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Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(1): 101-103, Jan.-Feb. 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420643


Abstract Sugammadex is a distinctive neuromuscular reversal drug that acts by encapsulating the neuromuscular relaxant molecule and dislodging it from its site of action. Sugammadex has been approved for pediatric patients over 2 years of age. Although arrhythmias have been reported, there is no report of adverse effects in healthy children, such as severe bradycardia requiring intervention. We report two cases of severe bradycardia immediately after the administration of sugammadex in healthy children. Our aim is to alert to the occurrence of one of the most severe adverse effects of sugammadex, in the healthy pediatric population as well.

Humans , Child , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents , Neuromuscular Blockade , Bradycardia/chemically induced , Sugammadex/adverse effects
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(4): 393-400, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447619


Abstract Background Reliable devices that quantitatively monitor the level of neuromuscular blockade after neuromuscular blocking agents' administration are crucial. Electromyography and acceleromyography are two monitoring modalities commonly used in clinical practice. The primary outcome of this study is to compare the onset of neuromuscular blockade, defined as a Train-Of-Four Count (TOFC) equal to 0, as measured by an electromyography-based device (TetraGraph) and an acceleromyography-based device (TOFscan). The secondary outcome was to compare intubating conditions when one of these two devices reached a TOFC equal to 0. Methods One hundred adult patients scheduled for elective surgery requiring neuromuscular blockade were enrolled. Prior to induction of anesthesia, TetraGraph electrodes were placed over the forearm of patients' dominant/non-dominant hand based on randomization and TOFscan electrodes placed on the contralateral forearm. Intraoperative neuromuscular blocking agent dose was standardized to 0.5−1 of rocuronium. After baseline values were obtained, objective measurements were recorded every 20 seconds and intubation was performed using video laryngoscopy once either device displayed a TOFC = 0. The anesthesia provider was then surveyed about intubating conditions. Results Baseline TetraGraph train-of-four ratios were higher than those obtained with TOFscan (Median: 1.02 [0.88, 1.20] vs. 1.00 [0.64, 1.01], respectively, p < 0.001). The time to reach a TOFC = 0 was significantly longer when measured with TetraGraph compared to TOFscan (Median: 160 [40, 900] vs. 120 [60, 300] seconds, respectively, p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in intubating conditions when either device was used to determine the timing of endotracheal intubation. Conclusions The onset of neuromuscular blockade was longer when measured with TetraGraph than TOFscan, and a train-of-four count of zero in either device was a useful indicator for adequate intubating conditions. Clinical trial number and registry URL NCT05120999,

Humans , Adult , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents , Neuromuscular Blockade , Neuromuscular Blocking Agents , Prospective Studies , Neuromuscular Monitoring , Rocuronium , Androstanols , Anesthetics
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1551-1559, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980879


BACKGROUND@#Postoperative pulmonary complications often lead to increased mortality and financial burden. Residual paralysis plays a critical role in postoperative pulmonary complications. This meta-analysis was performed to determine whether sugammadex overmatches neostigmine in reducing postoperative pulmonary complications.@*METHODS@#PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Medline through Ovid, Cochrane Library, Wanfang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Chinese BioMedical Literature Databases were searched from their inception to 24 June, 2021. Random effects models were used for all analyses. Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the quality of RCTs, while Newcastle Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale was used to assess for the quality of cohort studies.@*RESULTS@#Seventeen studies were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled data from cohort studies showed reversing neuromuscular blocking with sugammadex had less risk of compound postoperative pulmonary complications (relative risk [RR]: 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.60-0.89; P  = 0.002; I2  = 81%), pneumonia (RR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.48-0.86; I2  = 42%) and respiratory failure (RR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.41-0.56; I2  = 0%). However, pooled data from RCTs did not show any difference between the two groups in pneumonia (RR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.24-1.40; I2  = 0%) and no respiratory failure was reported in the included RCTs. The difference was not found between sugammadex and neostigmine about atelectasis in pooled data from either RCTs (RR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.69-1.05; I2  = 0%) or cohort studies (RR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.87-1.18; I2  = 0%).@*CONCLUSION@#The evidence of superiority of sugammadex was limited by the confounding factors in cohort studies and small scale of RCTs. Whether sugammadex precedes neostigmine in preventing pulmonary complications after surgery is still unknown. Well-designed RCTs with large scale are needed.@*REGISTRATION@#PROSPERO ( ); CRD 42020191575.

Humans , Sugammadex/therapeutic use , Neostigmine/therapeutic use , Neuromuscular Blockade , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Pneumonia , Respiratory Insufficiency
Chinese Journal of Medical Instrumentation ; (6): 464-468, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939768


The accelerometry(AMG) muscle relaxant monitor is the most widely used quantitative muscle relaxant monitor to assess the degree of neuromuscular at present. In this study, the ulnar nerve was stimulated by using train of four stimulation(TOF) mode of the AMG muscle relaxant monitor, and the movement of the adductor pollicis muscle was monitored. In this way, the distribution range of key parameters (acceleration peak value, response time, and TOF ratio) of the adductor pollicis muscle during the use of muscle relaxant in clinical practice is analyzed and will provide a practical basis for the development and improvement of the muscle relaxant monitor.

Electric Stimulation , Muscle, Skeletal , Neuromuscular Blockade , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents , Ulnar Nerve/physiology
Rev. méd. Chile ; 149(6): 864-872, jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389539


Background: The appropriate use of analgesia, sedation, neuromuscular blockade and the diagnosis and prevention of delirium (ASBD) are associated with better outcomes in critically ill patients at Intensive Care Unit (ICUs). Aim: To know the practices about analgesia, sedation, delirium, and neuromuscular blockade use among healthcare professionals working in adult ICUs in Chile. Material and Methods: An electronic survey was sent to 812 professionals working in ICUs using a previously published instrument, which was adapted and authorized by the author. Results: We received 278 surveys. Fifty two percent of respondents were physicians, 34% nurses and 11% physical therapists. Their age ranged between 30 and 39 years in 43% and was over 50 years in 9%. Eighty four percent evaluated pain routinely, but only 26% use a validated scale. Sedation was routinely evaluated with a validated scale and 73% referred to have a protocol. Neuromuscular block is seldom used, and little monitoring occurs (43%). Delirium is routinely evaluated by 48% of respondents, usually using the CAM-ICU scale. Conclusions: There is a heterogeneous adherence to the ASBD recommended practices. The main gaps are in the assessment of pain, monitoring of neuromuscular blockade and diagnosis of delirium through validated instruments.

Humans , Adult , Neuromuscular Blockade/adverse effects , Delirium/diagnosis , Delirium/prevention & control , Analgesia , Pain , Chile , Critical Care , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Intensive Care Units
Rev. biol. trop ; 69(2)jun. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1387647


Abstract Introduction: Rhinella schneideri is a toad widely distributed in South America and its poison is characterized by inducing cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Objective: In this work, we investigated pharmacological strategies to attenuate the peripheral neurotoxicity induced by R. schneideri poison in avian neuromuscular preparation. Methods: The experiments were carried out using isolated chick biventer cervicis preparation subjected to field stimulation for muscle twitches recordings or exposed to acetylcholine and potassium chloride for contracture responses. Results: Poison (10 μg/ml) produced complete neuromuscular blockade in chick biventer cervicis preparation within approximately 70 min incubation (times for 50 and 90 % blockade: 15 ± 3 min and 40 ± 2 min, respectively; P < 0.05, N= 5); contracture responses to exogenous acetylcholine and KCl were unaffected by poison indicating no specificity with postsynaptic receptors or myotoxicity, respectively. Poison (10 μg/ml)-induced neuromuscular blockade was not prevented by heparin (5 and 150 IU/ml) under pre- or post-treatment conditions. Incubation at low temperature (23-25 °C) abolished the neuromuscular blockade; after raising the temperature to 37 °C, the complete neuromuscular blockade was slightly slower than that seen in preparations directly incubated at 37 °C (times for 50 and 90 % blockade: 23 ± 2 min and 60 ± 2.5 min, respectively; P < 0.05, N= 4). Neostigmine (3.3 μM) did not reverse the neuromuscular blockade in BC preparation whereas 3,4-diaminopyridine (91.6 μM) produced a partial and sustained reversal of the twitch responses (29 ± 7.8 % of maximal reversal reached in approximately 40 min incubation; P < 0.05, N= 4). Conclusions: R. schneideri poison induces potent peripheral neurotoxicity in vitro which can be partially reversible by 3,4-diaminopyridine.

Resumen Introducción: Rhinella schneideri está ampliamente distribuida en Suramérica y su veneno es caracterizado por inducir cardiotoxicidad y neurotoxicidad. Objetivo: En este trabajo, investigamos estrategias farmacológicas para atenuar la neurotoxicidad periférica inducida por el veneno de R. schneideri en preparaciones neuromusculares de aves. Métodos: Los experimentos fueron realizados usando preparaciones de biventer cervicis de pollos sometidas a estimulación de campo para el registro de las contracciones musculares o expuestas a la acetilcolina y al cloruro de potasio para la respuesta contractural. Resultados: El veneno (10 µg/ml) provocó un bloqueo neuromuscular completo en las preparaciones después de aproximadamente 70 min de incubación (tiempos para 50 y 90 % de bloqueo: 15 ± 3 min y 40 ± 2 min, respectivamente; P < 0.05, N = 5); las contracturas en respuesta a la acetilcolina y el KCl exógenos no fueron afectadas por el veneno, indicando que no hay una interacción especifica con receptores postsinápticos o miotoxicidad respectivamente. El bloqueo neuromuscular causado por el veneno (10 µg/ml) no fue prevenido por la heparina (5 y 150 UI/ml) bajo condiciones pre y post-tratamiento. La incubación a bajas temperaturas (23-25 ºC) abolió el bloqueo neuromuscular; después de aumentar la temperatura a 37 ºC, el bloqueo neuromuscular total fue levemente más lento que el visto en preparaciones directamente incubadas a 37 ºC (tiempos para 50 y 90 % de bloqueo: 23 ± 2 min y 60 ± 2.5 min, respectivamente; P < 0.05, N= 4). Neostigmina (3.3 µM) no revirtió el bloqueo neuromuscular, mientras que 3.4-diaminopiridina (91.6 µM) produjo una reversión parcial y sostenida de las respuestas neuromusculares (29 ± 7.8 % de la reversión máxima alcanzada en aproximadamente 40 min de incubación; P < 0.05, N = 4). Conclusiones: El veneno de R. schneideri indujo neurotoxicidad periférica potente in vitro, el cual puede ser revertido por 3.4-diaminopiridina.

Animals , Bufo marinus , Neuromuscular Blockade , Birds , Brazil
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(1): 48-67, jan.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289052


RESUMEN Objetivo: Proponer estrategias agile para este abordaje integral de la analgesia, sedación, delirium, implementación de movilidad temprana e inclusión familiar del paciente con síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda por COVID-19, considerando el alto riesgo de infección que existe entre los trabajadores de salud, el tratamiento humanitario que debemos brindar al paciente y su familia, en un contexto de falta estrategias terapéuticas específicas contra el virus globalmente disponibles a la fecha y una potencial falta de recursos sanitarios. Metodos: Se llevó a cabo una revision no sistemática de la evidencia científica en las principales bases de datos bibliográficos, sumada a la experiencia y juicio clínico nacional e internacional. Finalmente, se realizó un consenso de recomendaciones entre los integrantes del Comité de Analgesia, Sedación y Delirium de la Sociedad Argentina de Terapia Intensiva. Resultados: Se acordaron recomendaciones y se desarrollaron herramientas para asegurar un abordaje integral de analgesia, sedación, delirium, implementación de movilidad temprana e inclusión familiar del paciente adulto con síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda por COVID-19. Discusión: Ante el nuevo orden generado en las terapias intensivas por la progresión de la pandemia de COVID-19, proponemos no dejar atrás las buenas prácticas habituales, sino adaptarlas al contexto particular generado. Nuestro consenso está respaldado en la evidencia científica, la experiencia nacional e internacional, y será una herramienta de consulta atractiva en las terapias intensivas.

ABSTRACT Objective: To propose agile strategies for a comprehensive approach to analgesia, sedation, delirium, early mobility and family engagement for patients with COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome, considering the high risk of infection among health workers, the humanitarian treatment that we must provide to patients and the inclusion of patients' families, in a context lacking specific therapeutic strategies against the virus globally available to date and a potential lack of health resources. Methods: A nonsystematic review of the scientific evidence in the main bibliographic databases was carried out, together with national and international clinical experience and judgment. Finally, a consensus of recommendations was made among the members of the Committee for Analgesia, Sedation and Delirium of the Sociedad Argentina de Terapia Intensiva. Results: Recommendations were agreed upon, and tools were developed to ensure a comprehensive approach to analgesia, sedation, delirium, early mobility and family engagement for adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome due to COVID-19. Discussion: Given the new order generated in intensive therapies due to the advancing COVID-19 pandemic, we propose to not leave aside the usual good practices but to adapt them to the particular context generated. Our consensus is supported by scientific evidence and national and international experience and will be an attractive consultation tool in intensive therapies.

Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy , Delirium/therapy , Consensus , Pain Management/standards , COVID-19/complications , Analgesia/standards , Psychomotor Agitation/therapy , Neuromuscular Blockade/methods , Delirium/diagnosis , Early Ambulation , Checklist , Pain Management/methods , COVID-19/drug therapy , Analgesia/methods , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods
Metro cienc ; 29(1 (2021): Enero- Marzo): 16-22, 2021-01-29.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1222466


RESUMEN El bloqueo residual se define como la debilidad muscular postoperatoria producida por un antagonismo incompleto de los relajantes neu-romusculares, siendo sus principales complicaciones las respiratorias. Actualmente, el mejor método de evaluación objetiva del bloqueo neuromuscular es el Tren de Cuatro (TOF). El objetivo de este estudio fue describir la prevalencia de bloqueo residual en la Unidad de Cuidados Postanestésicos (UCPA) en pacientes ASA I y ASA II sometidos a cirugía electiva y de emergencia bajo anestesia general en el Hospital Metropolitano. Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y prospectivo en 211 sujetos, donde mediante el TOF se deter-minó que la prevalencia de bloqueo residual en la UCPA fue del 8,5%, valor que se relacionó con la falta de monitorización de la función neuromuscular, determinando además que el empleo de fármacos que revierten el bloqueo neuromuscular no excluye la presencia de bloqueo residual. Se recomienda el uso rutinario de monitorización de la relajación neuromuscular para prevenir y diagnosticar el bloqueo residual, además de la administración de reversión farmacológica independientemente del tiempo quirúrgico.

ABSTRACT Residual blockade is defined as postoperative muscle weakness caused by incomplete antagonism of neuromuscular relaxants, its main complications being respiratory, currently the best method of objective evaluation of neuromuscular blockade is the Train of Four (TOF). The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of residual block in the Post Anesthesia Care Unit (UCPA) in patients with ASA I and ASA II undergoing elective and emergency surgery under general anesthesia at the Metropolitan Hospital. An observational, descrip-tive and prospective study was conducted in 211 subjects, where it was determined that the prevalence of residual block in UCPA was 8.5% with TOF, a value that was related to the lack of monitoring of neuromuscular function, also determining that the use of drugs that reverse neuromuscular blockade does not exclude the presence of residual blockade. Routine use of neuromuscular relaxation monitoring is recommended to prevent and diagnose residual block, in addition to drug reversal administration regardless of surgical time.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Neuromuscular Blockade , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, General , Relaxation , Prospective Studies , Delayed Emergence from Anesthesia , Operative Time
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(6): 380-385, nov.-dez. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156161


Abstract Objective: To compare the use of 2 different local anesthetic solution (LAS) volumes of 1.5 mL and 3 mL in retrobulbar block in patients undergoing cataract surgery in terms of anesthesia, akinesia, and pain levels. Methods: 80 patients between 18-90 years old, ASA I-II-III, were included in the study. For retrobulbar anesthesia, 1.5 mL LAS was applied to one group (Group LV), and 3 mL LAS to the other group (Group HV). The patients' ocular and eyelid motion scores were evaluated and recorded in the first, third, fifth, and tenth minutes after the block, and at 30-minute intervals for 4 hours post-operatively. One day later, the first hour of analgesic need and the number of times they took analgesic agents were asked and recorded. In addition, side effects were questioned and recorded. Results: The 39 (48.75%) patients were male and 41 (51.25%) patients were female. The criteria determined in terms of ocular motor score after the retrobulbar block (ocular motor score≤4) were met in 92.5% of patients in Group LV in all patients in Group HV, and the time to fulfill the determined criteria in Group HV was found to be significantly lower compared to Group LV (p=0.004). The movements of the eye in all direction except the inward movement recovered in Group LV in a significantly shorter time than Group HV (p=0.004). There was no significant difference in pain levels and side effects between the groups (p=0.34). Conclusions: After 1.5 mL LAS administration in retrobulbar block, adequate akinesia was not achieved in about one tenth of patients, but no significant difference was found between 1.5 mL and 3 mL LAS volumes in analgesic efficacy and side effects.

Resumo Objetivo: Comparar o uso de 2 volumes diferentes de solução anestésica local (LAS) de 1,5 mL e 3 mL no bloqueio retrobulbar em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de catarata em termos de anestesia, acinesia e níveis de dor. Métodos: 80 pacientes entre 18 e 90 anos, ASA I-II-III, foram incluídos no estudo. Para anestesia retrobulbar, 1,5 mL de LAS foi aplicado em um grupo (Grupo LV) e 3 mL de LAS no outro grupo (Grupo HV). Os escores de movimento ocular e palpebral dos pacientes foram avaliados e registrados no primeiro, terceiro, quinto e décimo minutos após o bloqueio e em intervalos de 30 minutos por 4 horas no pós-operatório. Um dia depois, a primeira hora de necessidade de analgésico e o número de vezes que eles tomaram analgésicos foram solicitados e registrados. Além disso, os efeitos colaterais foram questionados e registrados. Resultados: 39 (48,75%) pacientes eram do sexo masculino e 41 (51,25%) do sexo feminino. Os critérios determinados em termos de escore motor ocular após o bloqueio retrobulbar (escore motor ocular≤4) foram atendidos em 92,5% dos pacientes do Grupo LV em todos os pacientes do Grupo HV, e foi encontrado o tempo para atender aos critérios determinados no Grupo HV ser significativamente menor em comparação ao grupo LV (p = 0,004). Os movimentos do olho em todas as direções, exceto o movimento interior, se recuperaram no Grupo LV em um tempo significativamente menor que o Grupo HV (p = 0,004). Não houve diferença significativa nos níveis de dor e efeitos colaterais entre os grupos (p = 0,34). Conclusões: Após administração de 1,5 mL de LAS no bloqueio retrobulbar, não foi alcançada acinesia adequada em cerca de um décimo dos pacientes, mas não foi encontrada diferença significativa entre os volumes de 1,5 mL e 3 mL de LAS na eficácia analgésica e efeitos colaterais.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pain , Cataract Extraction , Neuromuscular Blockade , Eye Movements , Anesthesia, Local , Anesthetics, Local , Comparative Study
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(6): 635-641, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155763


Abstract Background and objectives: Sugammadex is an alternative pharmacological drug capable of reversing neuromuscular blockades without the limitations that are presented by anticholinesterase drugs. Coagulation disorders that are related to treatment with sugammadex were reported. The exact mechanism of the effects on coagulation are not fully understood. The objective of this research is to evaluate the effects of rocuronium, sugammadex and the rocuronium-sugammadex complex on coagulation in an experimental model in rats. Methods: This is an experimental randomized animal study. Wistar rats were randomly assigned into the following groups: the Control Group; the Ssal Group - 0.5 mL of intravenous saline; the Sugammadex Group - intravenous sugammadex (100 mg kg−1); and the Rocuronium-Sugammadex Group - intravenous solution with rocuronium (3.75 mg kg−1) and sugammadex (100 mg kg−1). Anesthesia was performed by using isoflurane with controlled ventilation. Coagulation factors were measured 10 minutes after the end of the preoperative preparation and 30 minutes after the administration of the drugs in accordance with the chosen groups. Results: Platelet counts, prothrombin times, and activated partial thromboplastin times were similar between the groups and between the moments within each group. There were reductions in the plasma fibrinogen levels between sample times 1 and 2 in the Rocuronium-Sugammadex group (p = 0.035). Conclusions: The rocuronium-sugammadex complex promoted reductions in plasma fibrinogen counts, although the levels were still within normal limits.

Resumo Introdução e objetivos: O sugamadex é uma substância farmacológica alternativa capaz de reverter o bloqueio neuromuscular sem as limitações apresentadas pelos anticolinesterásicos. Entretanto, há relatos de transtornos de coagulação relacionados ao tratamento com sugamadex sem que mecanismos exatos de seus efeitos sobre a coagulação sejam totalmente compreendidos. O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi avaliar os efeitos do rocurônio, sugamadex e do complexo rocurônio-sugamadex sobre a coagulação em um modelo experimental com ratos. Métodos: Este é um estudo randomizado experimental animal. Ratos Wistar foram aleatoriamente designados aos seguintes grupos: grupo controle; Grupo Ssal - 0,5 mL de solução salina intravenosa; Grupo sugamadex - sugamadex intravenoso (100; e Grupo rocurônio-sugamadex - solução intravenosa com rocurônio (3,75 e sugamadex (100 A anestesia foi realizada utilizando-se isoflurano com ventilação controlada. Os fatores de coagulação foram medidos 10 minutos após o final do preparo pré-operatório e 30 minutos após a administração de drogas de acordo com os grupos escolhidos. Resultados: Contagem de plaquetas, tempo de protrombina e tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada foram semelhantes entre os grupos e entre os momentos dentro de cada grupo. Houve redução nos níveis de fibrinogênio plasmático entre os tempos 1 e 2 no grupo rocurônio-sugamadex (p = 0,035). Conclusões: O complexo rocurônio-sugamadex promoveu reduções na contagem de fibrinogênio plasmático, apesar de os níveis continuarem dentro dos limites normais.

Animals , Rats , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents/pharmacology , Neuromuscular Blockade , Sugammadex/pharmacology , Rocuronium/pharmacology , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Platelet Count , Prothrombin Time , Fibrinogen/analysis , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Inhalation , Drug Combinations , Sugammadex/administration & dosage , Rocuronium/administration & dosage , Isoflurane , Anesthesia/methods
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(5): 549-552, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143956


Abstract Myasthenia Gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease characterized by weakness and fatigability of skeletal muscles, with improvement following rest. It is a disease of great significance to the anesthesiologist because it affects the neuromuscular junction. Robotic thymectomy has come up in recent times due to the minimally invasive nature and its advantages. This presents a new set of challenges for the anesthesia team, and here we present the various anesthesia considerations and perioperative management in a series of 20 patients who underwent robotic thymectomy. As it is a recent upcoming procedure, there is a paucity of literature on this topic, and most of the available literature talks about One-Lung Ventilation (OLV) and thoracic epidurals. To our notice, this is the first literature without the use of OLV and thoracic epidural for the management of robotic thymectomy.

Resumo Miastenia Gravis (MG) é uma doença autoimune que se caracteriza por fraqueza e fadiga da musculatura esquelética, com melhora após o repouso. É uma doença de grande interesse para o anestesiologista, pois compromete a junção neuromuscular. Recentemente, a timectomia robótica tem sido empregada por apresentar as vantagens da abordagem minimamente invasiva. O procedimento introduz uma série de novos desafios para a equipe de anestesia. Relatamos aqui as várias considerações anestésicas e o cuidado perioperatório em uma série de 20 pacientes submetidos a timectomia robótica. Sendo um procedimento recente, há limitada literatura discutindo esse tópico e, além disso, a maior parte da literatura disponível concentra a atenção na Ventilação Monopulmonar (VMP) e na peridural torácica. A nosso ver, este é a primeiro relato na literatura sem o emprego de VMP e peridural torácica para o manejo da timectomia robótica.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Thymectomy/methods , Neuromuscular Blockade/methods , Anesthesia/methods , Myasthenia Gravis/surgery , One-Lung Ventilation/methods , Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods , Anesthesia, Epidural , Middle Aged
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(5): 1659-1665, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131552


Objetivou-se avaliar o bloqueio sensitivo e motor da administração peridural de 0,2mL/kg de duas concentrações de ropivacaína em comparação à lidocaína em cães. Utilizaram-se 24 cães, distribuídos em quatro grupos: NaCl a 0,9% (GS), lidocaína a 2% (GL), ropivacaína a 0,5% (GR5) e ropivacaína a 0,75% (GR7,5). Avaliaram-se a presença de movimentação espontânea, deambulação, sensibilidade superficial e profunda nos momentos cinco, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240 e 300 minutos após peridural. O retorno à movimentação espontânea foi semelhante entre GL (42,50 ± 6,12) e GR7,5 (69,2 ± 58,9). O tempo para deambulação foi mais prolongado em GR7,5 (107,5 ± 79,3) que em GS (9,2 ± 3,8) e em GR5 (32,5 ± 20,9). O retorno da sensibilidade profunda foi maior em GR 7,5 (152,5 ± 89,2) que em GS (5,8 ± 2,0), GR5 (46,7 ± 46,3) e GL (52,5 ± 20,7). O tempo de retorno da sensibilidade superficial foi maior em GR7,5 (205,0 ± 129,3) que em GS (7,5 ± 2,7), GL (72,5 ± 19,9) e GR5 (97,5 ± 55,1). Apesar do retorno precoce da movimentação, ropivacaína 0,75% está relacionada a tempo prolongado de recuperação da função muscular e bloqueio sensitivo mais prolongado que lidocaína e ropivacaína 0,5%.(AU)

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sensory and motor blockade of epidural 0.5% and 0.75% Ropivacaine or Lidocaine in dogs. Twenty-four dogs were distributed in four groups: 0.9% NaCl (GS), 2% lidocaine (GL), 0.5% ropivacaine (GR5) and 0.75% ropivacaine (GR7.5). Spontaneous movement, ability to walk, superficial, and deep pain response were assessed 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240 and 300 minutes after epidural. Time to return to spontaneous movement was similar between GL (42.50 ± 6.12) and GR7.5 (69.2 ± 58.9). Time to return to ambulation was longer in GR7.5 (107.5 ± 79.3) than in GS (9.2 ± 3.8) and GR5 (32.5 ± 20.9). Time to recover deep sensitivity was longer in GR 7.5 (152.5 ± 89.2) than in GS (5.8 ± 2.0), GR5 (46.7 ± 46.3) and GL (52.5 ± 20.7). Time to return superficial sensitivity was longer in GR7.5 (205.0 ± 129.3) when compared to GS (7.5 ± 2.7), GL (72.5 ± 19.9) and GR5 (97.5 ± 55.1). Despite the early return of spontaneous movement, 0.75% ropivacaine is related to longer periods for muscle function recovery and longer sensory block than lidocaine and 0.5% ropivacaine.(AU)

Animals , Dogs , Neuromuscular Blockade/veterinary , Ropivacaine/administration & dosage , Anesthesia, Epidural/veterinary , Lidocaine/administration & dosage , Nerve Block/veterinary , Anesthetics, Local/analysis
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(3): 433-438, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138510


RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever o uso do bloqueio neuromuscular e de outras práticas entre os médicos brasileiros atuantes em unidades de terapia intensiva para pacientes adultos. Métodos: Um levantamento nacional on-line foi aplicado a intensivistas brasileiros. As questões foram selecionadas utilizando o método Delphi e avaliavam os dados demográficos dos médicos, as características da unidade de terapia intensiva, as práticas relativas ao manuseio das vias aéreas e o uso de bloqueio neuromuscular e sedação durante a intubação endotraqueal na unidade de terapia intensiva. Como desfecho secundário, aplicamos uma análise multivariada para avaliar fatores associados com o uso do bloqueio neuromuscular. Resultados: Responderam ao questionário 565 intensivistas de todas as regiões do país. A maioria dos que responderam era homens (65%), com média de idade de 38 ± 8,4 anos, e 58,5% dos participantes tinham título de especialista em terapia intensiva. Apenas 40,7% dos intensivistas relataram o uso de bloqueio neuromuscular durante todas ou em mais de 75% das intubações endotraqueais. Na análise multivariada, o número de intubações realizadas por mês e a especialização do médico em anestesiologia se associaram diretamente com o uso frequente de bloqueio neuromuscular. Etomidato e cetamina foram utilizados mais comumente na situação clínica de hipotensão e choque, enquanto propofol e midazolam foram mais comumente prescritos em situações de estabilidade hemodinâmica. Conclusão: O relato de uso de bloqueio neuromuscular foi baixo entre intensivistas, e os fármacos sedativos foram escolhidos segundo a estabilidade hemodinâmica do paciente. Estes resultados podem ajudar no delineamento de futuros estudos relativos ao manuseio das vias aéreas no Brasil.

Abstract Objective: To describe the use of neuromuscular blockade as well as other practices among Brazilian physicians in adult intensive care units. Methods: An online national survey was designed and administered to Brazilian intensivists. Questions were selected using the Delphi method and assessed physicians' demographic data, intensive care unit characteristics, practices regarding airway management, use of neuromuscular blockade and sedation during endotracheal intubation in the intensive care unit. As a secondary outcome, we applied a multivariate analysis to evaluate factors associated with the use of neuromuscular blockade. Results: Five hundred sixty-five intensivists from all Brazilian regions responded to the questionnaire. The majority of respondents were male (65%), with a mean age of 38 ( 8.4 years, and 58.5% had a board certification in critical care. Only 40.7% of the intensivists reported the use of neuromuscular blockade during all or in more than 75% of endotracheal intubations. In the multivariate analysis, the number of intubations performed monthly and physician specialization in anesthesiology were directly associated with frequent use of neuromuscular blockade. Etomidate and ketamine were more commonly used in the clinical situation of hypotension and shock, while propofol and midazolam were more commonly prescribed in the situation of clinical stability. Conclusion: The reported use of neuromuscular blockade was low among intensivists, and sedative drugs were chosen in accordance with patient hemodynamic stability. These results may help the design of future studies regarding airway management in Brazil.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Neuromuscular Blockade/methods , Airway Management/methods , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Brazil , Surveys and Questionnaires , Critical Care/methods , Intensive Care Units
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(3): 220-224, May-June 2020. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137187


Abstract Introduction: The association between local anesthetics (LA) and neuromuscular blocking (NMB) drugs in clinical practice, and the possibility of interaction between these drugs has been investigated. LAs act on neuromuscular transmission in a dose-dependent manner and may potentiate the effects of NMB drugs. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate, in an experimental model, the effect of lidocaine and racemic bupivacaine on neuromuscular transmission and the influence on neuromuscular blockade produced by atracurium. Methods: Male Wistar rats, weighing from 250 to 300 g were used. The preparation was set up based on a technique proposed by Bülbring. Groups were formed (n = 5) according to the drug studied: lidocaine 20 µg.mL−1 (Group I); racemic bupivacaine 5 µg.mL−1 (Group II); atracurium 20 µg.mL−1 (Group III); atracurium 20 µg.mL−1 in a preparation previously exposed to lidocaine 20 µg.mL−1 and racemic bupivacaine 5 µg.mL−1, Groups IV and V, respectively. The following parameters were assessed: 1) Amplitude of hemi diaphragmatic response to indirect stimulation before and 60 minutes after addition of the drugs; 2) Membrane potentials (MP) and miniature endplate potentials (MEPPs). Results: Lidocaine and racemic bupivacaine alone did not alter the amplitude of muscle response. With previous use of lidocaine and racemic bupivacaine, the neuromuscular blockade (%) induced by atracurium was 86.66 ± 12.48 and 100, respectively, with a significant difference (p = 0.003), in comparison to the blockade produced by atracurium alone (55.7 ± 11.22). These drugs did not alter membrane potential. Lidocaine initially increased the frequency of MEPPs, followed by blockade. With the use of bupivacaine, the blockade was progressive. Conclusions: Lidocaine and racemic bupivacaine had a presynaptic effect expressed by alterations in MEPPs, which may explain the interaction and potentiation of NMB produced by atracurium.

Resumo Introdução: A associação de anestésicos locais (AL) com bloqueadores neuromusculares (BNM) na prática clínica e a possibilidade de interação entre esses fármacos têm sido investigadas. Objetivo: Avaliar, em modelo experimental, o efeito da lidocaína e da bupivacaína racêmica na transmissão neuromuscular e sua influência no bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo atracúrio. Método: Ratos machos da linhagem Wistar, peso entre 250 e 300 g. A preparação foi feita de acordo com a técnica proposta por Bulbring. Grupos (n = 5) de acordo com o fármaco em estudo: lidocaína 20 µg.mL-1 (Grupo I); bupivacaína racêmica 5 µg.mL-1 (Grupo II); atracúrio 20 µg.mL-1 (Grupo III); atracúrio 20 µg.mL-1 em preparação previamente exposta a lidocaína 20 µg.mL-1 e bupivacaína racêmica 5 µg.mL-1, Grupos IV e V, respectivamente. Foram avaliados: 1) A amplitude das respostas do hemidiafragma à estimulação indireta antes e 60 minutos após a adição dos fármacos; 2) Os potenciais de membrana (PM) e os potenciais de placa terminal em miniatura (PPTM). Resultados: Os AL, isoladamente, não alteraram a amplitude das respostas musculares. Com o uso prévio dos AL, o bloqueio neuromuscular (%) do atracúrio foi 86,66 ± 12,48 e 100, respectivamente, com diferença significante (p= 0,003) em relação ao produzido pelo atracúrio isoladamente (55,7 ± 11,22). Não alteraram o PM. A lidocaína inicialmente aumentou a frequência dos PPTM, seguido de bloqueio; com a bupivacaína, o bloqueio foi progressivo. Conclusão: A lidocaína e a bupivacaína racêmica apresentaram efeito pré-sináptico expresso por alterações nos PPTM, podem justificar a potencialização do bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo atracúrio.

Animals , Male , Rats , Atracurium/pharmacology , Bupivacaine/pharmacology , Neuromuscular Blockade , Anesthetics, Local/pharmacology , Lidocaine/pharmacology , Neuromuscular Junction/drug effects , Neuromuscular Junction/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Drug Interactions
Guatemala; MSPAS; [2020]. 25 p. graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LIGCSA, LILACS | ID: biblio-1151723


El presente documento tiene la finalidad de guiar a los médicos que manejan la unidad de cuidados intensivos en los Hospitales Temporales Nacionales que atienden pacientes con COVID-19 en cuanto a la aplicación de sedación y analgesia. Una adecuada sedoanalgesia y el uso de bloqueantes neuromusculares permitirán asegurar la provisión de ventilación mecánica protectora durante la inducción para intubación y el mantenimiento, limitar el desarrollo de lesión pulmonar por ventilación espontánea con una alta demanda respiratoria Incluye un Flujograma de Algoritmos de análogo sedación en el paciente crítico bajo ventilación mecánica

Humans , Male , Female , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Rapid Sequence Induction and Intubation/methods , Neuromuscular Blocking Agents/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Ventilators, Mechanical , Oxygenation/methods , Neuromuscular Blockade/methods , Deep Sedation/methods , Guatemala , Intubation/methods
Rev. chil. anest ; 49(4): 504-513, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1511705


SARS-CoV-2 is the agent responsible for COVID-19, the current pandemic, which is characterized by developing respiratory disturbances that are associated with severe hypoxemia associated with symptoms of non-bacterial pneumonia, ARDS up to multi-organ failure. It has been characterized by presenting 2 different phenotypes (phenotype L and phenotype H), with phenotype H being a stage of progressive deterioration of phenotype L, which depends on the earliness with which ventilatory management begins and the degree of inflammatory compromise. However, since VMI can generate VILI, the use of protective ventilation has been recommended as a ventilatory strategy for COVID-19. This review aims to comment on the available evidence of the essential aspects of protective IMV in the context of ARDS associated with COVID-19, in addition to the use of neuromuscular blockade and prone strategies.

El SARS-CoV-2 es el agente responsable del COVID-19, actual pandemia, que se caracteriza por desarrollar alteraciones respiratorias que cursan con hipoxemia severa asociada a cuadros de neumonía no bacteriana, SDRA hasta la falla multiorgánica. Se ha caracterizado por presentar 2 fenotipos distintos (fenotipo L y fenotipo H), siendo el fenotipo H un estadío de deterioro progresivo del fenotipo L, que depende de la precocidad con la que se inicia el manejo ventilatorio y del grado de compromiso inflamatorio. Sin embargo, dado que la VMI puede generar VILI, se ha recomendado el uso de una ventilación protectora como estrategia ventilatoria para COVID-19. La presente revisión tiene como objetivo comentar la evidencia disponible de los aspectos esenciales de la VMI protectora en el contexto del SDRA asociado a COVID-19, además del uso de bloqueo neuromuscular y las estrategias de prono.

Humans , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Prone Position , Neuromuscular Blockade , Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 637-645, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010543


OBJECTIVE@#Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) requires pneumoperitoneum (Pnp) and a steep head-down position that may disturb respiratory system compliance (Crs) during surgery. Our aim was to compare the effects of different degrees of neuromuscular block (NMB) on Crs with the same Pnp pressure during RARP.@*METHODS@#One hundred patients who underwent RARP were enrolled and randomly allocated to a deep or moderate NMB group with 50 patients in each group. Rocuronium was administered to both groups: in the moderate NMB group to maintain 1-2 responses to train-of-four (TOF) stimulation; and in the deep NMB group to maintain no response to TOF stimulation and 1-2 responses in the post-tetanic count. Pnp pressure in both groups was 10 mmHg (1 mmHg=133.3 Pa). Peak inspiratory pressure (Ppeak), mean pressure (Pmean), Crs, and airway resistance (Raw) were recorded after anesthesia induction and at 0, 30, 60, and 90 min of Pnp and post-Pnp. Surgical space conditions were evaluated after the procedure on a 4-point scale.@*RESULTS@#Immediately after the Pnp, Ppeak, Pmean, and Raw significantly increased, while Crs decreased and persisted during Pnp in both groups. The results did not significantly differ between the two groups at any of the time points. There was no difference in surgical space conditions between groups. Body movements occurred in 14 cases in the moderate NMB group and in one case in the deep NMB group, and all occurred during obturator lymphadenectomy. A significant difference between the two groups was observed.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Under the same Pnp pressure in RARP, deep and moderate NMBs resulted in similar changes in Crs, and in other respiratory mechanics and surgical space conditions. However, deep NMB significantly reduced body movements during surgery.

Aged , Humans , Male , Laparoscopy/methods , Lung Compliance/physiology , Neuromuscular Blockade , Prostatectomy/methods , Respiratory Mechanics , Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods , Rocuronium/pharmacology
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 51-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810970


BACKGROUND: Sugammadex is a new neuromuscular blockade reversal agent. Recently, it has been used in patients under general anesthesia. However, sugammadex could be toxic to fetuses and pediatric patients under 3 years of age. In this study, we demonstrated the safety of sugammadex in fetuses, using zebrafish larvae. Furthermore, its neurotoxicity was evaluated using neuronal cell lines.METHODS: We used SH-SY5Y cells to determine the viability of neuronal cells treated with sugammadex. Zebrafish larvae were used to determine the teratogenic effects of sugammadex.RESULTS: Sugammadex showed no adverse effects on neuronal cells and zebrafish larvae. The survival rates of neuronal cells were not different in all concentrations. In addition, the heart formation of zebrafish embryos, which were exposed to various concentrations of sugammadex, were not different.CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the feasibility of using sugammadex during pregnancy. However, further clinical studies will be required to extrapolate these results to humans.

Humans , Pregnancy , Anesthesia, General , Cell Line , Embryonic Structures , Fetus , Heart , Larva , Neuromuscular Blockade , Neurons , Survival Rate , Zebrafish
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 47(4): 211-218, Oct-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1042731


Abstract Background: Sugammadex has made it possible to reverse any type of rocuronium-induced block quickly and safely. The most frequent neuromuscular blockade is the moderate one where doses smaller than those recommended by the industry could get a full reversal. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of half the industry recommended dose of sugammadex to reverse a moderate neuromuscular block. Methods: Unicenter phase IV clinical trial that included 34 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Intravenous general anesthesia was induced, with acceleromyographic monitoring of the neuromuscular block. After the intervention, the block was reversed with all or half the dose of sugammadex recommended for moderate blocks, using a blinded syringe. Results: Patient characteristics of the 2 groups were similar. Mean time to recovery was 3.6± 1.7minutes for the study group and 3.1 ± 1.7minutes for the control group (P=0.42). Reversal of the block was complete with a single dose of sugammadex in all patients. There was an important linear correlation between depth of block and time to recovery. Conclusion: Intraoperative monitoring is essential to allow us to individualize the dose of the neuromuscular blocking agent. To reverse a moderate block under neuromuscular monitoring, a dose of 1 mg/kg is sufficient in most cases and is equally safe and effective.

Resumen Introducción: El sugammadex permite revertir cualquier tipo de bloqueo inducido por rocuronio de forma rápida y segura. El bloqueo neuromuscular más frecuente es el moderado, en el cual dosis inferiores a las recomendadas por la industria podrían revertirlo completamente. Objetivo: Evaluar la efectividad de la mitad de la dosis de sugammadex recomendada por la industria para revertir un bloqueo neuromuscular moderado. Métodos: Ensayo clínico de fase IV en un unico centro que incluyó a 34 pacientes intervenidos de colecistectomía laparoscópica. Se realizó anestesia general intravenosa con monitoreo aceleromiográfico del bloqueo neuromuscular. Tras la intervención, el bloqueo se revirtió con la totalidad o con la mitad de la dosis de sugammadex recomendada para bloqueos moderados, utilizando una jeringa ciega. Resultados: Las características de los pacientes de los dos grupos fueron similares. La media de tiempo de recuperación fue de 3,6 ± 1,7 minutos para el grupo de estudio y de 3,1 ± 1,7 minutos para el grupo de control (p = 0,42). La reversión del bloqueo se completó con una dosis única de sugammadex en todos los pacientes. Hubo una correlación lineal importante entre la profundidad del bloqueo y el tiempo de recuperación. Conclusión: El monitoreo transquirúrgico es esencial para individualizar la dosis del agente de bloqueo neuromuscular. Para revertir un bloqueo moderado bajo monitoreo neuromuscular, una dosis de 1mg/kg es suficiente e igualmente segura y efectiva.

Humans , Sugammadex , Rocuronium , Anesthesia, General , Neuromuscular Blocking Agents , Monitoring, Intraoperative , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic , Neuromuscular Blockade , Dosage , Neuromuscular Monitoring