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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 166-172, feb. 2024. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528834

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Peripheral nerve injury is an extremely important medical and socio-economic problem. It is far from a solution, despite on rapid development of technologies. To study the effect of long-term electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves, we used a domestically produced electrical stimulation system, which is approved for clinical use. The study was performed on 28 rabbits. Control of regeneration was carried out after 3 month with morphologic techniques. The use of long-term electrostimulation technology leads to an improvement in the results of the recovery of the nerve trunk after an injury, both directly at the site of damage, when stimulation begins in the early period, and indirectly, after the nerve fibers reach the effector muscle.


La lesión de los nervios periféricos es un problema médico y socioeconómico extremadamente importante. Sin embargo, y a pesar del rápido desarrollo de las tecnologías, aún no tiene solución. Para estudiar el efecto de la estimulación eléctrica a largo plazo de los nervios periféricos, utilizamos un sistema de estimulación eléctrica de producción nacional, que está aprobado para uso clínico. El estudio se realizó en 28 conejos. El control de la regeneración se realizó a los 3 meses con técnicas morfológicas. El uso de tecnología de electro estimulación a largo plazo conduce a una mejora en los resultados de la recuperación del tronco nervioso después de una lesión, tanto directamente en el lugar del daño, cuando la estimulación comienza en el período temprano, como indirectamente, después de que las fibras nerviosas alcanzan el músculo efector.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Electric Stimulation/methods , Peripheral Nerve Injuries/therapy , Peripheral Nerves , Muscle, Skeletal/innervation , Recovery of Function , Nerve Regeneration
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1184-1190, ago. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514361

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Peripheral nerve damage is a significant clinical problem that can lead to severe complications in patients. Regarding the regeneration of peripheral nerves, it is crucial to use experimental animals' nerves and use different evaluation methods. Epineural or perineural suturing is the gold standard in treating sciatic nerve injury, but nerve repair is often unsuccessful. This study aimed to investigate the neuroregenerative effects of magnetotherapy and bioresonance in experimental animals with sciatic nerve damage. In this study, 24 female Wistar rats were divided into 7 groups (n=6) as follows: Group 1 (Control), Group 2 (Axonotmesis control), Group 3 (Anastomosis control), Group 4 (Axonotmesis + magnetotherapy), Group 5 (Anastomosis + magnetotherapy), Group 6 (Axonotmesis + bioresonance), Group 7 (Anastomosis + bioresonance). Magnetotherapy and bioresonance treatments were applied for 12 weeks. Behavioural tests and EMG tests were performed at the end of the 12th week. Then the rats were sacrificed, and a histopathological evaluation was made. The statistical significance level was taken as 5 % in the calculations, and the SPSS (IBM SPSS for Windows, ver.21) statistical package program was used for the calculations. Statistically significant results were obtained in animal behaviour tests, EMG, and pathology groups treated with magnetotherapy. There was no statistically significant difference in the groups treated with bioresonance treatment compared to the control groups. Muscle activity and nerve repair occurred in experimental animals with acute peripheral nerve damage due to 12 weeks of magnetotherapy, and further studies should support these results.


El daño a los nervios periféricos es un problema clínico importante que puede conducir a complicaciones graves en los pacientes. En cuanto a la regeneración de los nervios periféricos, es crucial utilizar los nervios de los animales de experimentación y diferentes métodos de evaluación. La sutura epineural o perineural es el gold estándar en el tratamiento de lesiones del nervio ciático, pero la reparación del nervio a menudo no tiene éxito. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar los efectos neuroregenerativos de la magnetoterapia y la biorresonancia en animales de experimentación con daño del nervio ciático. En el estudio, 24 ratas hembras Wistar se dividieron en 7 grupos (n=6) de la siguiente manera: Grupo 1 (Control), Grupo 2 (Control de axonotmesis), Grupo 3 (Control de anastomosis), Grupo 4 (Axonotmesis + magnetoterapia), Grupo 5 (Anastomosis + magnetoterapia), Grupo 6 (Axonotmesis + biorresonancia), Grupo 7 (Anastomosis + biorresonancia). Se aplicaron durante 12 semanas tratamientos de magnetoterapia y biorresonancia. Las pruebas de comportamiento y las pruebas de EMG se realizaron al final de la semana 12. Luego se sacrificaron las ratas y se realizó una evaluación histopatológica. El nivel de significación estadística se tomó como 5 % en los cálculos, y se utilizó el programa de paquete estadístico SPSS (IBM SPSS para Windows, ver.21). Se obtuvieron resultados estadísticamente significativos en pruebas de comportamiento animal, EMG y grupos de patología tratados con magnetoterapia. No hubo diferencia estadísticamente significativa en los grupos con tratamiento de biorresonancia en comparación con los grupos controles. La actividad muscular y la reparación nerviosa, se produjeron en animales de experimentación con daño nervioso periférico agudo, debido a 12 semanas de magnetoterapia.Estudios adicionales deberían respaldar estos resultados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Sciatic Nerve/injuries , Peripheral Nerve Injuries/therapy , Nerve Regeneration , Sciatic Nerve/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Electromyography , Magnetic Field Therapy , Peripheral Nerve Injuries/physiopathology , Bioresonance Therapy
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 188-194, feb. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430540

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Microsurgical procedures are the treatment of choice of peripheral nerve injuries, but often fail to reach full functional recovery. Melatonin has neuroprotective actions and might be used as a possible proregenerative pharmacological support. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the time-dependence of the neuroprotective effect of melatonin on the overall fascicular structures of both ends of the transected nerve. Sciatic nerve transection was performed in 34 adult male Wistar rats divided in four groups: two vehicle groups (N=7) treated intraperitoneally for 7 (V7) or 21 (V21) consecutive days with vehicle (5 % ethanol in Ringer solution) and two melatonin groups (N=10) administered intraperitoneally 30 mg/kg of melatonin for 7 (M7) or 21 (M21) consecutive days. At the end of the experiment, proximal stump neuroma and distal stump fibroma were excised and processed for qualitative and quantitative histological analysis. Intrafascicular neural structures were better preserved and the collagen deposition was reduced in the melatonin treated groups than in the vehicle groups. Myelin sheath regeneration observed through its thickness measurement was statistically significantly (p<0,05) more pronounced in the M21 (1,23±0,18 µm) vs. V21 group (0,98±0,13 µm). The mean volume density of the endoneurium was lower in both melatonin treated groups in comparison to the matching vehicle treated groups. Although not statistically different, the endoneural tube diameter was larger in both melatonin groups vs. vehicle groups, and the effect of melatonin was more pronounced after 21 days (24,97 % increase) vs. 7 days of melatonin treatment (18,8 % increase). Melatonin exerts a time-dependent proregenerative effect on nerve fibers in the proximal stump and an anti-scarring effect in both stumps.


Los procedimientos microquirúrgicos son el tratamiento de elección de las lesiones de los nervios periféricos, pero a menudo no logran una recuperación funcional completa. La melatonina tiene acciones neuroprotectoras y podría ser utilizada como un posible apoyo farmacológico proregenerativo. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la dependencia del tiempo del efecto neuroprotector de la melatonina sobre las estructuras fasciculares generales de ambos extremos del nervio seccionado. La sección del nervio ciático se realizó en 34 ratas Wistar macho adultas divididas en cuatro grupos: dos grupos de vehículo (N=7) tratados por vía intraperitoneal durante 7 (V7) o 21 (V21) días consecutivos con vehículo (5 % de etanol en solución Ringer) y dos grupos grupos de melatonina (N=10) a los que se les administró por vía intraperitoneal 30 mg/kg de melatonina durante 7 (M7) o 21 (M21) días consecutivos. Al final del experimento, se extirparon y procesaron el neuroma del muñón proximal y el fibroma del muñón distal del nervio para un análisis histológico cualitativo y cuantitativo. Las estructuras neurales intrafasciculares se conservaron mejor y el depósito de colágeno se redujo en los grupos tratados con melatonina respecto a los grupos con vehículo. La regeneración de la vaina de mielina observada a través de la medición de su espesor fue estadísticamente significativa (p<0,05) más pronunciada en el grupo M21 (1,23±0,18 µm) vs V21 (0,98±0,13 µm). La densidad de volumen media del endoneuro fue menor en ambos grupos tratados con melatonina en comparación con los grupos tratados con vehículo equivalente. Aunque no fue estadísticamente diferente, el diámetro del tubo endoneural fue mayor en ambos grupos de melatonina frente a los grupos de vehículo, y el efecto de la melatonina fue más pronunciado después de 21 días (aumento del 24,97 %) frente a los 7 días de tratamiento con melatonina (18,8 % de aumento). La melatonina ejerce un efecto proregenerativo dependiente del tiempo sobre las fibras nerviosas del muñón proximal y un efecto anticicatricial en ambos muñones.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Sciatic Nerve/drug effects , Melatonin/pharmacology , Nerve Regeneration/drug effects , Peripheral Nerves , Sciatic Nerve/physiology , Time Factors , Rats, Wistar , Myelin Sheath/drug effects , Nerve Regeneration/physiology
4.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 622-628, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981642

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of folic acid coated-crosslinked urethane-doped polyester elastomer (fCUPE) nerve conduit in repairing long distance peripheral nerve injury.@*METHODS@#Thirty-six 3-month-old male Sprague Dawley rats weighing 180-220 g were randomly assigned to 3 groups, each consisting of 12 rats: CUPE nerve conduit transplantation group (group A), fCUPE nerve conduit transplantation group (group B), and autologous nerve transplantation group (group C), the contralateral healthy limb of group C served as the control group (group D). A 20-mm-long sciatic nerve defect model was established in rats, and corresponding materials were used to repair the nerve defect according to the group. The sciatic function index (SFI) of groups A-C was calculated using the Bain formula at 1, 2, and 3 months after operation. The nerve conduction velocity (NCV) of the affected side in groups A-D was assessed using neuroelectrophysiological techniques. At 3 months after operation, the regenerated nerve tissue was collected from groups A-C for S-100 immunohistochemical staining and Schwann cell count in groups A and B to compare the level of nerve repair and regeneration in each group.@*RESULTS@#At 3 months after operation, the nerve conduits in all groups partially degraded. There was no significant adhesion between the nerve and the conduit and the surrounding tissues, the conduit was well connected with the distal and proximal nerves, and the nerve-like tissues in the conduit could be observed when the nerve conduit stents were cut off. SFI in group A was significantly higher than that in group C at each time point after operation and was significantly higher than that in group B at 2 and 3 months after operation ( P<0.05). There was no significant difference in SFI between groups B and C at each time point after operation ( P>0.05). NCV in group A was significantly slower than that in the other 3 groups at each time point after operation ( P<0.05). The NCV of groups B and C were slower than that of group D, but the difference was significant only at 1 month after operation ( P<0.05). There was no significant difference between groups B and C at each time point after operation ( P>0.05). Immunohistochemical staining showed that the nerve tissue of group A had an abnormal cavo-like structure, light tissue staining, and many non-Schwann cells. In group B, a large quantity of normal neural structures was observed, the staining was deeper than that in group A, and the distribution of dedifferentiated Schwann cells was obvious. In group C, the nerve bundles were arranged neatly, and the tissue staining was the deepest. The number of Schwann cells in group B was (727.50±57.60) cells/mm 2, which was significantly more than that in group A [(298.33±153.12) cells/mm 2] ( t=6.139, P<0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#The fCUPE nerve conduit is effective in repairing long-distance sciatic nerve defects and is comparable to autologous nerve grafts. It has the potential to be used as a substitute material for peripheral nerve defect transplantation.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Male , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Polyesters , Peripheral Nerve Injuries/surgery , Elastomers , Urethane , Sciatic Nerve/injuries , Carbamates , Nerve Tissue , Nerve Regeneration/physiology
5.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 160-173, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970303

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To provide useful information for selecting the most appropriate peripheral nerve injury model for different research purposes in nerve injury and repair studies, and to compare nerve regeneration capacity and characteristics between them.@*METHODS@#Sixty adult SD rats were randomly divided into two groups and underwent crush injury alone (group A, n = 30) or transection injury followed by surgical repair (group B, n = 30) of the right hind paw. Each group was subjected to the CatWalk test, gastrocnemius muscle evaluation, pain threshold measurement, electrophysiological examination, retrograde neuronal labeling, and quantification of nerve regeneration before and 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after injury.@*RESULTS@#Gait analysis showed that the recovery speed in group A was significantly faster than that in group B at 14 days. At 21 days, the compound muscle action potential of the gastrocnemius muscle in group A was significantly higher than that in group B, and the number of labeled motor neurons in group B was lower than that in group A. The number of new myelin sheaths and the g-ratio were higher in group A than in group B. There was a 7-day time difference in the regeneration rate between the two injury groups.@*CONCLUSION@#The regeneration of nerve fibers was rapid after crush nerve injury, whereas the transection injury was relatively slow, which provides some ideas for the selection of clinical research models.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Nerve Fibers , Nerve Regeneration , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sciatic Nerve/injuries
6.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 635-652, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010758

ABSTRACT

Spinal cord injury (SCI) disrupts the structural and functional connectivity between the higher center and the spinal cord, resulting in severe motor, sensory, and autonomic dysfunction with a variety of complications. The pathophysiology of SCI is complicated and multifaceted, and thus individual treatments acting on a specific aspect or process are inadequate to elicit neuronal regeneration and functional recovery after SCI. Combinatory strategies targeting multiple aspects of SCI pathology have achieved greater beneficial effects than individual therapy alone. Although many problems and challenges remain, the encouraging outcomes that have been achieved in preclinical models offer a promising foothold for the development of novel clinical strategies to treat SCI. In this review, we characterize the mechanisms underlying axon regeneration of adult neurons and summarize recent advances in facilitating functional recovery following SCI at both the acute and chronic stages. In addition, we analyze the current status, remaining problems, and realistic challenges towards clinical translation. Finally, we consider the future of SCI treatment and provide insights into how to narrow the translational gap that currently exists between preclinical studies and clinical practice. Going forward, clinical trials should emphasize multidisciplinary conversation and cooperation to identify optimal combinatorial approaches to maximize therapeutic benefit in humans with SCI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Axons/pathology , Nerve Regeneration/physiology , Spinal Cord Injuries/therapy , Neurons/pathology , Recovery of Function
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4057-4074, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008011

ABSTRACT

Artificial nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) are synthetic nerve grafts that are capable of providing the structural and nutritional support for nerve regeneration. The ideal NGCs have plenty of requirements on biocompatibility, mechanical strength, topological structure, and conductivity. Therefore, it is necessary to continuously improve the design of NGCs and establish a better therapeutic strategy for peripheral nerve injury in order to meet clinical needs. Although current NGCs have made certain process in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury, their nerve regeneration and functional outcomes on repairing long-distance nerve injury remain unsatisfactory. Herein, we review the nerve conduit design from four aspects, namely raw material selection, structural design, therapeutic factor loading and self-powered component integration. Moreover, we summarize the research progress of NGCs in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury, in order to facilitate the iterative updating and clinical transformation of NGCs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Peripheral Nerve Injuries/therapy , Guided Tissue Regeneration , Nerve Regeneration/physiology , Sciatic Nerve
8.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(2): 207-213, Mar.-Apr. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387995

ABSTRACT

Abstract Peripheral nerve damage is an important cause of seeking medical attention. It occurs when the continuity of structures is interrupted and the propagation of nervous impulses is blocked, affecting the functional capacity of individuals. To assess the effects of the immunosuppressants tacrolimus and cyclosporine on the regeneration of peripheral nerves, a systematic review of the literature was carried out. The articles included were published until September 2018 and proposed to evaluate the effects of the immunosuppressants tacrolimus and cyclosporine on nerve regeneration and neuroprotection, available in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Oxford Pain Relief Database, and LILACS databases. The research analysed a total of 56 articles, of which 22 were included in the meta-analysis. Statistical analysis suggests the protective effect of tacrolimus in the regeneration of the number of myelinated axons (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.93-2.39; p< 0.01); however, such effect was not observed in relation to cyclosporine (95%CI: - 0.38-1.18; p» 0.08) It also suggests that there is a significant relationship between the use of tacrolimus and myelin thickness (95%CI» 2.00-5.71; p< 0. 01). The use of immunosuppressants in the regeneration of peripheral nerve damage promotes an increase in the number of myelinated axons in general, regardless of the administered dose. In addition, it ensures greater myelin thickness, muscle weight and recovery of the sciatic functional index. However, heterogeneity was high in most analyses performed.


Resumo As lesões nervosas periféricas são uma causa importante de busca por atendimento médico. Elas ocorrem quando há a interrupção da continuidade das estruturas e do bloqueio da propagação dos impulsos nervosos, afetando a capacidade funcional dos indivíduos. Para avaliar os efeitos dos imunossupressores tacrolimus e ciclosporina na regeneração de nervos periféricos, foi realizada uma revisão sistemática da literatura. Foram incluídos artigos publicados até setembro de 2018, que se propunham avaliar os efeitos dos imunossupressores tacrolimus e ciclosporina na regeneração nervosa e neuroproteção, disponíveis nas bases de dados MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Oxford Pain Relief Database e LILACS. A pesquisa analisou um total de 56 artigos, dos quais 22 foram para metanálise. A análise estatística sugere o efeito protetor do tacrolimus na regeneração do número de axônios mielinizados (intervalo de confiança [IC] 95%: 0,93-2,39; p< 0,01); todavia tal efeito não foi observado em relação à ciclosporina (IC95%: - 0,38-1,18; p» 0,08). Ela também sugere haver uma relação significativa entre o uso do tacrolimus e a espessura da mielina (IC95%: 2,00-5,71; p< 0,01). O uso de imunossupressores na regeneração de lesão nervosa periférica promove um aumento no número de axônios mielinizados de forma geral, independentemente da dose administrada. Além disso, garante uma maior espessura da mielina, um maior peso muscular e restabelecimento do índice da função do nervo ciático. Todavia, a heterogeneidade foi alta na maioria das análises realizadas.


Subject(s)
Peripheral Nerves/pathology , Tacrolimus/therapeutic use , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Nerve Regeneration/drug effects
9.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 58-73, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929039

ABSTRACT

Carbon nanotube (CNT) composite materials are very attractive for use in neural tissue engineering and biosensor coatings. CNT scaffolds are excellent mimics of extracellular matrix due to their hydrophilicity, viscosity, and biocompatibility. CNTs can also impart conductivity to other insulating materials, improve mechanical stability, guide neuronal cell behavior, and trigger axon regeneration. The performance of chitosan (CS)/polyethylene glycol (PEG) composite scaffolds could be optimized by introducing multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs). CS/PEG/CNT composite scaffolds with CNT content of 1%, 3%, and 5% (1%=0.01 g/mL) were prepared by freeze-drying. Their physical and chemical properties and biocompatibility were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the composite scaffolds had a highly connected porous structure. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy proved that the CNTs were well dispersed in the CS/PEG matrix and combined with the CS/PEG nanofiber bundles. MWCNTs enhanced the elastic modulus of the scaffold. The porosity of the scaffolds ranged from 83% to 96%. They reached a stable water swelling state within 24 h, and swelling decreased with increasing MWCNT concentration. The electrical conductivity and cell adhesion rate of the scaffolds increased with increasing MWCNT content. Immunofluorescence showed that rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells grown in the scaffolds had characteristics similar to nerve cells. We measured changes in the expression of nerve cell markers by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and found that PC12 cells cultured in the scaffolds expressed growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43), nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR), and class III β‍-tubulin (TUBB3) proteins. Preliminary research showed that the prepared CS/PEG/CNT scaffold has good biocompatibility and can be further applied to neural tissue engineering research.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Axons , Biocompatible Materials/chemistry , Chitosan/chemistry , Nanotubes, Carbon/chemistry , Nerve Regeneration , Polyethylene Glycols , Porosity , Tissue Engineering/methods , Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry
10.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 575-583, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936350

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the therapeutic effect of Epothilone D on traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) in rats.@*METHODS@#Forty-two SD rats were randomized to receive intraperitoneal injection of 1.0 mg/kg Epothilone D or DMSO (control) every 3 days until day 28, and rat models of TON were established on the second day after the first administration. On days 3, 7, and 28, examination of flash visual evoked potentials (FVEP), immunofluorescence staining and Western blotting were performed to examine the visual pathway features, number of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), GAP43 expression level in damaged axons, and changes of Tau and pTau-396/404 in the retina and optic nerve.@*RESULTS@#In Epothilone D treatment group, RGC loss rate was significantly decreased by 19.12% (P=0.032) on day 3 and by 22.67% (P=0.042) on day 28 as compared with the rats in the control group, but FVEP examination failed to show physiological improvement in the visual pathway on day 28 in terms of the relative latency of N2 wave (P=0.236) and relative amplitude attenuation of P2-N2 wave (P=0.441). The total Tau content in the retina of the treatment group was significantly increased compared with that in the control group on day 3 (P < 0.001), showing a consistent change with ptau-396/404 level. In the optic nerve axons, the total Tau level in the treatment group was significantly lower than that in the control group on day 7 (P=0.002), but the changes of the total Tau and pTau-396/404 level did not show an obvious correlation. Epothilone D induced persistent expression of GAP43 in the damaged axons, detectable even on day 28 of the experiment.@*CONCLUSION@#Epothilone D treatment can protect against TON in rats by promoting the survival of injured RGCs, enhancing Tau content in the surviving RGCs, reducing Tau accumulation in injured axons, and stimulating sustained regeneration of axons.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Disease Models, Animal , Epothilones , Evoked Potentials, Visual , Nerve Regeneration/physiology , Optic Nerve Injuries/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Retinal Ganglion Cells/physiology
11.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 194-198, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928293

ABSTRACT

Spinal cord injury is a severe central nervous system disease, which will cause a series of complex pathophysiological changes and activate a variety of signaling pathways including Notch signaling. Studies have evidenced that activation of the Notch signaling pathway is not conducive to nerve repair and symptom improvement after spinal cord injury. Its mechanisms include inhibiting neuronal differentiation and axon regeneration, promoting reactive astrocyte proliferation, promoting M1 macrophage polarization and the release of proinflammatory factors, and inhibiting angiogenesis. Therefore, it has become a promising therapeutic strategy to inhibit Notch signal as a target in the treatment of spinal cord injury. In recent years, some researchers have used drugs, cell transplantation or genetic modification to regulate Notch signaling, which can promote the recovery of nerve function after spinal cord injury, thereby providing new treatment strategies for the treatment of spinal cord injury. This article will summarize the mechanism of Notch signaling pathway in spinal cord injury, and at the same time review the research progress in the treatment of spinal cord injury by modulating Notch signaling pathway in recent years, so as to provide new research ideas for further exploring new strategies for spinal cord injury.


Subject(s)
Humans , Axons/metabolism , Cell Transplantation , Nerve Regeneration , Signal Transduction/genetics , Spinal Cord/metabolism , Spinal Cord Injuries/metabolism
12.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 720-740, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939842

ABSTRACT

Enhancing remyelination after injury is of utmost importance for optimizing the recovery of nerve function. While the formation of myelin by Schwann cells (SCs) is critical for the function of the peripheral nervous system, the temporal dynamics and regulatory mechanisms that control the progress of the SC lineage through myelination require further elucidation. Here, using in vitro co-culture models, gene expression profiling of laser capture-microdissected SCs at various stages of myelination, and multilevel bioinformatic analysis, we demonstrated that SCs exhibit three distinct transcriptional characteristics during myelination: the immature, promyelinating, and myelinating states. We showed that suppressor interacting 3a (Sin3A) and 16 other transcription factors and chromatin regulators play important roles in the progress of myelination. Sin3A knockdown in the sciatic nerve or specifically in SCs reduced or delayed the myelination of regenerating axons in a rat crushed sciatic nerve model, while overexpression of Sin3A greatly promoted the remyelination of axons. Further, in vitro experiments revealed that Sin3A silencing inhibited SC migration and differentiation at the promyelination stage and promoted SC proliferation at the immature stage. In addition, SC differentiation and maturation may be regulated by the Sin3A/histone deacetylase2 (HDAC2) complex functionally cooperating with Sox10, as demonstrated by rescue assays. Together, these results complement the recent genome and proteome analyses of SCs during peripheral nerve myelin formation. The results also reveal a key role of Sin3A-dependent chromatin organization in promoting myelinogenic programs and SC differentiation to control peripheral myelination and repair. These findings may inform new treatments for enhancing remyelination and nerve regeneration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Axons , Chromatin/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Myelin Sheath/metabolism , Nerve Regeneration/physiology , Schwann Cells/metabolism , Sciatic Nerve/injuries
13.
Acta cir. bras ; 37(8): e370804, 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1402974

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Various postoperative protocols have been proposed to improve outcomes and accelerate nerve regeneration. Recently, the use of physical exercise in a post-surgical neurorraphy procedure has shown good results when started early. We experimentally investigated the hypothesis that post-operative exercise speeds up results and improves clinical and morphologic parameters. Methods: Isogenic rats were randomly divided into four groups: 1 SHAM; 2 SHAM submitted to the exercise protocol (EP); 3 Grafting of the sciatic nerve; and 4 Grafting of the sciatic nerve associated with the EP. The EP was based on aerobic activities with a treadmill, with a progressive increase in time and intensity during 6 weeks. The results were evaluated by the sciatic functional index (SFI), morphometric and morphologic analysis of nerve distal to the lesion, and the number of spinal cord motor neurons, positive to the marker Fluoro-Gold (FG), captured retrogradely through neurorraphy. Results: Functional analysis (SFI) did not show a statistical difference between the group grafted with (­50.94) and without exercise (-65.79) after 90 days. The motoneurons count (Spinal cord histology) also showed no diference between these groups (834.5 × 833 respectively). Although functionally there is no difference between these groups, morphometric study showed a greater density (53.62) and larger fibers (7.762) in GRAFT group. When comparing both operated groups with both SHAM groups, all values were much lower. Conclusions: The experimental model that this aerobic treadmill exercises protocol did not modify nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve injury and repair with nerve graft.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Peroneal Nerve , Peroneal Neuropathies/therapy , Exercise Test , Nerve Regeneration , Hypertension/veterinary , Motor Neurons/physiology
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(3): 677-682, jun. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385416

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The effectiveness of microsurgical technique has a direct impact on the recovery of the injured peripheral nerve. The aim of our study was to investigate the result of sciatic nerve regeneration in rats after complete neurotomy and after nerve repair techniques including: 1) epineural suture; 2) polyethylene glycol hydrogel (PEG) (DuraSeal); 3) fibrin sealant (Tisseel). The cross-section of distal sciatic nerve was studied at 14th, 30th and 60th days after nerve repair. Morphometry of myelinated nerve fibers in the distal stump of the sciatic nerve was performed. A significant increase in the number of myelinated nerve fibers was found, especially between 14 and 30 days. The density of myelinated nerve fibers in the distal stump at day 60 was significantly higher after using nerve repair technique including PEG and fibrin versus epineural suture (29.2 % and 32.1 % versus 21.5 %, P <0.05), and a higher level of remyelination of nerve fibers observed in the group with PEG. On day 60, complete elimination of PEG and fibrin sealant was not observed, encapsulation was found around the clusters of hydrogel. Thereby, three peripheral nerve repair techniques were equally effective, only with the use of PEG remyelination of nerve fibers was increasing.


RESUMEN: La efectividad de la técnica microquirúrgica tiene un impacto directo en la recuperación del nervio periférico lesionado. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue investigar el resultado de la regeneración del nervio ciático en ratas después de una neurotomía completa y después de técnicas de reparación nerviosa que incluyeron: 1) sutura epineural; 2) hidrogel de polietilenglicol (PEG) (DuraSeal); 3) sellante de fibrina (Tisseel). La sección transversal del nervio ciático distal se estudió a los 14, 30 y 60 días después de la reparación del nervio. Se realizó la morfometría de fibras nerviosas mielinizadas en el muñón distal del nervio ciático. Se observó un aumento significativo en el número de fibras nerviosas mielinizadas, especialmente entre los 14 y 30 días. La densidad de las fibras nerviosas mielinizadas en el muñón distal en el día 60 fue significativamente mayor después de usar una técnica de reparación nerviosa que incluye PEG y fibrina en comparación con la sutura epineural (29,2 % y 32,1 % versus 21,5 %, P <0,05), y un mayor nivel de remielinización del nervio en fibras observadas en el grupo con PEG. El día 60, no se observó la eliminación completa de PEG y sellador de fibrina, se encontró encapsulación alrededor de los grupos de hidrogel. Por lo tanto, tres técnicas de reparación de nervios periféricos fueron igualmente efectivas, solo que aumentaba la remielinización de fibras nerviosas con PEG.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Sciatic Nerve/surgery , Sciatic Nerve/physiology , Fibrin Tissue Adhesive/therapeutic use , Suture Techniques , Hydrogels/therapeutic use , Nerve Regeneration , Polyethylene Glycols , Sciatic Nerve/anatomy & histology , Microsurgery
15.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2710-2720, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921234

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Histological and functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is of significant clinical value as delayed surgical repair and longer distances to innervate terminal organs may account for poor outcomes. Low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy (LiESWT) has already been proven to be beneficial for injured tissue recovery on various pathological conditions. The objective of this study was to explore the potential effect and mechanism of LiESWT on PNI recovery.@*METHODS@#In this project, we explored LiESWT's role using an animal model of sciatic nerve injury (SNI). Shockwave was delivered to the region of the SNI site with a special probe at 3 Hz, 500 shocks each time, and 3 times a week for 3 weeks. Rat Schwann cells (SCs) and rat perineurial fibroblasts (PNFs) cells, the two main compositional cell types in peripheral nerve tissue, were cultured in vitro, and LiESWT was applied through the cultured dish to the adherent cells. Tissues and cell cultures were harvested at corresponding time points for a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining. Multiple groups were compared by using one-way analysis of variance followed by the Tukey-Kramer test for post hoc comparisons.@*RESULTS@#LiESWT treatment promoted the functional recovery of lower extremities with SNI. More nerve fibers and myelin sheath were found after LiESWT treatment associated with local upregulation of mechanical sensitive yes-associated protein (YAP)/transcriptional co-activator with a PDZ-binding domain (TAZ) signaling pathway. In vitro results showed that SCs were more sensitive to LiESWT than PNFs. LiESWT promoted SCs activation with more expression of p75 (a SCs dedifferentiation marker) and Ki67 (a SCs proliferation marker). The SCs activation process was dependent on the intact YAP/TAZ signaling pathway as knockdown of TAZ by TAZ small interfering RNA significantly attenuated this process.@*CONCLUSION@#The LiESWT mechanical signal perception and YAP/TAZ upregulation in SCs might be one of the underlying mechanisms for SCs activation and injured nerve axon regeneration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Axons , Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy , Nerve Regeneration , Peripheral Nerve Injuries/therapy , Schwann Cells , Sciatic Nerve , Signal Transduction
16.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 374-382, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922704

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#Wallerian degeneration (WD) is an antegrade degenerative process distal to peripheral nerve injury. Numerous genes are differentially regulated in response to the process. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear, especially the early response. We aimed at investigating the effects of sciatic nerve injury on WD via CLDN 14/15 interactions in vivo and in vitro.@*METHODS@#Using the methods of molecular biology and bioinformatics analysis, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which claudin 14/15 participate in WD. Our previous study showed that claudins 14 and 15 trigger the early signal flow and pathway in damaged sciatic nerves. Here, we report the effects of the interaction between claudin 14 and claudin 15 on nerve degeneration and regeneration during early WD.@*RESULTS@#It was found that claudin 14/15 were upregulated in the sciatic nerve in WD. Claudin 14/15 promoted Schwann cell proliferation, migration and anti-apoptosis in vitro. PKCα, NT3, NF2, and bFGF were significantly upregulated in transfected Schwann cells. Moreover, the expression levels of the β-catenin, p-AKT/AKT, p-c-jun/c-jun, and p-ERK/ERK signaling pathways were also significantly altered.@*CONCLUSION@#Claudin 14/15 affect Schwann cell proliferation, migration, and anti-apoptosis via the β-catenin, p-AKT/AKT, p-c-jun/c-jun, and p-ERK/ERK pathways in vitro and in vivo. The results of this study may help elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the tight junction signaling pathway underlying peripheral nerve degeneration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Claudins , Nerve Regeneration , Peripheral Nerve Injuries , Schwann Cells/pathology , Sciatic Nerve , Wallerian Degeneration/pathology
17.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1625-1636, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922646

ABSTRACT

The capacity for neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain is extremely limited and highly restricted to a few regions, which greatly hampers neuronal regeneration and functional restoration after neuronal loss caused by injury or disease. Meanwhile, transplantation of exogenous neuronal stem cells into the brain encounters several serious issues including immune rejection and the risk of tumorigenesis. Recent discoveries of direct reprogramming of endogenous glial cells into functional neurons have provided new opportunities for adult neuro-regeneration. Here, we extensively review the experimental findings of the direct conversion of glial cells to neurons in vitro and in vivo and discuss the remaining issues and challenges related to the glial subtypes and the specificity and efficiency of direct cell-reprograming, as well as the influence of the microenvironment. Although in situ glial cell reprogramming offers great potential for neuronal repair in the injured or diseased brain, it still needs a large amount of research to pave the way to therapeutic application.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cellular Reprogramming , Nerve Regeneration , Neurogenesis , Neuroglia , Neurons
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(9): e10842, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249339

ABSTRACT

Regeneration of injured peripheral nerves is an extremely complex process. Nogo-A (neurite outgrowth inhibitor-A) inhibits axonal regeneration by interacting with Nogo receptor in the myelin sheath of the central nervous system (CNS). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Nogo-A and its receptor on the repair of sciatic nerve injury in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats (n=96) were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group (control), sciatic nerve transection group (model), immediate repair group (immediate repair), and delayed repair group (delayed repair). The rats were euthanized 1 week and 6 weeks after operation. The injured end tissues of the spinal cord and sciatic nerve were obtained. The protein expressions of Nogo-A and Nogo-66 receptor (NgR) were detected by immunohistochemistry. The protein expressions of Nogo-A, NgR, and Ras homolog family member A (RhoA) were detected by western blot. At 1 week after operation, the pathological changes in the immediate repaired group were less, and the protein expressions of Nogo-A, NgR, and RhoA in the spinal cord and sciatic nerve tissues were decreased (P<0.05) compared with the model group. After 6 weeks, the pathological changes in the immediate repair group and the delayed repair group were alleviated and the protein expressions decreased (P<0.05). The situation of the immediate repair group was better than that of the delayed repair group. Our data suggest that the expression of Nogo-A and its receptor increased after sciatic nerve injury, indicating that Nogo-A and its receptor play an inhibitory role in the repair process of sciatic nerve injury in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Receptors, Cell Surface , Myelin Proteins , Sciatic Nerve , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , GPI-Linked Proteins , Nogo Proteins , Nerve Regeneration
19.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6139-6148, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921772

ABSTRACT

When ischemia or hemorrhagic stroke occurs, astrocytes are activated by a variety of endogenous regulatory factors to become reactive astrocytes. Subsequently, reactive astrocytes proliferate, differentiate, and migrate around the lesion to form glial scar with the participation of microglia, neuron-glial antigen 2(NG2) glial cells, and extracellular matrix. The role of glial scars at different stages of stroke injury is different. At the middle and late stages of the injury, the secreted chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan and chondroitin sulfate are the main blockers of axon regeneration and nerve function recovery. Targeted regulation of glial scars is an important pathway for neurological rehabilitation after stroke. Chinese medicine has been verified to be effective in stroke rehabilitation in clinical practice, possibly because it has the functions of promoting blood resupply, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidative stress, inhibiting cell proliferation and differentiation, and benign intervention in glial scars. This study reviewed the pathological process and signaling mechanisms of glial scarring after stroke, as well as the intervention of traditional Chinese medicine upon glial scar, aiming to provide theoretical reference and research evidence for developing Chinese medicine against stroke in view of targeting glial scarring.


Subject(s)
Humans , Astrocytes , Axons/pathology , Cicatrix/pathology , Gliosis/pathology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Nerve Regeneration , Stroke/drug therapy
20.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 91-96, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879412

ABSTRACT

Perineuronal nets (PNNs) is a complex network composed of highly condensed extracellular matrix molecules surrounding neurons. It plays an important role in maintaining the performance of neurons and protecting them from harmful substances. However, after spinal cord injury, PNNs forms a physical barrier that surrounds the neuron and limits neuroplasticity, impedes axonal regeneration and myelin formation, and promotes local neuroinflammatory uptake. This paper mainly describes the composition and function of PNNs of neurons and its regulatory effects on axonal regeneration, myelin formation and neuroinflammation after spinal cord injury.


Subject(s)
Humans , Axons , Extracellular Matrix , Nerve Regeneration , Neuronal Plasticity , Neurons , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Injuries
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