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1.
Health sci. dis ; 24(1): 17-25, 2023. figures, tables
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1411404

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Les pathologies neurochirurgicales sont un ensemble d'affections qui touche le cerveau, la moelle épinière, et les paires crâniennes nécessitant une prise en charge médico-chirurgicale. Leur incidence en Afrique sub-saharienne et plus particulièrement au Gabon est mal connue. Objectif. Décrire les aspects épidémiologiques et évolutifs des pathologies neurochirurgicales chez l'enfant de moins 5 ans à Libreville. Patients et méthodes. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective descriptive et analytique, multicentrique portant sur des patients de moins de 5ans pris en charge pour une affection neurochirurgicale de Janvier 2019 à Décembre 2021 à Libreville. Résultats. Sur 4811 enfants hospitalisés, 130 répondaient aux critères d'inclusion (prévalence : 2,7%). L'âge moyen était de 13,1 mois. Le sex-ratio était de 1,3. Les grossesses étaient mal suivies dans 72,2% des cas. Les pathologies neurochirurgicales malformatives représentaient 63,5%. L'hydrocéphalie était la plus observée dans 71,2%. Sur les 115 enfants, 71 ont bénéficié d'un traitement chirurgical, soit un taux de 61,7% et le taux de mortalité globale était de 6,1%. Dans le groupe des enfants présentant une malformation congénitale, 8,2% n'avaient pas été traités, le taux de mortalité était de 8,2%. Les complications à court termes étaient dominées par les infections. Conclusion. Les pathologies neurochirurgicales sont en fréquentes dans notre contexte. Une prise en charge immédiate reste de mise, nécessitant donc un plateau technique de pointe pour améliorer l'évolution à court terme voire à moyen et long terme de ces affections.


Introduction. Neurosurgical pathologies are a set of conditions that affect the brain, spinal cord, and cranial pairs requiring medical and surgical management. Their incidence in subSaharan Africa and more particularly in Gabon is poorly known. Objective. To describe the epidemiological and evolutionary aspects of neurosurgical pathologies in children under 5 years old in Libreville. Patients and methods. This is a retrospective descriptive and analytical, multicenter study of patients under 5 years of age treated for a neurosurgical condition from January 2019 to December 2021 in Libreville. Results. Of the 4811 hospitalized children, 130 met the inclusion criteria (prevalence of 2.7%) and 15 were excluded for incomplete records. The average age was 13.1 months. The age group of 28 days-1 year was the most observed. The sex ratio was 1.3. Pregnancies were poorly followed in 72.2% of cases. Malformative neurosurgical pathologies accounted for 63.5% of cases. Hydrocephalus was the most observed in 71.2%. Of the 115 children, 71 received surgical treatment, a rate of 61.7% and the overall mortality rate was 6.1%. In the group of children with congenital malformation, 8.2% had not been treated, the mortality rate was 8.2%. Short-term complications were dominated by infections. Conclusion. Neurosurgical pathologies are frequent in our context. Immediate care remains essential, therefore requiring a cutting-edge technical platform to improve the short-term or even medium- and long-term evolution of these conditions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Spinal Dysraphism , Neurosurgical Procedures , Craniocerebral Trauma , Hydrocephalus , Neurosurgery
2.
rev.cuid. (Bucaramanga. 2010) ; 13(2): 1-12, 20220504.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1402144

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Pacientes neurocirúrgicos apresentam elevado risco de complicações locais e sistêmicas que podem aumentar o tempo de internação e o risco de morte. Este estudo tem como objetivo avaliar a incidência de infecções relacionadas à assistência à saúde e os fatores de risco associados em pacientes submetidos às neurocirurgias. Materiais e métodos: Estudo de coorte prospectiva, realizado em um Hospital de grande porte do estado de Rondônia, no período de 2018 a 2019, incluindo 36 pacientes. Resultados: A incidência de infecções relacionada à assistência à saúde foi 19,4 a cada 100 pacientes (IC95%: 8,19 ­ 36,02). Ter utilizado sonda nasoenteral aumentou em 6,5 vezes o risco de IRAS (IC 95%: 1,26 ­ 33,5), a ventilação mecânica aumentou 5,52 vezes o risco (IC95%: 1,23 ­ 24,6), a presença de traqueostomia aumentou seis vezes (IC95%: 1,34 ­ 26,8) e realização de exame invasivo aumentou o risco em 6,79 para ter infecção (IC95%: 1,31 ­ 35,05). Na análise ajustada as variáveis não apresentaram significância estatística. Discussão: A incidência de infecções foi maior do que em regiões com melhores condições socioeconômicas o que pode estar relacionado à menor adesão de boas práticas na assistência. Conclusão: Nas neurocirurgias além das infecções de sítio cirúrgico outras topografias também devem ser consideradas para investigação de infecção. O uso de dispositivos invasivos foi associado à ocorrência de infecções relacionadas à assistência à saúde, portanto as boas práticas no seu uso são essenciais no momento da indicação e uso destes dispositivos.


Introduction: Neurosurgical patients are at high risk of local and systemic complications that can increase the length of hospital stay and the risk of death. This study aims to assess the incidence of healthcare-associated infections and associated risk factors in patients undergoing neurosurgery. y. Materials and Methods:: Prospective cohort study, carried out in a large hospital in the state of Rondônia, from 2018 to 2019, including 36 patients. Results:The incidence of healthcare-associated infections was 19.4 per 100 patients (95%CI: 8.19 ­ 36.02). Having used a nasoenteral tube increased the risk of HAI by 6.5 times (95% CI: 1.26 ­ 33.5), mechanical ventilation increased the risk by 5.52 times (95% CI: 1.23 ­ 24.6) , the presence of tracheostomy increased six-fold (95%CI: 1.34 ­ 26.8) and performing an invasive examination increased the risk of infection by 6.79 (95%CI: 1.31 ­ 35.05). In the adjusted analysis, the variables did not show statistical significance. Discussion:The incidence of infections was higher than in regions with better socioeconomic conditions, which may be related to lower adherence to good care practices. Conclusions: : In neurosurgery, in addition to surgical site infections, other topographies should also be considered for the investigation of infection. The use of invasive devices was associated with the occurrence of infections related to health care, so good practices in their use are essential when indicating and using these devices.


Introducción:Los pacientes neuroquirúrgicos tienen un alto riesgo de complicaciones locales y sistémicas que pueden aumentar la estancia hospitalaria y el riesgo de muerte. Este estudio tiene como objetivo evaluar la incidencia de infecciones asociadas a la atención médica y los factores de riesgo asociados en pacientes sometidos a neurocirugía. Materiales y métodos: : Estudio de cohorte prospectivo, realizado en un gran hospital del estado de Rondônia, de 2018 a 2019, con 36 pacientes. Resultados: La incidencia de infecciones asociadas a la asistencia sanitaria fue de 19,4 por 100 pacientes (IC95%: 8,19 ­ 36,02). Haber utilizado una sonda nasoenteral aumentó el riesgo de IRAS en 6,5 veces (IC 95%: 1,26 ­ 33,5), la ventilación mecánica aumentó el riesgo en 5,52 veces (IC 95%: 1,23 ­ 24,6), la presencia de traqueotomía aumentó seis veces (IC95%: 1,34 ­ 26,8) y realizar un examen invasivo aumentó el riesgo de infección en 6,79 (IC95%: 1,31 ­ 35,05). En el análisis ajustado, las variables no presentaron significación estadística. Discusión: La incidencia de infecciones fue mayor que en las regiones con mejores condiciones socioeconómicas, lo que puede estar relacionado con una menor adherencia a las buenas prácticas de cuidado. Conclusión: En neurocirugía, además de las infecciones del sitio quirúrgico, también se deben considerar otras topografías para la investigación de la infección. El uso de dispositivos invasivos se asoció con la ocurrencia de infecciones relacionadas con el cuidado de la salud, por lo que las buenas prácticas en su uso son fundamentales a la hora de indicar y utilizar estos dispositivos


Subject(s)
Longitudinal Studies , Medical Care , Neurosurgery
3.
repert. med. cir ; 31(1): 11-19, 2022.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1363855

ABSTRACT

La neuroendoscopia es un procedimiento mínimamente invasivo que se desarrolló a principios del siglo pasado y tiene importancia en el campo de la neurocirugía, representa un método innovador ya que aporta una amplia visualización de las estructuras anatómicas con mínimo traumatismo del tejido nervioso, contribuyendo al diagnóstico y tratamiento de diversas afecciones intra y extracerebral. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica con el propósito de identificar, analizar y describir algunas patologías neuroquirúrgicas que se han tratado bajo neuroendoscopia, así como los aportes más relevantes en cirugía pediátrica y de columna, con el fin de exponer el impacto que ha tenido esta técnica en el desarrollo de la cirugía moderna.


Neuroendoscopy is a minimally-invasive procedure that was developed at the beginning of the last century and plays an important role in neurosurgery. It is an innovative method since it enables a broad visualization of the anatomical structures with minimal damage to the nervous tissue, contributing to the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of intra and extracerebral conditions. A bibliographic search was carried out to identify, analyze and describe some neurological pathologies that have been treated using neuroendoscopic surgery. The most relevant contributions to pediatric and spine surgery are also outlined to show the impact that this technique has had in the progress of modern surgery.


Subject(s)
Neurosurgical Procedures , Neuroendoscopy , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Neurosurgery
4.
African Health Sciences ; 22(3): 512-519, 2022-10-26. Figures, Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1401813

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 pandemic may decrease the quantum of care for patients with neurosurgical conditions. Objectives: To determine outpatient clinic (OPC) patient load, neurosurgical procedures volume and disease spectrum following the institution of a new care protocol during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and compare with previous practice data in our institution. Methods: A monocentric retrospective analysis of all patients requiring neurosurgical care over a 2-year period. Results: There was a 42.4% reduction in OPC attendance and 41.8% reduction in surgical procedures in 2020 compared to 2019. There was >60 percent reduction in the volume of surgery that was done at the onset and peak of the pandemic, but this has normalized in November 2020 despite the resurgence of COVID-19, after the institution of a new care protocol. Neurotrauma procedures (29.6%) were the most common neurosurgical operation in 2020 while congenital malformation surgery (37.3%) was the most common procedure performed in 2019. Conclusions: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic initially led to significant decrease in quantum and spectra of patients who presented at the OPC and for neurosurgical procedures. Instituted local protocol and Teleclinics, if added to clinical care armamentarium, may help to improve on the low patient attendance during pandemics


Subject(s)
Outpatients , Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Neurosurgery , Neurosurgical Procedures , Nigeria
5.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(3): e600, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280183

ABSTRACT

Abstract Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is a rare disease with multi-systemic involvement, predominantly neurological. Little evidence exists about the anesthetic management of patients with this disorder, particularly in pregnant women. This article discusses a case of a patient with TSC admitted to our hospital for the delivery of a twin gestation. Twenty-four hours after surgery, the patient presented left-side facial-brachial hypoesthesia and headache. A brain CT revealed a right frontal cortical bleeding tumor, which was diagnosed as glioblastoma multiforme. The patient was discharged 15 days after admission and a neurosurgical approach was suggested.


Resumen La esclerosis tuberosa es una enfermedad poco frecuente asociada con compromiso multisistémico, principalmente neurológico. Es poca la evidencia sobre el manejo anestésico de los pacientes con este trastorno, en particular las mujeres embarazadas. En este artículo presentamos el caso de una paciente con esclerosis tuberosa ingresada en nuestro hospital para el parto de una gestación gemelar. Veinticuatro horas después de la cirugía, la paciente presentó hipoestesia facial y braquial izquierda y cefalea. La tomografía cerebral mostró un tumor cortical sangrante en el lóbulo frontal derecho, diagnosticado como glioblastoma multiforme. La paciente fue dada de alta 15 días después de su ingreso y, con recomendación de manejo por neurocirugía.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Cesarean Section , Glioblastoma , Headache , Anesthesia, Epidural , Anesthetics , Neurosurgery , Tuberous Sclerosis , Brain , Rare Diseases , Parturition , Hemorrhage , Hospitals , Hypesthesia , Neoplasms , Nervous System Diseases
6.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 37(3): e37305, set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1341553

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: la morbimortalidad permite evaluar la calidad asistencial, outcome y comparar diferentes centros asistenciales. Éste es el primer estudio de morbimortalidad en neurocirugía realizado en Uruguay. Objetivo: determinar la morbimortalidad global y específica en el Departamento de Neurocirugía del Hospital de Clínicas y la asociación entre complicación y morbimortalidad. Metodología: estudio observacional, descriptivo-analítico, longitudinal, retrospectivo de todos los pacientes >15 años que requirieron cirugía entre abril de 2017 y abril de 2019. Los datos se obtuvieron de historias clínicas y se analizaron las siguientes variables: edad, sexo, comorbilidad, clínica, diagnóstico, oportunidad quirúrgica, complicación, tipo de complicación, mortalidad, causa de mortalidad, outcome y tiempo quirúrgico. Resultados: 477 pacientes fueron intervenidos, 72 complicados. La mortalidad global fue 5,5% (26/477) y la morbilidad 15% (72/477). 36% de los pacientes complicados fallecieron (26/72). La patología vascular fue la morbilidad específica que más se complicó (20%, 14/69). La infección fue el tipo de complicación más frecuente (46%, 39/84). La propia evolución de la enfermedad y el terreno causó la muerte del 90% de los pacientes complicados operados de urgencia (19/21), siendo ésta última factor de riesgo independiente de fallecer (p=0,018). En coordinaciones, la causa de muerte estuvo vinculada al acto quirúrgico (80%). Hubo asociación entre patología vascular y morbimortalidad (p=0,015) y entre complicación isquémica y morbimortalidad (p=0,024). La presencia de hipertensión endocraneana (HEC) se asoció a un mal resultado (p=0,003). Conclusiones: los resultados muestran una buena calidad de atención comparado con otros centros. Aún existen aspectos a corregir para reducir la morbimortalidad.


Abstract: Introduction: morbidity and mortality rates allow for the evaluation of the quality of care and outcome and they also make it possible to compare different healthcare centers. This is the first morbidity and mortality study in neurosurgery carried out in Uruguay. Objective: to determine the global and specific morbidity and mortality rates in the Neurosurgery Department at the Clínicas University Hospital, and to determine if mortality and morbidity are associated to surgical complications. Method: retrospective, longitudinal, observational and descriptive analysis of all patients >15 years old that underwent a neurosurgical procedure between April 2017 and 2019. Data were obtained from patient medical records. The following variables were analyzed: age, sex, comorbidity, clinical data, diagnosis, opportunity of surgical procedure, complications, type of complication, mortality, cause of mortality, outcome and surgical time. Results: 477 patients underwent neurosurgical procedure, 72 of which were complicated surgeries. Overall mortality was 5.5% (26/477) and morbidity 15% (72/477). 36% of complicated patients died (26/72). Vascular pathology was the specific morbidity that complicated patients the most 20% (14/69). Infection was the most frequent type of complication 46% (39/84). The evolution of the disease itself and the terrain caused the death of 90% of complicated patients undergoing emergency surgery (19/21), being the latter an independent risk factor for death (p = 0.018). As to coordinated surgeries, the cause of death was associated to the surgical act (80%). Association was found between vascular pathology and morbidity and mortality (p = 0.015) and between ischemic complication and morbidity and mortality (p = 0.024). The presence of intracranial hypertension (IH) was associated with a bad outcome (p= 0.003). Conclusions: the results show a good quality of care compared to other centers. There are still aspects to correct to reduce morbidity and mortality rates.


Resumo: Introdução: a análise da morbimortalidade permite avaliar a qualidade do atendimento e dos resultados e comparar diferentes centros de saúde. Este é o primeiro estudo de morbimortalidade em neurocirurgia realizado no Uruguai. Objetivo: determinar a morbimortalidade global e específica no Departamento de Neurocirurgia do Hospital de Clínicas e a associação entre complicação e morbimortalidade. Metodologia: estudo observacional, descritivo-analítico, longitudinal, retrospectivo de todos os pacientes >15 anos que necessitaram de cirurgia entre abril de 2017 e 2019. Os dados foram obtidos dos prontuários dos pacientes e as variáveis analisadas foram: idade, sexo, comorbidade, aspectos clínicos, diagnóstico, oportunidade cirúrgica, complicação, tipo de complicação, mortalidade, causa da mortalidade, resultado e tempo cirúrgico. Resultados: 477 pacientes foram operados dos quais 72 apresentaram complicações. A mortalidade geral foi de 5,5% (26/477) e a morbidade de 15% (72/477). 36% dos pacientes com complicações morreram (26/72). A patologia vascular foi a causa específica de mortalidademorbidade específica mais freqüente 20% (14/69). A infecção foi o tipo de complicação mais freqüente 46% (39/84). A evolução da própria doença e do local da cirurgia ocasionou a morte de 90% dos pacientes com complicações submetidas a cirurgias de urgência (19/21), sendo este último fator de risco independente para óbito (p = 0,018). Nas cirurgias eletivas, a causa da morte esteve ligada ao ato cirúrgico (80%). Houve associação entre patologia vascular e morbimortalidade (p = 0,015) e entre complicação isquêmica e morbimortalidade (p = 0,024). A presença de hipertensão intracraniana (HEC) foi associada a um desfecho ruim (p = 0,003). Conclusões: os resultados mostram uma boa qualidade de atendimento em comparação com outros centros. Ainda há aspectos a serem corrigidos para reduzir a morbimortalidade.


Subject(s)
Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Hospitals, University , Neurosurgery/statistics & numerical data , Quality of Health Care
7.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 28(3): 709-725, jul.-set. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339970

ABSTRACT

Resumen Entre 1935 y 1950 aconteció la introducción y desarrollo de la neurología en México. Esto se dio por medio de dos vías: el arribo de los neurocientíficos españoles a México tras su exilio provocado por la Guerra Civil; y la presencia de médicos mexicanos que salieron a especializarse en neurocirugía a EEUU. Se discuten algunas posiciones historiográficas que hablan de la importancia de los españoles exiliados en este acontecer, pero que no han expuesto el relevante papel de los nativos en el surgimiento de la neurología mexicana. Se afirma la existencia de un proceso de integración de ambas partes, donde los nativos buscaron satisfacer necesidades asistenciales mientras que los exiliados tuvieron que encontrar y crear espacios dónde insertarse.


Abstract Between 1935 and 1950 the neurology was presented and developed in Mexico. It happened by two ways: the arrival of Spanish neuroscience researchers in Mexico exiled due the Civil War; and the presence of Mexican doctors that had specialized in neurosurgery in the United States. The article discusses historiographic points of view that stress the importance of the Spanish exiled doctors, but neglect the important role of native doctors in the emergence of Mexican neurology. It states that there was an integration process by both parts, where Mexicans tried to satisfy care needs while the Spanish had to find or create working spaces to belong to.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 20th Century , Physicians/history , Neurology/history , Neurosurgery/history , Spain , Emigrants and Immigrants/history , Neurologists/history , Mexico
8.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 35(2): 172-176, jun. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1398693

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de esta publicación es crear las condiciones para el otorgamiento del premio "Maestro de la Neurocirugía". Para el reconocimiento de una persona, se tienen en cuenta la relevancia de sus acciones en virtud de sus aportes a una organización. El respeto que nos brinda el reconocimiento es lo que nos aumenta la autoestima. Para el reconocimiento laboral no alcanza con un simple agradecimiento. Es necesario crear un espacio en donde cada uno pueda desarrollar sus intereses y alcanzar sus objetivos, y poner a disposición todo lo necesario para facilitar y simplificar el trabajo. El propósito del reconocimiento como maestro es el de destacar una trayectoria vital en el ejercicio de una especialidad médica. El premio sería una recompensa dada por algún mérito o servicio para resaltar aquellos valores que permitieron el desarrollo de la especialidad, reconocer su compromiso, distinguir al esfuerzo realizado en la formación del recurso humano y valorar los logros técnico-científicos


The objective of this publication is to create the conditions for the award "Master of Neurosurgery". For the recognition of a person, the relevance of their actions by virtue of their contributions to an organization are taken into account. The respect that recognition gives us is what increases our self-esteem. For job recognition, a simple thank you is not enough. It is necessary to create a space where everyone can develop their interests and achieve their objectives and make available everything necessary to facilitate and simplify the work. The purpose recognition as master is to highlight a vital career in the practice of a medical specialty. The award would be a reward given for some merit or service, to highlight those values that allowed the development of the specialty, recognize their commitment, distinguish the effort made in the training of human resources and value technical-scientific achievements


Subject(s)
Organizations , Awards and Prizes , Neurosurgery
9.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 35(2): 273, jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1398834

ABSTRACT

El reconocimiento de los puntos craneométricos, giros y surcos cerebrales es esencial para la localización de lesio-nes, tanto superficiales como profundas, y programar es-trategias quirúrgicas que impacten en la óptima evolución de nuestros pacientes. Si bien estas destrezas y aptitudes son posibles de adquirir a través del estudio de especíme-nes anatómicos formolizados y de imágenes de resonan-cia magnética, en un escenario quirúrgico real, esto no es tan simple. Al exponer la superficie cerebral, existen va-riaciones anatómicas de los giros y surcos que, a su vez, se encuentran cubiertos de venas y aracnoides con líquido cefalorraquídeo. El desarrollo de los corredores microqui-rúrgicos trans-cisternales, trans-surcales y a través de las fisuras exige el reconocimiento preciso de estas estructu-ras anatómicas


Subject(s)
Cerebrum , Cerebral Cortex , Neurosurgery
10.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 50(2): e940, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341434

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El hematoma subdural crónico es una de las entidades clínicas más comunes en la práctica neuroquirúrgica diaria, cuya incidencia y prevalencia aumentan considerablemente con la edad. El tratamiento conservador puede ser muy útil en algunos casos. Objetivo: Mostrar que el manejo farmacológico exclusivo de este padecimiento, puede ser considerado en muchos pacientes. Casos clínicos: Se presentan dos pacientes adultos mayores, atendidos en el servicio de Neurocirugía, con diagnóstico de hematoma subdural crónico, tratados solo con fármacos. Conclusiones: Como resultado final, se logró la reabsorción de las colecciones subdurales, lo cual se comprobó mediante estudios imagenológicos(AU)


Introduction: Chronic subdural hematoma is one of the most common clinical entities in everyday neurosurgical practice, which incidence and prevalence increase considerably with age. Conservative treatment can be very useful in many patients. Objective: To show that the exclusive pharmacological management of this condition can be considered in many patients. Clinical cases: Two elderly patients attended at the neurosurgery service are presented with a diagnosis of chronic subdural hematoma. They were treated only with drugs. Conclusions: The final result was the reabsorption of the subdural collections, which was proven by imaging studies(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Hematoma, Subdural, Chronic , Conservative Treatment , International Cooperation , Neurosurgery
11.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 35(1): 12-27, mar. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1397339

ABSTRACT

Las lesiones selares son una patología con una incidencia de 3,2 a 4 / 100,000 y una prevalencia de 78 a 94 / 100,000. Un 10% son incidentalomas en la población adulta. Se cree que su prevalencia en el orden mundial actualmente va en aumento.En relación a las manifestaciones clínicas, cabe destacar que es una de las pocas enfermedades que pueden manifestarse tanto por signos y síntomas neurológicos (por ejemplo: hemianopsia bitemporal, síndrome de hipertensión endocraneana debido a hidrocefalia, entre otros), como también por síndromes endocrinológicos (por ejemplo: síndrome de Cushing, acromegalia, amenorrea-galactorrea, infertilidad).Todo paciente debe presentar un estudio clínico-radiológico completo, lo que permitirá un correcto diagnóstico y categorización del mismo.El objetivo del presente trabajo es proporcionar al neurocirujano en formación los conceptos claves que servirán de sustento para el manejo preoperatorio de un paciente con adenoma hipofisario.


Sellar lesions are a pathology with an incidence of 3.2 to 4 / 100.000 and a prevalence of 78 to 94 / 100.000. Normally, 10% of them are incidentalomas and adult patients are in the highest risk group. Because it ́s prevalence in the world is currently increasing, it is of extremely importance to study and understand this pathology. In relation to the clinical manifestations, it should be noted that it is one of the few diseases that can manifest through neurological signs and symptoms like bitemporal hemianopsia, endocranial hypertension syndrome due to hydrocephalus, as well as endocrinological syndromes like Cushing's, acromegaly, amenorrhea-galactorrhea and infertility. One of the most important things to notice is that the treatment success in this pathology comes with the correct diagnosis and characterization of it, for what all patients should have a complete clinical-radiological evaluation.In this study, we establish a guide with concepts and key tools to support the medical personal during a pre-surgical preparation of patients with pituitary adenoma.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , Pituitary Neoplasms , Prolactin , Growth Hormone , Hydrocephalus , Neurologic Manifestations , Neurosurgery
12.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 35(1): 28-32, mar. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1397351

ABSTRACT

El reflejo de Bezold Jarisch es un reflejo cardioinhibitorio que juega un papel en la homeostasis cardiovascular. Consiste en la triada dada por hipotensión, bradicardia y vasodilatación periférica que puede ser desencadenada tanto por estímulos mecánicos, como químicos. Se considera que el mecanismo eferente contrarresta e inhibe los efectos del influjo simpático y, por el contrario, activa los efectos producidos por el sistema parasimpático. Durante la cirugía neurológica, la disminución de la presión intracraneal posterior a la extracción de colgajo óseo en la craneotomía, el uso de medicamentos osmóticos para disminuir el edema cerebral e incluso la posición del paciente durante el procedimiento suponen situaciones más propensas a la aparición del reflejo.


The Bezold Jarisch reflex is a cardioinhibitory reflex that plays a role in cardiovascular homeostasis. It consists of a triad given by hypotension, bradycardia, and peripheral vasodilation that can be triggered by both mechanical and chemical stimuli. The efferent counteracting mechanism is considered to inhibit the effects of sympathetic influx and, conversely, activates the effects produced by the parasympathetic system. During neurological surgery, the decrease in intracranial pressure after bone flap extraction in the craniotomy, the use of osmotic medications to decrease cerebral edema and even the position of the patient during the procedure supposes situations more prone to reflex appearance


Subject(s)
Reflex , Brain Edema , Intracranial Pressure , Craniotomy , Neurosurgery
13.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 35(1): 53-58, mar. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1397663

ABSTRACT

Los diagnósticos diferenciales de una lesión única intraparenquimatosa cerebral con borde en anillo son múltiples, desde un proceso infeccioso parasitario hasta una neoplasia primaria del sistema nervioso, por lo que su manejo puede ser controversial y debe tenerse en cuenta la prevalencia epidemiológica según la situación demográfica donde se presente. De esta manera, presentamos el caso de una paciente adulta joven que ingresó al servicio de neurocirugía con sintomatología focal sensitiva asociado a cefalea intermitente, con una TC de encéfalo que reveló una lesión subcortical localizada en la parte superior del giro postcentral izquierdo con edema perilesional importante y realce periférico tras contraste. Se realizaron pruebas de serología en suero y LCR para neuroparásitos, las cuales se reportaron negativas. Se procedió a realizar exéresis completa de la lesión con uso de ecografía intraoperatoria para minimizar tiempo quirúrgico y área de lesión cortical, la cual se envió a estudio de histopatología y reportó el diagnóstico de neurocisticercosis en estadio nodular granulomatoso. Se realiza el presente reporte de caso con una búsqueda exhaustiva en la literatura sobre la sensibilidad y utilidad de las pruebas de serología parasitaria para la confirmación diagnóstica de la neurocisticercosis y para evitar intervenciones neuroquirúrgicas invasivas


The differential diagnoses of single, ring-enhancing brain lesions are multiple, from a parasitic infection to a primary tumor of the central nervous system, therefore, the management of these lesions can be controversial, and the epidemiological prevalence must be taken into account according the demographic situation of the patient. We present the case of a young adult female who was admitted to the neurosurgery service, debuting sensory focal symptoms associated with headache. Brain CT and MRI revealed a subcortical cyst-like lesion in the left superior postcentral gyrus, with large perilesional edema and peripheral enhancement following contrast administration. Serological test for CNS parasites in serum and CSF were negative. Consequently, we realized a complete removal of the cyst with intraoperative ultrasound to optimize the surgical time and the cortical surgical area. The histopathological examination revealed a degenerating cysticercus. For this reason, a bibliographic research was carried out to identify the sensitivity of serological tests for the diagnostic confirmation of neurocysticercosis and thus avoid invasive neurosurgical interventions


Subject(s)
Neurocysticercosis , Parasites , Brain , Central Nervous System , Sensitivity and Specificity , Cysticercus , Neurosurgery
14.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 35(1): 59-63, mar. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1397688

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El entrenamiento y la cuidadosa planificación preoperatoria son importantes para el éxito de cualquier procedimiento neuroquirúrgico. Un modelo 3D de una lesión en base de cráneo ha probado ser de especial utilidad en evidenciar la disposición espacial específica del tumor, y sus relaciones, agregando factores que optimizan la planificación quirúrgica. Objetivos: Emular la práctica de Impresión 3D en nuestro medio y analizar su utilidad para la planificación quirúrgica. Presentación del caso: Paciente femenino de 41 años que concurre a la consulta por trastornos endócrinos, campimétricos y cefalea. Al examen paciente estaba lúcida, con pupilas intermedias hipo reactivas, hemianopsia bitemporal, movilizando 4 miembros sin déficit. En RM de cerebro se observa lesión espacio ocupante selar-supraselar con aspecto multilobulado, que invade cisterna interpeduncular y desplaza estructuras del tercer ventrículo. Intervención: La paciente fue sometida a cirugía resectiva por abordaje subfrontal, logrando resección macroscópica completa. Evolucionando posteriormente con GOS 5. Conclusión: La realización de modelos en impresión 3D provee importantes perspectivas para el abordaje a la lesión y constituyen una importante herramienta de bajo costo para neurocirujanos en formación. Destacamos la importancia de la interdisciplinariedad para el arribo a resultados favorables.


Introduction: Effective surgical training and careful preoperative planning are important for success in neurosurgical procedures. As a 3D printed skull base lesion model shows the specific spatial arrangement of a tumor, and its anatomical relations, we believe it could play an important role in surgical planning. Objectives: Emulate the practice of 3D Printing in our environment and analyze its usefulness for surgical planning. Case presentation: 41-year-old female patient who attends the consultation for endocrine, visual field disorders and headache. On examination, the patient was lucid, with hypo reactive intermediate pupils, bitemporal hemianopia, mobilizing 4 extremities without deficit. In MRI of the brain, a selar-suprasellar space-occupying lesion with a multilobed appearance is observed, which invades the interpeduncular cistern and displaces structures of the third ventricle. Intervention: The patient underwent resective surgery through a subfrontal approach, achieving complete macroscopic resection. Evolving later with GOS 5 Conclusion: 3D printing models provide to us important of perspectives for the approach to the lesion and constitute an important low-cost tool for neurosurgeons in training. We highlight the importance of interdisciplinarity for the arrival of favorable results.


Subject(s)
Female , Neoplasms , Skull , Skull Base , Neurosurgical Procedures , Planning , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Neurosurgeons , Neurosurgery
15.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 35(1): 95-95, mar. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1397846

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: describir la nueva técnica de callosotomía posterior utilizada en cirugía de epilepsia, junto a sus indicaciones, ventajas comparativas y sus resultados. Métodos: se muestran en secuencias de video dos casos de callosotomía posterior, en pacientes con epilepsia refractaria severa, con crisis tipo "drop attacks" (pérdida súbita del tono postural), presentando traumatismos a repetición, con potencial riesgo de vida. Ambos pacientes, una mujer de 35 años y un varón de 24 años de edad, presentaban una malformación congénita del desarrollo cortical denominada doble corteza. Un caso fue operado en posición semisentada, con abordaje parafalcino derecho, el segundo en decúbito ventral, con abordaje parafalcino izquierdo. Se realizó una incisión vertical parasagital de 7cm, a 2 cm de la línea media, con límite inferior en el inion y superior en la unión de la sutura sagital y lambdoidea. Se realizó una craneotomía de 5 x 5cm, exponiendo el seno longitudinal superior. La anatomía venosa de la región permite sin inconvenientes el desplazamiento lateral occipito-parietal. Se realizó una callosotomía que incluyó esplenio y cuerpo llegando anteriormente al sector que une ambas áreas motoras suplementarias. Resultados: no se presentaron complicaciones postoperatorias. El síndrome de desconexión apareció en un caso, desapareciendo en un periodo de 2 semanas. Se obtuvo una reducción del 90% de crisis, mejorando la calidad de vida y otorgando un mayor grado de independencia a ambos pacientes. Conclusión: la callosotomía posterior es un procedimiento seguro, poco invasivo y altamente efectivo contra las crisis de drop attacks en epilepsias refractarias


Objective: to describe the new technique of posterior callosotomy applied to epilepsy surgery, including its indication, comparative advantages and results. Methods: two surgical cases are presented on video sequences, including patients with refractory epilepsy, with "drop attack" type seizures (loss of postural tone), presenting with recurring trauma and a potential life risk. Both patients, a 35 years-old woman and a 24 years-old man suffered from a congenital malformation of cortical development known as double cortex. One of the cases was operated in a semi-sitting position, trough a right parafalcine approach, and the other one in a prone position trough a left parafalcine approach. A 7cm parasagittal vertical incision, 2cm lateral to midline was performed, considering its upper limit at the union of the lambdoid and parasagittal suture, and its lower limit at the inion. A craniotomy of 4 by 4cm was performed, exposing the superior sagittal sinus. The venous regional anatomy allows an easy parieto-occipital lateral retraction. The callosotomy included the splenium and the body reaching anteriorly up to the region where we find both supplementary motor areas. Results: no postoperative complications were found. One case presented with a disconnection syndrome, resolving in 2 weeks. A 90% reduction of the seizure frequency was achieved, improving the quality of life and the degree of Independence of the patients. Conclusions: posterior callosotomy is a safe, less invasive and highly effective procedure against drop attack type seizures in refractory Epilepsy


Subject(s)
Epilepsy , General Surgery , Neurosurgery
16.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021321, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285419

ABSTRACT

Erdheim-Chester disease is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) that affects different body systems. It was recently recognized as a neoplastic disorder after identifying an activating mutation of the MAPK pathway. Neurological presentations of ECD are rare. We present a case of a 35-year-old male who presented to the emergency department with neck pain, headache and vomiting for 2 months; MRI showed multiple heterogeneous intracranial masses. Neurosurgery performed a suboccipital craniotomy, partially resected the cerebellar mass, and placed a parietal to frontal shunt catheter. Biopsy results from the cerebellar mass demonstrated cerebellar tissue involved by a diffuse proliferation of foamy histiocytes and spindle cells admixed with prominent lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate and positive for CD68, CD163, Factor XIIIa and Fascin. PET scan showed hypermetabolic uptake within the medullary portions of the diffuse abnormal lesions of the distal femurs, tibias, and fibulas, and cardiac MRI was nonsignificant. The patient was started on vemurafenib and continued to show improvement in a 3-month outpatient follow-up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Erdheim-Chester Disease/pathology , Neurosurgery
17.
Rev. Méd. Paraná ; 79(1): 94-96, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282490

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de relatar um caso de edema pulmonar de etiologia neurogênica (EPN), que ocorreu nos pós-operatório imediato (POI) de uma neurocirurgia (pós-clipagem de aneurisma intracraniano). O controle adequado no POI deste edema pode ser difícil, e seu tratamento é diferente do edema pulmonar de origem cardiogênica. Houve maior tempo de internamento (tanto da UTI como hospitalar) pela própria característica do edema e as complicações resultantes que ocorreram. O paciente permaneceu na UTI por 154 dias, com vários episódios de sepse. A sua alta hospitalar foi possível, mas à custa de cuidados pós-hospitalares assistenciais


The aim of this work was to describe a case with pulmonary edema of neuronic ethnology (NPE) that occurred in the immediate postoperative period of a neurosurgery (clipping a cerebral aneurysm). The proper identification of this event can be difficult in he immediate postoperative care, and the its treatment is different from the cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Longer hospital stay (both ICU and hospital) by the very characteristic of the edema and the complications that occurred. The patient stayed at the ICU for 154 days, with multiple cases of sepsis. His hospital discharge was possible, but at the expense of post-hospital care


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Edema , Respiratory Insufficiency , Neurosurgery
18.
Ciênc. cuid. saúde ; 20: e55208, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1339617

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: analisar os fatores associados às internações hospitalares de longa permanência de pacientes atendidos pelo Sistema Único de Saúde em instituição de alta complexidade. Método: estudo transversal quantitativo a partir de dados secundários de internações hospitalares de 2013 a 2015. Calculou-se a razão de prevalência por Regressão de Poisson bruta e ajustada. Resultados: das 12.689 internações nos anos de estudo, 645 foram de longa permanência (>30 dias), com uma prevalência de 5,1%. Predominaram entre o sexo masculino (62%), > 60 anos de idade (52,6%). As causas mais frequentes da hospitalização foram doenças do aparelho circulatório (33,5%) e causas externas (22,3%). O óbito ocorreu para 45,6%. Na análise bivariada, estiveram estatisticamente associadas às internações de longa permanência as variáveis: sexo, idade (60 anos e mais) o baixo ou a não escolaridade dos indivíduos, ser da 17ª regional de saúde, ter sido internado na especialidade neurocirurgia e ter necessitado de internação em UTI. No entanto, permaneceram no modelo final sexo masculino, residir na regional de saúde do município em análise e ter necessitado de internação em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva. (p<0,001). Conclusão: Estratégias de promoção da saúde voltadas à saúde do homem devem ser desenvolvidas pelo município, especialmente considerando que os mesmos são os que mais perdem a vida pela ausência de cuidados com a saúde e em decorrência dos agravos resultantes de causas externas.


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar los factores asociados a las internaciones hospitalarias de larga estancia de pacientes atendidos por el Sistema Único de Salud en institución de alta complejidad. Método: estudio transversal cuantitativo a partir de datos secundarios de internaciones hospitalarias de 2013 a 2015. Se calculó la razón de prevalencia por Regresión de Poisson bruta y ajustada. Resultados: de las 12.689 internaciones en los años de estudio, 645 fueron de larga permanencia (>30 días), con una prevalencia de 5,1%. Predominaron entre el sexo masculino (62%), > 60 años de edad (52,6%). Las causas más frecuentes de la hospitalización fueron enfermedades del sistema circulatorio (33,5%) y causas externas (22,3%). El óbito ocurrió para 45,6%. En el análisis bivariado, estuvieron estadísticamente asociadas a las internaciones de larga estancia las variables: sexo, edad (60 años y más) la baja o la no escolaridad de los individuos, ser de la 17ª regional de salud, haber sido internado en la especialidad neurocirugía y haber necesitado de internación en UCI. Sin embargo, permanecieron en el modelo final sexo masculino, residir en la regional de salud del municipio en análisis y haber necesitado de internación en Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. (p<0,001). Conclusión: Estrategias de promoción de la salud dirigidas a la salud del hombre deben ser desarrolladas por el municipio, especialmente considerando que los hombres son los que más pierden la vida por la ausencia de cuidados con la salud y en consecuencia de los agravios resultantes de causas externas.


ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the factors associated with long-term hospitalizations of patients treated by the Unified Health System in a highly complex institution. Method: it is a quantitative cross-sectional study based on secondary data on hospital admissions from 2013 to 2015. The prevalence ratio was calculated using crude and adjusted Poisson regression. Results: about the 12,689 hospitalizations during the years of study, 645 were long hospital stay (>30 days), with a prevalence of 5.1%. There was a predominance of males (62%),> 60 years-old (52.6%). The most frequent causes of hospitalization were diseases of the circulatory system (33.5%) and external causes (22.3%). Death occurred to 45.6%. In the bivariate analysis, the following variables were statistically associated with long-term hospitalizations: gender, age (60 years-old and over), low or uneducated individuals, being from the 17th Regional Health Department, having been admitted to the neurosurgery specialty and having needing ICU admission. However, the male gender remained in the final model, staying in the regional health department of the municipality under analysis and requiring admission to the Intensive Care Unit (p <0.001). Conclusion: Health promotion strategies aimed at men's health should be developed by the municipality, especially considering that they are the ones who most lose their lives due to the lack of health care and due to injuries resulting from external causes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Long-Term Care , Hospitalization , Length of Stay , Patients , Bed Occupancy , Unified Health System , Mortality , Death , Delivery of Health Care , Empathy , Men's Health , Health Promotion , Hospitals , Intensive Care Units , Men , Neurosurgery
19.
Clinics ; 76: e2284, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153994

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Bacterial and aseptic meningitis after neurosurgery can present similar clinical signs and symptoms. The aims of this study were to develop and test a molecular method to diagnose bacterial meningitis (BM) after neurosurgery. METHODS: A 16S ribosomal RNA gene PCR-based strategy was developed using artificially inoculated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) followed by sequencing. The method was tested using CSF samples from 43 patients who had undergone neurosurgery and were suspected to suffer from meningitis, and from 8 patients without neurosurgery or meningitis. Patients were classified into five groups, confirmed BM, probable BM, possible BM, unlikely BM, and no meningitis. RESULTS: Among the samples from the 51 patients, 21 samples (41%) were culture-negative and PCR-positive. Of these, 3 (14%) were probable BM, 4 (19%) were possible BM, 13 (62%) were unlikely BM, and 1 (5%) was meningitis negative. Enterobacterales, non-fermenters (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii), Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Granulicatella, Variovorax, and Enterococcus cecorum could be identified. In the group of patients with meningitis, a good agreement (3 of 4) was observed with the results of cultures, including the identification of species. CONCLUSION: Molecular methods may complement the diagnosis, guide treatment, and identify non-cultivable microorganisms. We suggest the association of methods for suspected cases of BM after neurosurgery, especially for instances in which the culture is negative.


Subject(s)
Humans , Meningitis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Neurosurgery , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Enterococcus
20.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 562-574, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888749

ABSTRACT

The protection of language function is one of the major challenges of brain surgery. Over the past century, neurosurgeons have attempted to seek the optimal strategy for the preoperative and intraoperative identification of language-related brain regions. Neurosurgeons have investigated the neural mechanism of language, developed neurolinguistics theory, and provided unique evidence to further understand the neural basis of language functions by using intraoperative cortical and subcortical electrical stimulation. With the emergence of modern neuroscience techniques and dramatic advances in language models over the last 25 years, novel language mapping methods have been applied in the neurosurgical practice to help neurosurgeons protect the brain and reduce morbidity. The rapid advancements in brain-computer interface have provided the perfect platform for the combination of neurosurgery and neurolinguistics. In this review, the history of neurolinguistics models, advancements in modern technology, role of neurosurgery in language mapping, and modern language mapping methods (including noninvasive neuroimaging techniques and invasive cortical electroencephalogram) are presented.


Subject(s)
Brain Mapping , Brain Neoplasms , Humans , Language , Neurosurgery , Neurosurgical Procedures
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