study where were included women with cervical cancer treated at Hospital Aristides Maltez, from 2011 to 2014...


Subject(s)
Humans , Cervix Uteri/anatomy & histology , Cervix Uteri/surgery , Cervix Uteri/cytology , Cervix Uteri/injuries , Cervix Uteri/pathology , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/radiotherapy
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