Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 554
Filter
1.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(6): 380-385, nov.-dez. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156161

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To compare the use of 2 different local anesthetic solution (LAS) volumes of 1.5 mL and 3 mL in retrobulbar block in patients undergoing cataract surgery in terms of anesthesia, akinesia, and pain levels. Methods: 80 patients between 18-90 years old, ASA I-II-III, were included in the study. For retrobulbar anesthesia, 1.5 mL LAS was applied to one group (Group LV), and 3 mL LAS to the other group (Group HV). The patients' ocular and eyelid motion scores were evaluated and recorded in the first, third, fifth, and tenth minutes after the block, and at 30-minute intervals for 4 hours post-operatively. One day later, the first hour of analgesic need and the number of times they took analgesic agents were asked and recorded. In addition, side effects were questioned and recorded. Results: The 39 (48.75%) patients were male and 41 (51.25%) patients were female. The criteria determined in terms of ocular motor score after the retrobulbar block (ocular motor score≤4) were met in 92.5% of patients in Group LV in all patients in Group HV, and the time to fulfill the determined criteria in Group HV was found to be significantly lower compared to Group LV (p=0.004). The movements of the eye in all direction except the inward movement recovered in Group LV in a significantly shorter time than Group HV (p=0.004). There was no significant difference in pain levels and side effects between the groups (p=0.34). Conclusions: After 1.5 mL LAS administration in retrobulbar block, adequate akinesia was not achieved in about one tenth of patients, but no significant difference was found between 1.5 mL and 3 mL LAS volumes in analgesic efficacy and side effects.


Resumo Objetivo: Comparar o uso de 2 volumes diferentes de solução anestésica local (LAS) de 1,5 mL e 3 mL no bloqueio retrobulbar em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de catarata em termos de anestesia, acinesia e níveis de dor. Métodos: 80 pacientes entre 18 e 90 anos, ASA I-II-III, foram incluídos no estudo. Para anestesia retrobulbar, 1,5 mL de LAS foi aplicado em um grupo (Grupo LV) e 3 mL de LAS no outro grupo (Grupo HV). Os escores de movimento ocular e palpebral dos pacientes foram avaliados e registrados no primeiro, terceiro, quinto e décimo minutos após o bloqueio e em intervalos de 30 minutos por 4 horas no pós-operatório. Um dia depois, a primeira hora de necessidade de analgésico e o número de vezes que eles tomaram analgésicos foram solicitados e registrados. Além disso, os efeitos colaterais foram questionados e registrados. Resultados: 39 (48,75%) pacientes eram do sexo masculino e 41 (51,25%) do sexo feminino. Os critérios determinados em termos de escore motor ocular após o bloqueio retrobulbar (escore motor ocular≤4) foram atendidos em 92,5% dos pacientes do Grupo LV em todos os pacientes do Grupo HV, e foi encontrado o tempo para atender aos critérios determinados no Grupo HV ser significativamente menor em comparação ao grupo LV (p = 0,004). Os movimentos do olho em todas as direções, exceto o movimento interior, se recuperaram no Grupo LV em um tempo significativamente menor que o Grupo HV (p = 0,004). Não houve diferença significativa nos níveis de dor e efeitos colaterais entre os grupos (p = 0,34). Conclusões: Após administração de 1,5 mL de LAS no bloqueio retrobulbar, não foi alcançada acinesia adequada em cerca de um décimo dos pacientes, mas não foi encontrada diferença significativa entre os volumes de 1,5 mL e 3 mL de LAS na eficácia analgésica e efeitos colaterais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pain , Cataract Extraction , Neuromuscular Blockade , Eye Movements , Anesthesia, Local , Anesthetics, Local , Comparative Study
2.
Guatemala; MSPAS; [2020]. 25 p. graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1151723

ABSTRACT

El presente documento tiene la finalidad de guiar a los médicos que manejan la unidad de cuidados intensivos en los Hospitales Temporales Nacionales que atienden pacientes con COVID-19 en cuanto a la aplicación de sedación y analgesia. Una adecuada sedoanalgesia y el uso de bloqueantes neuromusculares permitirán asegurar la provisión de ventilación mecánica protectora durante la inducción para intubación y el mantenimiento, limitar el desarrollo de lesión pulmonar por ventilación espontánea con una alta demanda respiratoria Incluye un Flujograma de Algoritmos de análogo sedación en el paciente crítico bajo ventilación mecánica


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Rapid Sequence Induction and Intubation/methods , Neuromuscular Blocking Agents/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Ventilators, Mechanical , Oxygenation/methods , Neuromuscular Blockade/methods , Deep Sedation/methods , Guatemala , Intubation/methods
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810970

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sugammadex is a new neuromuscular blockade reversal agent. Recently, it has been used in patients under general anesthesia. However, sugammadex could be toxic to fetuses and pediatric patients under 3 years of age. In this study, we demonstrated the safety of sugammadex in fetuses, using zebrafish larvae. Furthermore, its neurotoxicity was evaluated using neuronal cell lines.METHODS: We used SH-SY5Y cells to determine the viability of neuronal cells treated with sugammadex. Zebrafish larvae were used to determine the teratogenic effects of sugammadex.RESULTS: Sugammadex showed no adverse effects on neuronal cells and zebrafish larvae. The survival rates of neuronal cells were not different in all concentrations. In addition, the heart formation of zebrafish embryos, which were exposed to various concentrations of sugammadex, were not different.CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the feasibility of using sugammadex during pregnancy. However, further clinical studies will be required to extrapolate these results to humans.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Cell Line , Embryonic Structures , Fetus , Heart , Humans , Larva , Neuromuscular Blockade , Neurons , Pregnancy , Survival Rate , Zebrafish
4.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 47(4): 211-218, Oct-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1042731

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Sugammadex has made it possible to reverse any type of rocuronium-induced block quickly and safely. The most frequent neuromuscular blockade is the moderate one where doses smaller than those recommended by the industry could get a full reversal. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of half the industry recommended dose of sugammadex to reverse a moderate neuromuscular block. Methods: Unicenter phase IV clinical trial that included 34 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Intravenous general anesthesia was induced, with acceleromyographic monitoring of the neuromuscular block. After the intervention, the block was reversed with all or half the dose of sugammadex recommended for moderate blocks, using a blinded syringe. Results: Patient characteristics of the 2 groups were similar. Mean time to recovery was 3.6± 1.7minutes for the study group and 3.1 ± 1.7minutes for the control group (P=0.42). Reversal of the block was complete with a single dose of sugammadex in all patients. There was an important linear correlation between depth of block and time to recovery. Conclusion: Intraoperative monitoring is essential to allow us to individualize the dose of the neuromuscular blocking agent. To reverse a moderate block under neuromuscular monitoring, a dose of 1 mg/kg is sufficient in most cases and is equally safe and effective.


Resumen Introducción: El sugammadex permite revertir cualquier tipo de bloqueo inducido por rocuronio de forma rápida y segura. El bloqueo neuromuscular más frecuente es el moderado, en el cual dosis inferiores a las recomendadas por la industria podrían revertirlo completamente. Objetivo: Evaluar la efectividad de la mitad de la dosis de sugammadex recomendada por la industria para revertir un bloqueo neuromuscular moderado. Métodos: Ensayo clínico de fase IV en un unico centro que incluyó a 34 pacientes intervenidos de colecistectomía laparoscópica. Se realizó anestesia general intravenosa con monitoreo aceleromiográfico del bloqueo neuromuscular. Tras la intervención, el bloqueo se revirtió con la totalidad o con la mitad de la dosis de sugammadex recomendada para bloqueos moderados, utilizando una jeringa ciega. Resultados: Las características de los pacientes de los dos grupos fueron similares. La media de tiempo de recuperación fue de 3,6 ± 1,7 minutos para el grupo de estudio y de 3,1 ± 1,7 minutos para el grupo de control (p = 0,42). La reversión del bloqueo se completó con una dosis única de sugammadex en todos los pacientes. Hubo una correlación lineal importante entre la profundidad del bloqueo y el tiempo de recuperación. Conclusión: El monitoreo transquirúrgico es esencial para individualizar la dosis del agente de bloqueo neuromuscular. Para revertir un bloqueo moderado bajo monitoreo neuromuscular, una dosis de 1mg/kg es suficiente e igualmente segura y efectiva.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sugammadex , Rocuronium , Anesthesia, General , Neuromuscular Blocking Agents , Monitoring, Intraoperative , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic , Neuromuscular Blockade , Dosage , Neuromuscular Monitoring
5.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(2): 218-221, Mar.-Apr. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003411

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: Sugamadex is a modified gamma-cyclodextrin, the first selective agent for reversal of neuromuscular blockade induced by steroidal non-depolarizing muscle relaxants, with greater affinity for rocuronium. In this article we present a case of severe bradycardia and asystole following sugammadex administration. Case report: A 54-year-old male patient, ASA II, with a history of hypertension, dyslipidemia and obesity, who underwent an emergency umbilical herniorrhaphy under balanced general anesthesia. Intraoperative muscle relaxation was maintained with rocuronium. At the end of the surgery, the patient maintained a neuromuscular block with two TOF responses, and sugammadex (200 mg) was administered. About thirty seconds after its administration, the patient developed marked bradycardia (HR 30 bpm) followed by asystole. Conclusions: Documented bradycardia and asystole were attributed to the administration of sugammadex. This case shows that, although rare, cardiac arrest is a possible adverse effect of this drug, and that the knowledge of this situation can be determinant for the patient's evolution.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: O sugamadex é uma gama ciclodextrina modificada, o primeiro agente seletivo para reversão do bloqueio neuromuscular induzido pelos relaxantes musculares não despolarizantes do tipo esteroide, com maior afinidade para o rocurônio. Neste artigo apresentamos um caso de bradicardia grave e assistolia após administração de sugamadex. Relato do caso: Doente do sexo masculino, 54 anos, ASA II, com antecedentes pessoais de hipertensão, dislipidemia e obesidade, submetido à herniorrafia umbilical em regime de urgência sob anestesia geral balanceada. O relaxamento muscular intraoperatório foi mantido com rocurônio. No fim da cirurgia o doente mantinha bloqueio neuromuscular com duas respostas no TOF, pelo que foi administrado sugamadex 200 mg. Cerca de trinta segundos após a sua administração, o doente desenvolveu bradicardia acentuada (FC 30 bpm) seguida de período de assistolia. Conclusões: A bradicardia e a assistolia documentadas foram atribuídas à administração do sugamadex. Este caso evidencia que, apesar de rara, a parada cardíaca é um efeito adverso possível desse fármaco e que o conhecimento dessa situação pode ser determinante para a evolução do doente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Bradycardia/chemically induced , Sugammadex/adverse effects , Heart Arrest/chemically induced , Severity of Illness Index , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents/administration & dosage , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents/antagonists & inhibitors , Neuromuscular Blockade/methods , Sugammadex/administration & dosage , Rocuronium/administration & dosage , Rocuronium/antagonists & inhibitors , Middle Aged
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785363

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) and neuromuscular monitoring in anesthetic management are integral for endotracheal intubation, better visualization of the surgical field, and prevention of residual neuromuscular blockade and pulmonary complications. Sugammadex is a drug that reduces risk of residual neuromuscular blockade, with more rapid recovery compared to anticholinesterase. The purpose of this study was to investigate current usage status of NMBAs and antagonist with neuromuscular monitoring, among anesthesiologists in Korea.METHODS: Anesthesiologists working in Korea were invited to participate in an online survey via email January 2–February 28, 2018. The questionnaire consisted of 45 items, including preferred NMBAs, antagonists, neuromuscular monitoring, and complications related to the use sugammadex. A total of 174 responses were analyzed.RESULTS: Rocuronium was a commonly used NMBA for endotracheal intubation (98%) of hospitals, and maintenance of anesthesia (83.3%) in of hospitals. Sugammadex, pyridostigmine, and neostigmine were used in 89.1%, 87.9%, and 45.4% of hospitals. Neuromuscular monitoring was employed in 79.3% of hospitals; however only 39.7% of hospitals used neuromuscular monitoring before antagonist administration. Usual dosage range of sugammadex was 2.1–4 mg/kg in 35.1% of hospitals, within 2 mg/kg in 34.5% of hospitals, and 1 vial regardless of body weight in 22.4% of hospitals. Sugammadex-related complications were encountered by 14.9% of respondents.CONCLUSIONS: This survey indicates several minor problems associated with the use of antagonists and neuromuscular monitoring. However, most anesthesiologists appear to have appropriate information regarding the usage of NMBAs and sugammadex.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Body Weight , Delayed Emergence from Anesthesia , Electronic Mail , Intubation, Intratracheal , Korea , Neostigmine , Neuromuscular Blockade , Neuromuscular Blocking Agents , Neuromuscular Monitoring , Pyridostigmine Bromide , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759562

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sugammadex is a reversal agent for non-depolarizing neuromuscular blockers and widely used worldwide on account of its rapid and effective reversal from neuromuscular blockade, despite its advantages, multiple cases of sugammadex-induced anaphylactic shock have been reported. CASE: A 42-year-old man developed anaphylactic shock in the postanesthesia care unit. Initially, sugammadex was suspected as the causative agent, but an intradermal skin test revealed negative results. A further skin test was performed with sugammadex-rocuronium complex that yielded positive results. CONCLUSIONS: Anesthesiologists and healthcare providers should be aware of the possibility of anaphylaxis from the sugammadex-rocuronium complex, as well as from sugammadex or rocuronium alone.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anaphylaxis , Epinephrine , Health Personnel , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Neuromuscular Blockade , Neuromuscular Blocking Agents , Skin Tests
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759547

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The facilitator effects of steroids on neuromuscular transmission may cause resistance to neuromuscular blocking agents. Additionally, steroids may hinder sugammadex reversal of neuromuscular blockade, but these findings remain controversial. Therefore, we explored the effect of dexamethasone and hydrocortisone on rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade and their inhibitory effect on sugammadex. METHODS: We explored the effects of steroids, dexamethasone and hydrocortisone, in vitro using a phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm rat model. In the first phase, an effective dose of rocuronium was calculated, and in the second phase, following sugammadex administration, the recovery of the train-of-four (TOF) ratio and T1 was evaluated for 30 minutes, and the recovery index was calculated in dexamethasone 0, 0.5, 5, and 50 μg/ml, or hydrocortisone 0, 1, 10, or 100 μg/ml. RESULTS: No significant effect of steroids on the effective dose of rocuronium was observed. The TOF ratios at 30 minutes after sugammadex administration were decreased significantly only at high experimental concentrations of steroids: dexamethasone 50 μg/ml and hydrocortisone 100 μg/ml (P < 0.001 and P = 0.042, respectively). There were no statistical significances in other concentrations. No differences were observed in T1. Recovery index was significantly different only in 100 μg/ml of hydrocortisone (P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Acute exposure to steroids did not resist the neuromuscular blockade caused by rocuronium. And inhibition of sugammadex reversal on rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade is unlikely at typical clinical doses of dexamethasone and also hydrocortisone. Conclusively, we can expect proper effects of rocuronium and sugammadex when dexamethasone or hydrocortisone is used during general anesthesia.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Animals , Dexamethasone , Hydrocortisone , In Vitro Techniques , Models, Animal , Neuromuscular Blockade , Neuromuscular Blocking Agents , Neuromuscular Monitoring , Rats , Steroids
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762720

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The use of nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) may affect intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) during anesthesia used during thyroid and parathyroid surgery. METHODS: The use of sugammadex was evaluated in a prospective clinical study during thyroid surgery. Between July 2018 and January 2019, 129 patients were prospectively randomized to either the sugammadex group (group B) or the control group (group A). Group A patients underwent standardized IONM during thyroidectomy, while group B patients used an NMBA-reversal protocol comprised of rocuronium (0.6 mg/kg) in anesthesia induction and sugammadex (2 mg/kg) after first vagal stimulation (V0). A peripheral nerve stimulator was used to monitor the neuromuscular transmission. RESULTS: In our clinical study, it took 26.07 ± 3.26 and 50.0 ± 8.46 minutes to reach 100% recovery of laryngeal electromyography at injection of the sugammadex group (2 mg/kg) and the control group, respectively (P 0.9 within 4 minutes after administering 2 mg/kg of sugammadex at the beginning of resection. Surgery time was significantly shorter in group B than in group A (P < 0.001). Transient recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) paralysis was detected in 4 patients from group A and in 3 patients from group B (P = 0.681). There was no permanent RLN paralysis in the 2 groups. CONCLUSION: Our clinical study showed that sugammadex effectively and rapidly improved the inhibition of neuromuscular function induced by rocuronium. The implementation of the nondepolarizing neuromuscular block recovery protocol may lead to tracheal intubation as well as favorable conditions for IONM in thyroid surgery.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Clinical Study , Electromyography , Humans , Intubation , Neuromuscular Blockade , Neuromuscular Blocking Agents , Paralysis , Peripheral Nerves , Prospective Studies , Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve , Thyroid Gland , Thyroidectomy
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762274

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sugammadex reverses rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade quickly and effectively. Herein, we compared the efficacy of sugammadex and pyridostigmine in the reversal of rocuronium-induced light block or minimal block in pediatric patients scheduled for elective entropion surgery. METHODS: A prospective randomized study was conducted in 60 pediatric patients aged 2–11 years who were scheduled for entropion surgery under sevoflurane anesthesia. Neuromuscular blockade was achieved by administration of 0.6 mg/kg rocuronium and assessed using the train-of-four (TOF) technique. Patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups receiving either sugammadex 2 mg/kg or pyridostigmine 0.2 mg/kg and glycopyrrolate 0.01 mg/kg at the end of surgery. Primary outcomes were time from administration of reversal agents to TOF ratio 0.9 and TOF ratio 1.0. Time from the administration of reversal agents to extubation and postoperative adverse events were also recorded. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the demographic variables. Time from the administration of reversal agents to TOF ratio 0.9 and TOF ratio 1.0 were significantly shorter in the sugammadex group than in the pyridostigmine plus glycopyrrolate group: 1.30 ± 0.84 vs. 3.53 ± 2.73 min (P < 0.001) and 2.75 ± 1.00 vs. 5.73 ± 2.83 min (P < 0.001), respectively. Extubation time was shorter in the sugammadex group. Adverse events, such as skin rash, nausea, vomiting, and postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade (airway obstruction), were not statistically different between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Sugammadex provided more rapid reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade in pediatric patients undergoing surgery than did pyridostigmine plus glycopyrrolate.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Delayed Emergence from Anesthesia , Entropion , Exanthema , Glycopyrrolate , Humans , Nausea , Neuromuscular Blockade , Neuromuscular Monitoring , Pediatrics , Prospective Studies , Pyridostigmine Bromide , Vomiting
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762273

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The reversal of a neuromuscular blockade has typically been achieved with a cholinesterase inhibitor and the concomitant use of an anticholinergic agent, and this remains a popular method. Since the introduction of sugammadex in the market, its use has been increasing because of the rapid recovery from a neuromuscular blockade achieved by rocuronium. The occurrence of anaphylaxis or an anaphylactic reaction resulting from sugammadex is rare and has been reported sparsely. Thus, one may not recognize the possibility of sugammadex-induced hypersensitivity when sudden life-threatening hypotension occurs, especially without skin manifestations during the emergence of anesthesia. This may delay treatment and increase morbidity. CASE: We report a case of a sugammadex-related hypersensitivity reaction which manifested as pure cardiovascular collapse during the emergence of anesthesia. CONCLUSIONS: We emphasize that vigilance should be paid for at least five minutes following sugammadex administration in daily clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , Anesthesia , Cholinesterases , Hypersensitivity , Hypotension , Methods , Neuromuscular Blockade , Skin Manifestations
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762272

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: New complications associated with sugammadex have been increased since its widespread use. We report a case of an 80-year-old male who experienced profound bradycardia and sustained hypotension after administration of sugammadex. CASE: Following administration of 200 mg sugammadex after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, sudden bradycardia (29 beats/min) developed for 10 seconds and his train-of-four (TOF) ratio remained at 0.2 for 5 min. An additional 200 mg sugammadex was administered and profound bradycardia (21–30 beats/min) and hypotension (60/40 mmHg) developed. Atropine at 0.5 mg was administered, but the effect lasted only 30 s. Profound bradycardia occurred four more times at 30 s intervals, and ephedrine and phenylephrine were injected intermittently to increase the patient's heart rate and blood pressure. The TOF ratio became 0.9 about 10 min after administration of additional sugammadex. CONCLUSIONS: Awareness must be heightened regarding the possibility of sugammadexinduced bradycardia and hypotension, and more attention should be paid to patients with slow recovery times following muscle relaxation, despite the use of sugammadex.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Atropine , Blood Pressure , Bradycardia , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic , Ephedrine , Heart Rate , Humans , Hypotension , Male , Muscle Relaxation , Neuromuscular Blockade , Phenylephrine , Postoperative Complications
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762262

ABSTRACT

Sugammadex provides fast and safe recovery from neuromuscular blockade without causing major adverse effects, and its clinical use is increasing. However, there are some reports on the potential risks of sugammadex, such as severe bradycardia, interactions with steroids, coagulopathy, and neuronal damage. Although these potential risks are not clearly proven, they are considered to be dose-dependent and occur more frequently with the free-form of sugammadex. Until further pieces of evidence are accumulated, it is prudent to be aware of these potential risks and avoid an overdose of sugammadex.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , Bradycardia , Drug Interactions , Neuromuscular Blockade , Neurons , Neurotoxicity Syndromes , Steroids
14.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1272251

ABSTRACT

Background: Sugammadex is a selective relaxant binding agent for antagonism of prolonged rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade. The recommended dose is 2 mg/kg. Based on the pharmacological characteristics of sugammadex in obese patients, the calculated lean body mass (CLBM) should be used to determine the dose to reverse moderate neuromuscular blockade induced by rocuronium. Objective: A study was undertaken to prove that sugammadex can be used according to CLBM to reverse moderate neuromuscular blockade in obese female patients. Methods: This is a prospective, non-randomised, observational study. Sugammadex was used at the end of bariatric surgery on obese patients with a body mass index > 32 kg/m2. The dose was calculated according to the lean body mass. Muscle blockade was assessed using train-of-four monitoring. Results: Twenty women were included in this study. All patients were female and ASA 2. The age of patients ranged between 20 and 50 years with a mean age of 35.74 (±10) years. The mean CLBM was 50 kg. The mean time from administration of sugammadex to reverse neuromuscular blockade from two responses of TOF to T4/T1 > 90% was 167.25 seconds (2.8 minutes) (60­285 seconds). Conclusion: It is concluded that the calculated lean body mass can be used to calculate the dose of sugammadex for obese female patients to reverse moderate neuromuscular blockade induced by rocuronium


Subject(s)
Neuromuscular Blockade , Obesity , Rocuronium , Sugammadex , Women
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718415

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several types of receptors are found at neuromuscular presynaptic membranes. Presynaptic inhibitory A1 and facilitatory A2A receptors mediate different modulatory functions on acetylcholine release. This study investigated whether adenosine A1 receptor agonist contributes to the first twitch tension (T1) of train-of-four (TOF) stimulation depression and TOF fade during rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade, and sugammadex-induced recovery. METHODS: Phrenic nerve-diaphragm tissues were obtained from 30 adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Each tissue specimen was randomly allocated to either control group or 2-chloroadenosine (CADO, 10 μM) group. One hour of reaction time was allowed before initiating main experimental data collection. Loading and boost doses of rocuronium were sequentially administered until > 95% depression of the T1 was achieved. After confirming that there was no T1 twitch tension response, 15 min of resting time was allowed, after which sugammadex was administered. Recovery profiles (T1, TOF ratio [TOFR], and recovery index) were collected for 1 h and compared between groups. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences on amount of rocuronium (actually used during experiment), TOFR changes during concentration-response of rocuronium (P = 0.04), and recovery profiles (P < 0.01) of CADO group comparing with the control group. However, at the initial phase of this experiment, dose-response of rocuronium in each group demonstrated no statistically significant differences (P = 0.12). CONCLUSIONS: The adenosine A1 receptor agonist (CADO) influenced the TOFR and the recovery profile. After activating adenosine receptor, sugammadex-induced recovery from rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block was delayed.


Subject(s)
2-Chloroadenosine , Acetylcholine , Adenosine , Adult , Data Collection , Depression , Humans , Membranes , Neuromuscular Blockade , Neuromuscular Junction , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reaction Time , Receptor, Adenosine A1 , Receptors, Purinergic P1
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717878

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It has long been held that antiepileptics reduce the duration of action, and increase the requirement for, neuromuscular blocking agents. However, levetiracetam, a relatively novel antiepileptic agent, possesses different pharmacokinetic properties to other, conventional antiepileptics, such that its effect on neuromuscular blocking agents might also differ. The purpose of this retrospective study is to investigate the effect of levetiracetam on the clinical duration of rocuronium. METHODS: In this study, the duration of neuromuscular blockade induced by rocuronium was compared between control and levetiracetam-receiving groups. The data were retrieved from one of our previous studies. RESULTS: The control and levetiracetam groups comprised 16 and 13 patients, respectively, all of whom underwent cerebrovascular surgery. Subjects received supplementary rocuronium (0.15 mg/kg) whenever the train-of-four count reached 2 during surgery. The interval between supplementary rocuronium (0.15 mg/kg) injections was significantly longer in the levetiracetam vs. control group (50 and 39 minutes, respectively; P = 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: The present results challenge the convention that antiepileptics decrease the duration of action of neuromuscular blockers, thereby alerting clinicians to the possibility of prolonged neuromuscular blockade in patients taking levetiracetam. Anesthetic management should encompass careful neuromuscular monitoring in such patients.


Subject(s)
Anticonvulsants , Humans , Neuromuscular Blockade , Neuromuscular Blocking Agents , Neuromuscular Monitoring , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents , Retrospective Studies
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714067

ABSTRACT

Since neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) were introduced to the surgical field, they have become almost mandatory for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia. However, resistance to NMBAs can develop in certain pathological states, such as central nerve injury, burns, and critical illnesses. During such pathological processes, quantitative and qualitative changes occur in the physiology of acetylcholine and the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) at the neuromuscular junction. Up-regulation of AChR leads to changes in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of NMBA. As NMBA resistance may result in problems during anesthesia, it is of utmost importance to understand the mechanisms of NMBA resistance and their associations with pathological status to maintain adequate neuromuscular relaxation. This review presents the current knowledge of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes and pathological status associated with NMBA resistance.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Anesthesia , Burns , Critical Illness , Drug Resistance , Neuromuscular Blockade , Neuromuscular Blocking Agents , Neuromuscular Junction , Pathologic Processes , Pharmacokinetics , Physiology , Receptors, Cholinergic , Relaxation , Up-Regulation
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717581

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sugammadex rapidly reverses deep neuromuscular blockade, but owing to cost, questions remain about its optimal utilization. After the unrestricted introduction of sugammadex at Emory University Hospital, we hypothesized that reductions would be demonstrated in the primary outcome of post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) mechanical ventilation (MV) and secondary outcomes of PACU length of stay (LOS) and emergence time (surgery end to anesthesia end time in the PACU). METHODS: This retrospective observational study included patients undergoing general anesthesia over a 12-month period. Using multiple variable penalized logistic regression in a one-group before-and-after design, we compared the categorized rates of PACU MV to examine the effect of sugammadex introduction following a post-hoc chart review to ascertain the reason for postoperative MV. Additionally, multiple variable linear regression was used to assess for differences in PACU LOS and emergence time within a propensity-matched set of patients receiving neostigmine or sugammadex. RESULTS: In total, 7,217 surgical cases met the inclusion criteria: 3,798 before and 3,419 after sugammadex introduction. The incidence of PACU MV was 2.3% before and 1.8% after (P = 0.118) sugammadex introduction. PACU MV due to residual neuromuscular blockade (rNMB) decreased from 0.63% to 0.20% (P = 0.005). Ventilation because of other causes was unchanged. PACU LOS and emergence time were unchanged in the propensity-matched set of 1,444 patients. CONCLUSIONS: rNMB was an important contributor to PACU MV utilization and its incidence significantly decreased after sugammadex introduction. The selected efficiency measures may not have been sufficiently granular to identify improvements following introduction.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, General , Delayed Emergence from Anesthesia , Humans , Incidence , Length of Stay , Linear Models , Logistic Models , Neostigmine , Neuromuscular Blockade , Observational Study , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Ventilation
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717578

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Perioperative magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) is used for analgesic, anti-arrhythmic, and obstetric purposes. The effects of MgSO4 on the neuromuscular blockade (NMB) induced by rocuronium, and the sugammadex reversal thereof, have not been clearly quantified. We investigated the effect of various MgSO4 concentrations on the NMB by rocuronium, and sugammadex reversal, in isolated left phrenic nerve hemi-diaphragm (PNHD) preparations from the rat. METHODS: Rat PNHD preparations were randomly allocated to one of four groups varying in terms of MgSO4 concentration (1, 2, 3, and 4 mM, each n = 10, in Krebs solution). The train-of-four (TOF) and twitch height responses were recorded mechanomyographically. The preparations were treated with incrementally increasing doses of rocuronium and each group’s effective concentration (EC)50, EC90, and EC95 of rocuronium were calculated via nonlinear regression. Then, sugammadex was administered in doses equimolar to rocuronium. The recovery index, time to T1 height > 95% of control, and the time to a TOF ratio > 0.9 after sugammadex administration were measured. RESULTS: The EC50, EC90, and EC95 of rocuronium fell significantly as the magnesium level increased. The EC50, EC90, and EC95 of rocuronium did not differ between the 3 and 4 mM groups. The recovery index, time to T1 height > 95% of control, and time to a TOF ratio > 0.9 after sugammadex administration did not differ among the four groups. CONCLUSIONS: Increases in the magnesium concentration in rat PNHD preparations proportionally enhanced the NMB induced by rocuronium but did not affect reversal by equimolar amounts of sugammadex.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Animals , Magnesium Sulfate , Magnesium , Neuromuscular Blockade , Phrenic Nerve , Rats
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715756

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated the hypothesis that pretreatment with nefopam 20 mg would influence the onset and recovery profiles of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block. METHODS: After Institutional Review Board approval, 134 patients, aged between 20–65 years, belonging to the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification I or II, were randomly allocated to receive either 0.9% normal saline (control group) or nefopam 20 mg (nefopam group), infused over one hour before induction of anesthesia. Anesthesia was induced with remifentanil and propofol, followed by endotracheal intubation with rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg. We recorded the lag time, onset time, clinical duration, recovery index, recovery time, and total recovery time. RESULTS: We included 111 patients in the final analysis. The lag time, onset time, clinical duration, recovery index, recovery time, and total recovery time of the nefopam group (n = 57) were not significantly different compared with that of the control group (n = 54). CONCLUSIONS: Pretreatment with nefopam 20 mg one hour before induction of anesthesia does not have a significant influence on the onset and recovery profiles of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Classification , Drug Interactions , Ethics Committees, Research , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Nefopam , Neuromuscular Blockade , Neuromuscular Monitoring , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents , Propofol , Prospective Studies
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL