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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 269-279, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008094

ABSTRACT

Plant bioreactor is a new production platform for expression of recombinant protein, which is one of the cores of molecular farming. In this study, the anti DYKDDDDK (FLAG) antibody was recombinantly expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) and purified. FLAG antibody with high affinity was obtained after immunizing mice for several times and its sequence was determined. Based on this, virus vectors expressing heavy chain (HC) and light chain (LC) inoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana leaves by using Agrobacterium-mediated delivery. Accumulation of the HC and LC was analyzed by SDS/PAGE followed by Western blotting probed with specific antibodies from 2 to 9 days postinfiltration (dpi). Accumulation of the FLAG antibody displayed at 3 dpi, and reached a maximum at 5 dpi. It was estimated that 66 mg of antibody per kilogram of fresh leaves could be obtained. After separation and purification, the antibody was concentrated to 1 mg/mL. The 1:10 000 diluted antibody can probe with 1 ng/mL FLAG fused antigen well, indicating the high affinity of the FLAG antibody produced in plants. In conclusion, the plant bioreactor is able to produce high affinity FLAG antibodies, with the characteristics of simplicity, low cost and highly added value, which contains enormous potential for the rapid and abundant biosynthesis of antibodies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Antibodies , Nicotiana/genetics , Agrobacterium/genetics , Bioreactors , Blotting, Western
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 226-238, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008091

ABSTRACT

TCP family as plant specific transcription factor, plays an important role in different aspects of plant development. In order to screen TCP family members in tobacco, the homologous sequences of tobacco and Arabidopsis TCP family were identified by genome-wide homologous alignment. The physicochemical properties, phylogenetic relationships and cis-acting elements were analyzed by bioinformatics. The homologous genes of AtTCP3/AtTCP4 were screened, and RT-qPCR was used to detect the changes of gene expression upon 20% PEG6000 treatment. The results show that tobacco contains 63 TCP family members. Their amino acid sequence length ranged from 89 aa to 596 aa, and their protein hydropathicity grand average of hydropathicity (GRAVY) ranged from -1.147 to 0.125. The isoelectric point (pI) ranges from 4.42 to 9.94, the number of introns is 0 to 3, and the subcellular location is all located in the nucleus. The results of conserved domain and phylogenetic relationship analysis showed that the tobacco TCP family can be divided into PCF, CIN and CYC/TB1 subfamilies, and each subfamily has a stable sequence. The results of cis-acting elements in gene promoter region showed that TCP family genes contain low docile acting elements (LTR) and a variety of stress and metabolic regulation related elements (MYB, MYC). Analysis of gene expression patterns showed that AtTCP3/AtTCP4 homologous genes (NtTCP6, NtTCP28, NtTCP30, NtTCP33, NtTCP42, NtTCP57, NtTCP63) accounted for 20% PEG6000 treatment significantly up-regulated/down-regulated expression, and NtTCP30 and NtTCP57 genes were selected as candidate genes in response to drought. The results of this study analyzed the TCP family in the tobacco genome and provided candidate genes for the study of drought-resistance gene function and variety breeding in tobacco.


Subject(s)
Nicotiana/genetics , Phylogeny , Plant Breeding , Amino Acid Sequence , Arabidopsis , Polyethylene Glycols
3.
Rev. Ciênc. Saúde ; 13(2): 11-18, Junho 2023.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1444163

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Estimar a prevalência e investigar fatores associados aos problemas do sono em adultos cadastrados na Estratégia de Saúde da Família em 2016.Métodos: Estudo transversal, amostral, com 791 indivíduos, com idade igual ou superior a 18 anos, realizado entre 2017 e 2018. Os problemas de sono foram mensurados pelo Mini Sleep Questionnaire, questionário validado no Brasil.Resultados: A prevalência de problemas de sono foi de 49,6%. Destes, 10,4% tiveram alterações leves, 7,6% moderadas e 31,6% graves. Observou-se associação estatisticamente significante entre não ter uma atividade de trabalho remunerada, não ter atividade de lazer, hábito de fumar, presença de doença crônica e autoavaliação negativa da saúde com os problemas do sono.Conclusão: Observou-se elevada prevalência de problemas de sono. Esses resultados podem contribuir para uma melhor compreensão dos problemas do sono na população adulta e, assim, colaborar com a adoção de medidas mais eficazes para o enfrentamento desse problema


Objective: To estimate the prevalence and investigate factors associated with sleep problems in adults enrolled in the Family Health Strategy in 2016. Methods: Cross-sectional sample study with 791 individuals aged 18 years or over, carried out between 2017 and 2018. Sleep problems were measured using the Mini Sleep Questionnaire, a questionnaire validated in Brazil. Results: The prevalence of sleep problems was 49.6%. Of these, 10.4% had mild, 7.6% moderate, and 31.6% severe alterations. There was a statistically significant association between not having a paid work activity, not having leisure activities, smoking, chronic disease, and negative self-assessment of health with sleep problems. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of sleep problems. These results can contribute to a better understanding of sleep problems in the adult population and, thus, collaborate with adopting more effective measures to treat them


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Sleep , Surveys and Questionnaires , Nicotiana , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sampling Studies , Leisure Activities/psychology
4.
J. Public Health Africa (Online) ; 14(11): 1-7, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1530614

ABSTRACT

Tobacco and alcohol use during pregnancy has negative consequences for the fetus. The study's purpose was to investigate the practices of pregnant women regarding the use of tobacco and alcohol during pregnancy. A quantita tive research approach with a descriptive, cross sectional, analytical design was used. The population was all pregnant women aged 18 years and above attending antenatal care at the Mariental clinic. Written informed consent was obtained from all respondents prior to data collection. Data was collected from 211 respondents selected through a systematic sampling. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package of the Social Sciences version 27. Descriptive statistics were used for frequencies and percentages. Fisher's Exact test at 0.05 alpha level was used to determine the association between variables. The mean age was 28.8, with a standard deviation of 6.9 years. Most participants, 92 (43.6%), were aged between 18 and 24 years. The majority, 186 (88.15%), were in the third trimester of pregnancy, and 154 (73%) were single. Most, 148 (70.14%), respondents have good practices towards alcohol use during pregnancy. Moreover, 190(90 %) of the respondents were classified as having good practices towards tobacco use in pregnancy. Educational levels showed a significant association with practices towards tobacco smoking (P=0.042). The study concluded good practices among pregnant women on alcohol and tobacco smoking during pregnancy. It is recommended that health facilities should introduce awareness campaigns on the dangers of alcohol and tobacco use during pregnancy. Moreover, educational materials should be developed in local languages and distributed to the community.


Subject(s)
Nicotiana , Alcohol Drinking , Pregnant Women
5.
Ann. afr. med ; 22(3): 333-339, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1537992

ABSTRACT

Background: The Nigerian government implemented the National Tobacco Control Act (NTCA) in 2015, which prohibits tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS) exposure to children under 18 years of age. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of attitudes and exposure to TAPS among in school adolescents in Lagos State, Nigeria, 5 years after the implementation of the Act and to identify the factors associated with TAPS exposure among the adolescents. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 968 in school adolescents selected through multistage random sampling. The data were collected using self-administered questionnaires adapted from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Results: Overall, 77% had been exposed to at least one form of TAPS in the past 30 days. The most frequently reported channel of exposure was through product placements, with 62% reporting exposure in films, TV, and videos. Up to 15.2% and 12.6% were exposed to TAPS through promotional activities and sponsorships, respectively. The majority (82.3%) had pro tobacco attitudes, while about a third (33.1%) had pro TAPS attitudes. Factors associated with TAPS exposure were having pro TAPS attitudes (odds ratio [OR]: 3.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.3­5.3), being female (OR: 2, 95% CI: 1.4­2.7), and residing in a rural area (OR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2­2.3). Conclusion: Five years after implementing the NTCA, more than two thirds of the adolescents reported exposure to TAPS, mainly through films, TV, and videos. This suggests that the NTCA is poorly enforced. Efforts to ensure the effective implementation of comprehensive TAPS bans are warranted. Gender sensitive strategies that target adolescents' attitudes and school level factors should be emphasized.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Nicotiana , Cross-Sectional Studies , Adolescent , Tobacco Smoking
6.
S. Afr. respir. j ; 29(1): 6-11, 2023. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1437395

ABSTRACT

Background.The tobacco epidemic is one of the biggest public health threats the world has ever faced. Shisha use has recently been gaining increased popularity in many developed and developing countries.Objective. To determine the prevalence of shisha use among students in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, and associated knowledge, smoking practices and beliefs about health effects.Method. A total of 443 students were selected for this cross-sectional study, using a stratified sampling method. Data on shisha use, knowledge about shisha, shisha smoking practices, and factors associated with use of shisha were collected via a questionnaire. The association between the independent variables and shisha use was assessed using a χ2 test (p<0.05). Binary logistic regression analysis was used to determine variables that were independently associated with shisha smoking.Results.Of the 421 respondents, 162 (38.5%) indicated that they had smoked shisha; 14.0% were regular smokers. We found that 183 students (43.5%) had poor knowledge about the health effects of shisha. The main reasons for shisha smoking were being in the company of friends who were users (57.4%), the pleasant flavour and fragrance of shisha (25.9%), and fashion (22.2%). Ninety-nine shisha smokers (61.1%) also consumed alcohol. Factors associated with shisha smoking included age <20 years (p<0.001), gender (p=0.034), and educational level of the respondent's father (p=0.0001) and mother (p=0.0004).Conclusion. We found a relatively high prevalence of shisha smoking among the students, and that 43.5% of them had poor knowledge about its effects on health. Developing surveillance, intervention and regulatory/policy frameworks specific to shisha has become a public health priority.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Students , Nicotiana , Tobacco Use Disorder , Smoking , Public Health Practice , Cross-Sectional Studies , Smoking Water Pipes , Culture
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-8, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468956

ABSTRACT

Hybridization and Polyploidization are most common of the phenomenon observed in plants, especially in the genus Nicotiana leading to the duplication of genome. Although genomic changes associated with these events has been studied at various levels but the genome size and GC content variation is less understood because of absence of sufficient genomic data. In this study the flow cytometry technique was used to uncover the genome size and GC contents of 46 Nicotiana species and we compared the genomic changes associated with the hybridization events along evolutionary time scale. The genome size among Nicotiana species varied between 3.28 pg and 11.88 pg whereas GC contents varied between 37.22% and 51.25%. The tetraploid species in genus Nicotiana including section Polydiclae, Repandae, Nicotiana, Rustica and Sauveolentes revealed both up and downsizing in their genome sizes when compared to the sum of genomes of their ancestral species. The genome sizes of three homoploid hybrids were found near their ancestral species. Loss of large genome sequence was observed in the evolutionary more aged species (>10 Myr) as compared to the recently evolved one’s (<0.2 Myr). The GC contents were found homogenous with a mean difference of 2.46% among the Nicotiana species. It is concluded that genome size change appeared in either direction whereas the GC contents were found more homogenous in genus Nicotiana.


A hibridização e a poliploidização são os fenômenos mais comuns observados em plantas, principalmente no gênero Nicotiana, levando à duplicação do genoma. Embora as mudanças genômicas associadas a esses eventos tenham sido estudadas em vários níveis, o tamanho do genoma e a variação do conteúdo de GC são menos compreendidos devido à ausência de dados genômicos suficientes. Neste estudo, a técnica de citometria de fluxo foi usada para descobrir o tamanho do genoma e o conteúdo de GC de 46 espécies de Nicotiana, e comparamos as mudanças genômicas associadas aos eventos de hibridização ao longo da escala de tempo evolutiva. O tamanho do genoma entre as espécies de Nicotiana variou entre 3,28 pg e 11,88 pg, enquanto os conteúdos de GC variaramentre 37,22% e 51,25%. As espécies tetraploides do gênero Nicotiana, incluindo as seções Polydiclae, Repandae, Nicotiana, Rustica e Sauveolentes, revelaram aumento e redução do tamanho do genoma quando comparados à soma dos genomas de suas espécies ancestrais. Os tamanhos do genoma de três híbridos homoploides foram encontrados perto de suas espécies ancestrais. A perda da grande sequência do genoma foi observada nas espécies evolutivas mais velhas (> 10 Myr) em comparação com as que evoluíram recentemente (< 0,2 Myr). Os teores de GC foram homogêneos com diferença média de 2,46% entre as espécies de Nicotiana. Conclui-se que a mudança no tamanho do genoma apareceu em ambas as direções, enquanto os conteúdos de GC foram encontrados mais homogêneos no gênero Nicotiana.


Subject(s)
Flow Cytometry/methods , Genome , Cell Separation/methods , Nicotiana/genetics , Genome Size
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245372, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339409

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hybridization and Polyploidization are most common of the phenomenon observed in plants, especially in the genus Nicotiana leading to the duplication of genome. Although genomic changes associated with these events has been studied at various levels but the genome size and GC content variation is less understood because of absence of sufficient genomic data. In this study the flow cytometry technique was used to uncover the genome size and GC contents of 46 Nicotiana species and we compared the genomic changes associated with the hybridization events along evolutionary time scale. The genome size among Nicotiana species varied between 3.28 pg and 11.88 pg whereas GC contents varied between 37.22% and 51.25%. The tetraploid species in genus Nicotiana including section Polydiclae, Repandae, Nicotiana, Rustica and Sauveolentes revealed both up and downsizing in their genome sizes when compared to the sum of genomes of their ancestral species. The genome sizes of three homoploid hybrids were found near their ancestral species. Loss of large genome sequence was observed in the evolutionary more aged species (>10 Myr) as compared to the recently evolved one's (<0.2 Myr). The GC contents were found homogenous with a mean difference of 2.46% among the Nicotiana species. It is concluded that genome size change appeared in either direction whereas the GC contents were found more homogenous in genus Nicotiana.


Resumo A hibridização e a poliploidização são os fenômenos mais comuns observados em plantas, principalmente no gênero Nicotiana, levando à duplicação do genoma. Embora as mudanças genômicas associadas a esses eventos tenham sido estudadas em vários níveis, o tamanho do genoma e a variação do conteúdo de GC são menos compreendidos devido à ausência de dados genômicos suficientes. Neste estudo, a técnica de citometria de fluxo foi usada para descobrir o tamanho do genoma e o conteúdo de GC de 46 espécies de Nicotiana, e comparamos as mudanças genômicas associadas aos eventos de hibridização ao longo da escala de tempo evolutiva. O tamanho do genoma entre as espécies de Nicotiana variou entre 3,28 pg e 11,88 pg, enquanto os conteúdos de GC variaram entre 37,22% e 51,25%. As espécies tetraploides do gênero Nicotiana, incluindo as seções Polydiclae, Repandae, Nicotiana, Rustica e Sauveolentes, revelaram aumento e redução do tamanho do genoma quando comparados à soma dos genomas de suas espécies ancestrais. Os tamanhos do genoma de três híbridos homoploides foram encontrados perto de suas espécies ancestrais. A perda da grande sequência do genoma foi observada nas espécies evolutivas mais velhas (> 10 Myr) em comparação com as que evoluíram recentemente (< 0,2 Myr). Os teores de GC foram homogêneos com diferença média de 2,46% entre as espécies de Nicotiana. Conclui-se que a mudança no tamanho do genoma apareceu em ambas as direções, enquanto os conteúdos de GC foram encontrados mais homogêneos no gênero Nicotiana.


Subject(s)
Nicotiana/genetics , Genome, Plant/genetics , Phylogeny , Base Composition , Genome Size
9.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 575-583, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980762

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To systematically review the efficacy of acupuncture for the treatment of tobacco withdrawal syndrome.@*METHODS@#The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding acupuncture for treatment of tobacco withdrawal syndrome were searched in CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, SinoMed, PubMed, Cochrane, Medline and EMbase databases. The search period was from January 1st of 2011 to December 31st of 2021. After data extraction and bias risk assessment of the included literature, the Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan5.4.1 software.@*RESULTS@#Totally 23 RCTs were included, including 2 120 patients. The Meta-analysis results showed that compared with medication, acupuncture showed no significant difference at improving Fagerström test for nicotine dependence (FTND) score (MD=0.16, 95%CI: -0.08, 0.41), heaviness of smoking index (HSI) score (MD=0.11, 95%CI: -0.13, 0.36), Minnesota nicotine withdrawal scale (MNWS) score (MD=0.12, 95%CI: -0.11, 1.35), questionnaire of smoking urges (QSU) score (MD=-0.30, 95%CI: -2.78, 2.18), Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) score (MD=0.76, 95%CI: -1.54, 3.06), abstinence rate (RR=0.95, 95% CI: 0.82, 1.10) and effective rate (RR=1.01, 95%CI: 0.95, 1.07). Acupuncture was superior to sham acupuncture in reducing MNWS score (MD=-4.88, 95%CI: -5.21, -4.55, P<0.000 01). Acupuncture was superior to cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing FTND score (MD=-1.41, 95%CI: -1.74, -1.08), MNWS score (MD=-4.28, 95%CI: -5.31, -3.25) and increasing abstinence rate (RR=2.19, 95%CI: 1.39, 3.45, P<0.000 01, P<0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture could effectively improve tobacco withdrawal syndrome, increase abstinence rate and effective rate. Limited by the quantity and quality of the included studies, this conclusion needs to be verified by more studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nicotiana , Acupuncture Therapy , Syndrome , Nicotine , Smoking
10.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 5-5, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Heated tobacco product (HTP) use has increased substantially between 2016 and 2017 in Japan. This study aims to clarify how HTP use (IQOS, Ploom, and glo) spread across the different combustible cigarette smoking statuses during 2015-16 and 2017-18 in Japan.@*METHODS@#We compared the two periods of (i) 2015 to 2016 (N = 5,366) and (ii) 2017 to 2018 (N = 3,422) from a longitudinal study randomly sampling members from the Japan "Society and New Tobacco" Internet Survey (JASTIS). Multivariable logistic regression models for current HTP use in the previous 30 days by combustible cigarette smoking status in the previous year were used adjusting for socio-demographic factors.@*RESULTS@#HTP use increased by 10 times in the 2017-18 cohort compared with the 2015-16 cohort according to the adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for current HTP use as 10.2 (7.03-14.8). According to smoking status, significantly higher adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of current HTP use for the after period were observed: 2.60 (1.37-4.94) for never smokers, 7.82 (3.64-16.8) for former smokers, 21.1 (5.73-77.9) for current smokers with intention to quit, and 17.0 (9.58-30.3) for current smokers without intention to quit.@*CONCLUSION@#During 2015 to 2018 in Japan, HTP use dramatically increased in all subgroups except for never smokers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Tobacco Products , Nicotiana , Cigarette Smoking , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2762-2771, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981231

ABSTRACT

Galactinol synthase (GolS) genes play important roles in plant response to abiotic stress. In this research, the plant expression vector of soybean GmGolS2-2 gene was constructed and transformed into tobacco to study the drought tolerance of transgenic tobacco. A GmGolS2-2 gene with 975 bp coding sequence was cloned from soybean leaves by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). GmGolS2-2 was linked to the plant expression vector pRI101 by restriction enzyme sites Nde Ⅰ and EcoR Ⅰ, and transformed into tobacco by leaf disc method. Genomic DNA PCR and real-time PCR showed that three GmGolS2-2 transgenic tobacco plants were obtained. The growth status of GmGolS2-2 transgenic tobacco under drought stress was better than that of wild-type tobacco. After drought stress treatment, the electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde content of transgenic tobacco were lower than those of wild-type tobacco, but the proline content and soluble sugar content were higher than those of wild-type tobacco. The results of real-time PCR showed that the heterologous expression of GmGolS2-2 increased the expression of stress-related genes NtERD10C and NtAQP1 in transgenic tobacco. The above results indicated that GmGolS2-2 improved drought resistance of transgenic tobacco.


Subject(s)
Drought Resistance , Nicotiana/genetics , Glycine max/genetics , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Stress, Physiological/genetics , Droughts , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
12.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1448805

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the potential determinants of tobacco counseling implementation among oral health professionals in India. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among the 298 dentists of Aligarh and Gwalior. The questionnaire used in the study had sections on dentists' sociodemographic data and a 35-item questionnaire to assess the potential determinants of tobacco cessation counseling. Descriptive statistics were carried out, and a Chi-square test was utilized to determine the association. P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Domains "knowledge", "Professional Responsibility and Identity", and "Remembrance, awareness, and judgment" showed a statistically significant correlation with most tobacco cessation counseling behaviors. In addition, undergraduate education received in Tobacco Cessation counseling, and Continuing education received in Tobacco Cessation counseling had significantly impacted the practice of tobacco cessation counseling (p=0.02 and 0.04, respectively). Conclusion: This study suggests that "Knowledge", "Professional Responsibility and Identity" and "Remembrance, awareness, and judgment" are the potential determinants that could be used to design effective strategies to enhance tobacco counseling among dentists in India.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Nicotiana/adverse effects , Oral Health/education , Tobacco Use Cessation , Tobacco Use Disorder/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Health Policy , India/epidemiology
13.
Estud. Psicol. (Campinas, Online) ; 40: e230009, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1520893

ABSTRACT

É preocupante notar que os usuários sigam usando o narguilé, embora a literatura aponte que o seu uso cause danos irreversíveis à saúde. Esse estudo avaliou a percepção dos usuários de narguilé e a interferência do seu consumo sobre a saúde. Método Esse é um estudo qualitativo. Uma amostra intencional de usuários foi recrutada. Os participantes responderam a uma entrevista semiestruturada. Todas as entrevistas foram avaliadas pelo método de análise de conteúdo. Resultados A maioria dos discursos apontou que os entrevistados conhecem os malefícios à saúde advindos do uso de narguilé. Entretanto, os efeitos sobre a saúde mental raramente foram lembrados pelos entrevistados, embora muitos deles já estivessem em uso problemático de tabaco, álcool e ou de outras drogas. A percepção de controle sobre o uso, o poder reforçador dos efeitos e a ausência de experiências pessoais negativas com o narguilé são importantes motivadores para seguir o uso. Conclusão Campanhas educativas e medidas para a redução e o controle do uso devem ser encorajadas.


Although the scientific literature show that waterpipe tobacco smoking causes irreversible damage to health, users continue to use it. Method This study evaluates the users' perceptions about the effect of this consumption on health. This is a qualitative study. A purposeful sample of current users was recruited. Participants were invited to undertake an in-depth semi-structured interview. The interviews were evaluated by content analysis method. Results Most speeches pointed out that the interviewees are aware of the harm to health from using waterpipe tobacco smoking. Although most interviewees were already developing a problematic use of tobacco, alcohol or other drugs, they rarely related waterpipe tobacco smoking with mental health consequences. The essential motivators for its continued use were the perception of control over waterpipe tobacco smoking use, the reinforcing tobacco effects, and the absence of negative health experiences in life. Conclusion Understand that educational campaigns and control measures should be encouraged.


Subject(s)
Nicotiana , Cross-Sectional Studies , Qualitative Research , Smoking Water Pipes
14.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1537449

ABSTRACT

O Rio Grande do Sul se destaca no cultivo do fumo, sendo o estado brasileiro responsável pela maior produção de tabaco do país. Pesquisas apontam que o cultivo do tabaco pode ser bastante insalubre, levando os fumicultores a sofrerem com doenças decorrentes da produção de fumo. Dentre esses problemas de saúde, o suicídio é alarmante. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo analisar como as relações econômicas com as fumageiras podem impactar a saúde mental de fumicultores, contribuindo para desfechos desfavoráveis no caso das famílias entrevistadas. Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas com familiares de fumicultores que cometeram suicídio e atores sociais que acompanham esses agricultores. As entrevistas foram analisadas de acordo com o método fenomenológico interpretativo e os resultados foram agrupados em duas categorias de análise: 1) fumicultura como parte constituinte de uma cultura e identidade local; e 2) relação de trabalho entre fumicultores e fumageiras. Os fumicultores apresentam dificuldades na comercialização do tabaco, devido a problemas com suas instituições representativas, além do endividamento provocado por um sistema opressor que mantém os fumicultores subordinados às indústrias de beneficiamento de tabaco em nível técnico e de capital


Rio Grande do Sul stands out in tobacco cultivation, and is the Brazilian state responsible for the largest tobacco production in the country. Research shows that tobacco cultivation can be quite unhealthy, leading farmers to suffer from diseases resulting from tobacco production. Among these health problems, the suicide is alarming. This research aimed to analyze how economic relationships with tobacco companies can impact the mental health of tobacco farmers, contributing to unfavorable outcomes in the case of the families interviewed. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with family members of tobacco farmers that committed suicide and social actors that follow up these farmers. The interviews were analyzed according to the interpretive phenomenological method and the results were grouped into two categories of analysis: 1) tobacco growing as part of a local culture and identity, and 2) the working relationship between tobacco farmers and tobacco industries. Tobacco farmers have difficulties in selling tobacco due to problems with their representative institutions, in addition to indebtedness, caused by an oppressive system that keeps tobacco farmers subordinate to tobacco processing industries at a technical and capital level


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Suicide , Nicotiana , Tobacco Industry/economics , Agricultural Workers' Diseases , Mental Health , Interviews as Topic , Occupational Exposure
15.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(12): 1555-1564, dic. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515396

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Alcohol and tobacco are important risk factors for chronic pancreatitis (CP). AIM: To analyze the effect of etiological factors such as tobacco and alcohol and pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) in the progression of CP. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with a diagnosis of CP were recruited and grouped according to variables such as tobacco, alcohol and PERT. They were followed for 18 months. Subsequently, different variables and analytical parameters involved in the progression of the disease were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 50 patients diagnosed with CP were included. Of these, 28 patients underwent PERT, 39 were smokers and 33 were alcohol users. Compared with patients without PERT, those with PERT had a higher proportion of diabetes (64 and 32%, respectively), had a higher need for endoscopic treatment (25 and 0%, respectively) and a normal body mass index (71 and 27.3%, respectively. The smokers had higher calcium levels and increased lymphocytosis and leukocytosis. The alcohol consumption group had a higher mean age (p = 0.04) CONCLUSIONS: PERT may improve the nutritional status but does not reduce the need for endoscopic or surgical treatment. Smoking and alcohol consumption favored the progression of CP. Also, smoking induced a pro-inflammatory state.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pancreatitis, Chronic/etiology , Pancreatitis, Chronic/therapy , Pancreatitis, Chronic/epidemiology , Pancreas , Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency/etiology , Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency/therapy , Nicotiana/adverse effects , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Sex Distribution , Disease Progression , Enzyme Therapy
16.
Rev. AMRIGS ; 66(3): 01022105, jul.-set. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425050

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A população idosa está crescendo cada vez mais, e esse aumento da longevidade traz consigo a percepção sobre os prejuízos no acúmulo de carga tabágica e alcoólica. O idoso acumula também comorbidades que requerem medicações prescritas. Destaca-se o uso de hipnóticos/sedativos nesta população. Métodos: Estudo observacional com delineamento transversal prospectivo em indivíduos com 60 anos ou mais atendidos em três unidades de Estratégias de Saúde da Família. Resultados: Foram avaliados 350 idosos sendo a maioria da amostra composta por mulheres (61,1%), com a mediana de idade de 69,0, maioria era de casadas (53,7%), ensino fundamental incompleto (57,1%), aposentadas (68%) e com renda menor que 3 salários mínimos (56%). Dos entrevistados, 21,4% apresentavam transtorno depressivo maior, 16,9% transtorno de ansiedade generalizada e 48,0% insônia. 38,6% dos idosos, faziam uso de hipnóticos/sedativos, com prevalência de benzodiazepínicos (28%), 34% das pessoas fizeram uso de bebidas alcoólicas e 14,3%, de cigarros. Conclusão: Foi possível concluir que a população com maior prevalência sobre o uso de álcool, tabaco e hipnóticos/sedativos foi de mulheres, casadas, aposentadas, de baixa renda e baixa escolaridade. Tanto no álcool quanto no tabaco, o homem necessita mais de intervenção. Quando são analisadas ambas as substâncias, percebe-se que 54% dos que fumaram nos últimos 3 meses também ingeriram bebidas alcoólicas. Existe uma relação íntima entre as comorbidades estudadas e o uso de hipnóticos/sedativos, visto que estes são utilizados na maioria dos tratamentos dessas doenças. Tal relação já não foi possível ser feita com álcool e tabaco.


Introduction: The elderly population is growing progressively, and this increase in longevity brings with it the perception of the damages of accumulating a tobacco and alcohol load. The elderly also develop comorbidities that require prescribed medications. The use of hypnotics/sedatives in this population stands out. Method: observational study with prospective cross-sectional design in individuals aged 60 years or older seen at three Family Health Strategy units. Results: After evaluating 350 elderly, most of the sample was composed of women (61.1%), with a median age of 69.0, most were married (53.7%), had incomplete elementary school education (57.1%), were retired (68%) and had an income of less than three minimum wages (56%). Of the interviewed, 21.4% had major depressive disorder, 16.9% had generalized anxiety disorder, and 48.0% had insomnia. Also, 38.6% of the elderly used hypnotics/sedatives, with a prevalence of benzodiazepines (28%), 34% used alcoholic beverages, and 14.3% used cigarettes. Conclusion: It was possible to conclude that the population with the highest prevalence of the use of alcohol, tobacco, and hypnotics/sedatives were women, married, retired, with low income and low education. Both in alcohol and tobacco, men need more intervention. After analyzing both substances, it was clear that 54% of those who smoked in the last three months also drank alcoholic beverages. There is an intimate relationship between the comorbidities studied and the use of hypnotics/sedatives. Since these are predominant treatments for these diseases, such a relationship could not be made with alcohol and tobacco.


Subject(s)
Nicotiana , Alcoholic Beverages
17.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 6(1): 91-99, jan.mar.2022. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400112

ABSTRACT

O aumento da prevalência de doenças respiratórias crônicas coincide com o da exposição aos poluentes atmosféricos pelo crescente processo de industrialização, aumento do tráfego veicular e migração da população para áreas urbanas. A poluição do ar é uma mistura complexa de poluentes e outros compostos químicos tóxicos e não tóxicos, e o efeito na saúde pode derivar dessa mistura e da interação com parâmetros meteorológicos. Apesar disso, busca-se estabelecer o papel de um poluente específico em separado e consideram-se os parâmetros meteorológicos como fatores de confusão. Há evidências de que a exposição aos poluentes contribui para maior morbidade e mortalidade por doenças respiratórias, especialmente nas crianças, mesmo em concentrações dentro dos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação. Identificar os efeitos dos poluentes no sistema respiratório, isoladamente e em associação, é um desafio, e os estudos têm limitações devido à variabilidade de resposta individual, a presença de doenças pré-existentes, aos fatores socioeconômicos, às exposições a poluentes intradomiciliares, ocupacionais e ao tabaco. A maioria das evidências sobre o efeito dos poluentes no sistema respiratório de crianças deriva de estudos que incluem desfechos de função pulmonar. Entretanto, esses estudos têm diferenças quanto ao desenho, ao método de avaliação de exposição aos poluentes, às medidas de função pulmonar, às covariáveis consideradas como capazes de alterar a resposta aos poluentes e aos tipos de modelos utilizados na análise dos dados. Considerar todas essas diferenças é fundamental na interpretação e comparação dos resultados dessas pesquisas com os dados já existentes na literatura.


The increase in the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases coincides with that of exposure to air pollutants due to the growing industrialization process, increased vehicular traffic and population migration to urban areas. Air pollution is a complex mixture of pollutants and other toxic and non-toxic chemical compounds and its effect on health can derive from this mixture and the interaction with meteorological parameters. Despite this, it seeks to establish the role of a specific pollutant separately and considers the meteorological parameters as confounding factors. There is evidence that exposure to pollutants contributes to greater morbidity and mortality from respiratory diseases, especially in children, even at concentrations within the standards established by legislation. Identifying the effects of pollutants on the respiratory system, alone and in association, is a challenge and studies have limitations due to the variability of individual response, the presence of pre-existing diseases, socioeconomic factors, exposure to indoor, occupational and environmental pollutants as well tobacco. Most of the evidence on the effect of pollutants on the respiratory system of children comes from studies that include lung function outcomes. However, these studies differ in terms of design, method of assessing exposure to pollutants, measures of lung function, covariates considered capable of altering the response to pollutants, and types of models used in data analysis. Considering all these differences is fundamental in interpreting and comparing the results of these researches with data already existing in the literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Nicotiana , Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Environmental Pollutants , Respiratory System , Prevalence , Toxic Substances , Lung
18.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1401818

ABSTRACT

Introduction There are persistent gaps in screening, identification, and access to care for common mental disorders in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. An initial step towards reducing this gap is identifying the prevalence, co-morbidities, and context of these disorders in different clinical settings and exploring opportunities for intervention. This study evaluates the prevalence and correlates of depression and substance use disorders among adults presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) of a major national hospital in East Africa. Methods This study utilized the World Health Organization's STEPwise Approach to Surveillance (WHO-STEPS) tool and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) to conduct a cross-sectional survey capturing socio-demographic data, tobacco, and alcohol use and rates of depression in a sample of adults presenting to the ED. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted for each outcome of interest and socio-demographics. Results Of 734 respondents, 298 (40.6%) had a PHQ-9 score in the "moderate" to "severe" range indicative of major depressive disorder. About 17% of respondents endorsed current tobacco use while about 30% reported being daily alcohol users. Those with high PHQ-9 score had higher odds of reporting current tobacco use ("severe range" = adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.85, 95% CI 1.05, 3.26). Those with a "severe" PHQ-9 scores were 9 times (aOR 2.3-35.3) more likely to be daily drinkers. Conclusions Screening and identification of people with depression and substance use disorders in the ED of a large national hospital in Kenya is feasible. This offers an opportunity for brief intervention and referral to further treatment


Subject(s)
Humans , Nicotiana , Mental Health , Substance-Related Disorders , Depression , Ethanol , Emergency Service, Hospital
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-11, 2022. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468549

ABSTRACT

Vegetables are an important source of income and high-value crops for small farmers. Chilli (Capsicum spp.) is one of the most economically important vegetables of Pakistan and it is grown throughout the country. It is a rich source of nutrition especially vitamins A, B, C and E along with minerals as folic acid, manganese (Mn), potassium (K) and molybdenum (Mo). Chilli possesses seven times more amount of vitamin C than an orange. Vitamin A, C and beta carotenoids are strong antioxidants to scavenge the free radicals. Chilli production is restricted due to various biotic factors. Among these viruses, Chilli veinal mottle virus (ChiVMV) is one of the most destructive and menacing agents that inflicts heavy and colossal losses that accounted for 50% yield loss both in quality and quantity. Pathogen-Derived Resistance (PDR) approach is considered one of the effective approaches to manage plant viruses. In this study, ChiVMV was characterized on a molecular level, the coat protein (CP) gene of the virus was stably transformed into Nicotiana benthamiana plants using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The transgenic plants were challenged with the virus to evaluate the level of resistance of plants against the virus. It was observed that the plants expressing CP gene have partial resistance against the virus in terms of symptoms' development and virus accumulation. Translation of this technique into elite chilli varieties will be resulted to mitigate the ChiVMV in the crop as well as an economic benefit to the farmers.


Vegetais são uma importante fonte de renda e culturas de alto valor para os pequenos agricultores. A pimenta-malagueta (Capsicum spp.) é uma das hortaliças mais importantes economicamente do Paquistão e é cultivada em todo o país. É uma rica fonte de nutrição, especialmente vitaminas A, B, C e E com minerais como ácido fólico, manganês (Mn), potássio (K) e molibdênio (Mo). O pimentão possui sete vezes mais vitamina C do que a laranja. Vitaminas A e C e betacarotenoides são antioxidantes fortes para eliminar os radicais livres. A produção de pimenta é restrita devido a vários fatores bióticos. Entre esses vírus, o ChiVMV é o agente mais destrutivo e ameaçador que inflige perdas pesadas e colossais que representam 50% da perda de rendimento, tanto em qualidade quanto em quantidade. A abordagem de resistência derivada de patógenos (PDR) é considerada uma das abordagens eficazes para gerenciar os vírus de plantas. Neste estudo, ChiVMV foi caracterizado em nível molecular e o gene CP do vírus foi transformado de forma estável em plantas Nicotiana benthamiana usando Agrobacterium tumefaciens. As plantas transgênicas foram desafiadas com o vírus para avaliar seu nível de resistência contra o vírus. Observou-se que as plantas que expressam o gene CP apresentam resistência parcial ao vírus em termos de desenvolvimento de sintomas e acúmulo de vírus. A tradução dessa técnica em variedades de pimenta de elite resultará na mitigação do ChiVMV na safra, bem como em benefícios econômicos para os agricultores em termos de melhor rendimento e baixo custo de produção.


Subject(s)
Capsicum/virology , Drug Resistance, Viral , Plants, Genetically Modified , Nicotiana/genetics
20.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2022. 55 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BDENF, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1433809

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS) conceitua o tabagismo como problema de saúde pública por estar entre as principais causas de morte evitável no mundo. A cessação do tabagismo é mensurada por meio do índice de cessação do tabagismo, que é calculado mediante a razão entre o número de pessoas que pararam de fumar e o número de pessoas que já fumaram algum dia (ex-fumantes e fumantes). Diversos são os fatores relacionados a cessação, podendo-se destacar aspectos sociodemográficos como ter idade relativamente avançada, renda mensal mais alta e um nível educacional mais alto; fatores ambientais tais como: restrições ao fumo em casa, bem como políticas antifumo em locais públicos e locais de trabalho. Para além dos fatores individuais, sabe-se que o ambiente social e físico no qual o indivíduo está inserido influencia diretamente a saúde e o comportamento, podendo também ser um preditor da cessação ao tabagismo. Objetivos: Este estudo teve como objetivo calcular o índice de cessação do tabagismo no Brasil, bem como, avaliar os fatores associados individuais e contextual. Metodologia: Trata-se de estudo observacional do tipo transversal utilizando dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS) realizada no ano de 2019. Inicialmente, foi realizada análise descritiva de cada variável estudada por meio do cálculo das frequências relativas. Posteriormente, foi realizada análise uni e multivariada, utilizando modelo de Poisson com variâncias robustas multinível para avaliar os fatores associados à cessação do hábito de fumar. No primeiro nível foram considerados os fatores sociodemográficos, comportamentais e de saúde, e no segundo a variável contextual Índice de Desenvolvimento Humano (IDH) mensurada por Unidade Federativa (UF). As ponderações pertinentes ao delineamento amostral foram consideradas e todas as análises foram realizadas com o uso do programa STATA 14.0. Resultados: Os resultados mostraram que a taxa de cessação do tabagismo no Brasil em 2019, foi de 68%, com média de 17 anos sem fumar (±12,9). No que se refere aos fatores sociodemográficos e econômicos associados a uma maior probabilidade de cessação foram: ser do sexo feminino (RP=1,10; IC95% 1,07-1,13), ter parceiro (RP=1,11; IC95% 1,08-1,15), ter escolaridade nível médio (RP=1,04; IC95% 1,01-1,08) ou superior (RP=1,07; IC95% 1,03-1,12), não possuir trabalho formal (RP=1,06; IC95% 1,03-1,09), frequentar atividade religiosa (RP= 1,08; IC95% 1,05-1,12), assistir propaganda sobre os malefícios do cigarro (RP=1,07; IC95% 1,02-1,11), ter hipertensão arterial (RP=1,10; IC95% 1,07­ 1,14), ter diabetes (RP= 1,07; IC95% 1,02­1,12), não presenciar fumo no domicílio (RP 1,43; IC95% 1,41-1,45), praticar exercício físico (RP=1,07; IC95% 1,03­1,10) e consumir bebida alcoólica menos de uma vez ao mês (RP 1,03; IC95% 0,99-1,07). Além disso, quanto maior o quartil de IDH da UF menor a probabilidade de cessação do tabagismo. Conclusão: Os achados do presente estudo afirmam que as desigualdades do índice de cessação têm um padrão diferente para algumas regiões do país. Dessa forma, é importante manter o monitoramento a fim de identificar possíveis localidades que precisem de intervenções mais direcionadas. O presente estudo poderá contribuir para melhoria dos processos e políticas públicas cujo foco seja a promoção da cessação do hábito de fumar.


Introduction: The World Health Organization (WHO) considers smoking as a public health problem as it is among the leading cause of preventable death in the world. Thousands of people die annually from tobacco-related diseases. Smoking cessation is measured using the smoking cessation index, which is calculated as the ratio between the number of people who have stopped smoking and the number of people who have ever smoked (ex-smokers and smokers). There are several factors related to cessation, among which are sociodemographic aspects such as being relatively advanced age, higher monthly income and a higher educational level can be highlighted; environmental factors such as attempts to quit smoking, restrictions on smoking at home, as well as anti- smoking policies in public places and workplaces, in addition to individual factors, it is known that the social and physical environment directly influences health and behavior in which a person is inserted, and may also be a predictor of smoking cessation. Objectives: This study aimed to calculate the smoking cessation rate in Brazil, as well as to evaluate individual and contextual associated factors. Methodology: This is a cross- sectional observational study using data from the National Health Survey (PNS) carried out in 2019. Initially, a descriptive analysis of each variance studied was performed by calculating the relative frequencies. Subsequently, a univariate and multivariate analysis was performed, using a Poisson model with robust multilevel variances to assess the factors associated with smoking cessation. In the first level, sociodemographic, behavioral and health factors were considered, and in the second one, the contextual variance Human Development Index, (HDI) measured by Federative Unit (FU). Weightings relevant to the sample design were considered and all analyzes were performed using the STATA 14.0 program. Results: The results showed that the smoking cessation rate in Brazil in 2019 was 68%, with an average of 17 years without smoking (±12.9). With regard to sociodemographic and economic factors associated with a greater probability of cessation, they were: being female (RP=1.10; CI95% 1.07-1.13), having a partner (RP=1.11; CI95 % 1.08-1.15), have secondary education (RP=1.04; 95%CI 1.01- 1.08) or higher education (RP=1.07; 95%CI 1.03-1.12) , not having a formal job (PR=1.06; 95%CI 1.03-1.09), attending religious activity (RP= 1.08; 95%CI 1.05-1.12), watching advertisements about the harmful effects of cigarette (PR=1.07; 95%CI 1.02- 1.11), having high blood pressure (PR=1.10; 95%CI 1.07­1.14), having diabetes (PR=1.07; 95%CI % 1.02­1.12), not witnessing smoking at home (PR 1.43; 95%CI 1.41- 1.45), practicing physical exercise (PR=1.07; 95%CI 1.03­1, 10) and consume alcohol less than once a month (PR 1.03; 95%CI 0.99-1.07). In addition, the higher the HDI quartile of FU, the lower the probability of smoking cessation. Conclusion: The findings of the present study state that the cessation rate inequalities have different pattern for some regions in the country. Thus, it is important to maintain monitoring in order to identify possible locations that need more targeted interventions. The present study will be able to contribute to the improvement of processes and public policies whose focus is on promoting smoking cessation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Smoking , Public Health , Cause of Death , Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Use Cessation , Sociodemographic Factors , Public Policy , Nicotiana , World Health Organization , Health Surveys , Tobacco Products , Economic Factors , Tobacco Control , Hypertension
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