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Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 45-50, feb. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430521


SUMMARY: Neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neurotransmitter related to vasculogenesis during organ development. The vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is also required for vascular patterning during lung morphogenesis. CGRP is primarily found in organs and initially appears in pulmonary neuroendocrine cells during the early embryonic stage of lung development. However, the relationship between CGRP and VEGF-A during lung formation remains unclear. This study investigates CGRP and VEGF-A mRNA expressions in the embryonic, pseudoglandular, canalicular, saccular, and alveolar stages of lung development from embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) to postnatal day 5 (P5) through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and in situ hybridization. Further, we analyzed the expression of CGRP via immunohistochemistry. The VEGF-A mRNA was mainly scattered across the whole lung body from E12.5. CGRP was found to be expressed in a few epithelial cells of the canalicular and the respiratory bronchiole of the lung from E12.5 to P5. An antisense probe for CGRP mRNA was strongly detected in the lung from E14.5 to E17.5. Endogenous CGRP may regulate the development of the embryonic alveoli from E14.5 to E17.5 in a temporal manner.

El péptido relacionado con el gen de la calcitonina (CGRP) es un neurotransmisor vinculado con la vasculogénesis durante el desarrollo de órganos. El factor de crecimiento endotelial vascular A (VEGF-A) también se requiere para el patrón vascular durante la morfogénesis pulmonar. El CGRP se encuentra principalmente en los órganos y aparece inicialmente en las células neuroendocrinas pulmonares durante la etapa embrionaria temprana del desarrollo pulmonar. Sin embargo, la relación entre CGRP y VEGF-A durante la formación de los pulmones sigue sin estar clara. Este estudio investiga las expresiones de ARNm de CGRP y VEGF-A en las etapas embrionaria, pseudoglandular, canalicular, sacular y alveolar del desarrollo pulmonar desde el día embrionario 12,5 (E12,5) hasta el día postnatal 5 (P5) a través de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa cuantitativa en tiempo real. (qRT-PCR) e hibridación in situ. Además, analizamos la expresión de CGRP mediante inmunohistoquímica. El ARNm de VEGF-A se dispersó principalmente por todo parénquima pulmonar desde E12,5. Se encontró que CGRP se expresaba en unas pocas células epiteliales de los bronquiolos canaliculares y respiratorios del pulmón desde E12,5 a P5. Se detectó fuertemente una sonda antisentido para ARNm de CGRP en el pulmón de E14,5 a E17,5. El CGRP endógeno puede regular el desarrollo de los alvéolos embrionarios de E14,5 a E17,5 de manera temporal.

Animals , Mice , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Lung/growth & development , Lung/embryology , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization , Neurotransmitter Agents , Neovascularization, Physiologic
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 172-184, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971676


Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived exosomes (Exos) were reported to a prospective candidate in accelerating diabetic wound healing due to their pro-angiogenic effect. MSCs pretreated with chemistry or biology factors were reported to advance the biological activities of MSC-derived exosomes. Hence, this study was designed to explore whether exosomes derived from human umbilical cord MSCs (hucMSCs) preconditioned with Nocardia rubra cell wall skeleton (Nr-CWS) exhibited superior proangiogenic effect on diabetic wound repair and its underlying molecular mechanisms. The results showed that Nr-CWS-Exos facilitated the proliferation, migration and tube formation of endothelial cells in vitro. In vivo, Nr-CWS-Exos exerted great effect on advancing wound healing by facilitating the angiogenesis of wound tissues compared with Exos. Furthermore, the expression of circIARS1 increased after HUVECs were treated with Nr-CWS-Exos. CircIARS1 promoted the pro-angiogenic effects of Nr-CWS-Exos on endothelial cellsvia the miR-4782-5p/VEGFA axis. Taken together, those data reveal that exosomes derived from Nr-CWS-pretreated MSCs might serve as an underlying strategy for diabetic wound treatment through advancing the biological function of endothelial cells via the circIARS1/miR-4782-5p/VEGFA axis.

Humans , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Exosomes/metabolism , Cell Wall Skeleton/metabolism , Neovascularization, Physiologic , Wound Healing/physiology , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 119-129, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935986


Objective: To explore the effects of P311 on the angiogenesis ability of human microvascular endothelial cell 1 (HMEC-1) in vitro and the potential molecular mechanism. Methods: The experimental research method was used. HMEC-1 was collected and divided into P311 adenovirus group and empty adenovirus group according to the random number table (the same grouping method below), which were transfected correspondingly for 48 h. The cell proliferation activity was detected using the cell counting kit 8 on 1, 3, and 5 days of culture. The residual scratch area of cells at post scratch hour 6 and 11 was detected by scratch test, and the percentage of the residual scratch area was calculated. The blood vessel formation of cells at 8 h of culture was observed by angiogenesis experiment in vitro, and the number of nodes and total length of the tubular structure were measured. The protein expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), phosphorylated VEGFR2 (p-VEGFR2), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and phosphorylated ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2) in cells were detected by Western blotting. HMEC-1 was collected and divided into P311 adenovirus+small interfering RNA (siRNA) negative control group, empty adenovirus+siRNA negative control group, P311 adenovirus+siRNA-VEGFR2 group, and empty adenovirus+siRNA-VEGFG2 group, which were treated correspondingly. The protein expressions of VEGFR2, p-VEGFR2, ERK1/2, and p-ERK1/2 in cells were detected by Western blotting at 24 h of transfection. The blood vessel formation of cells at 24 h of transfection was observed by angiogenesis experiment in vitro, and the number of nodes and total length of the tubular structure were measured. HMEC-1 was collected and divided into P311 adenovirus+dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) group, empty adenovirus+DMSO group, P311 adenovirus+ERK1/2 inhibitor group, and empty adenovirus+ERK1/2 inhibitor group, which were treated correspondingly. The protein expressions of ERK1/2 and p-ERK1/2 in cells were detected by Western blotting at 2 h of treatment. The blood vessel formation of cells at 2 h of treatment was observed by angiogenesis experiment in vitro, and the number of nodes and total length of the tubular structure were measured. The sample number at each time point in each group was 6. Data were statistically analyzed with independent sample t test, analysis of variance for repeated measurement, one-way analysis of variance, and least significant difference test. Results: Compared with that of empty adenovirus group, the proliferation activity of cells in P311 adenovirus group did not show significant difference on 1, 3, and 5 days of culture (with t values of -0.23, -1.30, and -1.52, respectively, P>0.05). The residual scratch area percentages of cells in P311 adenovirus group were significantly reduced at post scratch hour 6 and 11 compared with those of empty adenovirus group (with t values of -2.47 and -2.62, respectively, P<0.05). At 8 h of culture, compared with those of empty adenovirus group, the number of nodes and total length of the tubular structure of cells in P311 adenovirus group were significantly increased (with t values of 4.49 and 4.78, respectively, P<0.01). At 48 h of transfection, compared with those of empty adenovirus group, the protein expressions of VEGFR2 and ERK1/2 of cells in P311 adenovirus group showed no obvious changes (P>0.05), and the protein expressions of p-VEGFR2 and p-ERK1/2 of cells in P311 adenovirus group were significantly increased (with t values of 17.27 and 16.08, P<0.01). At 24 h of transfection, the protein expressions of p-VEGFR2 and p-ERK1/2 of cells in P311 adenovirus+siRNA negative control group were significantly higher than those in empty adenovirus+siRNA negative control group (P<0.01). The protein expressions of VEGFR2, p-VEGFR2, and p-ERK1/2 of cells in P311 adenovirus+siRNA negative control group were significantly higher than those in P311 adenovirus+siRNA-VEGFR2 group (P<0.01). The protein expressions of VEGFR2 and p-ERK1/2 of cells in empty adenovirus+siRNA negative control group were significantly higher than those in empty adenovirus+siRNA-VEGFR2 group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). At 24 h of transfection, the number of nodes of the tubular structure in cells of P311 adenovirus+siRNA negative control group was 720±62, which was significantly more than 428±38 in empty adenovirus+siRNA negative control group and 364±57 in P311 adenovirus+siRNA-VEGFR2 group (with P values both <0.01). The total length of the tubular structure of cells in P311 adenovirus+siRNA negative control group was (21 241±1 139) μm, which was significantly longer than (17 005±1 156) μm in empty adenovirus+siRNA negative control group and (13 494±2 465) μm in P311 adenovirus+siRNA-VEGFR2 group (with P values both <0.01). The number of nodes of the tubular structure in cells of empty adenovirus+siRNA negative control group was significantly more than 310±75 in empty adenovirus+siRNA-VEGFR2 group (P<0.01), and the total length of the tubular structure of cells in empty adenovirus+siRNA negative control group was significantly longer than (11 600±2 776) μm in empty adenovirus+siRNA-VEGFR2 group (P<0.01). At 2 h of treatment, the protein expression of p-ERK1/2 of cells in P311 adenovirus+DMSO group was significantly higher than that in empty adenovirus+DMSO group and P311 adenovirus+ERK1/2 inhibitor group (with P values both <0.01), and the protein expression of p-ERK1/2 of cells in empty adenovirus+DMSO group was significantly higher than that in empty adenovirus+ERK1/2 inhibitor group (P<0.05). At 2 h of treatment, the number of nodes of the tubular structure in cells of P311 adenovirus+DMSO group was 726±72, which was significantly more than 421±39 in empty adenovirus+DMSO group and 365±41 in P311 adenovirus+ERK1/2 inhibitor group (with P values both <0.01). The total length of the tubular structure of cells in P311 adenovirus+DMSO group was (20 318±1 433) μm, which was significantly longer than (16 846±1 464) μm in empty adenovirus+DMSO group and (15 114±1 950) μm in P311 adenovirus+ERK1/2 inhibitor group (with P values both <0.01). The number of nodes of the tubular structure in cells of empty adenovirus+DMSO group was significantly more than 317±67 in empty adenovirus+ERK1/2 inhibitor group (P<0.01), and the total length of the tubular structure of cells in empty adenovirus+DMSO group was significantly longer than (13 188±2 306) μm in empty adenovirus+ERK1/2 inhibitor group (P<0.01). Conclusions: P311 can enhance the angiogenesis ability of HMEC-1 by activating the VEGFR2/ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

Humans , Adenoviridae/genetics , Cell Line , Endothelial Cells , Endothelium, Vascular , Neovascularization, Physiologic , Nerve Tissue Proteins , Oncogene Proteins , Signal Transduction , Transfection , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
Int. j. morphol ; 40(4): 981-989, 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405258


SUMMARY: Trophoblasts perform different functions depending on their location. This study aimed to obtain structural clues about the functions of villous and extravillous trophoblasts by using light and electron microscopy. Term placenta samples were obtained from 10 healthy pregnant women following cesarean sections. Frozen sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, semi- thin sections were stained with toluidine blue and examined with a light microscope, while thin sections were contrasted using uranyl acetate-lead citrate and evaluated under an electron microscope. Fine structural features of villous trophoblasts overlapped some villous stromal cells. In addition to the usual appearance of mature capillaries in villous stroma, we demonstrated and reported maturational stages of angiogenetic sprouts in term placenta. Extravillous trophoblasts were classified according to their location: fibrinoid, chorion, trophoblastic, column, maternal vascular endothelium, or decidua. All of these trophoblasts shared some ultrastructural features but also were distinct from each other. In decidua, it was noted that the endothelial lining of some vessels was invaded by a few endovascular trophoblasts with irregular microvilli. These cells shared some ultrastructural properties with both villous trophoblasts and stromal cells. Examination showed that angiogenesis was still present in term placentas and that trophoblasts, endothelial and stromal cells have very similar properties ultrastructurally, suggesting they represent transformational forms.

RESUMEN: Los trofoblastos dependiendo de su ubicación realizan diferentes funciones. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo obtener pistas estructurales sobre las funciones de los trofoblastos vellosos y extravellosos mediante el uso de microscopía óptica y electrónica. Se obtuvieron muestras de placenta a término de 10 mujeres embarazadas sanas después de cesáreas. Las secciones congeladas se tiñeron con hematoxilina-eosina, las secciones semidelgadas se tiñeron con azul de toluidina y se examinaron con un microscopio óptico, mientras que las secciones delgadas se contrastaron con acetato de uranilo-citrato de plomo y se evaluaron con un microscopio electrónico. Las finas características estructurales de los trofoblastos vellosos se superponen a algunas células estromales vellosas. Además de la apariencia habitual de capilares maduros en el estroma velloso, demostramos e informamos etapas de maduración de brotes angiogenéticos en la placenta a término. Los trofoblastos extravellosos se clasificaron según su localización: fibrinoide, corion, trofoblástico, columna, endotelio vascular materno o decidua. Todos estos trofoblastos compartían algunas características ultraestructurales, pero también eran distintos entre sí. En decidua se observó que el revestimiento endotelial de algunos vasos estaba invadido por unos pocos trofoblastos endovasculares con microvellosidades irregulares. Estas células compartían algunas propiedades ultraestructurales tanto con los trofoblastos vellosos como con las células del estroma. El examen mostró que la angiogénesis todavía estaba presente en las placentas a término y que los trofoblastos, las células endoteliales y estromales tienen propiedades ultraestructurales muy similares, lo que sugiere que representan formas de transformación.

Humans , Female , Placenta/ultrastructure , Trophoblasts/ultrastructure , Neovascularization, Physiologic , Microscopy, Electron
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(3): e10291, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153518


The vascular network expansion and functioning are important factors affecting normal intra-uterine fetal development. This study addressed the previously reported antiangiogenic potential of beta-2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI) in vivo in the chick embryo model of angiogenesis. The effects of two naturally occurring β2GPI forms on the development of the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) vessels and the chicken embryo were investigated. β2GPI monomers and dimers were obtained by fractioned purification and characterized using SDS-PAGE, immunoblot, and ELISA. The egg exposure was performed by injection of small volumes of 2.5 µg/mL solutions of the β2GPI subfractions. Angiogenesis was evaluated through quantitative measurements of vascular architecture parameters in the captured CAM images, using computational analysis of texture contrasts and computer vision techniques. Quantitative information was assigned to the CAM vasculature modifications. In vivo, the β2GPI dimer completely halted the formation of CAM vessels and led to embryo death after 48 h of exposure. The β2GPI monomer allowed the embryo to develop up to the 10th day, despite early changes of CAM vessels. The impaired normal vessel growth proceeded as a self-limited effect. The β2GPI monomer-exposed eggs showed reduced vascularization on the 6th day of incubation, but embryos were viable on the 10th day of incubation, with ingurgitated CAM vessels implying sequelae of the angiogenesis inhibition. Both subfractions impaired CAM vasculature development. The β2GPI dimer proved to be largely more harmful than the β2GPI monomer. β2GPI modification by cleavage or dimerization may play a role in angiogenesis control in vivo.

Chickens , Chorioallantoic Membrane , Chick Embryo , Neovascularization, Physiologic , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/pharmacology , beta 2-Glycoprotein I
J. vasc. bras ; 20: e20210029, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279396


Resumo Contexto Atualmente, recomenda-se como primeira opção cirúrgica de varizes a termoablação da veia safena; porém, esse procedimento não é realizado pelo Sistema Único de Saúde do Brasil. Como forma de incluir melhores resultados, técnicas cirúrgicas esforçam-se para mimetizar as novas tecnologias sem seus custos, sendo a principal delas a realização da safenectomia convencional sem ligadura das suas tributárias. Objetivos Avaliar a evolução do coto residual após safenectomia sem ligadura alta da junção safeno-femoral associada à invaginação do mesmo, assim como avaliar o comportamento das veias acessórias anterior/posterior. Métodos Estudo prospectivo e intervencionista. Foram operados 52 membros pela técnica de safenectomia sem ligadura alta da junção safeno-femoral seguida da invaginação do coto residual. Os pacientes foram avaliados no pré e pós-operatório (7 dias, 3, 6 e 12 meses) através de ultrassonografia vascular com Doppler para análise de diâmetro e extensão do coto residual, diâmetro e refluxo na veia acessória anterior/posterior e presença de neovascularização. A análise estatística foi realizada por média, desvio padrão, mediana, valor mínimo e máximo, frequências e percentuais, teste de Fisher e bimodal. Resultados Evidenciou-se um efeito significativo do tempo sobre a medida de diâmetro (p < 0,001) e da extensão (p = 0,002) do coto residual, porém o mesmo não foi observado quanto ao diâmetro (p = 0,355) ou refluxo na veia acessória anterior. Foi identificada neovascularização em 7 (14,3%) membros. Conclusões Após a utilização da técnica descrita, o coto residual apresentou retração e diminuição do seu diâmetro no período de 1 ano e não transmitiu refluxo para veia acessória. As taxas de neovascularização foram condizentes com a literatura.

Abstract Background Currently, the first-choice option recommended for varicose vein surgery is thermal ablation of the saphenous vein, but this procedure is not available on the Brazilian National Health Service (SUS - Sistema Único de Saúde). In an effort to improve results, surgical techniques have been developed to mimic the new technologies, without their high costs. The most prominent such method involves conventional saphenectomy, without ligation of tributaries. Objectives To assess progression of the residual stump after saphenectomy without high ligation of the saphenofemoral junction but with stump invagination and to assess the behavior of anterior/posterior accessory veins. Methods Prospective intervention study. A total of 52 limbs were treated with saphenectomy without high ligation of the saphenofemoral junction followed by invagination of the residual stump. Patients were assessed preoperatively and at 7 days, and 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively using vascular ultrasonography with Doppler to analyze the length of the residual stump, the diameters of the residual stump and the anterior/posterior accessory vein, reflux in the accessory vein, and presence of neovascularization. Statistical analysis involved calculation of means, standard deviations, medians, minimum and maximum values, frequencies, and percentages, and Fisher's test and the binomial test. Results There was evidence of a significant time effect on residual stump diameter (p < 0.001) and length (p = 0.002), but the same was not observed with relation to diameter (p = 0.355) or reflux of the anterior accessory vein. Neovascularization was found in 7 (14.3%) limbs. Conclusions After use of the technique described, the residual stump retracted, its diameter reduced over the 1 year postoperative period, and it did not transfer reflux to the accessory vein. Neovascularization rates were in line with the literature.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Saphenous Vein/surgery , Vascular Surgical Procedures/methods , Venous Insufficiency/surgery , Postoperative Period , Varicose Veins/surgery , Intervention Studies , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Neovascularization, Physiologic
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(6): 2211-2222, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1142323


O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar macro e microscopicamente a atividade cicatrizante da Sphagneticola trilobata em feridas cutâneas induzidas em ratos, a partir da aplicação de creme contendo extrato hidroalcoólico bruto de folhas da planta. A análise fitoquímica apresentou terpenos e flavonoides como compostos majoritários. Sessenta ratos foram divididos em três grupos experimentais (n=20): grupo tratado (GT), grupo controle (GC) e grupo controle absoluto (GCA). Quatro feridas excisionais de 0,8cm de diâmetro foram realizadas no dorso dos animais, tratadas diariamente e avaliadas nos tempos três, sete, 14 e 21 dias de pós-operatório (PO) quanto à contração e à avaliação macroscópica, morfo-histológica e morfo-histométrica. Macroscopicamente, não houve diferença estatística na contração das feridas entre os grupos testados. Na avaliação morfológica e na morfométrica, o GT apresentou menor concentração de células inflamatórias, maior e melhor preenchimento do tecido de granulação pelas fibras colágenas e melhor vascularização das feridas. Não houve diferença entre o GC e o GCA. Conclui-se que o creme à base do extrato hidroalcoólico bruto das folhas de Sphagneticola trilobata contribui positivamente para o processo de cicatrização das feridas em pele de ratos.(AU)

The objective of this work was to macro and microscopically evaluate the healing activity of Sphagneticola trilobata in rat-induced skin wounds by applying cream containing crude hydroalcoholic extract from plant leaves. The phytochemical analysis showed terpenes and flavonoids as major compounds. Sixty rats were divided into three experimental groups (n=20): treated group (GT), control group (CG) and absolute control group (GCA). Four 0.8cm diameter excision wounds were performed on the back of the animals, treated daily and evaluated at the three, seven, 14 and 21 postoperative days (PO) for contraction, macroscopic, morphologic and morphologic evaluation. The TG presented smaller scar area at 21 postoperative days (P<0.05). In the morphological and morphometric evaluation, the WG presented lower inflammation, greater and better filling of granulation tissue by collagen fibers and better wound vascularization. There was no difference between GC and GCA. It was concluded that the cream based on the crude hydroalcoholic extract of Sphagneticola trilobata leaves contribute positively to the healing process of the skin wounds of rats.(AU)

Animals , Rats , Skin/injuries , Wounds and Injuries/rehabilitation , Neovascularization, Physiologic , Asteraceae/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Phytotherapeutic Drugs
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(12): 1018-1028, Dec. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1155043


The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of mesenchymal stem cells derived from canine adipose tissue in the healing process of full-thickness mesh skin grafts in rabbits. The stem cells were collected from young dogs; and, after characterization, remained in cryopreservation, in independent doses containing 2 x 106 cells. The mesh distal limb graft technique was performed in 60 rabbits, divided into three groups, CG (Control Group), GT1 (Intralesional Stem Cell Treated Group), and GT2 (Intravenous Stem Cell Treated Group), containing 20 animals each. After grafting, each group was randomly divided into four subgroups according to euthanasia time 3, 7, 14, and 30 days, containing five animals in each group. Animals of GT1_14, GT1_30, and GT2_14, GT2_30 subgroups received a second dose of xenogeneic cells on the seventh day. Meanwhile, animals from GT1_30 and GT2_30 received the third dose of xenogeneic cells on day 14. The groups treated with xenogeneic stem cells positively affected type III collagen re-epithelialization and deposition, and possibly GT1 had a controlled inflammatory response. However, no effect on angiogenesis. Thus, it was possible to demonstrate tolerance and therapeutic action of mesenchymal stem cells from canine adipose tissue in skin grafts in rabbits.(AU)

O presente estudo teve como principal objetivo avaliar os efeitos das células-tronco mesenquimais derivadas do tecido adiposo de cães no processo de cicatrização de autoenxertos de pele de espessura total em malha em coelhos. As células-tronco foram coletadas de cães jovens, após a caracterização estas permaneceram em criopreservação, em doses individuais contendo 2 x 106 células. A técnica de enxerto em malha na região distal do membro foi realizada em 60 coelhos, divididos em três grupos, GC (Grupo Controle), GT1 (Grupo tratado com células-tronco intralesional) e GT2 (Grupo tratado com células-tronco via endovenosa), contendo 20 animais cada. Imediatamente após a enxertia, cada grupo foi dividido aleatoriamente em quatro subgrupos, de acordo com o tempo de eutanásia 3, 7, 14 e 30 dias contendo cinco animais cada. Animais dos subgrupos GT1_14, GT1_30 e GT2_14, GT2_30 receberam uma segunda dose de células xenógenas no sétimo dia. Ademais, animais do GT1_30 e do GT2_30 receberam a terceira dose de células xenógenas no dia 14. Os grupos tratados com células-tronco xenógenas tiveram um efeito positivo na reepitelização e deposição de colágeno tipo III, e possivelmente, o GT1 teve uma resposta inflamatória controlada, entretanto o efeito na angiogênese não foi observado. Dessa forma, foi possível demonstrar que houve tolerância e ação terapêutica das células-tronco mesenquimais derivadas do tecido adiposo de cães em enxertos de pele em coelhos.(AU)

Animals , Dogs , Rabbits , Stem Cells , Adipose Tissue , Transplants , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Autografts , Wound Healing , Neovascularization, Physiologic
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1735-1741, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134506


SUMMARY: The aim of this study was to perform an in situ endoscopic analysis of the vascularization of post-extraction sites immediately after a non-traumatic extraction in terms of the number of blood vessels per field (NBV), relative area of blood vessels (RABV) and relative area of unmineralized bone (RAUB) in teeth with different periodontal status (PS). This assessment was performed using short distance support immersion endoscopy (SD-SIE). Ten patients (4 men/ 6 women, aged between 25 and 44) were selected. From them, 10 teeth were extracted due to periodontal reasons or other motives. These teeth were then categorized into 2 groups according to their PS, either as periodontally compromised (PC) (clinical attachment loss (CAL) > 7 mm and probing depth (PD) > 5 mm) or periodontally healthy (PH) (CAL < 7 mm and PD < 5 mm, without bleeding or suppuration during periodontal probing), and mobile (M) (> 1 mm horizontally) or immobile (I) (< 1 mm horizontally). The minimally invasive vertical tooth extractions were performed using the Benex ® extractor. Immediately after extraction, a rigid immersion endoscope with a diameter of 2.7 mm was introduced, and a video-alveoloscopy was carried out. This video was analyzed by ImageJ software for the quantification of NBV, RABV and RAUB per field of the post-extraction sites with different PS (PC, PH, M, I) were quantified. In the PC group, significantly greater values for RAUB were observed (33.45 %) compared to those from the PH group (19.65 %). Compared with the M group, the I group did not show significant differences in terms of RAUB or RABV. There were also no differences in NBV in both groups (Means: 33.8 vs. 30.5, respectively).

RESUMEN: El objetivo de este estudio fue realizar un análisis endoscópico in situ de la vascularización de los alvéolos post-extracción inmediatamente después de una extracción atraumática en términos de número de vasos sanguíneos por campo de observación (NBV), área relativa de vasos sanguíneos (RABV) y el área relativa de espacios no mineralizados (RAUB) en dientes con diferente estado periodontal (PS). Esta evaluación se realizó mediante endoscopía de inmersión de corta distancia (SD-SIE). Se seleccionaron diez pacientes (4 hombres / 6 mujeres, con edades comprendidas entre 25 y 44). De ellos, se extrajeron 10 dientes debido a razones periodontales u otros motivos. Estos dientes se clasificaron en 2 grupos según su PS, ya sea como periodontalmente comprometidos (PC), los que presentaban un nivel de inserción clínica (CAL) ≥ 7 mm y una profundidad de sondaje (PD) ≥ 5 mm; o periodontalmente sanos (PH) (CAL <7 mm y PD <5 mm, sin sangramiento o supuración durante el sondaje periodontal). También se categorizaron según su movilidad como móvil (M) (≥ 1 mm horizontalmente) o inmóvil (I) (<1 mm horizontalmente). Las extracciones verticales mínimamente invasivas se realizaron con el extractor Benex ®. Inmediatamente después de la extracción, se introdujo un endoscopio rígido de inmersión con un diámetro de 2.7 mm, con el cual se realizó una video-alveoloscopía. Este video fue analizado por el software ImageJ para la cuantificación de NBV, RABV y RAUB por campo, de los alvéolos post-extracción con diferente estado periodontal. En el grupo de dientes PC, se observaron valores significativamente mayores para RAUB (33.45%) en comparación con los del grupo PH (19.65 %). En comparación con el grupo M, el grupo I no mostró diferencias significativas en términos de RAUB o RABV. Tampoco hubo diferencias en el NBV en ambos grupos (Media: 33.8 frente a 30.5, respectivamente).

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Tooth Extraction , Blood Vessels , Bone and Bones/blood supply , Tooth Socket/blood supply , Endoscopy/methods , Neovascularization, Physiologic
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(4): 670-677, dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134556


RESUMEN: El tratamiento de dientes inmaduros necróticos es hoy un gran desafío clínico. La ausencia de cierre del ápice y el reducido grosor de las paredes de la dentina hacen que el tratamiento endodóntico del diente sea difícil e impredecible. Tradicionalmente, estos dientes han sido tratados con apexificación y obturación del canal radicular, sin embargo, con este tratamiento el diente permanece desvitalizado y con paredes de dentina frágiles y cortas, lo que compromete su pronóstico. La endodoncia regenerativa, por el contrario, busca revitalizar el diente e inducir una maduración de la raíz, y se basa en la utilización de las células madre mesenquimales presentes en la región periapical, los factores de crecimiento presentes en la dentina y un andamio que permite el crecimiento de tejido nuevo al interior del canal. Los resultados clínicos son alentadores, ya que en general existe maduración de la raíz y revascularización del diente, sin embargo, el tejido neoformado es tejido de tipo reparativo y, a excepción de estudios ocasionales, no se ha observado regeneración de dentina y pulpa. La endodoncia regenerativa se originó para tratar dientes inmaduros necróticos. Sin embargo, recientemente, estudios preliminares han expandido la aplicación de la endodoncia regenerativa a dientes maduros necróticos, es decir, en pacientes adultos. Los resultados clínicos son positivos y similares a los del diente inmaduro, si n embargo, la investigación referente a la revitalización de dientes maduros se encuentra en etapas tempranas y requiere de un mayor nivel de evidencia antes de ser ofrecida sistemáticamente como terapia a pacientes adultos. Los beneficios potenciales justifican mayor investigación al respecto. Este artículo resume la evidencia científica disponible con respecto a la revitalización de dientes inmaduros y maduros necróticos, sus fundamentos biológicos, los resultados esperados y limitaciones, así como el protocolo clínico.

ABSTRACT: Nowadays, the treatment of immature necrotic teeth is an important clinical challenge. The absence of apex closure and low thickness of the dentin walls, make endodontic treatment unpredictable and difficult. Traditionally, these teeth have been treated with apexification and obturation of the root canal. As a result of this treatment, the tooth remains devitalized and with fragile and short dentin walls, which compromises its prognosis. Regenerative endodontics, on the other hand, seeks to revitalize the tooth and induce root maturation, and is based on the use of mesenchymal stem cells present in the periapical tissues, growth factors present in the dentin and a scaffold that allows growth of new tissue in the root ca- nal. The clinical results are encouraging, since generally, there is root maturation and revascularization of the tooth. However, the newly formed tissue is reparative tissue and with the exception of some studies, no regeneration of dentin and pulp has been reported. Regenerative endodontics emerged to treat necrotic immature teeth. However, recently, preliminary studies have applied regenerative endodontics in mature necrotic teeth, in adult patients. Preliminary results are positive and are similar to those of immature teeth. Nevertheless, research regarding the revitalization of mature teeth is in the early stages and requires further evidence before being systematically administered as therapy in adult patients. However, the potential benefits justify further research in this regard. This article summarizes the available scientific evidence regarding the revitalization of immature and mature necrotic teeth, their biological basis, the expected results and limitations, as well as the clinical protocols for each case.

Humans , Adult , Dental Pulp Necrosis/therapy , Dentition, Permanent , Regenerative Endodontics/methods , Clinical Protocols/standards , Clinical Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome , Neovascularization, Physiologic , Dental Pulp Necrosis/drug therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Tissue Scaffolds
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 135-139, Feb. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056411


La angiogénesis es el proceso por el cual se forman nuevos vasos sanguíneos a partir de otros ya existentes. Para que esto se lleve a cabo de forma correcta debe existir un balance entre los factores proangiogénicos y los factores antiangiogénicos dentro del microambiente tisular. Por otra parte, la existencia de productos químicos naturales como los polifenoles, que son capaces de adquirirse en la dieta, inducen a estos factores a intervenir en el proceso de angiogénesis. Se administraron los polifenoles en filtros de metilcelulosa sobre la membrana alantocoriónica de huevos White Leghorn, manteniendo el posterior desarrollo normal del feto. Se utilizaron 15 fetos de pollo fijados en formalina tamponada, a los cuales se extrajo el corazón. El procesamiento de las muestras de corazón se realizó a través de técnicas histológicas, histoquímicas e inmunohistoquímica. Finalmente se evaluó la presencia del VEGF y la capacidad de formar vasos sanguíneos bajo el tratamiento con los polifenoles. La inmunorreactividad fue cuantificada mediante Image J®. Los resultados indican que Ácido cafeico y Pinocembrina disminuyen la densidad microvascular y la expresión de VEGF en corazones de fetos de pollo tratados con estos polifenoles. Tanto el Ácido Cafeico como la Pinocembrina cumplen un rol inhibitorio en el proceso de angiogénesis fisiológica en corazón de pollo, pudiendo modular las vías de señalización mediadas por los VEGFR o modulando la disponibilidad de VEGF. Estos polifenoles podrían utilizarse para el estudio de otros tejidos asociados a angiogénesis patológica.

Angiogenesis is the process by which new blood vessels are formed from other existing ones. A balance between proangiogenic factors and anti-angiogenic factors within the microenvironment must exist for the process to be carried out correctly. Similarly, the existence of natural chemicals such as polyphenols, which are capable of being acquired in the diet, induce these factors in the angiogenic process. Polyphenols were administered in the methylcellulose filters on the of chorioallantoic membrane of White Leghorn eggs, maintaining the normal posterior development of the fetus. 15 chicken fetuses were fixed in buffered formalin, obtaining the hearts to histological processing, performing histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques. VEGF levels and the ability of the blood vessels growing under the stimulation of the polyphenols were evaluated. Immunoreactivity was quantified by Image J. The results indicate that caffeic acid and pinocembrin decreased microvascular density and VEGF expression in hearts stimulated with these polyphenols. Both the caffeic and pinocembrin acids play an inhibitory role in the physiological angiogenesis process in the chicken heart, which decrease the microvascular density and could act by modulating the signaling pathways mediated by the VEGFR or by modulating the availability of VEGF. The use of these polyphenols could be useful in studies of other tissues associated with pathological angiogenesis.

Animals , Caffeic Acids/pharmacology , Neovascularization, Physiologic/drug effects , Chick Embryo , Polyphenols/pharmacology
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190215, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056582


Abstract Objective: This study evaluated the angiogenesis-enhancing potential of a tricalcium silicate-based mineral trioxide aggregate (ProRoot MTA), Biodentine, and a novel bioceramic root canal sealer (Well-Root ST) in human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs), human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPLSCs), and human tooth germ stem cells (hTGSCs). Methodology: Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium was conditioned for 24 h by exposure to ProRoot MTA, Biodentine, or Well-Root ST specimens (prepared according to the manufacturers' instructions). The cells were cultured in these conditioned media and their viability was assessed with 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxy-methoxy-phenyl)-2-(4-sulfo-phenyl)-2H tetrazolium (MTS) on days 1, 3, 7, 10, and 14. Angiogenic growth factors [platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)] were assayed by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on days 1, 7, and 14. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) migration assays were used to evaluate the vascular effects of the tested materials at 6-8 h. Statistical analyses included Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, and Friedman and Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Results: None of tricalcium silicate-based materials were cytotoxic and all induced a similar release of angiogenic growth factors (PDGF, FGF-2, and VEGF) (p>0.05). The best cell viability was observed for hDPSCs (p<0.05) with all tricalcium silicate-based materials at day 14. Tube formation by HUVECs showed a significant increase with all tested materials (p<0.05). Conclusion: The tricalcium silicate-based materials showed potential for angiogenic stimulation of all stem cell types and significantly enhanced tube formation by HUVECs.

Humans , Root Canal Filling Materials/pharmacology , Stem Cells/drug effects , Ceramics/pharmacology , Silicates/pharmacology , Calcium Compounds/pharmacology , Angiogenesis Inducing Agents/pharmacology , Periodontal Ligament/cytology , Periodontal Ligament/drug effects , Tooth Germ/cytology , Tooth Germ/drug effects , Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology , Materials Testing , Platelet-Derived Growth Factor/analysis , Platelet-Derived Growth Factor/drug effects , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Cell Survival/drug effects , Reproducibility of Results , Fibroblast Growth Factor 2/analysis , Fibroblast Growth Factor 2/drug effects , Statistics, Nonparametric , Neovascularization, Physiologic/drug effects , Dental Pulp/cytology , Dental Pulp/drug effects , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/analysis , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/drug effects , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Flow Cytometry
Actual. osteol ; 16(3): 211-231, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253844


Hematoma, inflamación, angiogénesis y osteogénesis son distintas etapas que se superponen durante el proceso de reparación de una fractura ósea. Durante las primeras etapas se liberan distintos factores de crecimiento quimioatractantes que producen el reclutamiento de diversas células para generar la formación de un hueso funcional con su respectiva vasculatura. Debido a la importancia que posee la angiogénesis en el desarrollo de una adecuada red vascular, tanto para la formación ósea como en su reparación, en los últimos años los especialistas en ingeniería de tejido óseo han estudiado la manera de fomentar tanto la osteogénesis como la angiogénesis durante la reparación ósea. En este trabajo de revisión, se recopilan y discuten los principales conceptos sobre distintas estrategias a fin de lograr un implante sintético con funcionalidad dual promoviendo los procesos que garanticen la angiogénesis y la osteogénesis en forma acoplada utilizando distintos tipos de scaffolds y sistemas de liberación de drogas osteoinductoras y angioinductoras. La liberación dual de factores osteoinductores y angioinductores debe producirse en forma témporo-espacial controlada para garantizar los efectos deseados sin producir efectos adversos como tumores o hueso ectópico. Se deben tener en cuenta varios factores como el tipo y la arquitectura de hueso, tipo de daño, edad, sexo y condiciones patológicas del paciente. En cuanto a los materiales se debe considerar el tipo de material para usar como scaffold, los factores inductores seleccionados, su combinación y sistemas de liberación. El avance en estos estudios hará que la Ingeniería de Tejido Óseo sea una alternativa terapéutica en el futuro. (AU)

Hematoma, inflammation, angiogenesis, and osteogenesis are different stages that overlap during the healing process of a bone fracture. During the first stages, different chemoattractant growth factors are released which produce the recruitment of various cells that will induce the formation of a functional bone with its respective vasculature. Due to the importance of angiogenesis for the development of an adequate vascular network in both bone formation and repair, in recent years specialists in bone tissue engineering have studied how to promote both osteogenesis and angiogenesis during bone repair. In this review, the main concepts on different strategies developed to achieve a synthetic implant with dual functionality, promoting processes that guarantee angiogenesis and osteogenesis in a coupled way using different types of scaffolds and osteo-drug delivery systems and angioinductors, are collected and discussed. The dual release for osteoinductive and angioinductive factors must ensure the release of them in a controlled time-space manner to guarantee the desired effects without producing adverse effects such as tumors or ectopic bone. Several factors must be taken into account, such as bone type and architecture, type of damage to be repaired, age, sex, and pathological conditions of the patient. Regarding the materials, the type of material to be used as scaffolds, selected inducing factors and drug release system must be considered. Advances in these studies will make Bone Tissue Engineering a therapeutic alternative in the future. (AU)

Humans , Tissue Engineering/trends , Fractures, Bone/rehabilitation , Osteogenesis , Biocompatible Materials , Drug Delivery Systems , Neovascularization, Physiologic , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Tissue Scaffolds
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(4): 1262-1275, july/aug. 2019. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048932


Angiogenesis is a fundamental physiological process with strong implications in tissue homeostasis. Animal models helping to identify how angiogenesis is regulated are fundamental to answer many biological questions. Chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay is one of the most employed methods to study angiogenesis. In this study we applied a scientometric approach to evaluate the employment of CAM assay in published articles. Temporal trends indicated that CAM assay was the preferred method to investigate angiogenesis over time. The publications had a significant number of citations and the impact factor of journals publishing articles is relevant for the scientific community. A total of 52 different research areas have articles published using this particular technique. Oncology is the research field in which CAM assay was mostly used. Accordingly, tumor-derived cell lines were the most frequent sample tested on CAM. We also identified that 73,6% of articles published used only CAM assay to answer questions concerning angiogenesis. We concluded that although the CAM assay is a classical approach, that does not need so much infrastructure and financial support to be performed, it is a well-accepted technique by the scientific community. In addition, this methodology has gain attention in scientific community because no pain is experienced by the chick and they are minor ethical concerns to employ this method. Moreover, this data can help researchers who are unfamiliar with the CAM assay to identify if this particular method is suitable for their research.

A angiogênese é um processo fisiológico fundamental com fortes implicações na homeostase tecidual. Modelos animais que ajudam a entender como a angiogênese é regulada, são fundamentais para responder a muitas questões biológicas. O ensaio de membrana corioalantóide de embrião de galinha (CAM) é um dos métodos mais empregados para estudar a angiogênese. Neste estudo foi aplicada uma abordagem cientométrica para avaliar o emprego do ensaio CAM em artigos científicos já publicados. Tendências temporais indicaram que o ensaio CAM foi o método mais usado para investigar a angiogênese ao longo do tempo. Os artigos científicos que usaram a metodologia CAM foram publicados em periódicos com significativos números de citações e fator de impacto. No total 52 diferentes áreas de conhecimento usaram a técnica CAM, sendo a oncologia o campo o qual produziu maior número de artigos usando essa metodologia. Consequentemente o material biológico mais testado foi as linhagens celulares tumorais. Também foi identificado que 73,6% dos artigos publicados utilizaram apenas o teste CAM para responder questões relacionadas à angiogênese. Pode se concluir que embora o ensaio CAM seja uma abordagem clássica, que não necessita de muita infraestrutura e apoio financeiro para ser realizado, é uma técnica bem aceita pela comunidade científica. Além disso, esta metodologia tem ganhado atenção na comunidade científica porque os animais testados não sofrem dor e por essa razão esse modelo experimental exige mínimas preocupações éticas. Além disso, esses dados podem ajudar os pesquisadores que não estão familiarizados com o ensaio CAM a identificar se esse método específico é adequado para sua pesquisa.

Bibliometrics , Neovascularization, Physiologic , Medical Oncology
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(2): 154-162, Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983823


Abstract Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease, leading to endothelial dysfunction and angiogenesis impairment . MiR-126 and miR-210 support angiogenic response in endothelial cells. Objective: The present study sought to explore the effect of garlic and voluntary exercise, alone or together, on miR-126 and miR-210 expressions and cardiac angiogenesis in rats with type 1 diabetes. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n = 7): Control, Diabetes, Diabetes+Garlic, Diabetes+Exercise, and Diabetes+Garlic+Exercise. Diabetes was induced in the animals by streptozotocin (ip, 50 mg/kg). The rats were then fed raw fresh garlic homogenate (250 mg/kg) or were subjected to voluntary exercise, or to combined garlic and voluntary exercise for 6 weeks. MiR-126 and miR-210 expressions in the myocardium were determined by real time PCR, and the serum lipid profile was measured by enzymatic kits. Angiogenesis was evaluated by immunostaining for PECAM-1/ CD31 in the myocardium. Results: Diabetes reduced both cardiac miR-126 expression and angiogenesis (p < 0.05). On the other hand, there was a miR-210 expression increase in the myocardium of diabetic animals (p < 0.001). However, those effects reversed either with garlic or voluntary exercise (p < 0.01). Moreover, treating diabetic rats with garlic and voluntary exercise combined had an additional effect on the expressions of miR-126 and miR-210 (p < 0.001). Furthermore, both voluntary exercise and garlic significantly improved serum lipid profiles (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The induction of diabetes decreased angiogenesis in the myocardium, whereas our treatment using long-term voluntary exercise and garlic improved myocardial angiogenesis. These changes were possibly owing to the enhancement of myocardial miR-126 and miR-210 expressions.

Resumo Fundamento: O diabetes mellitus (DM) é um dos principais fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares, levando à disfunção endotelial e inibição da angiogênese. O miRNA-126 e o miRNA-210 promovem a resposta angiogênica em células endoteliais. Objetivo: O presente estudo buscou explorar o efeito do alho e de exercícios físicos voluntários, isoladamente ou em conjunto, nas expressões do miRNA-126 e do miR-210 e na angiogênese cardíaca em ratos com diabetes tipo 1. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em cinco grupos (n = 7): Controle, Diabetes, Diabetes+Alho, Diabetes+Exercícios e Diabetes+Alho+Exercícios. Introduziu-se diabetes nos animais por estreptozotocina (ip, 50 mg/kg). Os ratos foram então alimentados com homogenato de alho fresco cru (250 mg/kg), ou foram submetidos a exercícios voluntários, ou a uma combinação de alho e exercícios voluntários, durante 6 semanas. As expressões do miRNA-126 e do miRNA-210 no miocárdio foram determinadas por PCR em tempo real, e o perfil lipídico sérico foi medido por kits enzimáticos. A angiogênese foi avaliada por imunocoloração por PECAM-1/CD31 no miocárdio Resultados: O diabetes reduziu a expressão do miRNA-126 cardíaco e da angiogênese (p < 0,05). Por outro lado, houve um aumento da expressão do miRNA-210 no miocárdio dos animais diabéticos (p < 0,001). No entanto, tais efeitos foram revertidos com alho ou exercícios voluntários (p < 0,01). Além disso, o tratamento de ratos diabéticos conjuntamente com alho e exercícios voluntários teve um efeito adicional sobre as expressões do miRNA-126 e do miRNA-210 (p < 0,001). Além disso, tanto os exercícios voluntários quanto o alho melhoraram significativamente os perfis lipídicos séricos (p < 0,001). Conclusões: A indução de diabetes diminuiu a angiogênese no miocárdio, enquanto nosso tratamento com exercícios voluntários de longa duração e alho melhorou a angiogênese miocárdica. Estas alterações devem-se, possivelmente, ao aumento das expressões do miRNA-126 e do miRNA no miocárdio.

Animals , Male , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Neovascularization, Physiologic/physiology , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , MicroRNAs/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/physiopathology , Garlic/chemistry , Triglycerides/blood , Immunohistochemistry , Random Allocation , Cholesterol/blood , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/analysis , MicroRNAs/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Heart/physiopathology
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 837-841, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781651


Corpus luteum is a temporary endocrine organ that is formed and regressed during the female reproductive cycle.It is developed from the residual follicular tissue after ovulation,which is associated with the rapid angiogenesis.Vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF)is the most important stimulatory factor that regulates the luteal angiogenesis and also plays a key role during corpus luteum formation.VEGF is regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor(HIF)-1,which is a heterodimeric transcription factor consistent of HIF-1α and HIF-1β.The local hypoxia of ovary due to the ruptured follicle and the lack of new vascular networks induces HIF-1α expression and participates in the luteal formation through VEGF-dependent angiogenesis.The present article describes the functional and structural changes during the luteal formation from the local and hypoxic conditions immediately before and after ovulation,with an attempt to clarify the roles of hypoxia in luteal formation as well as ovarian physiology.

Female , Humans , Corpus Luteum , Hypoxia , Neovascularization, Physiologic , Ovary , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e092, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039296


Abstract This study evaluated the effect of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) on the endodontic treatment of apical periodontitis (AP). AP was induced in 48 premolars of 6 dogs. After biomechanical preparation, the teeth were divided into 4 groups: Calcium-Hydroxide (CH)/120d and CH/180d: root canals filled with CH-based dressing for 15 days before obturation; aPDT/120d and aPDT/180d: conditioning with phenothiazine photosensitizer (10 mg/mL) for 1 minute and irradiation with diode laser in the same session as obturation. Root filling was performed with AH Plus sealer. After the experimental periods, animals were euthanized and teeth were submitted for histology. HE staining was performed for descriptive analysis of the periapical region, measurement of apical periodontitis and for inflammatory cells, and blood vessels count. Immunohistochemistry was performed for osteopontin (OPN) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Data were analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA and chi-square test (α = 5%). Teeth in Group CH/120d presented only a slightly enlarged periodontal ligament (PL) with advanced repair. Group aPDT/120d presented the PL moderately enlarged, with moderate inflammatory infiltrate and few collagen fibers. The same pattern was observed at 180 days. AP lesions in CH-treated groups were smaller than those in aPDT-treated groups (p < 0.001) with more blood vessels (p < 0.0001), regardless of the evaluation period, without significant differences in the number of inflammatory cells (p > 0.05). CH-treated groups showed significantly more intense immunostaining for ALP and OPN (p < 0.001) in both periods. Although aPDT stimulated angiogenesis and expression of bone formation markers, the two-session endodontic treatment with CH-based dressing promoted better apical periodontitis repair.

Animals , Periapical Periodontitis/drug therapy , Photochemotherapy/methods , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Bone Cements/therapeutic use , Calcium Hydroxide/therapeutic use , Periapical Periodontitis/pathology , Time Factors , Bone Regeneration/drug effects , Immunohistochemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Neovascularization, Physiologic/drug effects , Evaluation Study
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e059, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039303


Abstract We recently demonstrated that a co-culture system of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) could enhance angiogenesis ability in vitro. However, whether tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) could promote blood vessel formation during pulp regeneration remained unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TNF-α on the formation of endothelial tubules and vascular networks in a co-culture system of hDPSCs and HUVECs. hDPSCs were co-cultured with HUVECs at a ratio of 1:5. The Matrigel assay was performed to detect the total tubule branching lengths and numbers of branches, and the Cell-Counting Kit 8 assay was performed to examine the effect of TNF-α on cell proliferation. Real-time polymerase chain reactions and western blot were used to detect vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA and protein expression. The Matrigel assay showed significantly greater total branching lengths and numbers of branches formed in the experimental groups treated with different concentrations of TNF-α compared with the control group. The decomposition times of the tubule structures were also significantly prolonged (P < 0.05). Treatment with 50 ng/ml TNF-α did not significantly change the proliferation of co-cultured cells, but it significantly increased the VEGF mRNA and protein expression levels (p < 0.05). In addition, the migration abilities of HUVECs and hDPSCs increased after co-culture with TNF-α (p < 0.05). TNF-α enhanced angiogenic ability in vitro in the co-culture system of hDPSCs and HUVECs.

Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology , Neovascularization, Physiologic/drug effects , Dental Pulp/cytology , Dental Pulp/drug effects , Angiogenesis Inducing Agents/pharmacology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Proteoglycans , Reference Values , Time Factors , Cell Count , Cells, Cultured , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Collagen , Laminin , Neovascularization, Physiologic/physiology , Dental Pulp/physiology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/analysis , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/physiology , Drug Combinations , Cell Migration Assays , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/physiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Int. j. morphol ; 37(1): 48-53, 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-990003


RESUMEN: Los niveles de VEGF y su unión a sus receptores son etapas claves en la regulación de la angiogénesis. El ácido acetilsalicílico (AAS), ampliamente utilizado en tratamiento post infarto al miocardio ha mostrado poseer un efecto antiangiogénico en modelos tumorales. Este efecto potencialmente contraproducente requiere ser estudiado en miocardio. El objetivo del presente trabajo es cuantificar el efecto de AAS y de ácido salicílico (AS) sobre la vascularización en membrana alantocoriónica (MAC) y sobre los niveles de VEGF-A y VEGFR2 en miocardio de embriones de pollo. Para ello, treinta fetos de pollo White Leghorn fueron instilados a los 10 días de gestación con 60 µL de DMSO 0,1 % (control) o conteniendo además 0,3 µmol de AAS o AS. A las 48 horas se realizó procesamiento histológico de MAC para recuento de vasos sanguíneos y de tejido cardíaco para cuantificar VEGF-A y VEGFR2 por inmunohistoquímica. La inmunorreactividad fue cuantificada mediante Image J. Tanto AAS como AS disminuyeron la densidad microvascular de MAC. En miocardio, AAS aunque no AS, disminuyó la concentración de VEGFR2. No hubo efecto sobre VEGF-A. En nuestro modelo experimental, fetos de pollo a los 10 días de gestación también se observó el efecto inhibidor de AAS sobre la angiogénesis en MAC. La disminución de VEGFR2 en cardiomiocitos sugiere que AAS también afecta la angiogénesis en miocardio sano, modificando la disponibilidad del receptor a VEGF. Estos hallazgos nos permiten postular que AAS podría interferir con la regeneración de tejido, en situaciones como post infarto al miocardio.

SUMMARY: The VEGF levels and its binding to its receptors are key stages in the regulation of angiogenesis. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), widely used in post-myocardial infarction treatment, has been shown to have an anti-angiogenic effect in tumor models. This potentially counterproductive effect requires to be studied in myocardium. The aim of this study is to quantify the effect of ASA and salicylic acid (SA) on the vascularization in chick allantochorionic membrane (CAM) and on the levels of VEGF-A and VEGFR2 in myocardium of chicken embryos. Thirty White Leghorn chicken fetuses were instilled at 10 days of gestation with 60 mL of 0.1 % DMSO (control) or also containing 0.3 mmol of ASA or SA. After 48 hours, CAM histological processing was performed to count blood vessels and heart tissue to quantify VEGFA and VEGFR2 by immunohistochemistry. Immunoreactivity was quantified by Image J. Both ASA and SA decreased CAM microvascular density. In myocardium, AAS, although not SA, decreased the concentration of VEGFR2. There was no effect on VEGF-A. In our experimental model, chicken fetuses at 10 days of gestation, the inhibitory effect of ASA on angiogenesis in CAM were also observed. The decrease in VEGFR2 in cardiomyocytes suggests that ASA also affects angiogenesis in healthy myocardium, modifying the availability of the receptor to VEGF. These findings allow us to postulate that ASA could interfere with tissue regeneration, when it is required, as post myocardial infarction.

Animals , Chick Embryo , Aspirin/pharmacology , Salicylic Acid/pharmacology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2/drug effects , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/drug effects , Heart/drug effects , Immunohistochemistry , Neovascularization, Physiologic/drug effects , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2/analysis , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/analysis , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
Clinics ; 74: e658, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989637


OBJECTIVES Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors play important roles in angiogenesis. Melatonin plays an important role in gonadal development; thus, its effect on the reproductive system is evident. We investigated the influence of melatonin on the expression of VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR1) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2), as well as on changes in oxidative stress markers and follicle numbers in rat ovaries. METHODS For this purpose, 45 Wistar rats were separated into the following groups: Group 1, control; Group 2, vehicle; and Group 3, melatonin. Rats in Group 3 were treated with melatonin at 50 mg/kg/day for 30 days. The effects of melatonin on the expression of VEGF, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 were established by immunohistochemistry analysis. The effects of melatonin on antioxidant enzyme activities were demonstrated by spectrophotometric analysis. RESULTS Based on immunohistochemistry analysis, VEGFR2 was predominantly localized to theca cells in the ovary. Our data indicate that melatonin treatment can significantly increase VEGF and VEGFR1 expression in the ovary ( p <0.05). Additionally, the number of degenerated follicles significantly decreased with melatonin treatment ( p <0.05). Melatonin administration also led to significant increases in antioxidant enzyme levels in the ovary. CONCLUSION Melatonin treatment exerts protective effects on follicles against increased lipid peroxidation through modulating tissue antioxidant enzyme levels. These effects may be related to angiogenesis and antioxidant activities.

Animals , Female , Ovary/drug effects , Neovascularization, Physiologic/drug effects , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2/drug effects , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/drug effects , Melatonin/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Ovary/enzymology , Ovary/blood supply , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation , Catalase/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Models, Animal , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Melatonin/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism