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1.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(6): 627-634, Nov.-Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155766

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives The mechanisms by which local anesthetics cause neurotoxicity are very complicated. Apoptosis and autophagy are highly coordinated mechanisms that maintain cellular homeostasis against stress. Studies have shown that autophagy activation serves as a protective mechanism in vitro. However, whether it also plays the same role in vivo is unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the role of autophagy in local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity and to elucidate the mechanism of neurotoxicity in an intrathecally injected rat model. Methods Eighteen healthy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. Before receiving an intrathecal injection of 1% bupivacaine, each rat received an intraperitoneal injection of vehicle or rapamycin (1 mg.kg-1) once a day for 3 days. The pathological changes were examined by Haematoxylin and Eosin (HE) staining. Apoptosis was analysed by TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labelling (TUNEL) staining. Caspase-3, Beclin1 and LC3 expression was examined by Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. Beclin1 and LC3 expression and the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio were detected by western blot analysis. Results After bupivacaine was injected intrathecally, pathological damage occurred in spinal cord neurons, and the levels of apoptosis and caspase-3 increased. Enhancement of autophagy with rapamycin markedly alleviated the pathological changes and decreased the levels of apoptosis and caspase-3 while increasing the expression of LC3 and Beclin1 and the ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I. Conclusions Enhancement of autophagy decreases caspase-3-dependent apoptosis and improves neuronal survivalin vivo. Activation of autophagy may be a potential therapeutic strategy for local anaesthetic-induced neurotoxicity.


Resumo Introdução e objetivos Os mecanismos de neurotoxicidade dos anestésicos locais são complexos. A apoptose e a autofagia são mecanismos altamente organizados que mantêm a homeostase celular durante o estresse. Estudos revelam que a ativação da autofagia atua como mecanismo de proteção in vitro. Não está claro se a autofagia também desempenha essa função in vivo. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o papel da autofagia na neurotoxicidade induzida por anestésico local e esclarecer o mecanismo dessa neurotoxicidade utilizando um modelo de injeção intratecal em ratos. Métodos Dezoito ratos Sprague‐Dawley machos adultos saudáveis foram divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos. Antes de receber a injeção intratecal de bupivacaína a 1%, cada rato recebeu injeção intraperitoneal de veículo ou rapamicina (1 mg.kg‐1) uma vez ao dia durante 3 dias. As alterações patológicas foram examinadas por coloração com Hematoxilina e Eosina (HE). A apoptose foi analisada por coloração com o método dUTP Nick‐End Labeling (TUNEL) mediado por TdT. A expressão de caspase‐3, Beclin1 e LC3 foram examinadas por coloração Imunohistoquímica (IHQ). A expressão de Beclin1 e LC3 e a razão LC3‐II/LC3‐I foram detectadas por análise de western blot. Resultados Após a injeção intratecal de bupivacaína, ocorreu lesão patológica nos neurônios da medula espinhal e os níveis de apoptose e caspase‐3 aumentaram. A ativação da autofagia causada pela rapamicina mitigou de forma expressiva as alterações patológicas e diminuiu os níveis de apoptose e caspase‐3, aumentando a expressão de LC3 e Beclin1 e a razão LC3‐II/LC3‐I. Conclusões O aumento da autofagia diminui a apoptose dependente da caspase‐3 e melhora a sobrevivência neuronal in vivo. A ativação da autofagia pode ser uma estratégia terapêutica potencial para a neurotoxicidade induzida por anestésicos locais.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Autophagy/drug effects , Bupivacaine/toxicity , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/prevention & control , Caspase 3/metabolism , Anesthetics, Local/toxicity , Neurons/drug effects , Spinal Cord/drug effects , Autophagy/physiology , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Apoptosis/drug effects , Sirolimus/administration & dosage , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Beclin-1/metabolism , Microtubule-Associated Proteins/metabolism , Neurons/pathology
2.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 76(9): 603-608, Sept. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973951

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The neuropeptide orexin-A and its receptors are widely distributed in both hippocampal circuitry and pain transmission pathways. Objective: Involvement of the CA1 orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) on the modulation of orofacial pain and pain-induced changes in hippocampal expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was investigated. Methods: Orofacial pain was induced by an intra-lip injection of capsaicin (100 μg). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot analysis were used to indicate changes in hippocampal BDNF and COX-2 expression, respectively. Results: Capsaicin induces a significant pain response, which is not affected by either orexin-A or SB-334867-A, an OX1R antagonist. However, an increased expression of COX-2 and decreased expression of BDNF was observed in the hippocampus of animals that received capsaicin or SB-334867-A (80 nM) plus capsaicin. Meanwhile, orexin-A (40 pM) attenuated the effects of capsaicin on the expression of COX-2 and BDNF. Conclusions: CA1 OX1R activation moderates capsaicin-induced neuronal inflammation and neurotrophic deficiency.


RESUMO O neuropeptídeo orexina-A e seus receptores estão amplamente distribuídos nos circuitos do hipocampo e nas vias de transmissão da dor. Objetivo: O envolvimento do receptor de orexina 1 CA1 (OX1R) na modulação da dor orofacial e alterações induzidas pela dor na expressão do hipocampo de ciclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) e fator neurotrófico derivado do cérebro (BDNF) foi investigado. Métodos: A dor orofacial foi induzida por injeção intra-labial de capsaicina (100 μg). A reação em cadeia da polimerase de transcrição reversa e a análise de imunotransferência foram utilizadas para indicar alterações na expressão de BDNF e COX-2 no hipocampo, respectivamente. Resultados: A capsaicina induz uma resposta significativa à dor, que não é afetada pela orexina-A ou pelo SB-334867-A, um antagonista do OX1R. No entanto, uma expressão aumentada de COX-2 e uma expressão diminuída de BDNF foi observada no hipocampo de animais que receberam capsaicina ou SB-334867-A (80 nM) mais capsaicina. Enquanto isso, a orexina A (40 pM) atenuou os efeitos da capsaicina na expressão de COX-2 e BDNF. Conclusões: A ativação de CA1 OX1R modera a inflamação neuronal induzida por capsaicina e a deficiência neurotrófica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Facial Pain/metabolism , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , Orexin Receptors/metabolism , Orexins/pharmacology , Hippocampus/metabolism , Urea/analogs & derivatives , Urea/pharmacology , Benzoxazoles/pharmacology , Capsaicin , Rats, Wistar , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Disease Models, Animal , Hippocampus/drug effects , Naphthyridines , Neurons/drug effects , Neurons/metabolism
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(1): 236-241, Mar. 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840961

ABSTRACT

The effects of quercetin supplementation in NADH-diaphorase positive (NADH-d) neurons of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was carried in this study. Fifteen male rats were divided into three groups: normoglycemic (N), diabetic (D) and diabetic supplemented with quercetin (DQ). Whole mount preparations of the muscular layer of the ileum underwent NADH-d histochemistry for evidencing the NADH-d neuronal subpopulation. Quantitative analyzes were performed on 30 random fields, and morphometric analyzes in 100 neuronal bodies and nuclei per animal. The supplementation promoted a 44 % reduction in the neuronal density in D group when compared to N group (p <0.001); a 24.5 % reduction was observed in the DQ group when compared to N (p <0.01). Animals in D group presented an 18.7 % increase in the cell body areas of myenteric neurons when compared to N (p <0.001); DQ group showed a 14.2 % decrease in neuronal areas when compared to D (p <0.01); the nuclear area were similar among the three groups. We conclude that quercetin supplementation was positive for animals with diabetes mellitus.


Se estudiaron los efectos de la suplementación con quercetina en neuronas NADH-diaforasa positiva (NADH-d) de ratas diabéticas inducidas por estreptozotocina. Quince ratas machos se dividieron en tres grupos: normoglicémico (N), diabéticos (D) y diabéticos suplementados con quercetina (DQ). Las cortes montados de la capa muscular del íleon fueron sometidos a histoquímica de NADH-d para evidenciar la subpoblación neuronal NADH-d. Se realizaron análisis cuantitativos en 30 campos aleatorios y análisis morfométricos en 100 cuerpos y núcleos neuronales, por animal. La suplementación promovió una reducción del 44 % en la densidad neuronal en el grupo D cuando se comparó con el grupo N (p <0,001). Se observó una reducción del 24,5 % en el grupo DQ en comparación con N (p <0,01). Los animales del grupo D presentaron un aumento del 18,7 % en las áreas del cuerpo celular de las neuronas mientéricas cuando se compararon con N (p <0,001). El grupo DQ mostró una disminución de 14,2 % en las áreas neuronales en comparación con D (p <0,01). El área nuclear fue similar entre los tres grupos. Se concluye que la suplementación con quercetina fue positiva para animales con diabetes mellitus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Ileum/drug effects , Neurons/drug effects , Quercetin/administration & dosage , NADPH Dehydrogenase , Rats, Wistar
4.
Acta cir. bras ; 30(6): 394-400, 06/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749642

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the central nervous system toxicity of cisplatin and neuroprotective effect of selenium. METHODS: Twenty-one male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: control (C), cisplatin (CS), cisplatin and selenium (CSE, n=7 in each group). Cisplatin (12 mg/kg/day, i.p.) was administered to CS and CSE groups for three days. Furthermore, CSE group received 3mg/kg/day (twice-a-day as 1.5 mg/kg) selenium via oral gavage five days before cisplatin injection and continued for 11 consecutive days. The same volumes of saline were administered to C group intraperitoneally and orally at same time. RESULTS: Heterochromatic and vacuolated neurons and dilated capillary vessels in the brain were observed in the histochemical examinations of cisplatin treated group. Rats that were given a dose of 3mg/kg/day selenium decreased the cisplatin induced histopathological changes in the brain, indicating a protective effect. In addition, cytoplasmic staining of the cell for bcl-2, both cytoplasmic and nuclear staining for bax were determined to be positive in the all groups. Bax positive cells were increased in the CS group compared to C group, in contrast to decreased bcl-2 positivity. CONCLUSION: Selenium limited apototic activity and histological changes due to the cisplatin related central neurotoxicity. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Antineoplastic Agents/toxicity , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Brain/drug effects , Cisplatin/toxicity , Neurons/drug effects , Selenium/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Brain/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Models, Animal , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors
5.
Salud colect ; 11(1): 99-114, ene.-mar. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-746687

ABSTRACT

El Consejo Federal de Medicina de Brasil (CFM) -órgano normativo y fiscalizador del ejercicio ético de la medicina- prohibió, en 2008, la participación de médicos brasileños en investigaciones que utilizaran placebo para enfermedades con tratamiento eficaz y efectivo, en contraposición a la Declaración de Helsinki, que permite su uso en condiciones metodológicamente justificadas. Con el objetivo de verificar si la normativa ética del CFM modificó el uso de placebo en ensayos clínicos de fase III en Brasil, se analizaron varias características de sus registros en el ClinicalTrials.gov, en los períodos de 2003 a 2007 y de 2009 a 2013. Se concluye que: a) la normativa promulgada por el CFM en 2008 fue ineficaz y prevaleció la posición adoptada por la Declaración de Helsinki; b) el patrocinio de ensayos con placebo por parte de la industria farmacéutica multinacional fue significativo; c) predominaron las investigaciones de fármacos para enfermedades crónicas, y fueron poco significativas para las enfermedades postergadas, de importancia para Brasil.


In 2008, Brazil's Federal Council of Medicine [Conselho Federal de Medicina] (CFM) - regulatory and supervisory agency on the ethical practice of medicine - banned the participation of Brazilian doctors in studies using placebos for diseases with efficient and effective treatment. This position differs with the Helsinki Declaration, which allows the use of placebos in methodologically justified conditions. To ascertain whether the CMF's ethical regulation modified the use of placebos in phase III clinical trials in Brazil, characteristics of the records in ClinicalTrials.gov were researched in the periods from 2003 to 2007 and from 2009 to 2013. The conclusions reached were: a) the regulations issued by the CFM in 2008 were ineffective and the position adopted by the Helsinki Declaration prevails; b) there was significant sponsorship by the multinational pharmaceutical industry of trials with placebos; c) the research was predominantly on new drugs for chronic diseases, with little study done of the neglected diseases which are of great importance to Brazil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Apoptosis/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/genetics , Heme/deficiency , Nerve Degeneration/genetics , Neurons/metabolism , Porphyrias/complications , Apoptosis/drug effects , Caspases/drug effects , Caspases/metabolism , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cell Survival/genetics , Collagen Type XI/drug effects , Collagen Type XI/metabolism , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein/drug effects , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein/genetics , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein/metabolism , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Down-Regulation/physiology , Enzyme Inhibitors , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/drug effects , Heptanoates , Heme/biosynthesis , MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects , MAP Kinase Signaling System/physiology , Membrane Proteins/drug effects , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Nerve Degeneration/metabolism , Nerve Degeneration/physiopathology , Nerve Tissue Proteins/drug effects , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism , Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules/drug effects , Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules/genetics , Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Neurons/drug effects , Neurons/pathology , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases , Porphyrias/metabolism , Porphyrias/physiopathology , RNA, Messenger/drug effects , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/drug effects , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , SMN Complex Proteins , Up-Regulation/drug effects , Up-Regulation/physiology , Vesicular Transport Proteins/drug effects , Vesicular Transport Proteins/genetics , Vesicular Transport Proteins/metabolism
6.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(2): 132-139, 02/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741181

ABSTRACT

The effects of tamoxifen (TAM) on anxiety and depression-like behavior in ovariectomized (OVX) and naïve female rats were investigated. The animals were divided into Sham-TAM, OVX-TAM, Sham and OVX groups. Tamoxifen (1 mg/kg) was administered for 4 weeks. In the forced swimming test, the immobility times in the OVX and Sham-TAM groups were higher than in the Sham group. In the open field, the numbers of central crossings in the OVX and Sham-TAM groups were lower than the number in the Sham group, and the number of peripheral crossings in the OVX group was lower than the number in the Sham group. In the elevated plus maze, the numbers of entries to the open arm among the animals in the Sham-TAM and OVX groups were lower than the number in the Sham group, while the number of entries to the open arm in the OVX-TAM group was higher than the number in the OVX group. It was shown that deletion of ovarian hormones induced anxiety and depression-like behavior. Administration of tamoxifen in naïve rats led to anxiety and depression-like behavior that was comparable with the effects of ovarian hormone deletion. It can be suggested that tamoxifen antagonizes the effects of ovarian hormones. It also seems that tamoxifen has anxiolytic effects on ovariectomized rats.


Foram investigados os efeitos do tamoxifeno (TAM) no comportamento semelhante a ansiedade de depressão de ratas ooforectomizadas (OVX) e controles. Os animais foram divididos em Sham-TAM, OVX-TAM, Sham e OVX groups. Tamoxifeno (1 mg/kg) foi administrado por quatro semanas. No teste de natação forçada, os tempos de imobilidade nos grupos OVX e Sham-TAM foram maiores que aqueles do grupo Sham. No campo aberto, os números de cruzamento no centro nos grupos OVX e Sham-TAM foram menores que aquele do grupo Sham, e o número dos cruzamentos na periferia no grupo OVX foi menor que o número no grupo Sham. No labirinto elevado, os números de entradas com braços abertos entre os animais nos grupos Sham-TAM e OVX foram menores do que aqueles do grupo Sham, enquanto o número de entradas com os braços abertos no grupo OVX-TAM foi maior que aquele no grupo OVX. Foi observado que a deleção dos hormônios ovarianos induziu comportamento similar a ansiedade e depressão. A administração de tamoxifeno em ratos controle induziu a um comportamento que era comparável aos efeitos da deleção do hormônio ovariano. Pode ser sugerido que o tamoxifeno antagoniza os efeitos dos hormônios ovarianos. Parece também que o tamoxifeno tem efeito ansiolítico nas ratas ooforectomizadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Cocaine/pharmacology , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases/metabolism , Dendrites/drug effects , Dendrites/metabolism , Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors/pharmacology , Nucleus Accumbens/drug effects , Nucleus Accumbens/enzymology , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Microscopy, Confocal , Neurons/drug effects , Neurons/metabolism , Purines/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
7.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 41(1): 110-115, jan-feb/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-742883

ABSTRACT

Introduction Non-androgenic growth factors are involved in the growth regulation of prostate cancer (PCa). Objective This is the first Brazilian study to correlate, in a population of patients operated for PCa, PSA, total testosterone, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) with Gleason score and to compare with a control group with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). Materials and Methods This retrospective single-center study included 49 men with previously diagnosed PCa and 45 with previously diagnosed BPH. PSA, testosterone, IGF-I, IGFBP-3 were determined in both groups. Results PSA and IGFBP-3 levels were significantly higher in the PCa group as compared to the BPH group (p<0.001 and p=0.004, respectively). There was a significant difference when we compared the PSA before surgery (p<0.001) and at the inclusion in the study (p<0.001) and IGFBP3 (0.016) among patients with Gleason <7, ≥7 and BPH. In the PCa group, PSA, testosterone, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels were comparable between Gleason <7 and ≥7. Conclusions Our data suggest that in localized PCa, the quantification of PSA and, not of IGF-1, may provide independent significant information in the aggressiveness. IGFBP-3 could be a biochemical marker of disease control in PCa patients. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Pregnancy , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Depressive Disorder/physiopathology , Nanoparticles/toxicity , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/physiopathology , Animals, Newborn , Blotting, Western , Cells, Cultured , Cities , Depressive Disorder/etiology , Hippocampus/metabolism , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Maze Learning/drug effects , Neurites/drug effects , Neurites/physiology , Neurons/cytology , Neurons/drug effects , Pilot Projects , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/etiology
8.
Salud pública Méx ; 57(1): 22-28, ene.-feb. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-736458

ABSTRACT

Objetivo. Explicar la variación de la desnutrición infantil (DI), entendida como baja talla para la edad (0 a 5 años) entre 1999 y 2006. Material y métodos. Se emplearon estimaciones estatales de DI y diversos indicadores que reflejan las probables causas subyacentes del fenómeno como la pobreza, el producto per cápita estatal, la educación de las mujeres y los accesos a infraestructura de salud y de drenaje. Para el análisis de datos se utilizaron los métodos de regresión con datos panel de efectos fijos y aleatorios. Resultados. Se encontró que la carencia de salud y drenaje, así como la pobreza, empeoran la DI, mientras que la educación de las mujeres la disminuye. Conclusiones. El estudio muestra que las variables de infraestructura explican en buena parte la variación reciente de la DI entre estados, y que el crecimiento económico no es una condición suficiente para reducir la DI.


Objective. Explain the variation in child malnutrition (CM), understood as low height for age (0 to 5 years old) for the period 1999-2006. Materials and methods. State estimations of child malnutrition and several indicators of subjacent probable causes of CM were employed, such as poverty indices, state product per capita, women scholar attainment and access to health and the sewage system. Panel data regression analysis with fixed and random effects were used to analyze the data. Results. The results indicate that the lack to access to health and sewage systems and poverty worsen CM, whereas women education helps to diminish CM. Conclusion. The study shows that infrastructure variables explain a significant part of the recent variation in DI across Mexican states, and that economic growth is not a sufficient condition to diminish DI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Brain/metabolism , G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channels/biosynthesis , G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channels/genetics , Neurons/metabolism , Baclofen/pharmacology , Brain/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , In Vitro Techniques , Mice, Knockout , Neurons/drug effects , Neurons/ultrastructure
9.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 143(1): 120-123, ene. 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-742561

ABSTRACT

We report a 37 years old male with a dermatomyositis treated with oral cyclophosphamide. He was admitted to the hospital due to a zone of skin necrosis with purulent exudate, located in the second left toe. A complete blood count showed a leukocyte count of 2,600 cells/mm³. A Chest CAT scan showed a pneumomediastinum with emphysema of adjacent soft tissue. Cyclophosphamide was discontinued and leukocyte count improved. The affected toe was amputated and a chest CAT scan showed a partial resolution of the pneumomediastinum. We discuss and review the pathogenesis, clinical presentation and management of pneumomediastinum and cutaneous necrosis in association with dermatomyositis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Benzoxazines/therapeutic use , Cannabinoids/agonists , Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental/drug therapy , Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental/pathology , Morpholines/therapeutic use , Naphthalenes/therapeutic use , Neurons/drug effects , Oligodendroglia/drug effects , Analysis of Variance , Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor/metabolism , Caspase 9/metabolism , /metabolism , Cell Count/methods , Central Nervous System/pathology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental/complications , Macrophages/drug effects , Neurologic Examination , Nerve Degeneration/etiology , Nerve Degeneration/prevention & control , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/metabolism , Spinal Cord/drug effects , Spinal Cord/pathology , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , Time Factors
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-195231

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Most pesticide formulations contain both chief and additive ingredients. But, the additives may not have been tested as thoroughly as the chief ingredients. The surfactant, nonyl phenoxypolyethoxylethanol (NP40), is an additive frequently present in pesticide formulations. We investigated the effects of NP40 and other constituents of a validamycin pesticide formulation on cell viability and on the expression of genes involved in cell damage pathways. METHODS: The effects of validamycin pesticide ingredients on cell viability and of NP40 on the mRNA expression of 80 genes involved in nine key cellular pathways were examined in the human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cell line. RESULTS: The chemicals present in the validamycin pesticide formulation were cytotoxic to SK-N-SH cells and NP40 showed the greatest cytotoxicity. A range of gene expression changes were identified, with both up- and down-regulation of genes within the same pathway. However, all genes tested in the necrosis signaling pathway were down-regulated and all genes tested in the cell cycle checkpoint/arrest pathway were up-regulated. The median fold-change in gene expression was significantly higher in the cell cycle checkpoint/arrest pathway than in the hypoxia pathway category (p = 0.0064). The 70 kDa heat shock protein 4 gene, within the heat shock protein/unfolded protein response category, showed the highest individual increase in expression (26.1-fold). CONCLUSIONS: NP40 appeared to be particularly harmful, inducing gene expression changes that indicated genotoxicity, activation of the cell death (necrosis signaling) pathway, and induction of the 70 kDa heat shock protein 4 gene.


Subject(s)
Aged , Cell Cycle Checkpoints/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Survival/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Genes, cdc , HSP110 Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics , Humans , Inositol/analogs & derivatives , Necrosis , Neurons/drug effects , Nonoxynol/chemistry , Pesticides/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry
11.
J. bras. nefrol ; 36(4): 512-518, Oct-Dec/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-731151

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Tuberculosis is a common opportunistic infection in renal transplant patients. Objective: To obtain a clinical and laboratory description of transplant patients diagnosed with tuberculosis and their response to treatment during a period ranging from 2005 to 2013 at the Pablo Tobón Uribe Hospital. Methods: Retrospective and descriptive study. Results: In 641 renal transplants, tuberculosis was confirmed in 12 cases. Of these, 25% had a history of acute rejection, and 50% had creatinine levels greater than 1.5 mg/dl prior to infection. The disease typically presented as pulmonary (50%) and disseminated (33.3%). The first phase of treatment consisted of 3 months of HZRE (isoniazid, pyrazinamide, rifampicin and ethambutol) in 75% of the cases and HZME (isoniazid, pyrazinamide, moxifloxacin and ethambutol) in 25% of the cases. During the second phase of the treatment, 75% of the cases received isoniazid and rifampicin, and 25% of the cases received isoniazid and ethambutol. The length of treatment varied between 6 and 18 months. In 41.7% of patients, hepatotoxicity was associated with the beginning of anti-tuberculosis therapy. During a year-long follow-up, renal function remained stable, and the mortality rate was 16.7%. Conclusion: Tuberculosis in the renal transplant population studied caused diverse nonspecific symptoms. Pulmonary and disseminated tuberculosis were the most frequent forms and required prolonged treatment. Antituberculosis medications had a high toxicity and mortality. This infection must be considered when patients present with a febrile syndrome of unknown origin, especially during the first year after renal transplant. .


Introdução: A tuberculose é uma infecção oportunista comum em pacientes transplantados renais. Objetivo: Oferecer uma descrição clínica e laboratorial de pacientes transplantados com diagnóstico de tuberculose e sua resposta ao tratamento durante o período entre 2005 e 2013 no Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo descritivo. Resultados: Em 641 transplantes renais, a tuberculose foi confirmada em 12 pacientes. Destes, 25% tinham histórico de rejeição aguda e 50% apresentaram níveis de creatinina superiores a 1,5 mg/dl antes da infecção. A patologia geralmente se apresentava como pulmonar (50%) e disseminada (33,3%). A primeira fase do tratamento consistiu de três meses de HZRE (isoniazida, pirazinamida, rifampicina e etambutol) em 75% dos casos e HZME (isoniazida, pirazinamida, moxifloxacina e etambutol) em 25% dos pacientes. Durante a segunda fase do tratamento, 75% dos pacientes receberam isoniazida e rifampicina e 25% isoniazida e etambutol. A duração do tratamento variou entre seis e 18 meses. Em 41,7% dos pacientes, hepatotoxicidade foi associada ao início do tratamento da tuberculose. Durante o seguimento de um ano a função renal manteve-se estável e a taxa de mortalidade foi de 16,7%. Conclusão: A tuberculose foi responsável por diversos sintomas inespecíficos na população de transplantados renais estudada. Tuberculose pulmonar e disseminada foram as formas mais frequentes de acometimento e necessitaram de tratamento prolongado. Medicamentos contra a tuberculose apresentaram alta toxicidade e mortalidade. Esta infecção deve ser considerada quando o paciente apresenta síndrome febril de origem desconhecida, especialmente durante o primeiro ano após o transplante renal. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Locus Coeruleus/drug effects , Narcotics/pharmacology , Neural Inhibition/drug effects , Neurons/drug effects , Potassium Channels/metabolism , Barium/pharmacology , Calcium/metabolism , Enkephalin, Methionine/pharmacology , G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channels , GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Heterozygote , Homozygote , Ion Channel Gating/drug effects , Ion Channel Gating/physiology , Locus Coeruleus/cytology , Locus Coeruleus/physiology , Mice, Knockout , Membrane Potentials/drug effects , Membrane Potentials/physiology , Neural Inhibition/physiology , Neurons/physiology , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Protein Subunits , Potassium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying/antagonists & inhibitors , Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying/deficiency , Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying/genetics , Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying/metabolism , Potassium Channels/deficiency , Potassium Channels/genetics
12.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 21(4): 1457-1466, Oct-Dec/2014.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-732523

ABSTRACT

Entre 1916 e 1923, o Distrito Federal e 11 estados brasileiros estabeleceram acordos de cooperação com a divisão internacional de saúde – International Health Board – da Fundação Rockefeller para combater uma endemia rural, a ancilostomíase. Este breve texto apresenta o diário de Alan Gregg, um dos médicos norte-americanos que trabalharam no Brasil entre 1919-1922. Fonte interessante para discutir questões relativas à história da saúde pública no Brasil, o diário do médico, além das informações sobre as atividades de combate à ancilostomíase desenvolvidas pela Fundação Rockefeller no país, apresenta suas impressões relativas à natureza, à cultura, à política e à sociedade brasileiras. Na seleção de trechos do diário ora apresentado, priorizamos, porém, aspectos relativos às atividades profissionais realizadas por Gregg.


Between 1916 and 1923, the Federal District and 11 Brazilian states entered into cooperation agreements with the International Health Board of the Rockefeller Foundation to combat a rural endemic disease, namely ancylostomiasis. This paper presents the diary of Alan Gregg, one of the American physicians who worked in Brazil from 1919 to 1922. An interesting source to discuss issues relating to the history of public health in Brazil, in addition to information about the activities to combat ancylostomiasis developed by the Rockefeller Foundation in the country, the diary of the physician presents his impressions concerning nature, culture, politics and society in Brazil. In the diary excerpts presented here, however, aspects related to the professional activities performed by Gregg are prioritized.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Calpain/antagonists & inhibitors , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Glutamic Acid/toxicity , Hippocampus/physiology , Neurons/drug effects , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Neurotoxins/toxicity , Cells, Cultured , Dipeptides/pharmacology , Glycoproteins/pharmacology , Hippocampus/cytology , Leucine/analogs & derivatives , Leucine/pharmacology , Neurons/cytology , Neurons/physiology , Neurotoxins/antagonists & inhibitors
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 32(3): 761-766, Sept. 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728263

ABSTRACT

Nicotine is the most important alkaloid compound in tobacco. One of the major effects of nicotine is stimulation of mesocorticolimbic system. Prefrontal cortex plays a pivotal role in personality and mental state. It is considered the main cause of addiction as it is located in mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. Twenty four male rats were divided into four groups based on nicotine administration dose (0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 g/kg). After animals were anesthetized, their brains were fixed using transcardiac method. Tissue processing and Golgi staining were performed and the stained tissue sections were analyzed by optic microscope and Motic software. By increasing the dose, nicotine significantly decreased the number of neuronal processes. In the higher dose, nicotine caused a significant decrease and increase in the size of pericarions and dendritic spines, respectively (p<0.05). Nicotine administration can decrease the size of pericarion and number of dendritic spines in the prefrontal cortex.


La nicotina es el compuesto alcaloide más importante del tabaco. Uno de sus principales efectos es la estimulación del sistema mesocorticolímbico. La corteza prefrontal desempeña un papel fundamental en la personalidad y estado mental. Esta es considerada la principal causa de la adicción, ya que se encuentra en el sistema mesocorticolímbico dopaminérgico. Veinticuatro ratas macho fueron divididas en cuatro grupos basados en la dosis de administración de nicotina (0, 0,5, 1 y 1,5 g/kg). Luego fueron anestesiados y sus cerebros se fijaron mediante perfusión transcardíaca. Se realizó el procesamiento de tejidos y las secciones bajo tinción de Golgi fueron analizadas mediante microscopia óptica y el software Motic. Con el aumento de dosis, la nicotina redujo significativamente el número de procesos neuronales. En la dosis más alta, la nicotina causó una disminución y aumento significativo en el tamaño de pericarion y espinas dendríticas, respectivamente (p<0,05). La administración de nicotina puede disminuir el tamaño del pericarion y el número de espinas dendríticas en la corteza prefrontal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Prefrontal Cortex/drug effects , Nicotine/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Prefrontal Cortex/ultrastructure , Dendritic Spines/drug effects , Dendritic Spines/ultrastructure , Microscopy , Neurons/drug effects , Neurons/ultrastructure , Nicotine/administration & dosage
14.
Scientific Journal of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences. 2014; 19 (4): 100-108
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-153690

ABSTRACT

Stroke is one of the main leading causes of mortality and disability in many countries. In the absence of definitive treatment search for, neuroprotective agents with minimal side effects should be continued. Natural nutrients can be ideal sources to produce safe and valuable agents for the management of stroke. Walnut kernel [WK] has numerous beneficial components with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The goal of this study was to investigate the protective effects of WK on neuronal injury and astrocyte reactivity after induction of focal cerebral ischemia in male rats. In this experimental study, Wistar male rats were divided into three groups: sham, control [fed with ordinary food] and walnut [fed with WK]. Each group consisted of 6 rats. The right middle cerebral artery was occluded for 15 min in the control and walnut groups. Forty-eight hours after reperfusion the animals were killed and their brains were processed for histological [Hematoxylin and Eosin staining] and immunohistochemical [Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, GFAP], and histochemical [TUNEL] studies. The results showed that WK significantly decreased neuronal death induced by cerebral ischemia; however, the density of GFAP positive astrocytes has been increased at the site of injury in the treatment group compared to the other 2 groups. In addition, WK significantly decreased the mortality rate of the animals due to cerebral ischemia. The results suggested that wk might provide protection against the cerebral ischemia-induced injuries in the rat brain through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Neurons/drug effects , Astrocytes/drug effects , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Protective Agents , Rats, Wistar
15.
Clinics ; 68(9): 1231-1238, set. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-687768

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The role of Ulinastatin in neuronal injury after cardiopulmonary resuscitation has not been elucidated. We aim to evaluate the effects of Ulinastatin on inflammation, oxidation, and neuronal injury in the cerebral cortex after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. METHODS: Ventricular fibrillation was induced in 76 adult male Wistar rats for 6 min, after which cardiopulmonary resuscitation was initiated. After spontaneous circulation returned, the rats were split into two groups: the Ulinastatin 100,000 unit/kg group or the PBS-treated control group. Blood and cerebral cortex samples were obtained and compared at 2, 4, and 8 h after return of spontaneous circulation. The protein levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were assayed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and mRNA levels were quantified via real-time polymerase chain reaction. Myeloperoxidase and Malondialdehyde were measured by spectrophotometry. The translocation of nuclear factor-κB p65 was assayed by Western blot. The viable and apoptotic neurons were detected by Nissl and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). RESULTS: Ulinastatin treatment decreased plasma levels of TNF-α and IL-6, expression of mRNA, and Myeloperoxidase and Malondialdehyde in the cerebral cortex. In addition, Ulinastatin attenuated the translocation of nuclear factor-κB p65 at 2, 4, and 8 hours after the return of spontaneous circulation. Ulinastatin increased the number of living neurons and decreased TUNEL-positive neuron numbers in the cortex at 72 h after the return of spontaneous circulation. CONCLUSIONS: Ulinastatin preserved neuronal survival and inhibited neuron apoptosis after the return of spontaneous circulation in Wistar rats via attenuation of the oxidative stress response and translocation of nuclear factor-κB p65 in the cortex. In addition, Ulinastatin decreased the production of TNF-α, ...


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/adverse effects , Cerebral Cortex/drug effects , Glycoproteins/pharmacology , Trypsin Inhibitors/pharmacology , Ventricular Fibrillation/metabolism , Blotting, Western , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Encephalitis/drug therapy , Glycoproteins/therapeutic use , /blood , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Neurons/drug effects , Neurons/physiology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Peroxidase/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Trypsin Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
16.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 46(7): 589-600, ago. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-682401

ABSTRACT

We investigated the GABA-induced inactivation of V2 neurons and terminals on the receptive field properties of this area in an anesthetized and paralyzed Cebus apella monkey. Extracellular single-unit activity was recorded using tungsten microelectrodes in a monkey before and after pressure-injection of a 0.25 or 0.5 M GABA solution. The visual stimulus consisted of a bar moving in 8 possible directions. In total, 24 V2 neurons were studied before and after blocker injections in 4 experimental sessions following GABA injection into area V2. A group of 10 neurons were studied over a short period. An additional 6 neurons were investigated over a long period after the GABA injection. A third group of 8 neurons were studied over a very long period. Overall, these 24 neurons displayed an early (1-20 min) significant general decrease in excitability with concomitant changes in orientation or direction selectivity. GABA inactivation in area V2 produced robust inhibition in 80% and a significant change in directional selectivity in 60% of the neurons examined. These GABA projections are capable of modulating not only levels of spontaneous and driven activity of V2 neurons but also receptive field properties such as direction selectivity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , GABA Agents/pharmacology , Neural Inhibition , Neurons/drug effects , Orientation/drug effects , Visual Cortex/drug effects , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/pharmacology , Cebus , Electrocardiography , Lidocaine/metabolism , Microelectrodes , Neural Inhibition/drug effects , Photic Stimulation , Time Factors , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/physiology
18.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 49(4): 284-290, Oct.-Dec. 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-660308

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by hyperglycemia that, when allowed to progress long-term untreated, develops vascular and neurological complications, which are responsible for the development of alterations in the enteric nervous system in diabetic patients. In the gastrointestinal tract, diabetes mellitus promotes motor and sensory changes, and in the reflex function of this system, causing gastroparesis, diarrhea, constipation, megacolon, slow gastrointestinal transit, gastric stasis and dilation with decreased or increased peristaltic contractions. Several studies have shown that oxidative stress is the main responsible for the vascular and neurological complications affecting the enteric nervous system of diabetics. OBJECTIVE: The effects of 0.1% and 2% vitamin E on myosin-V- and nNOS-immunoreactive neurons in the jejunum of diabetic rats were investigated. METHODS: Thirty rats were divided into the groups: normoglycemic, normoglycemic treated with 0.1% vitamin E, normoglycemic treated with 2% vitamin E, diabetic, diabetic treated with 0.1% vitamin E, and diabetic treated with 2% vitamin E. The neuronal density and areas of neuron cell bodies were determined. RESULTS: Diabetes (diabetic group) significantly reduced the number of myosin-V-immunoreactive neurons compared with the normoglycemic group. The diabetic treated with 0.1% vitamin E and diabetic treated with 2% vitamin E groups did not exhibit a greater density than the D group (P>0.05). Nitrergic density did not change with diabetes (P>0.05). The areas of myosin-V- and nNOS-immunoreactive neurons significantly increased in the normoglycemic treated with 2% vitamin E and diabetic groups compared with the normoglycemic group. CONCLUSION: Supplementation with 2% vitamin E had a neurotrophic effect only in the area of myosin-V-immunoreactive neurons compared with the diabetic group.


CONTEXTO: O diabetes mellitus (DM) é uma doença caracterizada pela hiperglicemia que a longo prazo, quando não tratada, desenvolve complicações vasculares e neurológicas, responsáveis pelo desenvolvimento das alterações no sistema nervoso entérico de pacientes diabéticos. Em nível gastrointestinal o DM provoca modificações motoras, sensoriais e na função reflexa desse sistema, podendo ocasionar gastroparesia, diarreia, constipação, megacólon, lentidão do trânsito gastrointestinal, estase e dilatação gástrica com diminuição ou aumento de contrações peristálticas. Diversos estudos têm evidenciado que o estresse oxidativo é o principal responsável pelas complicações vasculares e neurológicas que atingem o sistema nervoso entérico de diabéticos. OBJETIVO: O efeito da vitamina E 0,1% e 2 sobre a miosina-V e nNOS imunorreativas em neurônios do jejuno de ratos diabéticos foram investigados. MÉTODOS: Trinta ratos foram divididos em grupos: normoglicêmicos (NU), normoglicêmicos tratados com vitamina E 0,1% (NE1), normoglicêmicos tratados com vitamina E 2% (NE2), diabético (UD), diabéticos tratados com vitamina E 0,1% (DE1), e diabéticos tratados com vitamina E 2% (DE2). A densidade neuronal e áreas de corpos celulares de neurônios foram determinadas. RESULTADOS: Diabetes (UD grupo) reduziu significativamente o número de neurônios miosina-V imunorreativos quando comparado com o grupo UN. Os grupos DE1 e DE2 não exibem uma maior densidade do que o grupo D (P>0,05). Densidade nitrérgicos não se alterou com diabetes (P>0,05). As áreas dos neurônios miosina-V e nNOS imunorreativos aumentaram significativamente nos grupos NE2 e UD comparados com o grupo UN. CONCLUSÃO: A suplementação com vitamina E 2% teve um efeito neurotrófico apenas na área da miosina-V imunorreativos neurônios em comparação com o grupo UD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Jejunum/innervation , Myenteric Plexus/chemistry , Myosin Type V/analysis , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I/analysis , Vitamin E/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Jejunum/chemistry , Myosin Type V/drug effects , Neurons/chemistry , Neurons/drug effects , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Streptozocin
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-74829

ABSTRACT

Methylmercury is a hazardous substance that is of interest with regard to environmental health, as inorganic mercury circulating in the general environment is dissolved into freshwater and seawater, condensed through the food chain, ingested by humans, and consequently affects human health. Recently, there has been much interest and discussion regarding the toxicity of methylmercury, the correlation with fish and shellfish intake, and methods of long-term management of the human health effects of methylmercury. What effects chronic exposure to a low concentration of methylmercury has on human health remains controversial. Although the possibility of methylmercury poisoning the heart and blood vessel system, the reproductive system, and the immune system is continuously raised and discussed, and the carcinogenicity of methylmercury is also under discussion, a clear conclusion regarding the human health effects according to exposure level has not yet been drawn. The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives proposed to prepare additional fish and shellfish intake recommendations for consumers based on the quantified evaluation of the hazardousness of methylmercury contained in fish and shellfish, methylmercury management in the Korea has not yet caught up with this international trend. Currently, the methylmercury exposure level of Koreans is known to be very high. The starting point of methylmercury exposure management is inorganic mercury in the general environment, but food intake through methylation is the main exposure source. Along with efforts to reduce mercury in the general environment, food intake management should be undertaken to reduce the human exposure to methylmercury in Korea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Environmental Exposure , Fishes/metabolism , Food Chain , Humans , Mercury Poisoning, Nervous System/etiology , Methylmercury Compounds/chemistry , Neurons/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Public Health , Reproduction/drug effects , Thymocytes/cytology
20.
Biol. Res ; 45(4): 357-362, 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-668686

ABSTRACT

Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) occurring in immature brains stimulates the expression of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). Neuroserpin is a selected inhibitor of tPA in the central nerves system. However, the role that neuroserpin plays and the possible mechanisms involved during neonatal HI are poorly defined. In this study, an oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) model was generated with cultured rat cortical neurons mimicking neonatal HI injury ex vivo, and an acute neuronal excitatory injury was induced by exposure to a high concentration of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA). Cells received either neuroserpin or MK-801, an antagonist of the NMDA receptor, during OGD/R, and were incubated with or without neuroserpin after NMDA exposure. Cell viability and morphology were detected by a Cell Counting Kit-8 and immunohistochemical staining, respectively. TPA expression and activity were also assessed. We found that MK-801 alleviated injuries induced by OGD/R, suggesting an excitatory damage involvement. Neuroserpin provided a dose-dependent neuroprotective effect in both OGD/R and acute excitatory injuries by inhibiting the activity of tPA, without affecting neuronal tPA expression. Neuroserpin protected neurons against OGD/R even after a delayed administration of 3h. Collectively, our data indicate that neuroserpin protects neurons against OGD/R. mainly by inhibiting tPA-mediated acute neuronal excitotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/drug therapy , Neuropeptides/therapeutic use , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Serpins/therapeutic use , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals, Newborn , Cell Survival , Dizocilpine Maleate/pharmacology , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/etiology , Immunohistochemistry , N-Methylaspartate , Neurons/drug effects , Neurons/pathology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
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