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urol. colomb. (Bogotá. En línea) ; 31(1): 28-31, 15/03/2022.
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1368860


Horseshoe kidney (HSK) has a prevalence of 1 in every 500 individuals. The management of patients with HSK is usually conservative, except in the presence of symptoms such as obstruction, stones, glomerulopathies, and tumors. In the following case report, we describe how a bilateral en-block transmesenteric laparoscopic nephrectomy in supine position was performed. A 5-year-old boy, with proximal hypospadias and early onset of chronic kidney disease due to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis on biopsy, underwent a genetic molecular evaluation that confirmed a pathogenic mutation at the WT-1 gene. Due to the increased risk of developing Wilms tumor, he underwent a bilateral transmesenteric nephrectomy. In a five-minute video, we describe how we performed an en-block transperitoneal and transmesenteric laparoscopic nephrectomy with special attention to patient positioning, including the feasibility of performing the dissection of the left renal hilum and isthmus with the patient in supine with no need for repositioning, and then moving to the dissection of the right renal hilum and completion of the procedure. The case herein reported enables us to describe the technical key-points to perform a bilateral en-block laparoscopic nephrectomy with shorter operative time and reduction of blood loss by preserving the entire specimen, without the need for an isthmus transection.

El riñón en herradura (RH) tiene una prevalencia de 1 en cada 500 individuos. El manejo del RH es usualmente conservador, excepto cuando genera síntomas como obstrucción, litiasis, glomerulopatías o tumores. Con este reporte de caso, describimos como se realizó una nefrectomia bilateral en bloque transmesentérica en un paciente con riñón en herradura. Un paciente de 5 años de edad, con hypospadias proximal y desarrollo temprano de enfermedad renal crónica por glomeruloesclerosis focal segmentaria, fue sometido a un estudio molecular que confirmó la presencia de una mutación en el gen WT-1. Dado el alto riesgo de desarrollar tumor de Wilms, se decidió realizar una nefrectomía transperitoneal laparoscópica bilateral. En un video de cinco minutos, describimos como se realizó una nefrectomía transperitoneal y transmesentérica en bloque, con especial atención al posicionamiento del paciente, incluso la viabilidad de realizar la disección del hilio renal izquierdo y el istmo con el paciente en supino, sin necesidad de reposicionarlo, y, después, la disección del hilio renal derecho y el fin del procedimiento. El caso reportado nos permite describir los puntos clave técnicos para realizar una nefrectomía laparoscópica bilateral en bloque con un tiempo operativo más corto y reducción del sangrado al preservar todo el espécimen, sin la necesidad de realizar la transección del istmo.

Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Biopsy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Fused Kidney , Nephrectomy , Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental , Supine Position , Lithiasis , Glomerulonephritis , Hypospadias , Kidney , Neoplasms
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(1): 196-197, Jan.-Feb. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356285


ABSTRACT Background: Inferior vena cava (IVC) invasion from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) occurs at a rate of 4-10% (1). IVC thrombectomy (IVC-TE) can be an open procedure because of the need for handling of the IVC (2). The first reported series of robotic management of IVC-TE started in 2011 for the management of Level I - II thrombi with subsequent case reports in recent years (2-5). Materials and Methods: The following is a patient in his 50's with no significant medical history. Magnetic resonance imaging and IR venogram were performed preoperatively. The tumor was clinical stage T3b with a 4.3cm inferior vena cava thrombus. The patient underwent robotic assisted nephrectomy and IVC-TE. Rummel tourniquets were used for the contralateral kidney and the IVC. The tourniquets were created using vessel loops, a 24 French foley catheter and hem-o-lock clips. Results: The patient tolerated the surgical procedure well with no intraoperative complications. Total surgical time was 274 min with 200 minutes of console time and 22 minutes of IVC occlusion. Total blood loss in the surgery was 850cc. The patient was discharged from the hospital on post-operative day 3 without any complications. The final pathology of the specimen was pT3b clear cell renal cell carcinoma Fuhrman grade 2. The patient followed up post-operatively at both four months and six months without disease recurrence. The patient continues annual follow-up with no recurrence. Conclusions: Surgeon experience is a key factor in radical nephrectomy with thrombectomy as patients have a reported 50-65% survival rate after IVC-TE (4).

Humans , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/surgery , Robotic Surgical Procedures , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Tourniquets , Vena Cava, Inferior/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Thrombectomy , Nephrectomy
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(1): 110-119, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356276


ABSTRACT Introduction: Nephrometric scores play an interesting role in nephron sparring surgery (NSS) planning. The aim of this study is to evaluate if R.E.N.A.L. score (RS) is capable to predict the occurrence of adverse events in laparoscopic NSS. Materials and Methods: We prospectively studied 150 laparoscopic NSS between 2015 and 2018 to evaluate the relationship between RS and incidence of adverse events. Clavien 3 or superior complications, warm ischemia time (WIT) over 30 minutes, tumor violation, positive surgical margins (PSM) and necessity of amplification of renal parenchyma during the resection of the masses to obtain free margins were considered as adverse events. We compared each item of the RS isolated and divided the patients between low risk and high risk. Results: Adverse results occurred in 48 cases (32%). Amplification of the margin of resection was observed in 28 cases (19%). WIT exceeded 30 minutes in 9 cases (6.1%), complications Clavien 3 or superior occurred in 13 cases (9%) and PSM were detected en 6 cases (4%). Comparing the patients with adverse outcomes and each item of the RS we did not find any statistical difference, but when divided into high risk and low risk, we found that patients in the high risk group had a higher tendency to present ad-verse results - 25.84% vs. 44.26% (p=0.03). Conclusions: RS system is a good way to predict adverse outcomes in NSS, especially in cases over 7. Further studies should focus on robotic approach and patient's characteristics other than the masses' aspects.

Humans , Laparoscopy , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Nephrectomy/adverse effects , Nephrons/surgery
Acta cir. bras ; 37(6): e370607, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1402963


Purpose: To describe the use of endocavitary ultrasound probe as an auxiliary tool when performing partial nephrectomy in cases of endophytic renal tumors, to standardize the method, and to report the preliminary results achieved with this technique. Methods: Fifteen patients diagnosed with completely endophytic underwent partial nephrectomy with the use of an endocavitary ultrasound probe. This article describes the technique involved in partial nephrectomy and details the preparation of the endocavitary ultrasound probe to ensure its safe use. Results: All the patients had a RENAL score between 8 and 11. The median time of warm ischemia was 26 and 18 minutes for laparoscopic or robot-assisted surgery, respectively. The median duration of surgery was 150 minutes, and the median console time was 145 minutes for the laparoscopic and robot-assisted surgery groups, respectively. The median estimate of blood loss was 200 mL. Only three patients in the laparoscopic group had focal positive surgical margins. There were no cases of infection at the site of probe entry. Conclusions: Intraoperative use of an endocavitary ultrasound probe for partial nephrectomy is possible and a safe alternative to the excision of endophytic tumors when neither robotic probes nor laparoscopic probes are available.

Humans , Stents , Nephrectomy/instrumentation , Nephrectomy/methods , Endoscopy/instrumentation , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery
urol. colomb. (Bogotá. En línea) ; 31(3): 109-115, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1412080


Objective To describe the five-year overall survival (OS) and perioperative morbidity of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with venous tumor thrombus (VTT) treated through radical nephrectomy and thrombectomy. Materials and Methods We evaluated a cohort of 530 patients with a diagnosis of RCC from January 2009 to December 2019, and found VTT in 42 of them; these 42 patients composed the study sample. The patients were stratified according to the Neves Thrombus Classification (NTC). The baseline and perioperative characteristics, as well as the follow-up, were described. The Kaplan-Meier curve and its respective Cox regression were applied to present the 5-year OS and the OS stratified by the NTC. Results The average age of the sample was of 63.19 ± 10.7 years, and there were no differences regarding gender. In total, VTT was present in 7.9% of the patients. According to the NTC, 30.9% of the cases corresponded to level I, 21.4%, to level II, 26.1%, to level III, and 21.4%, to level IV. The 5-year OS was of 88%. For level-I and level-II patients, the 5-year OS was of 100%, and of only 38% among level-IV patients. Complications, mostly minor, occurred in 57% of the cases. Conclusions Radical nephrectomy with thrombectomy is a morbid procedure; however, most complications are minor, and the five-year mortality is null for patients in NTC levels I and II, and low for levels III and IV, and it may be even lower in level-III patients when standardizing transesophageal echocardiogram intraoperatively and routinary extracorporeal bypass. Thus, we recommend considering this surgery as the first-line management in patients with RCC and VTT.

Objetivo Describir la supervivencia global (SG) a los cinco años y la morbilidad perioperatoria de pacientes con carcinoma de células renales (CCR) con trombo tumoral venoso (TTV) tratados por nefrectomía radical y trombectomía. Materiales y Métodos Se evaluó una cohorte de 530 pacientes con diagnóstico de CCR entre enero de 2009 y diciembre de 2019, y se encontró TTV en 42 de ellos; esos 42 pacientes compusieron la muestra de este estudio. Los pacientes fueron estratificados según la clasificación de trombos de Neves (CTN). Se describieron las características basales y perioperatorias de los pacientes, así como el seguimiento. Se aplicaron la curva de Kaplan-Meier y su respectiva regresión de COX para presentar la SG a los 5 años y la SG estratificada por CTN. Resultados La edad promedio de la muestra fue de 63,19 ± 10,7 años, sin diferencia respecto a género. El TTV estuvo presente en el 7,9% de los pacientes. Según la CTN, el 30,9% de los casos correspondía al nivel I, el 21,4%, al nivel II, el 26,1%, al nivel III, y el 21,4%, al nivel IV. La SG a los 5 años fue del 88%. Para los niveles I y II, la SG a los 5 años fue del 100%, y, para el nivel IV del 38%. Las complicaciones, menores en su mayoría, ocurrieron en el 57% de los casos. Conclusiones La nefrectomía radical con trombectomía es un procedimiento mórbido; sin embargo, la mayoría de las complicaciones son menores, y la mortalidad a los 5 años es nula cuando en los pacientes de niveles I y II en la CYN, y baja en los niveles III y IV, y puede ser incluso menor en los pacientes de nivel III al estandarizar el ecocardiograma transesofágico intraoperatorio y el baipás extracorpóreo rutinario. Por ello, recomendamos considerar esta cirugía como manejo de primera línea en pacientes con CCR y TTV.

Humans , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Thrombectomy , Nephrectomy , Aftercare , Gender Identity , Neoplasms
urol. colomb. (Bogotá. En línea) ; 31(4): 177-185, 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1412098


Renal angiomyolipomas (AMLs), formerly known as PEComas (tumors showing perivascular epithelioid cell differentiation) are common benign renal masses composed of a varying ratio of fat, blood vessels, and smooth muscles. They are largely asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally on imaging. The adipose tissue content is the factor that gives AMLs their characteristic appearance on imaging and makes them easily identifiable. However, the fat-poor or fat-invisible varieties, which are difficult to differentiate radiologically from renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), present a diagnostic challenge. It is thus essential to establish the diagnosis and identify the atypical and hereditary cases as they require more intense surveillance and management due to their potential for malignant transformation. Multiple management options are available, ranging from conservative approach to embolization and to the more radical option of nephrectomy. While the indications for intervention are relatively clear and aimed at a rather small cohort, the protocol for follow-up of the remainder of the cohort forming the majority of cases is not well established. The surveillance and discharge policies therefore vary between institutions and even between individual practitioners. We have reviewed the literature to establish an optimum management pathway focusing on the typical AMLs.

Los angiomiolipomas renales (AML), antes conocidos como PEComas (tumores que muestran epitelioides perivasculares) son masas renales benignas frecuentes compuestas por una proporción variable de grasa, vasos sanguíneos y músculos lisos. Suelen ser asintomáticos y se diagnostican de forma incidental en las pruebas de imagen. El contenido de tejido adiposo es el factor que confiere a los AML su aspecto característico en las imágenes y los hace fácilmente identificables. Sin embargo, las variedades pobres en grasa o invisibles, que son difíciles de diferenciar radiológicamente de los carcinomas de células renales (CCR), suponen un reto diagnóstico. Por lo tanto, es esencial establecer el diagnóstico e identificar los casos atípicos y hereditarios, ya que requieren una vigilancia y un tratamiento más intensos debido a su potencial de malignización. debido a su potencial de transformación maligna. Existen múltiples opciones de tratamiento, que van desde el enfoque conservador hasta la embolización y la opción más radical de la nefrectomía. Si bien las indicaciones para la intervención son relativamente claras y están dirigidas a una cohorte bastante pequeña, el protocolo para el seguimiento del resto de la cohorte que forma la mayoría de los casos no está bien establecido. Por lo tanto, las políticas de vigilancia y alta varían entre instituciones e incluso entre profesionales individuales. Hemos revisado la literatura para establecer una ruta de manejo óptima centrada en los AML típicos.

Humans , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Clinical Protocols , Angiomyolipoma , Perivascular Epithelioid Cell Neoplasms , Therapeutics , Epithelioid Cells , Nephrectomy
Rev. colomb. cir ; 37(2): 330-337, 20220316. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362996


Introducción. El tumor de Wilms es la neoplasia abdominal más común en pacientes pediátricos. En la mayoría de los casos se presenta como una masa unilateral indolora en el abdomen. El objetivo de este artículo fue presentar el caso de una paciente de 4 años con tumor de Wilms unilateral derecho manejado con cirugía mínimamente invasiva en el Hospital Universitario del Valle. Métodos. Revisión de la historia clínica e imágenes de la paciente, descripción de la técnica quirúrgica y revisión de la literatura del manejo de tumor de Wilms unilateral. Caso clínico. Paciente femenina de 4 años quien consultó en abril de 2019 por un cuadro clínico de dolor abdominal y sensación de masa en flanco derecho. Se realizó ecografía abdominal donde se encontró imagen nodular heterogénea de contornos definidos en riñón derecho, con riñón izquierdo normal. Se hizo diagnóstico de tumor de Wilms unilateral y se llevó a cirugía mediante abordaje mínimamente invasivo, con buena evolución postoperatoria. Conclusión. La cirugía es el pilar del manejo, y la nefrectomía mediante abordaje laparoscópico para casos seleccionados, en manos entrenadas, tiene la suficiente eficacia, seguridad y cumplimiento de los principios quirúrgicos y oncológicos que provee la cirugía abierta.

Introduction. Wilms tumor is the most common abdominal neoplasm in pediatric patients. In most cases it presents as a painless unilateral mass in the abdomen. The objective of this article was to present the case of a 4-year-old patient with right unilateral Wilms tumor managed with minimally invasive surgery at the Hospital Universitario del Valle. Methods. Review of the patient's clinical history and images, description of the surgical technique and review of the literature on the management of unilateral Wilms tumor.Clinical case. A 4-year-old female patient who consulted on April 4, 2019 with a clinical presentation of abdominal pain and sensation of mass in the right flank. Abdominal ultrasound was performed where a heterogeneous nodular image of defined contours was found in the right kidney, with a normal left kidney. A diagnosis of unilateral Wilms tumor was made and surgery was carried out using a minimally invasive approach, with good postoperative evolution. Conclusion. Wilms tumor is the most common abdominal neoplasm in pediatric patients. The most common presentation is a painless palpable mass. Surgery is the mainstay of management, and nephrectomy using a laparoscopic approach for selected cases, in trained hands, has sufficient efficacy, safety, and compliance with surgical and oncological principles that open surgery provides.

Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Wilms Tumor , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Kidney Neoplasms , Laparoscopy , Nephrectomy
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928974


OBJECTIVES@#Renal cancer is a common malignancy of the urinary system, and the partial nephrectomy is a common surgical modality for early renal cancer. 3D printing technology can create a visual three-dimensional model by using 3D digital models of the patient's imaging data. With this model, surgeons can perform preoperative assessment to clarify the location, depth, and blood supply of the tumor, which helps to develop preoperative plans and achieve better surgical outcomes. In this study, the R.E.N.A.L scoring system was used to stratify patients with renal tumors and to explore the clinical application value of 3D printing technology in laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.@*METHODS@#A total of 114 renal cancer patients who received laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in Xiangya Hospital from June 2019 to December 2020 were enrolled. The patients were assigned into an experimental group (n=52) and a control group (n=62) according to whether 3D printing technology was performed, and the differences in perioperative parameters between the 2 groups were compared. Thirty-nine patients were assigned into a low-complexity group (4-6 points), 32 into a moderate-complexity group (7-9 points), and 43 into a high-complexity group (10-12 points) according to R.E.N.A.L score, and the differences in perioperative parameters between the experimental group and the control group in each score group were compared.@*RESULTS@#The experimental group had shorter operative time, renal ischemia time, and postoperative hospital stay (all P<0.05), less intraoperative blood loss (P=0.047), and smaller postoperative blood creatinine change (P=0.032) compared with the control group. In the low-complexity group, there were no statistically significant differences between the experimental group and the control group in operation time, renal ischemia time, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative blood creatinine changes, and postoperative hospital stay (all P>0.05). In the moderate- and high- complexity groups, the experimental group had shorter operative time, renal ischemia time, and postoperative hospital stay (P<0.05 or P<0.001), less intraoperative blood loss (P=0.022 and P<0.001, respectively), and smaller postoperative blood creatinine changes (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively) compared with the control group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Compared with renal tumor patients with R.E.N.A.L score<7, renal cancer patients with R.E.N.A.L score≥7 may benefit more from 3D printing assessment before undergoing partial nephrectomy.

Blood Loss, Surgical , Creatinine , Female , Humans , Ischemia , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Laparoscopy/methods , Male , Nephrectomy/methods , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(6): 1272-1273, Nov.-Dec. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340035


ABSTRACT Purpose: Three-dimensional (3D) virtual models have recently gained consideration in the partial nephrectomy (PN) field as useful tools since they may potentially improve preoperative surgical planning and thus contributing to maximizing postoperative outcomes (1-5). The aim of the present study was to describe our first experience with 3D virtual models as preoperative guidance for robot-assisted PN. Materials and methods: Data of patients with renal mass amenable to robotic PN were prospectively collected at our Institution from January to April 2020. Using a dedicated web-based platform, abdominal CT-scan images were processed by M3DICS (Turin, Italy) and used to obtain 3D virtual models. 2D CT images and 3D models were separately assessed by two different highly experienced urologists to assess the PADUA score and risk category and to forecast the surgical strategy of the single cases, accordingly. Results: Overall, 30 patients were included in the study. Median tumor size was 4.3cm (range 1.3-11). Interestingly, 8 (26.4%) cases had their PADUA score downgraded when switching from 2D CT-scan to 3D virtual model assessment and 4 (13.4%) cases had also lowered their PADUA risk category. Moreover, preoperative off-clamp, selective clamping strategy and enucleation resection strategy increased from CT-scan to 3D evaluation. Conclusion: 3D virtual models are promising tools as they showed to offer a reliable assessment of surgical planning. However, the advantages offered by the 3D reconstruction appeared to be more evident as the complexity of the mass raises. These tools may ultimately increase tumor's selection for PN, particularly in highly complex renal masses. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest: The authors declare they do not have conflict of interests. Informed consent: Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study. All the procedures were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and national research Committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Humans , Robotics , Laparoscopy , Robotic Surgical Procedures , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Nephrectomy
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(4): 821-826, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286783


ABSTRACT Introduction: Symptomatic duplex kidneys usually present with recurrent urinary tract infection due to ureteral obstruction (megaureter, ureterocele or ectopic ureter) and/or vesicoureteral reflux. Upper-pole nephrectomy is a widely accepted procedure to correct symptomatic duplex systems with poor functioning moieties, also known as upper or proximal approach. The distal ureteral stump syndrome (DUSS) can be a late complication of this approach. There is no consensus upon the length of ureteral dissection and the better approach to symptomatic disease in duplex systems, so we aim to identify if extended ureteral dissection can prevent DUSS in top-down approach. Materials and Methods: Forty-four consecutive patients with symptomatic duplex system were retrospectively classified into two groups: those with limited ureteral excision after heminephrectomy (HN) (group-1) and those with extended ureterectomy after HN (group-2). Patients were followed-up for at least 36 months regarding outcomes of distal ureteral stump. Results: Overall complication was 20%. A total of 8 patients required unplanned further surgery in Group-1 (30%) whereas only 1 patient required unplanned surgery in group 2 (6%) (p=0.07). Subgroup analysis showed that Group-1 presented more DUSS requiring surgery during follow-up than group-2 (p=0.04). Factors possibly affecting complications incidence (such as ureterocele or ectopic ureter) did not differ between groups (p=0.72 and p=0.78). Conclusion: Upper pole nephrectomy should be performed with extended distal ureteral dissection to prevent ureteral stump complications.

Humans , Infant , Ureter/surgery , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Kidney , Nephrectomy
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(4): 796-802, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286776


ABSTRACT Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate the possible long-term protective effects of quercetin during renal warm ischemia. Materials and Methods: Male rats were allocated into 4 groups: sham (S), sham quercetin (SQ), ischemia (I), and ischemia quercetin (IQ). Groups SQ and IQ received quercetin (50mg/kg) before and after surgery. Groups I and IQ had their left renal vessels clamped for 60 minutes. All animals were euthanized four weeks after the procedure, and serum urea and creatinine levels were measured. Renal weight and volume, cortex-non-cortex area ratio (C-NC), cortical volume (CV), glomerular volumetric density (Vv[glom]), volume-weighted glomerular volume (VWGV) and number of glomeruli per kidney (N[glom]) were evaluated by stereological methods. Results were considered statistically significant when p <0.05. Results: Serum urea levels in group I increased by 10.4% in relation to group S, but no differences were observed among the other groups. The C-NC of group I was lower than those of all other groups, and group IQ had similar results to sham groups. The Vv[glom] and N[glom] of group I were lower than those of group S (33.7% and 28.3%, respectively) and group IQ had no significant difference compared to the S group. Conclusions: Quercetin was effective as a nephroprotective agent in preventing the glomerular loss observed when the kidney was subjected to warm ischemia. This suggests that this flavonoid may be used preventively in kidney surgery, when warm ischemia is necessary, such as partial nephrectomy.

Animals , Male , Rats , Quercetin/therapeutic use , Warm Ischemia , Rodentia , Kidney , Kidney Glomerulus , Nephrectomy
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(4): 777-783, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286766


ABSTRACT Hypothesis: Partial Nephrectomy is oncological safe in patients with pT3a RCC. Purpose: To compare the oncological and functional outcomes of patients with pT3a RCC scheduled for PN and RN. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients with pT3a N0 M0 RCC who underwent partial or radical nephrectomy from 2005 to 2016. Perioperative characteristics, including estimated glomerular filtration rate, tumor size, pathological histology, and RENAL nephrometry score, were compared between patients scheduled for partial or radical nephrectomy. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models to compare overall survival, cancer-specific survival, and recurrence-free survival between planned procedure type. Results: Of the 589 patients, 369 (63%) and 220 (37%) were scheduled for radical and partial nephrectomy, respectively; 26 (12%) of the scheduled partial nephrectomy cases were intraoperatively converted to radical nephrectomy. After adjusting for tumor size and histology, there were no statistically significant differences in overall survival (hazard ratio 0.66; 95% CI, 0.38-1.13), cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio 0.53; 95% CI, 0.16-1.75), or recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio 0.66; 95% CI, 0.34-1.28) between patients scheduled for partial or radical nephrectomy. Fewer patients scheduled for partial nephrectomy had estimated glomerular filtration rate reductions 3 to 9 months after surgery than patients scheduled for radical nephrectomy. Conclusion: We found no evidence that patients scheduled to undergo partial nephrectomy had poorer oncologic outcomes than patients scheduled to undergo radical nephrectomy. In select patients with pT3a renal cell carcinoma in whom partial nephrectomy is deemed feasible by the surgeon, partial nephrectomy should not be discouraged.

Humans , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/pathology , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Neoplasm Staging , Nephrectomy
Rev. invest. clín ; 73(4): 238-244, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347570


Background: The negative impact of tobacco smoking on renal function has been widely studied. However, there is limited knowledge about the effect of smoking on pre-operative and post-operative renal function in living kidney donors. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the short- and mid-term impact of smoking on donor renal function. Methods: This is a retrospective study of 308 patients who underwent living donor nephrectomy (LDN) at a tertiary referral hospital. We compared baseline characteristics as well as functional outcomes following LDN according to history of tobacco smoking. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated with the modification of diet in renal disease equation in 6 time periods: pre-operative, 1 week, 1 month, 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months after surgery. We performed a Kaplan-Meier analysis for chronic kidney disease (CKD) outcome and binary logistic regression analysis to identify risk factors associated with CKD at 24 months of follow-up. Results: Among donors, 106 (34.4%) reported a smoking history before nephrectomy. Smoking donors had worse pre-operative eGFR than non-smokers (90 ± 26.3 mL/min/1.73m2 vs. 96 ± 27 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively; p = 0.02) and lower eGFR at 1 week (p = 0.01), 1 month (p ≤ 0.01), 6 months (p = 0.01), and 12 months (p = 0.01) after LDN. Tobacco smoking (OR 3.35, p ≤ 0.01) and age ≥ 40 years at donation (OR 6.59, p ≤ 0.01) were associated with post-operative development of CKD at 24 months after LDN. Conclusions: Living kidney donors with a tobacco smoking history had an increased risk of developing chronic kidney disease following nephrectomy. Smoking-cessation strategies should be implemented.

Humans , Adult , Smoking/adverse effects , Kidney Transplantation , Living Donors , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Tobacco Smoking , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Nephrectomy
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(7): 1033-1037, July 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346941


Summary OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to compare the standard and robotic-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy in terms of perioperative course, short-term postoperative outcome, and to evaluate the effect of surgeon's learning curve on these parameters. METHODS: This was a prospective randomized study including 60 patients (mean age, 47 years; age, 21-72 years; 26 males, 34 females) who had been planned laparoscopic donor nephrectomies in our clinic. For comparison of standard and robot-assisted techniques and to evaluate the impact of learning curve, patients were randomized into three groups by a computer, each group containing 20 patients. Group 1: standard laparoscopic donor nephrectomies; Group 2: the first 20 patients who underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy; and Group 3: the next 20 patients who underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. RESULTS: Operative time was significantly higher in Group 2 (221.0±45.1 min) than both Group 1 (183.5±16.9 min, p=0.001) and Group 3 (186.5±20.6 min, p=0.002). Similarly, time for laparoscopic system setup was significantly higher in Group 2 (39.5±8.6 min), which contained the first cases of robot-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy where surgeon had least experience than Group 1 (19.3±3.7 min, p<0.001) and Group 3 (24.0±9.4 min, p<0.001). On the other hand, duration of operation and time for laparoscopic system setup was similar between Groups 1 and 3. CONCLUSIONS: Learning curve extends the operative time and laparoscopic system setup time in robotic-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy, however, after the learning process was completed, these parameters were similar between robotic-assisted and standard laparoscopic nephrectomy.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Laparoscopy , Robotic Surgical Procedures , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Living Donors , Learning Curve , Middle Aged , Nephrectomy
Rev. bras. hipertens ; 28(1): 39-43, 10 març. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367893


Objetivo: Relatar o caso de uma paciente jovem portadora de Hipertensão Arterial Secundária à estenose da artéria renal, que evoluiu com perda renal em decorrência de necessidade de nefrectomia unilateral, enfatizado a importância do diagnóstico e da abordagem adequada desta patologia para o controle da pressão arterial e preservação da função renal. Método: Os dados foram obtidos através de entrevista com a paciente, análise de prontuário, laudos de técnicas diagnósticas, as quais a paciente foi submetida, entre julho e novembro de 2019, durante as consultas médicas e revisão bibliográfica. Conclusão: A nefrectomia unilateral mostrou-se eficaz no controle da hipertensão arterial, na melhora do desempenho renal, possibilitando a melhoria na qualidade de vida do indivíduo afetado

Objective: To report the case of a young patient with SAH secondary to renal artery stenosis, who developed renal loss due to the need for unilateral nephrectomy, emphasizing the importance of the diagnosis and the appropriate approach of this pathology for the control of blood pressure and preservation of renal function. Method: The data were obtained through interview with the patient, analysis of medical records, reports of diagnostic techniques, which the patient was submitted between July and November 2019, during medical consultations and literature review. Conclusion: Unilateral Nephrectomy proved to be effective in controlling arterial hypertension, improving renal performance and in the evolution of renal insufficiency that is difficult to control from the renovascular root, enabling improvement in the affected individual's quality of life

Humans , Female , Adult , Hypertension/therapy , Hypertension, Renovascular , Nephrectomy