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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e211512, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1254424

ABSTRACT

Aim: Several systemic diseases, such as periodontitis and apical periodontitis, can cause extensive bone resorption. Host defense peptides may have the potential for the development of novel therapies for the bone resorption process. This study evaluated the potential of host defense peptides clavanins A, MO, and LL-37 in in vitro osteoclastogenesis. Methods: RAW 264.7 cultures were stimulated with recombinant of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand in the presence of different tested concentrations of host defense peptides, besides calcium hydroxide and doxycycline. Cellular viability, nitric oxide production, and a number of differentiated osteoclast-like cells were also evaluated. Results: Results showed that none of the substances were cytotoxic, except for 128 µg.mL-1 of doxycycline after 3 days. Host defense peptides, calcium hydroxide, and doxycycline did not interfere in nitric oxide production or downregulated it. An exception was observed in the presence of 2 µg.mL-1 of doxycycline, in which nitric oxide production was up-regulated. All host defense peptides were capable of reducing osteoclast-like cell differentiation. Conclusion: Host defense peptides clavanins A and MO demonstrated to be potential suppressors of osteoclastogenesis in vitro without interfering in cellular viability and nitric oxide production. These promising results need to be further analyzed in in vivo models of bone resorption


Subject(s)
Osteogenesis , Bone Resorption , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides , Nitric Oxide
2.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20200098, 2021. graf, ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1154770

ABSTRACT

Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is a hematophagous insect and the main vector of Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae). In the present study, the authors investigated whether a serine protease activity from the saliva of T. infestans has a role in vasomotor modulation, and in the insect-blood feeding by cleaving and activating protease-activated receptors (PARs). Methods T. infestans saliva was chromatographed as previously reported for purification of triapsin, a serine protease. The cleavage activity of triapsin on PAR peptides was investigated based on FRET technology. Mass spectrometry was used to analyze the sites of PAR-2 peptide cleaved by triapsin. NO measurements were performed using the DAN assay (2,3-diaminonapthalene). The vasorelaxant activity of triapsin was measured in vessels with or without functional endothelium pre-contracted with phenylephrine (3 µM). Intravital microscopy was used to assess the effect of triapsin on mouse skin microcirculation. Results Triapsin was able to induce hydrolysis of PAR peptides and showed a higher preference for cleavage of the PAR-2 peptide. Analysis by mass spectrometry confirmed a single cleavage site, which corresponds to the activation site of the PAR-2 receptor. Triapsin induced dose-dependent NO release in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), reaching a maximum effect at 17.58 nM. Triapsin purified by gel-filtration chromatography (10-16 to 10-9 M) was applied cumulatively to mouse mesenteric artery rings and showed a potent endothelium-dependent vasodilator effect (EC30 = 10-12 M). Nitric oxide seems to be partially responsible for this vasodilator effect because L-NAME (L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester 300 µM), a nitric oxide synthetase inhibitor, did not abrogate the vasodilation activated by triapsin. Anti-PAR-2 antibody completely inhibited vasodilation observed in the presence of triapsin activity. Triapsin activity also induced an increase in the mouse ear venular diameter. Conclusion Data from this study suggest a plausible association between triapsin activity mediated PAR-2 activation and vasodilation caused by T. infestans saliva.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Peptides , Triatoma , Trypanosoma cruzi , Vasodilation , Chromatography , Receptor, PAR-2 , Nitric Oxide
3.
Clinics ; 76: e1713, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153987

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The chemokine ligand (CCL) 21 regulates the maturation, migration, and function of dendritic cells, and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma. This study aimed to investigate the association between serum CCL21 levels and asthma control. METHODS: The serum levels of CCL21 and other inflammatory cytokines were analyzed in patients with asthma (n=44) and healthy controls (n=35) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. IgE levels and eosinophil counts were determined by turbidimetric inhibition immunoassay and fully automatic blood analysis, respectively. The Asthma Control Test (ACT) questionnaire was used, and spirometry and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) measurements were performed. A multiple unpaired Student's t-test was performed to analyze the differences in CCL21 and interleukin levels between patients with asthma and healthy controls. The correlation of CCL21 levels with disease severity was evaluated using the Pearson's rank correlation test. RESULTS: Serum CCL21 levels were lower in patients with asthma (254.78±95.66 pg/mL) than in healthy controls (382.95±87.77 pg/mL) (p<0.001). Patients with asthma had significantly higher levels of IL-1β (19.74±16.77 vs. 2.63±5.22 pg/mL), IL-6 (7.55±8.65 vs. 2.37±2.47 pg/mL), and tumor necrosis factor-α (12.70±12.03 vs. 4.82±3.97 pg/mL) compared with the controls. CCL21 levels were positively correlated with the ACT score (rs=0.1653, p=0.0062), forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (rs=0.3607, p<0.0001), and FEV1 (rs=0.2753, p=0.0003), and negatively correlated with FENO (rs=0.1060, p=0.0310). CCL21 levels were negatively correlated with serum IgE levels (rs=0.1114, p=0.0268) and eosinophil counts (rs=0.3476, p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Serum CCL21 levels may be a new biomarker for assessing asthma control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Asthma , Chemokine CCL21/blood , Forced Expiratory Volume , Chemokines , Exhalation , Ligands , Nitric Oxide
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(8): e11073, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249327

ABSTRACT

The study evaluated the effect of the supernatant of placental explants from preeclamptic (PE) and normotensive (NT) pregnant women after tissue treatment with or without vitamin D (VD) on oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Placental explants were prepared from eight NT and eight PE women, and supernatants were obtained after incubation with or without hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and/or VD. HUVEC were cultured for 24 h with supernatants, and the following parameters were analyzed in HUVEC cultures: NO, nitrate (NO3-), and nitrite (NO2-) levels, lipid peroxidation, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Results showed that the production of NO3-, NO2-, malondialdehyde (MDA), and ROS were significantly higher in HUVEC treated with explant supernatant from PE compared to NT pregnant women, while the supernatant of PE explants treated with VD led to a decrease in these parameters. A significantly high production of NO was detected in HUVEC cultured with control supernatant of NT group, and in cultures treated with supernatant of PE explants treated with VD. Taken together, these results demonstrated that cultures of placental explants from PE women with VD treatment generated a supernatant that decreased oxidative stress and increased the bioavailability of NO in endothelial cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pre-Eclampsia/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Placenta/metabolism , Vitamin D/metabolism , Biological Availability , Cells, Cultured , Oxidative Stress , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Hydrogen Peroxide
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200417, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154880

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Toxoplasma gondii causes toxoplasmosis and is controlled by activated macrophages. However, infection of macrophages by tachyzoites induces TGF-β signaling (TGF-s) inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) production. NO inhibition may be a general escape mechanism of distinct T. gondii strains. OBJECTIVES To evaluate in activated macrophages the capacity of T. gondii strains of different virulence and genetics (RH, type I; ME-49, type II; VEG, type III; P-Br, recombinant) to evade the NO microbicidal defense system and determine LC3 loading to the parasitophorous vacuole. METHODS Activated peritoneal macrophages were infected with the different T. gondii strains, NO-production was evaluated by the Griess reagent, and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, TGF-s, and LC3 localisation assayed by immunofluorescence. FINDINGS Only RH persisted in macrophages, while VEG was more resistant than P-Br and ME-49. All strains induced TGF-s, degradation of inducible nitric oxide synthase, and NO-production inhibition from 2 to 24 h of infection, but only RH sustained these alterations for 48 h. By 24 h of infection, TGF-s lowered in macrophages infected by ME-49, and P-Br, and NO-production recovered, while VEG sustained TGF-s and NO-production inhibition longer. LC3 loading to parasitophorous vacuole was strain-dependent: higher for ME-49, P-Br and VEG, lower for RH. All strains inhibited NO-production, but only RH sustained this effect probably because it persisted in macrophages due to additional evasive mechanisms as lower LC3 loading to parasitophorous vacuole. MAIN CONCLUSIONS These results support that T. gondii can escape the NO microbicidal defense system at the initial phase of the infection, but only the virulent strain sustain this evasion mechanism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Toxoplasma/physiology , Macrophages, Peritoneal/parasitology , Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism , Macrophages/parasitology , Nitric Oxide/biosynthesis , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/parasitology , Macrophages/metabolism
6.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 16(2): 62-68, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1293286

ABSTRACT

El asma es la enfermedad respiratoria crónica pediátrica más frecuente. En la mayoría de los niños se caracteriza por inflamación de la vía aérea de tipo eosinofílica alérgica. La fracción espirada de óxido nítrico (FENO) es un biomarcador de inflamación eosinofílica de vía aérea, su medición es no invasiva y fácil de realizar y ha sido evaluado en los últimos años para su aplicación clínica en el diagnóstico y tratamiento del asma en niños y adultos. Esta revisión abordará el origen anatómico y bioquímico del FENO, aspectos prácticos de su medición, valores de referencia y su aplicación clínica en el diagnóstico y tratamiento del asma pediátrico.


Asthma is the most common pediatric chronic disease characterized in most children by allergic eosinophilic airway inflammation. The exhaled fraction of nitric oxide (FENO) is a biomarker of eosinophilic airway inflammation, constituting a non-invasive and easy-to-perform test that has been evaluated in recent years for its clinical application in the diagnosis and treatment of asthma in children and adults. This review will address the anatomical and biochemical origin of FENO, practical aspects of its measurement, reference values and its clinical application in the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric asthma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asthma/diagnosis , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Asthma/metabolism , Breath Tests , Biomarkers , Exhalation , Eosinophilia , Inflammation , Nitric Oxide/metabolism
7.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(4): 669-677, out. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131333

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: Diversos estudos têm mostrado que as classes de diterpenos exercem efeito significativo no sistema cardiovascular. Os diterpenos, em particular, estão entre os principais compostos associados às propriedades cardiovasculares, como a propriedade vasorrelaxante, inotrópica, diurética e a atividade hipotensora. Embora o mecanismo de vasorrelaxamento do manool seja visível, seu efeito sobre a pressão arterial (PA) ainda é desconhecido. Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito hipotensor in vivo do manool e verificar o efeito de vasorrelaxamento ex vivo em anéis aórticos de ratos. Métodos: Os animais foram divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: normotensos e hipertensos. O grupo normotenso foi submetido à cirurgia sham e adotou-se o modelo 2R1C para o grupo hipertenso. Realizou-se monitoramento invasivo da PA para testes com manool em diferentes doses (10, 20 e 40 mg/kg). Foram obtidas curvas de concentração-resposta para o manool nos anéis aórticos, com endotélio pré-contraído com fenilefrina (Phe) após incubação com Nω-nitro-L-arginina metil éster (L-NAME) ou oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalina-1-ona (ODQ). Os níveis plasmáticos de óxido nítrico (NOx) foram medidos por ensaio de quimioluminescência. Resultados: Após a administração de manool, a PA se reduziu nos grupos normotenso e hipertenso, e esse efeito foi inibido pelo L-NAME em animais hipertensos apenas na dose de 10 mg/kg. O manool ex vivo promoveu vasorrelaxamento, inibido pela incubação de L-NAME e ODQ ou remoção do endotélio. Os níveis plasmáticos de NOx aumentaram no grupo hipertenso após a administração de manool. O manool induz o relaxamento vascular dependente do endotélio na aorta de ratos, mediado pela via de sinalização NO/cGMP e redução da PA, e também pelo aumento plasmático de NOx. Esses efeitos combinados podem estar envolvidos na modulação da resistência periférica, contribuindo para o efeito anti-hipertensivo do diterpeno. Conclusão: Esses efeitos em conjunto podem estar envolvidos na modulação da resistência periférica, contribuindo para o efeito anti-hipertensivo do diterpeno.


Abstract Background: Many studies have shown that the diterpenoid classes exert a significant effect on the cardiovascular system. Diterpenes, in particular, are among the main compound links to cardiovascular properties such as vasorelaxant, inotropic, diuretic and hypotensive activity. While the manool vasorelaxation mechanism is visible, its effect on blood pressure (BP) is still unknown. Objective: To evaluate the in vivo hypotensive effect of manool and check the ex vivo vasorelaxation effect in rat aortic rings. Methods: The animals were divided randomly into two groups: normotensive and hypertensive. The normotensive group was sham-operated, and the 2K1C model was adopted for the hypertensive group. Invasive BP monitoring was performed for manool tests at different doses (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg). Concentration-response curves for manool were obtained in the aorta rings, with endothelium, pre-contracted with phenylephrine (Phe) after incubation with Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester(L-NAME) or oxadiazole [4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ). Nitric oxide (NOx) plasma levels were measured by chemiluminescence assay. Results: After manool administration, BP was reduced in normotensive and hypertensive groups, and this effect was inhibited by L-NAME in hypertensive animals only in 10 mg/kg dose. Ex vivo manool promoted vasorelaxation, which was inhibited by L-NAME and ODQ incubation or endothelium removal. NOx plasma levels increased in the hypertensive group after manool administration. Manool elicits endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation in rat aorta mediated by the NO/cGMP signaling pathway and BP reduction, also by NOx plasma increase. These combined effects could be involved in modulating peripheral resistance, contributing to the antihypertensive effect of diterpene. Conclusion: These effects together could be involved in modulating peripheral resistance, contributing to the antihypertensive effect of diterpene.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Arterial Pressure , Hypertension/drug therapy , Aorta, Thoracic , Vasodilation , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Blood Pressure , Endothelium, Vascular , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/pharmacology
8.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(8): 1128-1133, Aug. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136334

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY AIM The aim of this study was to examine the roles of nitric oxide (NOx), endothelial nitric oxide synthetase (eNOS), and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), which is the major endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthases (NOS), in the pathophysiology of hemorrhoidal disease. METHODS This study included 54 patients with grades 3 and 4 internal hemorrhoidal disease and 54 patients without the disease who attended the General Surgery Clinic. NOx, eNOS, and ADMA levels were measured with the Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) method. RESULTS The patients had higher NO and eNOS levels and lower ADMA levels than the control subjects (p<0.001). A significant highly positive correlation was found between NO and eNOS (p<0.001). Nevertheless, there was a highly negative correlation between ADMA and NO-eNOS(p<0.001, p<0.001). CONCLUSION This preliminary study reveals that higher NOx and eNOS activities and lower ADMA levels in the rectal mucosa are observed in patients with hemorrhoidal disease than in those with normal rectal tissue. The imbalance between endothelium-derived relaxing factors, such as NO and endogenous competitive inhibitor of NOS, ADMA, may cause hemorrhoidal disease. Our study proposes that hemorrhoids display apparent vascular dilatation and present with bleeding or swelling. ADMA is an effective NOS inhibitor and may be a promising therapeutic option for hemorrhoidal disease.


RESUMO OBJETIVO O objetivo deste estudo foi examinar os papéis do óxido nítrico (NOx), do óxido nítrico sintetase endotelial (eNOS) e da dimetilarginina assimétrica (ADMA), que é o principal inibidor endógeno das óxido nítrico sintase (NOS) na fisiopatologia da doença hemorróida. MÉTODOS Este estudo incluiu 54 pacientes com doença hemorróida interna de grau 3 e 4 e 54 pacientes sem a doença que se inscreveram na Clínica Geral de Cirurgia. Os níveis de NOx, eNOS e ADMA foram medidos com o método de Ensaio Imuno absorvente ligado a enzima (ELISA). RESULTADOS Os pacientes têm níveis mais altos de NO e eNOS e níveis mais baixos de ADMA do que os indivíduos controle (p <0,001). Uma correlação altamente positiva significativa foi encontrada entre o NO-eNOS (p <0,001). No entanto, houve uma correlação negativa muito séria entre ADMA e NO-eNOS (p <0,001, p <0,001). CONCLUSÃO Este estudo preliminar revela que os pacientes com doença hemorróida têm atividades mais altas de NOx e eNOS e níveis mais baixos de ADMA na mucosa retal do que os pacientes com tecido retal normal. Desequilíbrio entre o fator relaxante derivado do endotélio, como; O NO e o inibidor competitivo endógeno da NOS, ADMA, podem causar doenças hemorróidas. Nosso estudo propõe que as hemorróidas exibam aparente dilatação vascular e apresentam sangramento ou inchaço, a ADMA é um inibidor eficaz da NOS e pode ser uma opção terapêutica promissora para a doença hemorróida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hemorrhoids , Arginine/analogs & derivatives , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Nitric Oxide
10.
Brasília; s.n; 17 jun. 2020.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, BRISA, PIE | ID: biblio-1100423

ABSTRACT

O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referente ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática. Foram encontrados 15 artigos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Heparin/therapeutic use , Lincomycin/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Blockers/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Interferon beta-1b/therapeutic use , Interferon alpha-2/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Nitric Oxide/therapeutic use
11.
Brasília; s.n; 8 jun. 2020.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, BRISA, PIE | ID: biblio-1100298

ABSTRACT

O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referente ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática. Foram encontrados 13 artigos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , gamma-Globulins/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , BCG Vaccine , Influenza Vaccines , Famotidine/therapeutic use , Autohemotherapy , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Interferon-alpha/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Observational Study , Nitric Oxide/therapeutic use
12.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 15(1): 257-266, Mar. 2020. tab, ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088094

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary function testing in children includes a large number of methods and aspects. Children constitute a very heterogeneous group of individuals, among which are non-collaborative infants and preschoolers who represent a challenge in the development of new methods that do not require collaboration or coordination. This review attempts to achieve a comprehensive approach to pulmonary function tests in children that allow the physician working in pediatrics to get to know: their pathophysiological bases; the reasons for a request for a pulmonary function test taking into account the underlying pathophysiological process that is suspected; the study procedures; the possible clinical findings and their interpretation; the advantages and limitations of several of the tests. Information related to spirometry is developed more specifically, since it is the most widespread, accessible and widely validated methods.


El estudio de la función pulmonar (FP) en niños abarca un gran número de métodos y aspectos. La edad pediátrica en sí constituye un grupo muy heterogéneo de individuos, entre los que se encuentran los de edades más tempranas que son no colaborativos y que representan un desafío en el desarrollo de nuevos métodos que no requieran colaboración ni coordinación. En esta revisión se describirá un enfoque integral de los estudios de FP más utilizados en niños. Se mencionan sus bases fisiopatológicas; los motivos de un pedido de estudio de FP teniendo en cuenta el proceso fisiopatológico subyacente que se sospecha; los posibles hallazgos clínicos y su interpretación y las ventajas y limitaciones de varios de los test.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Lung Diseases/physiopathology , Plethysmography, Whole Body , Spirometry , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Nitric Oxide/analysis
13.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 443-457, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816671

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate an anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory effect of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors in normoglycemic atherosclerotic rabbit model.METHODS: Male New Zealand white rabbits (n=26) were fed with a 1% high-cholesterol diet for 7 weeks followed by normal diet for 2 weeks. After balloon catheter injury, the rabbits were administered with the Dapagliflozin (1mg/kg/day) or control-medium for 8 weeks (n=13 for each group). All lesions were assessed with angiography, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and histological assessment.RESULTS: Atheroma burden (38.51±3.16% vs. 21.91±1.22%, p<0.01) and lipid accumulation (18.90±3.63% vs. 10.20±2.03%, p=0.047) was significantly decreased by SGLT-2 inhibitor treatment. The SGLT-2 inhibitor group showed lower macrophage infiltration (20.23±1.89% vs. 12.72±1.95%, p=0.01) as well as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression (31.17±4.40% vs. 19.47±2.10%, p=0.025). Relative area of inducible nitric oxide synthase+ macrophages was tended to be lower in the SGLT-2 inhibitor-treated group (1.00±0.16% vs. 0.71±0.10%, p=0.13), while relative proportion of Arg1⁺ macrophage was markedly increased (1.00±0.27% vs. 2.43±0.64%, p=0.04). As a result, progression of atherosclerosis was markedly attenuated in SGLT-2 inhibitor treated group (OCT area stenosis, 32.13±1.20% vs. 22.77±0.88%, p<0.01). Mechanistically, SGLT-2 treatment mitigated the inflammatory responses in macrophage. Especially, Toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathway, and their downstream effectors such as interleukin-6 and TNF-α were markedly suppressed by SGLT-2 inhibitor treatment.CONCLUSIONS: These results together suggest that SGLT-2 inhibitor exerts an anti-atherosclerotic effect through favorable modulation of inflammatory response as well as macrophage characteristics in non-diabetic situation.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Atherosclerosis , Catheters , Constriction, Pathologic , Diet , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Macrophages , Male , Nitric Oxide , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Rabbits , Toll-Like Receptors , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762178

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Immunological mechanisms underlying asthma exacerbation have not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to assess the associations of various asthma exacerbation traits with selected serum microRNA (miRNA) expression and T-cell subpopulations. METHODS: Twenty-one asthmatics were studied during asthma exacerbation (exacerbation visit [EV] and the follow-up visit [FV] at 6 weeks). At both visits, spirometry was performed, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) was measured, and nasopharyngeal and blood samples were collected. In nasopharyngeal samples, respiratory viruses were assayed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and bacterial cultures were performed. Serum miRNAs were assayed with real-time PCR. T-cell surface markers, eosinophil progenitors and intracellular cytokines were assessed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Two-thirds of patients had moderate or severe exacerbation and the FV, overall improvement in asthma control was observed. The mean expression of serum miRNA-126a, miRNA-16 and miRNA-21 was significantly lower at the EV than at the FV. At EV, miRNA-29b correlated with FeNO (r = 0.44, P < 0.05), and 5 of 7 miRNA tested correlated with pulmonary function tests. The number of cluster of differentiation (CD)45+CD4+interleukin (IL)4+ cells was significantly higher at the EV than at the FV, and positive correlations of T-regulatory cells and eosinophil progenitors with asthma control was found. At the EV, serum miRNAs negatively correlated with the number of T cells expressing IL-4, IL-17, IL-22 and interferon gamma, while at the FV both positive and negative correlations with T-cell subsets were observed. No association of detected pathogen (viruses and bacteria) in nasopharyngeal fluid with clinical, functional and immunological parameters was found. CONCLUSIONS: Epigenetic dysregulation during asthma exacerbation could be related to respiratory function, airway inflammation and T-cell cytokine expression.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Cytokines , Disease Progression , Eosinophils , Epigenomics , Flow Cytometry , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Inflammation , Interferons , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-4 , MicroRNAs , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Nitric Oxide , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Function Tests , Spirometry , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , T-Lymphocytes
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828426

ABSTRACT

Three bibenzyls 1-3 and six other compounds 4-9 were firstly isolated from Dendrobium huoshanense stems. They were identified as 3',4-dihydroxy-3,5'-dimethoxybibenzyl(1), batatasin Ⅲ(2), 3,4'-dihydroxy-5-methoxy bibenzyl(3), dihydroconiferyl dihydro-p-coumarate(4), syringaresinol(5), 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionic acid ethyl ester(6),(3-ethylphenyl)-1,2-ethanediol(7),(S)-5-hydroxy-3,4-dimethyl-5-pentylfuran-2(5H)-one(8) and loliolide(9). Anti-inflammation assay showed that bibenzyls 1-3 could significantly inhibit the production of nitric oxide(NO) and the expression of tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α) and interleukin 1β(IL-1β) mRNA in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages. Mechanism study exhibited that the phosphorylation of nuclear factor kappa B(NF-κB) p65, inhibitor of κB(IκB), extracellular regulatedprotein kinase(ERK), c-Jun N-terminalkinase(JNK), p38 and Akt of LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages could be remarkably reduced by 1. These results suggested that the inflammatory response of LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages could be significantly inhibited by 1-3. Additionally, the anti-inflammatory effect of 1 might be contributed to its ability on the regulation of NF-κB, MAPKs and Akt signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Dendrobium , Humans , Inflammation , Drug Therapy , Lipopolysaccharides , Macrophages , NF-kappa B , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
17.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): 7-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785458

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence of asthma exacerbation (AE) and the predictive value of spirometry and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in school children have not been evaluated.OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the efficacy of spirometry measurement and FeNO monitoring for predicting AE in school children in the Cheongju area in Korea.METHODS: With parental agreement, we studied 170 students aged 7–12 years. Children were evaluated by an asthma specialist using baseline spirometry, skin prick test, seasonal FeNO measurement, and asthma control test. The study participants underwent a physical examination and their medical history was also evaluated by the specialist. They were assessed for asthma control status during regular doctor visits for 1 year.RESULTS: In total, 160 children (94.1%) completed follow-up and FeNO monitoring. Of which, 26 children (16.3%) had AE. AE was associated with male children and children with allergic rhinitis (p < 0.05). While, children with AE tended to have higher FeNO than those without AE, no significant difference was found. The maximum value of FeNO ≥35 ppb was associated with AE (p < 0.05). Children with AE had a significantly decreased baseline forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (FEV₁/FVC), %predicted, forced expiratory flow at 25%–75% of FVC (FEF(25%–75%)). FEV₁/FVC < 80% was associated with AE in children regardless of inhalant allergen sensitization (all p < 0.05).CONCLUSION: Baseline spirometry had a predictive value of AE in school children. Sensitive spirometric parameters such as FEV₁/FVC and FEF(25%–75%) can be used as prognostic factors to predict future childhood AE. FeNO value ≥ 35 ppb during monitoring was associated with AE in school children.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Child , Follow-Up Studies , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Male , Nitric Oxide , Parents , Physical Examination , Rhinitis, Allergic , Seasons , Skin , Specialization , Spirometry , Vital Capacity
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785351

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Recently, the prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR) in Korean children has been increased. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of rhinitis and to compare clinical parameters between AR and nonallergic rhinitis (NAR) in children.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 1,034 children under 18 years of age who visited Korea University Anam Hospital for rhinitis symptoms from January 2008 to December 2017. Clinical data, including clinical features, comorbidities, blood test results, allergen sensitization profile, and pulmonary function test parameters, were collected.RESULTS: Among the 1,034 children with rhinitis, 737 (71.3%) were AR and 297 (28.7%) were NAR. The prevalence of AR gradually increased with age. The median levels of eosinophil count (4.1%), serum total IgE (204.4 IU/L), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) concentration (17.9 µg/L), and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) (22.0 ppb) were significantly higher in children with AR than in those with NAR. The sensitization rate to the inhalant allergens increased with age; however, food allergen sensitization rate tended to decrease. Median levels of eosinophil count, total IgE, ECP, and FeNO were significantly higher in the poly-sensitized group than in the mono-sensitized and nonsensitized groups.CONCLUSION: More than 70% of Korean children who have rhinitis symptoms are AR. Children with AR more likely to have higher levels of FeNO and bronchial asthma. Poly-sensitized children showed increased rates of atopic dermatitis and bronchial asthma.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Asthma , Child , Comorbidity , Dermatitis, Atopic , Eosinophil Cationic Protein , Eosinophils , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Korea , Medical Records , Nitric Oxide , Prevalence , Respiratory Function Tests , Retrospective Studies , Rhinitis , Rhinitis, Allergic
19.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 236-247, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811355

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have examined the structure-function relationship of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). This study aimed to identify and rank HDL-associated proteins involved in several biological function of HDL.METHODS: HDLs isolated from 48 participants were analyzed. Cholesterol efflux capacity, effect of HDL on nitric oxide production, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression were assessed. The relative abundance of identified proteins in the highest vs. lowest quartile was expressed using the normalized spectral abundance factor ratio.RESULTS: After adjustment by multiple testing, six proteins, thyroxine-binding globulin, alpha-1B-glycoprotein, plasma serine protease inhibitor, vitronectin, angiotensinogen, and serum amyloid A-4, were more abundant (relative abundance ratio ≥2) in HDLs with the highest cholesterol efflux capacity. In contrast, three proteins, complement C4-A, alpha-2-macroglobulin, and immunoglobulin mu chain C region, were less abundant (relative abundance ratio <0.5). In terms of nitric oxide production and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression, no proteins showed abundance ratios ≥2 or <0.5 after adjustment. Proteins correlated with the functional parameters of HDL belonged to diverse biological categories.CONCLUSIONS: In summary, this study ranked proteins showing higher or lower abundance in HDLs with high functional capacities and newly identified multiple proteins linked to cholesterol efflux capacity.


Subject(s)
Amyloid , Angiotensinogen , Atherosclerosis , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cholesterol , Complement System Proteins , Immunoglobulin mu-Chains , Lipoproteins , Nitric Oxide , Plasma , Proteomics , Serine Proteases , Thyroxine-Binding Globulin , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 , Vitronectin
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828658

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the effect of intermittent versus daily inhalation of budesonide on pulmonary function and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in children with mild persistent asthma.@*METHODS@#A total of 120 children, aged 6-14 years, with mild persistent asthma who attended the hospital from January 2016 to January 2018 were enrolled. The children were divided into an intermittent inhalation group with 60 children (inhalation of budesonide 200 μg/day for 6 weeks when symptoms of asthma appeared) and a daily inhalation group with 60 children (continuous inhalation of budesonide 200 μg/day) by stratified randomization. The children were followed up at months 3, 6, 9, and 12 of treatment. The two groups were compared in terms of baseline data, changes in FeNO and pulmonary function parameters, amount of glucocorticoid used, number of asthma attacks, and asthma control.@*RESULTS@#At the start of treatment, there were no significant differences in baseline data, FeNO, and pulmonary function between the two groups (P>0.05). Over the time of treatment, FeNO gradually decreased and pulmonary function parameters were gradually improved in both groups (P0.05). Compared with the daily inhalation group, the intermittent inhalation group had a significantly lower amount of budesonide inhaled (P<0.05) and a significantly higher number of asthma attacks (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Intermittent inhalation and daily inhalation of budesonide can achieve the same level of asthma control in children with mild persistent asthma and both have no influence on the increases in body height and body weight. Daily inhalation of budesonide can produce a better efficiency in reduing FeNO and increasing FEV1%pred. Although intermittent inhalation can reduce the amount of glucocorticoid used, it may lead to a higher risk of asthma attacks.


Subject(s)
Administration, Inhalation , Adolescent , Asthma , Drug Therapy , Budesonide , Therapeutic Uses , Child , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Nitric Oxide
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