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2.
Clinics ; 76: e2498, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153964

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of sorafenib in elderly patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: We analyzed data from a cohort of patients with advanced HCC treated using systemic treatment according to the local institutional protocol. Patients were divided into two groups, Group A, individuals <70 years of age, and Group B, individuals 70 years of age or older at the time of treatment initiation. Efficacy, measured based on overall survival (OS) and time to treatment failure (TTF), and toxicity were compared between groups. RESULTS: A total of 238 patients with advanced HCC who received sorafenib between 2007 and 2018 were evaluated. The median age for Group A was 59.1 years and that for Group B 73.6 years. The major prognostic characteristics were balanced between the groups. There were no significant differences in OS between Group A (8.0 months, 95%CI 6.34-9.3) and Group B (9.0 months, 95%CI 5.38-12.62), p=0.433, or in TTF between Group A (3.0 months, 95%CI 2.39-3.60) and Group B (3.0 months, 95%CI 1.68-4.32), p=0.936. There were no significant differences between Groups A and B with respect to the incidence of adverse events or treatment discontinuation because of toxicity. CONCLUSION: Efficacy and safety of sorafenib did not differ significantly between younger and older patients with HCC. Our data suggest that age alone should not restrict clinical decision-making for patients with advanced HCC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Phenylurea Compounds/adverse effects , Prognosis , Niacinamide/adverse effects , Sorafenib/adverse effects
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876397

ABSTRACT

@#Background: Niacinamide is known for its anti-inflammatory effect and skin penetration capability. Currently, limited studies are available on its efficacy on psoriasis. Objective: This study aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of 4% niacinamide cream on mild to moderate psoriasis. Methods: 40 patients were randomly allocated to 4% niacinamide cream (N), or 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide cream (TAC) or 4% niacinamide cream and 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide cream (N-TAC) for 10 weeks treatment. A 50% improvement in psoriasis area severity index (PASI50) was considered as the primary endpoint of the study. Secondary outcome measures were physician global assessment (PGA), dermatology life quality index (DLQI), and adverse events. PASI and PGA were assessed biweekly. DLQI was assessed at the start and at the end of the study period. Results: PASI50 was achieved in 85% of patients in N-TAC, 75% of patients in TAC and 15% of patients in N. There was no statistical significant difference between groups TAC and N-TAC (p=0.645, Fisher’s exact test). A higher number of patients in N-TAC (31%) achieved PGA1 score or “almost clear” and reached PASI50 earlier (60% at week 4). A higher improvement in DLQI score was seen in N-TAC; however, mean DLQI improvement did not vary by treatment group (p=0.0770). No adverse event was reported for groups TAC and N-TAC while pruritus and erythema were noted in N. Conclusion: Monotherapy of 4% niacinamide cream was not effective in the treatment of mild to moderate psoriasis. The combination N-TAC showed a continuous and sustained improvement of lesions compared to monotherapy TAC.


Subject(s)
Triamcinolone Acetonide , Niacinamide , Psoriasis
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880773

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the effects of medical ozone oil and urea ointment for prevention and treatment of hand-foot skin reaction (HFSR) caused by sorafenib in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).@*METHODS@#A total of 99 patients diagnosed with advanced HCC according to National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) who were scheduled to receive sorafenib treatment for the first time were enrolled in this study between April, 2018 and January, 2020. The patients were randomized into medical ozone oil group (@*RESULTS@#Eight patients were excluded for poor compliance or protocol violations, leaving a total of 91 patients for analysis, including 44 in medical ozone oil group and 47 in urea ointment group. Sixteen (36.4%) of patients in ozone oil group developed HFSR, a rate significantly lower than that in urea ointment group (57.4%; @*CONCLUSIONS@#Medical ozone oil can significantly reduce the incidence and severity of HFSR to improve the quality of life of HCC patients receiving sorafenib treatment.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Hand-Foot Syndrome/prevention & control , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Niacinamide/therapeutic use , Ozone/therapeutic use , Phenylurea Compounds/adverse effects , Quality of Life , Sorafenib/therapeutic use
6.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 135 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049441

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A suplementação com ácido fólico (AF) é recomendada em algumas condições para evitar a deficiência de folato, como para mulheres no período periconcepcional e durante a gestação. Atualmente, existe uma preocupação quanto ao consumo excessivo de AF pela população pelo uso de suplementos com altas doses dessa vitamina. As vitaminas B6 e B2 agem como cofatores no metabolismo de um carbono, e o uso de altas doses de AF pode influenciar o metabolismo de ambas vitaminas e, consequentemente, interferir em metabolismos importantes das quais elas participam, como a via das quinureninas, e no sistema imune. Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos da intervenção diária com uma alta dose de AF (5 mg) por 90 dias sobre marcadores do estado das vitaminas do complexo B, e as consequências sobre os metabólitos da via das quinureninas e o sistema imune em adultos saudáveis. Material e Métodos: 64 indivíduos saudáveis foram submetidos à intervenção diária com 5 mg de AF por 90 dias. Coletas de sangue foram realizadas antes (baseline) e após 45 e 90 dias de intervenção. As concentrações séricas de folato e vitamina B12 foram avaliadas por métodos microbiológicos. As concentrações séricas das vitaminas B6 (piridoxal 5'-fosfato (PLP), piridoxal (PL) e ácido 4-piridóxico (PA)), B2 (riboflavina e flavina mononucleotídeo (FMN)), B1 (tiamina e tiamina monofosfato (TMP)) e B3 (ácido nicotínico, nicotinamida e N1-metilnicotinamida), bem como de triptofano, quinurenina e metabólitos, foram avaliadas por LC-MS/MS. A proteína C-reativa ultrassensível (PCRus) foi determinada por imunoturbidimetria, e as concentrações séricas de interleucina (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon gama (IFN-γ) e fator de necrose tumoral alfa (TNF-α) foram avaliadas por ensaio multiplex. A expressão de RNAm de DHFR (dihidrofolato redutase), MTHFR (metilenotetrahidrofolato redutase), IL8, TNFA e IFNG em leucócitos mononucleares (PBMC) foram avaliadas por PCR em tempo real. O número de células T regulatórias (Treg) (CD3+, CD4+, CD25high, FoxP3+, CD127-) foi avaliado após incubação dos PBMC com PMA e ionomicina ou veículo por 18h, por imunofenotipagem. Resultados: Houve um grande aumento das concentrações de folato sérico após 45 e 90 dias de intervenção com AF. Não houve diferença nas concentrações de vitamina B12 antes e após a intervenção. As concentrações séricas de PLP foram semelhantes antes e após a intervenção, entretanto, um aumento de PL sérico foi observado após 45 e 90 dias, e de PA após 45 dias, quando comparado ao baseline. Riboflavina e FMN foram maiores após 45 e 90 dias em relação ao baseline. A tiamina sérica foi menor após 45 dias, e as concentrações de TMP foram maiores após 90 dias quando comparados aos períodos anteriores. Não houve diferença nas concentrações de vitamina B3 antes e após a intervenção. Dentre os metabólitos da via das quinureninas, apenas o ácido antranílico apresentou aumento após 45 e 90 dias, enquanto o ácido picolínico diminuiu após 90 dias. PCRus, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-γ e TNF-α séricos foram semelhantes no baseline e após a intervenção. Um aumento da expressão de RNAm de DHFR e TNFA foi observado após, respectivamente, 90 dias e 45 e 90 dias de intervenção. Após 90 dias de intervenção com AF, foi observada diminuição do número de células Treg após estímulo com PMA e ionomicina. Conclusão: O uso diário de 5 mg de AF foi associado a alterações nas concentrações séricas de marcadores do estado de vitaminas do complexo B e da via das quinureninas, bem como a diminuição do número de células Treg


Introduction: Folic acid (FA) supplementation is recommended in some conditions to avoid folate deficiency, as women during periconceptional period and pregnancy. Currently, there is a concern about the excessive consumption of FA by population by using supplements with high doses of this vitamin. Vitamins B6 and B2 are cofactors of enzymes of one carbon metabolism and, consequently, may disturb key metabolism in which they participate, as kynurenine pathway, and the immune system. Aim: To assess the effects of a daily intervention with high dose of FA (5 mg) for 90 days on biomarkers of complex B vitamins status and its outcomes in kynurenine pathway metabolites and immune system in healthy adults. Material and Methods: 64 healthy individuals were submitted to a daily intervention with 5 mg of FA for 90 days. Blood samples were collected before (baseline) and after 45 and 90 days of intervention. Serum folate and vitamin B12 were assessed by microbiological assays. Serum vitamin B6 (pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), pyridoxal (PL) and 4-pyridoxic acid (PA)), vitamin B2 (riboflavin and flavin mononucleotide (FMN)), vitamin B1 (thiamin and thiamin monophosphate)) and vitamin B3 (nicotinic acid, nicotinamide and N1-methylnicotinamide), as well as tryptophan, kynurenine and metabolites, were assessed by LC-MS/MS. C-reactive protein (hs-CPR) was assessed by immunoturbidimetry, and serum interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were assessed by multiplex assay. Mononuclear leukocytes mRNA expression of DHFR (dihydrofolate reductase), MTHFR (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase), IL8, TNFA and IFNG were assessed by real time PCR. Regulatory T Cell (Treg) number (CD3+, CD4+, CD25high, FoxP3+, CD127-) was determined after mononuclear leukocytes incubation with PMA and ionomycin or vehicle for 18h, by immunophenotyping. Results: A great increase on serum folate was observed after 45 and 90 days of FA intervention. No differences in serum vitamin B12 were observed before and after intervention. Serum PLP was similar before and after intervention, however, an increase in serum PL was observed after 45 and 90 days, and in PA after 45 days, when compared to baseline. Riboflavin and FMN were increased after 45 and 90 days than in baseline. Serum thiamine was decreased after 45 days than in baseline. Serum TMP was increased after 90 days when compared with previous timepoints. No differences in vitamin B3 were observed after and before FA intervention. Among kynurenine pathway metabolites, anthranilic acid was increased after 45 and 90 days, while picolinic acid was decreased after 90 days. hs-CPR, serum IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-γ and TNF-α were similar at baseline and after intervention. An increase on mRNA expression of DHFR and TNFA was observed after, respectively, 90 days and 45 and 90 days of intervention. After 90 days of FA intervention, it was observed a decrease on Treg cell number after PMA and ionomycin stimulation. Conclusion: Daily use of 5 mg of FA was associated with changes in serum markers of B-complex vitamins status and kynurenine pathway, as well as decreased number of Treg cells


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Riboflavin/pharmacokinetics , Vitamin B 6/pharmacokinetics , Folic Acid/administration & dosage , Folic Acid/analysis , Thiamine/pharmacokinetics , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/classification , Niacinamide/pharmacokinetics , Kynurenine/pharmacokinetics
7.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e18201, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011651

ABSTRACT

Oxidative stress plays the central role in the pathogenesis and progression of diabetic complications. The present study aims to investigate the beneficial effect of oral administration of flavone baicalein in streptozotocin-nicotinamide (STZ-NA) induced diabetic rats by measuring oxidative stress markers, antioxidant enzyme activities and expression analysis of antioxidant genes. Experimental diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of STZ (55 mg /kg b.wt), 15 min after the i.p. administration of NA. At the end of the experimental period, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), activities of antioxidant enzymes and expression levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured in diabetic rats along with serum biochemical parameters namely total cholesterol (TC), total triglyceride (TG), aspartate transaminase (AST) alanine transaminase (ALT) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Oral administration of baicalein (40 mg/kg b.wt/day) demonstrated a significant ameliorative effect on all studied biochemical and oxidative stress parameters. Biochemical findings were corroborated by qPCR expression analysis which showed significant upregulation of antioxidant genes in diabetic rats. These results suggest that baicalein supplementation may reduce diabetes and its complications by suppressing oxidative stress and enhancing gene expression and antioxidant enzyme activities in diabetic rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Child, Preschool , Rats , Gene Expression , Niacinamide/pharmacology , Flavones/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/prevention & control , Gene Expression/drug effects , Glyburide/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress , Antioxidants/pharmacology
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765968

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) often report poor sleep quality. Whether poor sleep is associated with tryptophan (Trp) metabolites is unknown. We compared serum Trp metabolites in women with IBS and healthy controls (HCs) using targeted liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based profiling. In IBS only, we explored whether Trp metabolites are associated with IBS symptoms and subjective and objective sleep indices, serum cortisol, plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and cortisol/ACTH levels. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained every 80 minutes in 21 HCs and 38 IBS subjects following an anticipation-of-public-speaking stressor during a sleep laboratory protocol. Subjects completed symptom diaries for 28 days. Adjacent values of metabolites were averaged to represent 4 time-periods: awake, early sleep, mid-sleep, and mid-to-late sleep. Thirteen of 20 targeted Trp metabolites were identified. RESULTS: Ten of 13 Trp metabolites decreased across the night, while nicotinamide increased in both groups. A MANOVA omnibus test performed after principal component analysis showed a significant difference in these 13 principal component (P = 0.014) between groups. Compared to HCs, nicotinamide levels were higher and indole-3-lactic acid levels lower in the IBS group. Melatonin and indole-3-acetic acid levels were associated with several subjective/objective sleep measures; decreased stool consistency/frequency and abdominal pain were positively associated with melatonin and serotonin in the IBS group. The kynurenine and kynurenic acid were associated with ACTH (positively) and cortisol/ACTH (negatively). CONCLUSIONS: Nighttime Trp metabolites may provide clues to poor sleep and stress with IBS. Further study of the mechanism of metabolite action is warranted.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Chromatography, Liquid , Female , Humans , Hydrocortisone , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Kynurenic Acid , Kynurenine , Mass Spectrometry , Melatonin , Niacinamide , Plasma , Principal Component Analysis , Serotonin , Tryptophan
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763045

ABSTRACT

Niacinamide (NIA) is a water-soluble vitamin that is widely used in the treatment of skin diseases. Moreover, NIA displays antioxidant effects and helps repair damaged DNA. Recent studies showed that particulate matter 2.5 (PM(2.5)) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), causing disruption of DNA, lipids, and protein, mitochondrial depolarization, and apoptosis of skin keratinocytes. Here, we investigated the protective effects of NIA on PM(2.5)-induced oxidative stress in human HaCaT keratinocytes. We found that NIA could inhibit the ROS generation induced by PM(2.5), as well block the PM(2.5)-induced oxidation of molecules, such as lipids, proteins, and DNA. Furthermore, NIA alleviated PM(2.5)-induced accumulation of cellular Ca²⁺, which caused cell membrane depolarization and apoptosis, and reduced the number of apoptotic cells. Collectively, the findings show that NIA can protect keratinocytes from PM(2.5)-induced oxidative stress and cell damage.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Apoptosis , Cell Membrane , DNA , Humans , Keratinocytes , Mitochondrial Proteins , Niacinamide , Oxidative Stress , Particulate Matter , Reactive Oxygen Species , Skin Diseases , Skin , Vitamins
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764986

ABSTRACT

We analyzed Clonorchis sinensis ancient DNA (aDNA) acquired from the specimens of the Joseon mummies. The target regions were cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen (NADH) dehydrogenase subunits 2 (NAD2) and 5 (NAD5). The sequences of C. sinensis aDNA was completely or almost identical to modern C. sinensis sequences in GenBank. We also found that ITS1, NAD2 and NAD5 could be good markers for molecular diagnosis between C. sinensis and the other trematode parasite species. The current result could improve our knowledge about genetic history of C. sinensis.


Subject(s)
Clonorchis sinensis , Cytochromes c , Cytochromes , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Diagnosis , DNA , Electron Transport Complex IV , Hydrogen , Mummies , NAD , Niacinamide , Oxidoreductases , Parasites , Republic of Korea
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764064

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Embryonic stem (ES) cells have pluripotent ability to differentiate into multiple tissue lineages. SIRT1 is a class III histone deacetylase which modulates chromatin remodeling, gene silencing, cell survival, metabolism, and development. In this study, we examined the effects of SIRT1 inhibitors on the hematopoietic differentiation of mouse ES cells. METHODS AND RESULTS: Treatment with the SIRT1 inhibitors, nicotinamide and splitomicin, during the hematopoietic differentiation of ES cells enhanced the production of hematopoietic progenitors and slightly up-regulated erythroid and myeloid specific gene expression. Furthermore, treatment with splitomicin increased the percentage of erythroid and myeloid lineage cells. CONCLUSIONS: Application of the SIRT1 inhibitor splitomicin during ES cell differentiation to hematopoietic cells enhanced the yield of specific hematopoietic lineage cells from ES cells. This result suggests that SIRT1 is involved in the regulation of hematopoietic differentiation of specific lineages and that the modulation of the SIRT1 activity can be a strategy to enhance the efficiency of hematopoietic differentiation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Differentiation , Cell Survival , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Gene Expression , Gene Silencing , Histone Deacetylases , Metabolism , Mice , Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells , Niacinamide
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741700

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The NAD+ precursor nicotinamide riboside (NR) is a type of vitamin B3 found in cow's milk and yeast-containing food products such as beer. Recent studies suggested that NR prevents hearing loss, high-fat diet-induced obesity, Alzheimer's disease, and mitochondrial myopathy. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of NR on inflammation and mitochondrial biogenesis in AML12 mouse hepatocytes. MATERIALS/METHODS: A subset of hepatocytes was treated with palmitic acid (PA; 250 µM) for 48 h to induce hepatocyte steatosis. The hepatocytes were treated with NR (10 µM and 10 mM) for 24 h with and without PA. The cell viability and the levels of sirtuins, inflammatory markers, and mitochondrial markers were analyzed. RESULTS: Cytotoxicity of NR was examined by PrestoBlue assay. Exposure to NR had no effect on cell viability or morphology. Gene expression of sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and Sirt3 was significantly upregulated by NR in PA-treated hepatocytes. However, Sirt1 activities were increased in hepatocytes treated with low-dose NR. Hepatic pro-inflammatory markers including tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 were decreased in NR-treated cells. NR upregulated anti-inflammatory molecule adiponectin, and, tended to down-regulate hepatokine fetuin-A in PA-treated hepatocytes, suggesting its inverse regulation on these cytokines. NR increased levels of mitochondrial markers including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, uncoupling protein 2, transcription factor A, mitochondrial and mitochondrial DNA in PA-treated hepatocytes. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrated that NR attenuated hepatic inflammation and increased levels of mitochondrial markers in hepatocytes.


Subject(s)
Adiponectin , alpha-2-HS-Glycoprotein , Alzheimer Disease , Animals , Beer , Carnitine O-Palmitoyltransferase , Cell Survival , Cytokines , DNA, Mitochondrial , Fatty Liver , Gene Expression , Hearing Loss , Hepatocytes , Inflammation , Interleukin-6 , Mice , Milk , Mitochondria , Mitochondrial Myopathies , Niacin , Niacinamide , Obesity , Organelle Biogenesis , Palmitic Acid , Peroxisomes , Sirtuin 1 , Sirtuins , Transcription Factors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773518

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the role of E26 transformation-specific variant 4 (ETV4) in sorafenib and cisplatin resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).@*METHODS@#HCC cell lines SMMC-7721 and HCC-LM3 were transfected with an ETV4- overexpressing plasmid or small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting ETV4. The cells with ETV4 overexpression or ETV4 interference were treated with DMSO, sorafenib (5 μmol/L) or cisplatin (5 μmol/L) for 48 h, and the total protein and total RNA were collected. Western blotting, flow cytometry, EdU proliferation assay were used to analyze the apoptosis and proliferation of the cells. We also obtained clinical specimens of HCC tissues and paired adjacent tissues from 11 patients for detecting ETV4 mRNA expression levels using real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (q-PCR). The effect of ETV4 interference on the mRNA expression levels of immediate early response gene 3 (IER3) was examined in HCC cells that were treated with DMSO, sorafenib or cisplatin for 48 h.@*RESULTS@#The expression of ETV4 mRNA was significantly higher in HCC tissues than in the paired adjacent tissues. Overexpression of ETV4 in the HCC cell lines obviously inhibited cell apoptosis induced by sorafenib or cisplatin. Conversely, ETV4 interference significantly enhanced the apoptosis and inhibited the proliferation of the HCC cells following treatments with sorafenib or cisplatin. In addition, ETV4 regulated the mRNA expression levels of IER3 in the cells treatmed with sorafenib and cisplatin.@*CONCLUSIONS@#ETV4 promotes resistance of HCC cells to sorafenib or cisplatin .


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Cisplatin , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Humans , Liver Neoplasms , Membrane Proteins , Niacinamide , Phenylurea Compounds , Sorafenib
15.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(3): 370-375, May-June 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950060

ABSTRACT

Summary Total thyroidectomy, radioiodine (RAI) therapy, and TSH suppression are the mainstay treatment for differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTCs). Treatments for metastatic disease include surgery, external-beam radiotherapy, RAI, and kinase inhibitors for progressive iodine-refractory disease. Unresectable locoregional disease remains a challenge, as standard therapy with RAI becomes unfeasible. We report a case of a young patient who presented with unresectable papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and treatment with sorafenib allowed total thyroidectomy and RAI therapy. A 20-year-old male presented with severe respiratory distress due to an enlarging cervical mass. Imaging studies revealed an enlarged multinodular thyroid gland, extensive cervical adenopathy, severe tracheal stenosis, and pulmonary micronodules. He required an urgent surgical intervention and underwent tracheostomy and partial left neck dissection, as the disease was deemed unresectable; pathology revealed PTC. Treatment with sorafenib was initiated, resulting in significant tumor reduction allowing near total thyroidectomy and bilateral neck dissection. Postoperatively, the patient underwent radiotherapy for residual tracheal lesion, followed by RAI therapy for avid cervical and pulmonary disease. The patient's disease remains stable 4 years after diagnosis. Sorafenib has been approved for progressive RAI-refractory metastatic DTCs. In this case report, we describe a patient with locally advanced PTC in whom treatment with sorafenib provided sufficient tumor reduction to allow thyroidectomy and RAI therapy, suggesting a potential role of sorafenib as an induction therapy of unresectable DTC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Phenylurea Compounds/administration & dosage , Thyroid Neoplasms/therapy , Carcinoma, Papillary/therapy , Niacinamide/analogs & derivatives , Iodine Radioisotopes/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma, Papillary/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Niacinamide/administration & dosage , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Sorafenib , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary
16.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(2): e17171, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951943

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Diabetes is a metabolic disease caused by abnormal insulin secretion or action. In the present study, the effects of betulinic acid (BA, a triterpene) are evaluated on glucose, α-amylase and plasma insulin levels, insulin resistance and the histopathology of pancreatic islets in streptozotocin-nicotinamide (STZ-NA) diabetic mice. Seventy adult male NMRI mice were randomly divided into seven groups: control, sham, diabetic, diabetic treated with BA (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) and diabetic treated with metformin (200 mg/kg). Diabetes was induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin 50 mg/kg after a dose of nicotinamide 120 mg/kg. Two weeks after treatment with BA, blood samples were collected for measuring glucose, α-amylase and insulin levels, and the pancreas was isolated for histopathology evaluation. Diabetes reduced the number and diameter of pancreatic islets, and increased α-amylase and insulin resistance. BA treatment reduced blood glucose, α-amylase and improved insulin sensitivity as well as pancreas histopathology. In addition, BA showed stronger effects on the pancreatic histology and insulin resistance compared to the metformin group


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Streptozocin , Niacinamide , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/prevention & control , Triterpenes/classification , Diabetes Mellitus/chemically induced , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717062

ABSTRACT

Mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cell as well as the primary site of hematopoiesis, which also occurs in the cytoplasm. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are characterized by a very high turnover rate, and are thus considered to be relatively free from the age-related insults generated by mitochondria. However, HSCs are also subject to these age-related insults, including the incidence of myeloid proliferative diseases, marrow failure, hematopoietic neoplasms, and deterioration of the adaptive human immune system. Recently, NAD⁺ dietary supplements, known as niacin or vitamin B₃, including tryptophan, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, and the newly identified NAD⁺ precursor nicotinamide riboside, have been shown to play a role in restoring adult stem cell function through the amelioration of mitochondrial dysfunction. This insight motivated a study that focused on reversing aging-related cellular dysfunction in adult mouse muscle stem cells by supplementing their diet with nicotinamide riboside. The remedial effect of nicotinamide riboside enhanced mitochondrial function in these muscle stem cells in a SIRT1-dependent manner, affecting cellular respiration, membrane potential, and production of ATP. Accordingly, numerous studies have demonstrated that sirtuins, under nuclear/mitochondrial control, have age-specific effects in determining HSC phenotypes. Based on the evidence accumulated thus far, we propose a clinical intervention for the restoration of aged HSC function by improving mitochondrial function through NAD⁺ precursor supplementation.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Adult , Adult Stem Cells , Aging , Animals , Bone Marrow , Cell Respiration , Cytoplasm , Diet , Dietary Supplements , Hematologic Neoplasms , Hematopoiesis , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Humans , Immune System , Incidence , Membrane Potentials , Mice , Mitochondria , Niacin , Niacinamide , Phenotype , Sirtuins , Stem Cells , Tryptophan , Vitamins
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716897

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to analyze the association between nutritional intake and tinnitus prevalence by evaluating a large cross-sectional cohort. METHODS: Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey collected between 2013 and 2015 were analyzed. The study population consisted of 7,621 individuals aged 40 to 80 years with complete tinnitus-related data. Individuals with inadequate responses to tinnitus history, noise exposure in the work place, or subjective hearing loss were excluded. Prevalence of tinnitus and tinnitus-related annoyance, and nutrition intake were measured using this questionnaire, and associations between tinnitus and nutritional data were evaluated by binary logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Subjective tinnitus was reported by 1,435 individuals with subjective normal hearing (18.8%). Prevalence of tinnitus increased with age. However, among individuals with tinnitus, the proportion of individuals with tinnitus-related annoyance was similar across age groups. Older age, female sex, lower body mass index (BMI), and less vitamin B2 intake were significantly associated with tinnitus (P < 0.001, P=0.002, P=0.041, P=0.013, respectively). Vitamin B2 intake was significantly less in individuals with tinnitus who were middle-aged (ages 51–55 and 56–60 years, P=0.012 and P=0.020, respectively). Less intake of water, protein, and vitamin B3 were associated with tinnitus-related annoyance (P=0.038, P=0.009, and P=0.005, respectively). Prevalence of annoyance was significantly associated with less water intake in younger ages (age 45–55 years) but with less protein and vitamin B3 intake in older ages (age 66–80 years). CONCLUSION: Reduced intake of vitamin B2 and B3, water, and protein may be associated with tinnitus and tinnitus-related annoyance, and further studies regarding the importance of adequate nutritional intake in the tinnitus management need to be performed.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , Cohort Studies , Diet , Drinking , Female , Hearing , Hearing Loss , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Niacinamide , Noise , Nutrition Surveys , Nutritional Status , Prevalence , Riboflavin , Tinnitus , Water , Workplace
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776387

ABSTRACT

The study was aimed to determine the efficacy of two pesticides in the control of aphids in Lonicera japonica, and study the applicability of pesticides in L. japonica. The number of insects was counted before and 2, 3, 7 and 10 days after the application of pesticide in the test area within different dosage groups. The method was 5-point sampling method. Five aphids on the L. japonica branches were selected, then the number of insects was recorded. The effect of the two pesticides on the control rate of aphid was more than 80% at 1 d after application. The results showed that the two pesticides had good efficacy. After 7 days and 10 days, the control effect was 100%. After 1 day of spraying, the effect of the two pesticides on the control of L. japonica aphids was more than 80%, which was higher than that of the control agent. The results showed that the two pesticides had good and fast effect. After 7 days and 10 days of spraying, the control effect was 100%. The control effect of two kinds pesticides for aphid sprayed in recommended dose on the L. japonica is good and showed no hytotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aphids , Lonicera , Niacinamide , Pesticides , Pyridines , Sulfur Compounds
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