Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 222
Filter
1.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 438-444, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984741

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the potential value of CT Radiomics model in predicting the response to first-line chemotherapy in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Methods: Pre-treatment CT images and clinical data of DLBCL patients treated at Shanxi Cancer Hospital from January 2013 to May 2018 were retrospectively analyzed and divided into refractory patients (73 cases) and non-refractory patients (57 cases) according to the Lugano 2014 efficacy evaluation criteria. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression algorithm, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to screen out clinical factors and CT radiomics features associated with efficacy response, followed by radiomics model and nomogram model. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, calibration curve and clinical decision curve were used to evaluate the models in terms of the diagnostic efficacy, calibration and clinical value in predicting chemotherapy response. Results: Based on pre-chemotherapy CT images, 850 CT texture features were extracted from each patient, and 6 features highly correlated with the first-line chemotherapy effect of DLBCL were selected, including 1 first order feature, 1 gray level co-occurence matrix, 3 grey level dependence matrix, 1 neighboring grey tone difference matrix. Then, the corresponding radiomics model was established, whose ROC curves showed AUC values of 0.82 (95% CI: 0.76-0.89) and 0.73 (95% CI: 0.60-0.86) in the training and validation groups, respectively. The nomogram model, built by combining validated clinical factors (Ann Arbor stage, serum LDH level) and CT radiomics features, showed an AUC of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.90-0.99) and 0.91 (95% CI: 0.82-1.00) in the training group and the validation group, respectively, with significantly better diagnostic efficacy than that of the radiomics model. In addition, the calibration curve and clinical decision curve showed that the nomogram model had good consistency and high clinical value in the assessment of DLBCL efficacy. Conclusion: The nomogram model based on clinical factors and radiomics features shows potential clinical value in predicting the response to first-line chemotherapy of DLBCL patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Retrospective Studies , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/drug therapy , Algorithms , Niacinamide , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
2.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 86 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378701

ABSTRACT

Responsável por milhões de óbitos anuais e um grande custo para a saúde pública, o câncer é a segunda maior causa de mortes no mundo. Dentre seus diversos tipos, o câncer de pulmão, além da alta incidência, é um dos mais letais. A exposição a substâncias tóxicas provenientes da combustão de matéria orgânica, assim como o consumo de cigarro, são os principais responsáveis pela alta incidência de câncer de pulmão. Dentre estas substâncias, está o benzo[α]pireno (B[α]P), um carcinógeno completo, ou seja, capaz de iniciar e promover o processo de carcinogênese. Resultados anteriores obtidos pelo grupo demonstraram que células BEAS-2B expostas a 1 µM de B[α]P apresentaram alterações das concentrações de metabólitos intracelulares, indução de estresse redox e hipermetilação do DNA. A exposição a 1 µM de nicotinamida ribosídeo (NR), um dos precursores de NAD+, foi capaz de proteger as células BEAS-2B contra a transformação induzida por B[α]P, além de impedir totalmente que células não expostas a B[α]P formassem colônias em soft-agar. A utilização da proteômica neste trabalho permitiu verificar a abundância das proteínas nos quatro diferentes grupos de exposição: Controle, B[α]P, B[α]P + NR e NR. Após 120 h de exposição as células foram coletadas, as proteínas extraídas e preparadas para análise. Foram descobertas 3024 proteínas posteriormente analisadas com o objetivo de elucidar vias possivelmente envolvidas na proteção contra o processo de transfomação maligna. Os grupos NR e Controle demonstram ser mais parecidos em relação ao seu conteúdo, enquanto os grupos B[α]P e B[α]P + NR foram mais semelhantes entre si. A análise de proteínas exclusivas revelou menos processos relacionados ao reparo de DNA no grupo tratado apenas com B[α]P quando comparado com B[α]P + NR. A análise estatística do total de proteínas utilizando o teste ANOVA (p < 0,05, N = 5) revelou 564 proteínas diferencialmente expressas entre os grupos. A clusterização nos permitiu observar a diferença na abundância de proteínas entre os quatro tratamentos. As proteínas estão envolvidas em funções como a regulação do metabolismo, resposta a estresse, transdução de sinal, regulação de expressão gênica e morte celular. Um dos clusters (cluster 1), contendo 59 proteínas, revelou poucos processos na análise de enriquecimento, mas as proteínas contidas nele apresentam funções como controle da divisão celular, apoptose e proteção ao estresse redox. Nele podemos observar que, no geral, o tratamento com B[α]P aumentou a abundância de algumas proteínas, o que foi revertido no grupo B[α]P + NR. O tratamento apenas com NR diminuiu a abundância das proteínas contidas nesse cluster. Outro cluster (cluster 4) apresentou 51 proteínas de abundância diminuída durante a exposição ao B[α]P, o que se reverteu no grupo B[α]P + NR. As proteínas desse cluster estão envolvidas em etapas importantes da via glicolítica, de crescimento, adesão, migração e invasão celular. Apesar de ser descrito que a exposição a NR pode aumentar a eficiência do reparo de DNA, os resultados apresentados nesse trabalho indicam que o efeito protetor pode estar relacionado com a modulação do ciclo celular ou alterações na adesão celular


Responsible for millions of annual deaths and a great health expense, cancer is the second leading cause of death in the world. Among its many types, lung cancer, besides its high incidence, is also one of the most lethal. Exposure to toxic substances resulting from the combustion of organic matter, as well as cigarette consumption, are the mainly responsible for the high incidence of lung cancer. One of these substances is benzo[α]pyrene (B[α]P), a complete carcinogen, able to initiate and promote the carcinogenesis process. Results obtained previously demonstrated that BEAS-2B cells exposed to 1 µM BaP presented alterations in the levels of intracellular metabolites, induction of oxidative stress, and hypermethylation of DNA. The exposure to 1 µM nicotinamide riboside (NR), one of the precursors of NAD+, was able to protect BEAS-2B cells against the transformation induced by B[α]P, moreover, it also totally prevented the colonies formation on soft agar in cells not exposed to B[α]P. The use of proteomics allowed us to verify the abundance of proteins in the four different exposure groups: Control, B[α]P, B[α]P + NR e NR. After 120h of exposure, the cells were collected followed by the extraction of the proteins. A total of 3024 proteins were identified and analyzed aiming to elucidate possible pathways involved in the protective effect against the malignant transformation induced by B[α]P. The NR and Control groups showed to be more similar, while B[α]P and B[α]P + NR were more similar. The analysis of exclusive proteins revealed fewer processes related to DNA repair in B[α]P when compared with B[α]P + NR. The statistical analysis of the total proteins using the ANOVA test (p <0.5, N = 5) revealed 564 proteins differentially expressed between the groups. The heatmap showed the difference in protein abundance between the four treatments. Proteins are involved in functionssuch asthe regulation of metabolism, stress response, signal transduction, regulation of gene expression, and cell death. One of the clusters (cluster 1), containing 59 proteins, revealed a few processes in the enrichment analysis, but the proteins contained in it have functions such as control of cell division, apoptosis, and protection from redox stress. It is possible to observe, in general, treatment with B[α]P increased the abundance of some proteins, which was partially reversed in group B[α]P + NR. On the other hand, the NR treatment decreased the abundance of proteins contained in this cluster. Another cluster (cluster 4) showed 51 proteins of decreased abundance during exposure to B [α] P, which was partially reversed in group B[α]P + NR. The proteins in this cluster are involved in important stages of the glycolytic pathway, also in growth, adhesion, migration, and cell invasion. Although it has been described that exposure to NR can increase the efficiency of DNA repair, the results presented in this work indicate that the protective effect may be related to the modulation of the cell cycle or cell adehsion modifications


Subject(s)
Proteomics/classification , Tobacco Products/classification , Carcinogenesis , Neoplasms , Cells/classification , Analysis of Variance , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Cell Death , Niacinamide/agonists , Oxidative Stress , Lung Neoplasms/pathology
5.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2021. 275 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379262

ABSTRACT

A alta incidência, prevalência e mortalidade do câncer de pulmão demonstram a necessidade de se identificar alterações moleculares envolvidas na carcinogênese pulmonar. Nesse contexto, a reprogramação do metabolismo energético é uma marca emergente do câncer. Há evidências de que benzo[a]pireno (B[a]P), um conhecido carcinógeno humano, induz alterações metabólicas via modificação da função mitocondrial tanto in vitro quanto in vivo. Uma vez que as alterações metabólicas não são somente o resultado da transformação celular, mas podem também ter papel na etiologia do câncer ao modular o epigenoma e a expressão de genes, intervir no metabolismo de células em processo de transformação pode contribuir para desvendar mecanismos de carcinogênese e revelar alvos para quimioprevenção. A fim de investigar a relação entre alterações no metabolismo celular, marcas epigenéticas e transformação celular, implementamos um modelo de tumorigênese (avaliada pela formação de colônias em soft-agar) induzida por B[a]P em células epiteliais bronquiais humanas imortalizadas (linhagem BEAS-2B) crescidas em monocamada (2D). O modelo possibilitou a observação de alterações precoces do metabolismo celular. Levando em consideração que o nucleotídeo NAD+ regula as atividades de diversas vias moleculares importantes para a sobrevivência, diferenciação, crescimento e morte celular, e que suas concentrações foram rapidamente diminuídas após exposição a B[a]P, decidimos suplementar as células BEAS-2B com nicotinamida ribosídeo (NR), um precursor intracelular de NAD+, concomitantemente à exposição a B[a]P. NR em baixa concentração no meio de cultura (1 µM) induziu estresse energético em células BEAS-2B expostas a B[a]P (1 µM) ao longo do período de uma semana de co-incubação, aumentando seletivamente a taxa de apoptose dessas células. Protegeu contra a transformação celular induzida por B[a]P e impediu completamente a formação espontânea de colônias das células controle em soft-agar. Usamos uma abordagem metabolômica direcionada a alvos específicos ("targeted metabolomics") desenvolvida no grupo para quantificar metabólitos conhecidamente alterados no câncer. Os dados indicam que NR diminui o metabolismo de glutamina nas células expostas a B[a]P, o que ocorre em paralelo com a diminuição das concentrações de citrato e aspartato, aumento da razão malato/aspartato, diminuição das razões ATP/AMP e ATP/ADP e aumento das concentrações de adenosina. As alterações se enquadram na hipótese de inibição do shuttle malato-aspartato, cuja atividade é necessária para a sobrevivência de células que sofrem o efeito Warburg (alta dependência de NADH citosólico para geração de ATP). NR adicionalmente protegeu as células contra o estresse redox, a hipermetilação do DNA e o aumento da atividade de sirtuína 1 (SIRT1) induzidos por B[a]P, além de aumentar a expressão de genes supressores tumorais (E-caderina, PTEN, semaforina 3F, p16(ink4a)) que podem ser reprimidos por CtBP (proteína ligante de NADH que atua como sensor redox e traduz a condição metabólica da célula para o controle da expressão gênica). Foi ainda observada maior atividade de PARP1 nas células expostas a B[a]P+NR em comparação aos demais grupos. Os resultados obtidos mostram que NR se contrapõe a ou exacerba alterações bioquímicas induzidas por B[a]P, diminuindo a chance de transformação carcinogênica das células BEAS-2B. Estudos em modelos mais complexos, como micro tecidos in vitro, são necessários para a confirmação do efeito quimiopreventivo da NR e alterações bioquímicas subjacentes


Tese de DoutoradoDOIhttps://doi.org/10.11606/T.9.2021.tde-05082021-095853DocumentoTese de DoutoradoAutorCordeiro, Everson Willian Fialho (Catálogo USP)Nome completoEverson Willian Fialho CordeiroE-mailE-mailUnidade da USPFaculdade de Ciências FarmacêuticasÁrea do ConhecimentoToxicologiaData de Defesa2021-04-08ImprentaSão Paulo, 2021OrientadorLoureiro, Ana Paula de Melo (Catálogo USP) Banca examinadoraLoureiro, Ana Paula de Melo (Presidente) Àvila, Daiana Silva de Meotti, Flavia Carla Silva, Eloiza Helena Tajara da Título em portuguêsModulação da concentração intracelular de NAD+ e seu efeito na tumorigênese induzida por benzo[a]pireno em células bronquiais epiteliais humanasPalavras-chave em portuguêsBenzo[a]pireno Câncer de pulmão Metabolismo energético Nicotinamida ribosídeo Resumo em portuguêsA alta incidência, prevalência e mortalidade do câncer de pulmão demonstram a necessidade de se identificar alterações moleculares envolvidas na carcinogênese pulmonar. Nesse contexto, a reprogramação do metabolismo energético é uma marca emergente do câncer. Há evidências de que benzo[a]pireno (B[a]P), um conhecido carcinógeno humano, induz alterações metabólicas via modificação da função mitocondrial tanto in vitro quanto in vivo. Uma vez que as alterações metabólicas não são somente o resultado da transformação celular, mas podem também ter papel na etiologia do câncer ao modular o epigenoma e a expressão de genes, intervir no metabolismo de células em processo de transformação pode contribuir para desvendar mecanismos de carcinogênese e revelar alvos para quimioprevenção. A fim de investigar a relação entre alterações no metabolismo celular, marcas epigenéticas e transformação celular, implementamos um modelo de tumorigênese (avaliada pela formação de colônias em soft-agar) induzida por B[a]P em células epiteliais bronquiais humanas imortalizadas (linhagem BEAS-2B) crescidas em monocamada (2D). O modelo possibilitou a observação de alterações precoces do metabolismo celular. Levando em consideração que o nucleotídeo NAD+ regula as atividades de diversas vias moleculares importantes para a sobrevivência, diferenciação, crescimento e morte celular, e que suas concentrações foram rapidamente diminuídas após exposição a B[a]P, decidimos suplementar as células BEAS-2B com nicotinamida ribosídeo (NR), um precursor intracelular de NAD+, concomitantemente à exposição a B[a]P. NR em baixa concentração no meio de cultura (1 µM) induziu estresse energético em células BEAS-2B expostas a B[a]P (1 µM) ao longo do período de uma semana de co-incubação, aumentando seletivamente a taxa de apoptose dessas células. Protegeu contra a transformação celular induzida por B[a]P e impediu completamente a formação espontânea de colônias das células controle em soft-agar. Usamos uma abordagem metabolômica direcionada a alvos específicos ("targeted metabolomics") desenvolvida no grupo para quantificar metabólitos conhecidamente alterados no câncer. Os dados indicam que NR diminui o metabolismo de glutamina nas células expostas a B[a]P, o que ocorre em paralelo com a diminuição das concentrações de citrato e aspartato, aumento da razão malato/aspartato, diminuição das razões ATP/AMP e ATP/ADP e aumento das concentrações de adenosina. As alterações se enquadram na hipótese de inibição do shuttle malato-aspartato, cuja atividade é necessária para a sobrevivência de células que sofrem o efeito Warburg (alta dependência de NADH citosólico para geração de ATP). NR adicionalmente protegeu as células contra o estresse redox, a hipermetilação do DNA e o aumento da atividade de sirtuína 1 (SIRT1) induzidos por B[a]P, além de aumentar a expressão de genes supressores tumorais (E-caderina, PTEN, semaforina 3F, p16(ink4a)) que podem ser reprimidos por CtBP (proteína ligante de NADH que atua como sensor redox e traduz a condição metabólica da célula para o controle da expressão gênica). Foi ainda observada maior atividade de PARP1 nas células expostas a B[a]P+NR em comparação aos demais grupos. Os resultados obtidos mostram que NR se contrapõe a ou exacerba alterações bioquímicas induzidas por B[a]P, diminuindo a chance de transformação carcinogênica das células BEAS-2B. Estudos em modelos mais complexos, como micro tecidos in vitro, são necessários para a confirmação do efeito quimiopreventivo da NR e alterações bioquímicas subjacentes.Título em inglêsModulation of intracellular concentration of NAD+ and its effect on benzo[a]pyrene-induced tumorigenesis in human epithelial bronchial cellsPalavras-chave em inglêsBenzo[a]pyrene Energetic metabolism Lung cancer Nicotinamide riboside Resumo em inglêsThe high incidence, prevalence and mortality of lung cancer demonstrates the need to identify molecular changes involved in lung carcinogenesis. In this context, the reprogramming of energy metabolism is an emerging brand of cancer. There is evidence that benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a known human carcinogen, induces metabolic changes via modification of mitochondrial function both in vitro and in vivo. Since metabolic changes are not only the result of cell transformation, but can also play a role in the etiology of cancer by modulating the epigenome and gene expression, intervening in the metabolism of cells in the process of transformation can contribute to unravel mechanisms of carcinogenesis and reveal targets for chemoprevention. In order to investigate the relationship between changes in cell metabolism, epigenetic marks and cell transformation, we implemented a model of tumorigenesis (assessed by the formation of colonies on soft-agar) induced by B[a]P in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B cell line human) grown in monolayer (2D). The model enabled the observation of early changes in cell metabolism. Taking into account that the NAD+ nucleotide regulates the activities of several molecular pathways important for cell survival, differentiation, growth and death, and that their concentrations were rapidly decreased after exposure to B[a]P, we decided to supplement the BEAS-2B cells with nicotinamide riboside (NR), an intracellular precursor of NAD+, concomitantly with exposure to B[a]P. NR in low concentration in the culture medium (1 µM) induced energy stress in BEAS-2B cells exposed to B[a]P (1 µM) over the period of a week of co-incubation, selectively increasing the apoptosis rate of these cells. It protected against cell transformation induced by B[a]P and completely prevented the spontaneous formation of control cell colonies on soft-agar. We use a targeted metabolomics approach developed in the group to quantify metabolites known to be altered in cancer. The data indicate that NR decreases the glutamine metabolism in cells exposed to B[a]P, which occurs in parallel with the decrease in citrate and aspartate concentrations, increased malate/aspartate ratio, decreased ATP/AMP and ATP/ADP ratios and increased adenosine concentrations. The changes fit the hypothesis of inhibition of the malate-aspartate shuttle, whose activity is necessary for the survival of cells that suffer the Warburg effect (high dependence on cytosolic NADH for ATP generation). NR additionally protected cells against redox stress, DNA hypermethylation and increased B[a]P-induced sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) activity, in addition to increasing the expression of tumor suppressor genes (E-cadherin, PTEN, semaphorin 3F, p16 (ink4a)) that can be suppressed by CtBP (NADH-binding protein that acts as a redox sensor and translates the cell's metabolic condition to control gene expression). Higher PARP1 activity was also observed in cells exposed to B[a]P+NR compared to the other groups. The results obtained show that NR is opposed to or exacerbates biochemical changes induced by B[a]P, reducing the chance of carcinogenic transformation of BEAS-2B cells. Studies on more complex models, such as micro tissues in vitro, are necessary to confirm the chemopreventive effect of NR and underlying biochemical changes


Subject(s)
Niacinamide/adverse effects , Carcinogenesis/drug effects , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , In Vitro Techniques/methods , DNA , Chemoprevention/classification , Energy Metabolism , Epithelial Cells/classification
6.
Clinics ; 76: e2498, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153964

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of sorafenib in elderly patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: We analyzed data from a cohort of patients with advanced HCC treated using systemic treatment according to the local institutional protocol. Patients were divided into two groups, Group A, individuals <70 years of age, and Group B, individuals 70 years of age or older at the time of treatment initiation. Efficacy, measured based on overall survival (OS) and time to treatment failure (TTF), and toxicity were compared between groups. RESULTS: A total of 238 patients with advanced HCC who received sorafenib between 2007 and 2018 were evaluated. The median age for Group A was 59.1 years and that for Group B 73.6 years. The major prognostic characteristics were balanced between the groups. There were no significant differences in OS between Group A (8.0 months, 95%CI 6.34-9.3) and Group B (9.0 months, 95%CI 5.38-12.62), p=0.433, or in TTF between Group A (3.0 months, 95%CI 2.39-3.60) and Group B (3.0 months, 95%CI 1.68-4.32), p=0.936. There were no significant differences between Groups A and B with respect to the incidence of adverse events or treatment discontinuation because of toxicity. CONCLUSION: Efficacy and safety of sorafenib did not differ significantly between younger and older patients with HCC. Our data suggest that age alone should not restrict clinical decision-making for patients with advanced HCC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Phenylurea Compounds/adverse effects , Prognosis , Niacinamide/adverse effects , Sorafenib/adverse effects
7.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(2): 150-159, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132431

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Latent HIV-1 is a major hurdle in obtaining HIV-1 sustained virological remission (SVR). Here we explored histone deacetylation inhibition property of nicotinamide (NAM; n = 17) for the first time in comparison to a combination of methyltransferase inhibitors (MTIs; Chaetocin and BIX01294; n = 25) to reactivate latent HIV ex vivo in CD8-depleted PBMCs from antiretroviral treated aviremic individuals. Results: NAM reactivated HIV-1 from 13/17 (76.4%) samples compared to 20/25 (80.0%) using MTIs with mean viral load (VLs) of 4.32 and 3.22 log10 RNA copies/mL, respectively (p = 0.004). Mean purging time after NAM and MTIs stimulation was 5.1 and 6.75 days, respectively (p = 0.73). Viral purging in autologous cultures exhibited blunted HIV recovery with fluctuating VLs followed by a complete viral extinction when expanded in allogenic system. Electron microscopy from five supernatants revealed anomalous viral particles, with lack of complete viral genomes when characterized by ultradeep sequencing through metagenomics approach (n = 4). Conclusion: NAM alone was more potent HIV-1 activator than combination of MTIs, with potential of clinical use.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Quinazolines/pharmacology , Azepines/pharmacology , Virus Activation/drug effects , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/drug effects , Niacinamide/pharmacology , Methyltransferases/antagonists & inhibitors , Piperazines/pharmacology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/virology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , Virus Latency , Viral Load/drug effects , Viral Tropism/drug effects
9.
Journal of the Philippine Dermatological Society ; : 20-34, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876397

ABSTRACT

@#Background: Niacinamide is known for its anti-inflammatory effect and skin penetration capability. Currently, limited studies are available on its efficacy on psoriasis. Objective: This study aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of 4% niacinamide cream on mild to moderate psoriasis. Methods: 40 patients were randomly allocated to 4% niacinamide cream (N), or 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide cream (TAC) or 4% niacinamide cream and 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide cream (N-TAC) for 10 weeks treatment. A 50% improvement in psoriasis area severity index (PASI50) was considered as the primary endpoint of the study. Secondary outcome measures were physician global assessment (PGA), dermatology life quality index (DLQI), and adverse events. PASI and PGA were assessed biweekly. DLQI was assessed at the start and at the end of the study period. Results: PASI50 was achieved in 85% of patients in N-TAC, 75% of patients in TAC and 15% of patients in N. There was no statistical significant difference between groups TAC and N-TAC (p=0.645, Fisher’s exact test). A higher number of patients in N-TAC (31%) achieved PGA1 score or “almost clear” and reached PASI50 earlier (60% at week 4). A higher improvement in DLQI score was seen in N-TAC; however, mean DLQI improvement did not vary by treatment group (p=0.0770). No adverse event was reported for groups TAC and N-TAC while pruritus and erythema were noted in N. Conclusion: Monotherapy of 4% niacinamide cream was not effective in the treatment of mild to moderate psoriasis. The combination N-TAC showed a continuous and sustained improvement of lesions compared to monotherapy TAC.


Subject(s)
Triamcinolone Acetonide , Niacinamide , Psoriasis
10.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 1488-1492, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880773

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the effects of medical ozone oil and urea ointment for prevention and treatment of hand-foot skin reaction (HFSR) caused by sorafenib in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).@*METHODS@#A total of 99 patients diagnosed with advanced HCC according to National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) who were scheduled to receive sorafenib treatment for the first time were enrolled in this study between April, 2018 and January, 2020. The patients were randomized into medical ozone oil group (@*RESULTS@#Eight patients were excluded for poor compliance or protocol violations, leaving a total of 91 patients for analysis, including 44 in medical ozone oil group and 47 in urea ointment group. Sixteen (36.4%) of patients in ozone oil group developed HFSR, a rate significantly lower than that in urea ointment group (57.4%; @*CONCLUSIONS@#Medical ozone oil can significantly reduce the incidence and severity of HFSR to improve the quality of life of HCC patients receiving sorafenib treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Hand-Foot Syndrome/prevention & control , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Niacinamide/therapeutic use , Ozone/therapeutic use , Phenylurea Compounds/adverse effects , Quality of Life , Sorafenib/therapeutic use
11.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e18201, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011651

ABSTRACT

Oxidative stress plays the central role in the pathogenesis and progression of diabetic complications. The present study aims to investigate the beneficial effect of oral administration of flavone baicalein in streptozotocin-nicotinamide (STZ-NA) induced diabetic rats by measuring oxidative stress markers, antioxidant enzyme activities and expression analysis of antioxidant genes. Experimental diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of STZ (55 mg /kg b.wt), 15 min after the i.p. administration of NA. At the end of the experimental period, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), activities of antioxidant enzymes and expression levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured in diabetic rats along with serum biochemical parameters namely total cholesterol (TC), total triglyceride (TG), aspartate transaminase (AST) alanine transaminase (ALT) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Oral administration of baicalein (40 mg/kg b.wt/day) demonstrated a significant ameliorative effect on all studied biochemical and oxidative stress parameters. Biochemical findings were corroborated by qPCR expression analysis which showed significant upregulation of antioxidant genes in diabetic rats. These results suggest that baicalein supplementation may reduce diabetes and its complications by suppressing oxidative stress and enhancing gene expression and antioxidant enzyme activities in diabetic rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Child, Preschool , Rats , Gene Expression , Niacinamide/pharmacology , Flavones/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/prevention & control , Gene Expression/drug effects , Glyburide/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress , Antioxidants/pharmacology
12.
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : 3-10, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741700

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The NAD+ precursor nicotinamide riboside (NR) is a type of vitamin B3 found in cow's milk and yeast-containing food products such as beer. Recent studies suggested that NR prevents hearing loss, high-fat diet-induced obesity, Alzheimer's disease, and mitochondrial myopathy. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of NR on inflammation and mitochondrial biogenesis in AML12 mouse hepatocytes. MATERIALS/METHODS: A subset of hepatocytes was treated with palmitic acid (PA; 250 µM) for 48 h to induce hepatocyte steatosis. The hepatocytes were treated with NR (10 µM and 10 mM) for 24 h with and without PA. The cell viability and the levels of sirtuins, inflammatory markers, and mitochondrial markers were analyzed. RESULTS: Cytotoxicity of NR was examined by PrestoBlue assay. Exposure to NR had no effect on cell viability or morphology. Gene expression of sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and Sirt3 was significantly upregulated by NR in PA-treated hepatocytes. However, Sirt1 activities were increased in hepatocytes treated with low-dose NR. Hepatic pro-inflammatory markers including tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 were decreased in NR-treated cells. NR upregulated anti-inflammatory molecule adiponectin, and, tended to down-regulate hepatokine fetuin-A in PA-treated hepatocytes, suggesting its inverse regulation on these cytokines. NR increased levels of mitochondrial markers including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, uncoupling protein 2, transcription factor A, mitochondrial and mitochondrial DNA in PA-treated hepatocytes. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrated that NR attenuated hepatic inflammation and increased levels of mitochondrial markers in hepatocytes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Adiponectin , alpha-2-HS-Glycoprotein , Alzheimer Disease , Beer , Carnitine O-Palmitoyltransferase , Cell Survival , Cytokines , DNA, Mitochondrial , Fatty Liver , Gene Expression , Hearing Loss , Hepatocytes , Inflammation , Interleukin-6 , Milk , Mitochondria , Mitochondrial Myopathies , Niacin , Niacinamide , Obesity , Organelle Biogenesis , Palmitic Acid , Peroxisomes , Sirtuin 1 , Sirtuins , Transcription Factors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
14.
International Journal of Stem Cells ; : 21-30, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764064

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Embryonic stem (ES) cells have pluripotent ability to differentiate into multiple tissue lineages. SIRT1 is a class III histone deacetylase which modulates chromatin remodeling, gene silencing, cell survival, metabolism, and development. In this study, we examined the effects of SIRT1 inhibitors on the hematopoietic differentiation of mouse ES cells. METHODS AND RESULTS: Treatment with the SIRT1 inhibitors, nicotinamide and splitomicin, during the hematopoietic differentiation of ES cells enhanced the production of hematopoietic progenitors and slightly up-regulated erythroid and myeloid specific gene expression. Furthermore, treatment with splitomicin increased the percentage of erythroid and myeloid lineage cells. CONCLUSIONS: Application of the SIRT1 inhibitor splitomicin during ES cell differentiation to hematopoietic cells enhanced the yield of specific hematopoietic lineage cells from ES cells. This result suggests that SIRT1 is involved in the regulation of hematopoietic differentiation of specific lineages and that the modulation of the SIRT1 activity can be a strategy to enhance the efficiency of hematopoietic differentiation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Cell Differentiation , Cell Survival , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Gene Expression , Gene Silencing , Histone Deacetylases , Metabolism , Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells , Niacinamide
15.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 562-569, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763045

ABSTRACT

Niacinamide (NIA) is a water-soluble vitamin that is widely used in the treatment of skin diseases. Moreover, NIA displays antioxidant effects and helps repair damaged DNA. Recent studies showed that particulate matter 2.5 (PM(2.5)) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), causing disruption of DNA, lipids, and protein, mitochondrial depolarization, and apoptosis of skin keratinocytes. Here, we investigated the protective effects of NIA on PM(2.5)-induced oxidative stress in human HaCaT keratinocytes. We found that NIA could inhibit the ROS generation induced by PM(2.5), as well block the PM(2.5)-induced oxidation of molecules, such as lipids, proteins, and DNA. Furthermore, NIA alleviated PM(2.5)-induced accumulation of cellular Ca²⁺, which caused cell membrane depolarization and apoptosis, and reduced the number of apoptotic cells. Collectively, the findings show that NIA can protect keratinocytes from PM(2.5)-induced oxidative stress and cell damage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antioxidants , Apoptosis , Cell Membrane , DNA , Keratinocytes , Mitochondrial Proteins , Niacinamide , Oxidative Stress , Particulate Matter , Reactive Oxygen Species , Skin Diseases , Skin , Vitamins
16.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 551-562, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765968

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) often report poor sleep quality. Whether poor sleep is associated with tryptophan (Trp) metabolites is unknown. We compared serum Trp metabolites in women with IBS and healthy controls (HCs) using targeted liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based profiling. In IBS only, we explored whether Trp metabolites are associated with IBS symptoms and subjective and objective sleep indices, serum cortisol, plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and cortisol/ACTH levels. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained every 80 minutes in 21 HCs and 38 IBS subjects following an anticipation-of-public-speaking stressor during a sleep laboratory protocol. Subjects completed symptom diaries for 28 days. Adjacent values of metabolites were averaged to represent 4 time-periods: awake, early sleep, mid-sleep, and mid-to-late sleep. Thirteen of 20 targeted Trp metabolites were identified. RESULTS: Ten of 13 Trp metabolites decreased across the night, while nicotinamide increased in both groups. A MANOVA omnibus test performed after principal component analysis showed a significant difference in these 13 principal component (P = 0.014) between groups. Compared to HCs, nicotinamide levels were higher and indole-3-lactic acid levels lower in the IBS group. Melatonin and indole-3-acetic acid levels were associated with several subjective/objective sleep measures; decreased stool consistency/frequency and abdominal pain were positively associated with melatonin and serotonin in the IBS group. The kynurenine and kynurenic acid were associated with ACTH (positively) and cortisol/ACTH (negatively). CONCLUSIONS: Nighttime Trp metabolites may provide clues to poor sleep and stress with IBS. Further study of the mechanism of metabolite action is warranted.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Abdominal Pain , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Chromatography, Liquid , Hydrocortisone , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Kynurenic Acid , Kynurenine , Mass Spectrometry , Melatonin , Niacinamide , Plasma , Principal Component Analysis , Serotonin , Tryptophan
17.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e149-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764986

ABSTRACT

We analyzed Clonorchis sinensis ancient DNA (aDNA) acquired from the specimens of the Joseon mummies. The target regions were cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen (NADH) dehydrogenase subunits 2 (NAD2) and 5 (NAD5). The sequences of C. sinensis aDNA was completely or almost identical to modern C. sinensis sequences in GenBank. We also found that ITS1, NAD2 and NAD5 could be good markers for molecular diagnosis between C. sinensis and the other trematode parasite species. The current result could improve our knowledge about genetic history of C. sinensis.


Subject(s)
Clonorchis sinensis , Cytochromes c , Cytochromes , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Diagnosis , DNA , Electron Transport Complex IV , Hydrogen , Mummies , NAD , Niacinamide , Oxidoreductases , Parasites , Republic of Korea
18.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 875-882, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773518

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the role of E26 transformation-specific variant 4 (ETV4) in sorafenib and cisplatin resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).@*METHODS@#HCC cell lines SMMC-7721 and HCC-LM3 were transfected with an ETV4- overexpressing plasmid or small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting ETV4. The cells with ETV4 overexpression or ETV4 interference were treated with DMSO, sorafenib (5 μmol/L) or cisplatin (5 μmol/L) for 48 h, and the total protein and total RNA were collected. Western blotting, flow cytometry, EdU proliferation assay were used to analyze the apoptosis and proliferation of the cells. We also obtained clinical specimens of HCC tissues and paired adjacent tissues from 11 patients for detecting ETV4 mRNA expression levels using real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (q-PCR). The effect of ETV4 interference on the mRNA expression levels of immediate early response gene 3 (IER3) was examined in HCC cells that were treated with DMSO, sorafenib or cisplatin for 48 h.@*RESULTS@#The expression of ETV4 mRNA was significantly higher in HCC tissues than in the paired adjacent tissues. Overexpression of ETV4 in the HCC cell lines obviously inhibited cell apoptosis induced by sorafenib or cisplatin. Conversely, ETV4 interference significantly enhanced the apoptosis and inhibited the proliferation of the HCC cells following treatments with sorafenib or cisplatin. In addition, ETV4 regulated the mRNA expression levels of IER3 in the cells treatmed with sorafenib and cisplatin.@*CONCLUSIONS@#ETV4 promotes resistance of HCC cells to sorafenib or cisplatin .


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Cisplatin , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Liver Neoplasms , Membrane Proteins , Niacinamide , Phenylurea Compounds , Sorafenib
19.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 135 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049441

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A suplementação com ácido fólico (AF) é recomendada em algumas condições para evitar a deficiência de folato, como para mulheres no período periconcepcional e durante a gestação. Atualmente, existe uma preocupação quanto ao consumo excessivo de AF pela população pelo uso de suplementos com altas doses dessa vitamina. As vitaminas B6 e B2 agem como cofatores no metabolismo de um carbono, e o uso de altas doses de AF pode influenciar o metabolismo de ambas vitaminas e, consequentemente, interferir em metabolismos importantes das quais elas participam, como a via das quinureninas, e no sistema imune. Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos da intervenção diária com uma alta dose de AF (5 mg) por 90 dias sobre marcadores do estado das vitaminas do complexo B, e as consequências sobre os metabólitos da via das quinureninas e o sistema imune em adultos saudáveis. Material e Métodos: 64 indivíduos saudáveis foram submetidos à intervenção diária com 5 mg de AF por 90 dias. Coletas de sangue foram realizadas antes (baseline) e após 45 e 90 dias de intervenção. As concentrações séricas de folato e vitamina B12 foram avaliadas por métodos microbiológicos. As concentrações séricas das vitaminas B6 (piridoxal 5'-fosfato (PLP), piridoxal (PL) e ácido 4-piridóxico (PA)), B2 (riboflavina e flavina mononucleotídeo (FMN)), B1 (tiamina e tiamina monofosfato (TMP)) e B3 (ácido nicotínico, nicotinamida e N1-metilnicotinamida), bem como de triptofano, quinurenina e metabólitos, foram avaliadas por LC-MS/MS. A proteína C-reativa ultrassensível (PCRus) foi determinada por imunoturbidimetria, e as concentrações séricas de interleucina (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon gama (IFN-γ) e fator de necrose tumoral alfa (TNF-α) foram avaliadas por ensaio multiplex. A expressão de RNAm de DHFR (dihidrofolato redutase), MTHFR (metilenotetrahidrofolato redutase), IL8, TNFA e IFNG em leucócitos mononucleares (PBMC) foram avaliadas por PCR em tempo real. O número de células T regulatórias (Treg) (CD3+, CD4+, CD25high, FoxP3+, CD127-) foi avaliado após incubação dos PBMC com PMA e ionomicina ou veículo por 18h, por imunofenotipagem. Resultados: Houve um grande aumento das concentrações de folato sérico após 45 e 90 dias de intervenção com AF. Não houve diferença nas concentrações de vitamina B12 antes e após a intervenção. As concentrações séricas de PLP foram semelhantes antes e após a intervenção, entretanto, um aumento de PL sérico foi observado após 45 e 90 dias, e de PA após 45 dias, quando comparado ao baseline. Riboflavina e FMN foram maiores após 45 e 90 dias em relação ao baseline. A tiamina sérica foi menor após 45 dias, e as concentrações de TMP foram maiores após 90 dias quando comparados aos períodos anteriores. Não houve diferença nas concentrações de vitamina B3 antes e após a intervenção. Dentre os metabólitos da via das quinureninas, apenas o ácido antranílico apresentou aumento após 45 e 90 dias, enquanto o ácido picolínico diminuiu após 90 dias. PCRus, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-γ e TNF-α séricos foram semelhantes no baseline e após a intervenção. Um aumento da expressão de RNAm de DHFR e TNFA foi observado após, respectivamente, 90 dias e 45 e 90 dias de intervenção. Após 90 dias de intervenção com AF, foi observada diminuição do número de células Treg após estímulo com PMA e ionomicina. Conclusão: O uso diário de 5 mg de AF foi associado a alterações nas concentrações séricas de marcadores do estado de vitaminas do complexo B e da via das quinureninas, bem como a diminuição do número de células Treg


Introduction: Folic acid (FA) supplementation is recommended in some conditions to avoid folate deficiency, as women during periconceptional period and pregnancy. Currently, there is a concern about the excessive consumption of FA by population by using supplements with high doses of this vitamin. Vitamins B6 and B2 are cofactors of enzymes of one carbon metabolism and, consequently, may disturb key metabolism in which they participate, as kynurenine pathway, and the immune system. Aim: To assess the effects of a daily intervention with high dose of FA (5 mg) for 90 days on biomarkers of complex B vitamins status and its outcomes in kynurenine pathway metabolites and immune system in healthy adults. Material and Methods: 64 healthy individuals were submitted to a daily intervention with 5 mg of FA for 90 days. Blood samples were collected before (baseline) and after 45 and 90 days of intervention. Serum folate and vitamin B12 were assessed by microbiological assays. Serum vitamin B6 (pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), pyridoxal (PL) and 4-pyridoxic acid (PA)), vitamin B2 (riboflavin and flavin mononucleotide (FMN)), vitamin B1 (thiamin and thiamin monophosphate)) and vitamin B3 (nicotinic acid, nicotinamide and N1-methylnicotinamide), as well as tryptophan, kynurenine and metabolites, were assessed by LC-MS/MS. C-reactive protein (hs-CPR) was assessed by immunoturbidimetry, and serum interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were assessed by multiplex assay. Mononuclear leukocytes mRNA expression of DHFR (dihydrofolate reductase), MTHFR (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase), IL8, TNFA and IFNG were assessed by real time PCR. Regulatory T Cell (Treg) number (CD3+, CD4+, CD25high, FoxP3+, CD127-) was determined after mononuclear leukocytes incubation with PMA and ionomycin or vehicle for 18h, by immunophenotyping. Results: A great increase on serum folate was observed after 45 and 90 days of FA intervention. No differences in serum vitamin B12 were observed before and after intervention. Serum PLP was similar before and after intervention, however, an increase in serum PL was observed after 45 and 90 days, and in PA after 45 days, when compared to baseline. Riboflavin and FMN were increased after 45 and 90 days than in baseline. Serum thiamine was decreased after 45 days than in baseline. Serum TMP was increased after 90 days when compared with previous timepoints. No differences in vitamin B3 were observed after and before FA intervention. Among kynurenine pathway metabolites, anthranilic acid was increased after 45 and 90 days, while picolinic acid was decreased after 90 days. hs-CPR, serum IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-γ and TNF-α were similar at baseline and after intervention. An increase on mRNA expression of DHFR and TNFA was observed after, respectively, 90 days and 45 and 90 days of intervention. After 90 days of FA intervention, it was observed a decrease on Treg cell number after PMA and ionomycin stimulation. Conclusion: Daily use of 5 mg of FA was associated with changes in serum markers of B-complex vitamins status and kynurenine pathway, as well as decreased number of Treg cells


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Riboflavin/pharmacokinetics , Vitamin B 6/pharmacokinetics , Folic Acid/administration & dosage , Folic Acid/analysis , Thiamine/pharmacokinetics , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/classification , Niacinamide/pharmacokinetics , Kynurenine/pharmacokinetics
20.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(3): 370-375, May-June 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950060

ABSTRACT

Summary Total thyroidectomy, radioiodine (RAI) therapy, and TSH suppression are the mainstay treatment for differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTCs). Treatments for metastatic disease include surgery, external-beam radiotherapy, RAI, and kinase inhibitors for progressive iodine-refractory disease. Unresectable locoregional disease remains a challenge, as standard therapy with RAI becomes unfeasible. We report a case of a young patient who presented with unresectable papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and treatment with sorafenib allowed total thyroidectomy and RAI therapy. A 20-year-old male presented with severe respiratory distress due to an enlarging cervical mass. Imaging studies revealed an enlarged multinodular thyroid gland, extensive cervical adenopathy, severe tracheal stenosis, and pulmonary micronodules. He required an urgent surgical intervention and underwent tracheostomy and partial left neck dissection, as the disease was deemed unresectable; pathology revealed PTC. Treatment with sorafenib was initiated, resulting in significant tumor reduction allowing near total thyroidectomy and bilateral neck dissection. Postoperatively, the patient underwent radiotherapy for residual tracheal lesion, followed by RAI therapy for avid cervical and pulmonary disease. The patient's disease remains stable 4 years after diagnosis. Sorafenib has been approved for progressive RAI-refractory metastatic DTCs. In this case report, we describe a patient with locally advanced PTC in whom treatment with sorafenib provided sufficient tumor reduction to allow thyroidectomy and RAI therapy, suggesting a potential role of sorafenib as an induction therapy of unresectable DTC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Phenylurea Compounds/administration & dosage , Thyroid Neoplasms/therapy , Carcinoma, Papillary/therapy , Niacinamide/analogs & derivatives , Iodine Radioisotopes/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma, Papillary/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Niacinamide/administration & dosage , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Sorafenib , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL