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1.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 137(1): 19-34, mar. 2024. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1552860

ABSTRACT

Con motivo del Día Mundial de la Ciencia y la Tecnología, se realizó en la Casa Museo Bernardo Houssay un conversatorio en el que expertos biógrafos resaltaron algunos aspectos de la trayectoria profesional del Premio Nobel de Medicina de 1947, destacando su actividad como investigador en fisiología y sus cualidades humanas. Estos importantes estudiosos del tema compartieron sus conocimientos en un selecto auditorio. (AU)


On the occasion of World Science and Technology Day, a discussion was held at the Bernardo Houssay House Museum in which expert biographers highlighted some aspects of the professional career of the 1947 Nobel Prize in Medicine, highlighting his activity as a researcher in physiology and his human qualities. These important scholars of the subject shared their knowledge in a select audience. (AU)


Subject(s)
History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Physiology/history , Biomedical Research , Academies and Institutes/history , Argentina , History of Medicine , Nobel Prize
2.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 56(2): 201-205, abr. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1402958

ABSTRACT

Resumen El presente comentario, escrito en virtud del decreto del gobierno nacional que designó a 2021 como año de homenaje al Dr. César Milstein, es una visión personal sobre el significado del desarrollo de los anticuerpos monoclonales, del aporte que brindó y brinda a la ciencia y tecnología actual y del contexto del correspondiente Premio Nobel en el ámbito de la Inmunología y las Ciencias Médicas. El objetivo de este artículo es transmitir, a modo de homenaje, algunas de mis experiencias en la especialidad y la relación profesional y personal con el creador de la producción de anticuerpos monoclonales por fusión de células somáticas, tecnología que continúa realizando grandes aportes al conocimiento.


Abstract The present commentary, which was written by virtue of the national government decree that designated 2021 as the year of the tribute to Dr. César Milstein, is a personal vision of the meaning of the development of monoclonal antibodies, of the contribution that he has always made to the current science and technology, and of the context of the corresponding Nobel Prize within the sphere of Immunology and the Medical Sciences. The aim of this article is to share, as a tribute, some of my experiences in the specialty and my professional and personal relationship with the creator of the immense breakthrough still being delivered by his development.


Resumo O presente comentário, escrito em virtude do decreto do governo nacional que nomeou o ano 2021 como ano de homenagem ao Dr. César Milstein, é uma visão pessoal sobre o significado do desenvolvimento dos anticorpos monoclonais, da contribuição que ofereceu e oferece à ciência e tecnologia atual e do contexto do correspondente Prêmio Nobel no âmbito da Imunologia e das Ciências Médicas. O objetivo deste artigo é transmitir, à maneira de homenagem, algumas das minhas experiências na especialidade e na relação profissional e pessoal com o criador do imenso avanço que continua nos oferecendo seu descobrimento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Famous Persons , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Science , Specialization , Technology , Vision, Ocular , Cells , Knowledge , Growth and Development , Allergy and Immunology , Occupational Groups , Nobel Prize
3.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(1): 88-92, ene. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389622

ABSTRACT

D. Julius was awarded the 2021 Medicine Nobel prize for the discovery of new cationic channels that detect temperatures either over 40 °C (TRPV1) or cold (TRPM8) ranging from 8-15 °C, followed by the latter identification of other channels that sense temperatures within other ranges. On the other hand, A. Patapoutian shared the 2021 Nobel prize for the independent and simultaneous co-discovery of the TRPM8 cationic channel. Furthermore, Patapoutian iden-tified piezo 1 and 2 channels previously referred to as the cell mechanosensors related to the sense of touch and proprioception. These experimental findings indicate that these novel cationic channels localized in nerve endings of the skin, mouth, lips, bronchial tree, the nephron, plus a variety of tissues transduce phy-sical stimuli into electrical activity that reach the brain sensory cortex to process these stimuli and elicit animal behavior.


Subject(s)
Animals , TRPM Cation Channels/physiology , Skin , Temperature , Cold Temperature , Nobel Prize
4.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(1): 93-99, ene. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389623

ABSTRACT

Professors James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo were awarded with the 2018 Nobel Prize in Medicine for their contributions in cancer immunotherapy. The latter is a breakthrough in cancer therapy, aimed to overcome tumor-induced immunosuppression, leading to the reactivation of the immune system against cancer cells. Under physiological conditions, the CTLA-4 and PD-1 proteins expressed on T-cells and discovered by the awarded scientists, lead to immune tolerance. Cancer cells exploit these control points to enhance the inhibition of T-cells. The expression of PD ligands (PD-L1) in tumor cells and CTLA-4 ligands in antigen presenting cells, which bind the PD-1 receptor and CTLA-4 respectively, block anti-tumor immunity. This situation led to a biotechnological race focused on the development of effective antibodies able to "turn-on" the immune system cheated by the tumor. Anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 antibodies improve life-expectancy in cancer patients. In this review, we perform an historical overview of Professors Allison and Honjo contribution, as well as the immunological basis of this new and powerful therapeutic strategy, highlighting the clinical benefits of such intervention.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Neoplasms/drug therapy , CTLA-4 Antigen/therapeutic use , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy , Nobel Prize
5.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370936

ABSTRACT

Introduction: the Nobel Prize is one of the highest academic honors in the world. Since its first edition, in 1901, until 2021, there have been hundreds of winners. In the Medicine or Physiology category, chosen by the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden, 112 awards have been given to 224 laureates, among them, only 12 (5.4%) women. Aims and source of data: with the aim of reviewing the biographies, characteristics, and peculiarities of each woman awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology. Data were analyzed from the following sources: the Award page, websites of the institutions to which some of them have been or are affiliated, books with biographies of Nobel laureates in Medicine or Physiology, and articles in the PubMed database. Summary of findings: the average age when receiving the award was 63.4 years. The most recurrent country of origin was the United States of America, also responsible for the largest number of institutions to which the laureates were affiliated at the time of the award. The academic training of the laureates was quite diverse, ranging among medicine, chemistry, physics, biology, pharmacy, psychology and natural sciences. Five of the 12 laureates did not have children. Comments: the origins and trajectories, although plural, have points in common, such as a fascination with science since childhood and the need to overcome additional barriers throughout their education, because of their sex. Conclusion: investments on a global scale are necessary to increase equity between sexes.


Introdução: o prêmio Nobel é uma das maiores honrarias acadêmicas do mundo. Desde a sua primeira edição, em 1901, até 2021, já foram centenas de vencedores. Na categoria Medicina ou Fisiologia, escolhido pelo Instituto Karolinska em Estocolmo, na Suécia, foram entregues 111 prêmios para 224 laureados, dentre eles, apenas 12 (5,4%) mulheres. Objetivos e métodos: com o objetivo rever as biografias, características e peculiaridades, de cada mulher laureada com o prêmio Nobel de Medicina ou Fisiologia, foram analisados dados provenientes da página do prêmio; de sites das instituições às quais algumas delas foram ou são afiliadas; em livros com biografias dos laureados com o prêmio Nobel de Medicina ou Fisiologia; e artigos na base de dados PubMed. Síntese dos dados: a média de idade ao receber o prêmio foi de 63,4 anos. O país de origem mais recorrente foi os Estados Unidos da América; também é o local que abriga o maior número de instituições às quais as laureadas estavam filiadas no momento da premiação. A formação acadêmica das laureadas foi bastante diversa, variando entre: medicina, química, física, biologia, farmácia, psicologia e ciências naturais. Cinco das 12 laureadas não tiveram filhos. Conclusão: fazem-se necessários investimentos em escala global para aumentar a equidade entre os gêneros.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Awards and Prizes , Gender Equity , Nobel Prize , Science/history , Women , Women/history , History of Medicine
7.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 253-284, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880727

ABSTRACT

Since it was first recognized in bacteria and archaea as a mechanism for innate viral immunity in the early 2010s, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) has rapidly been developed into a robust, multifunctional genome editing tool with many uses. Following the discovery of the initial CRISPR/Cas-based system, the technology has been advanced to facilitate a multitude of different functions. These include development as a base editor, prime editor, epigenetic editor, and CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) and CRISPR activator (CRISPRa) gene regulators. It can also be used for chromatin and RNA targeting and imaging. Its applications have proved revolutionary across numerous biological fields, especially in biomedical and agricultural improvement. As a diagnostic tool, CRISPR has been developed to aid the detection and screening of both human and plant diseases, and has even been applied during the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. CRISPR/Cas is also being trialed as a new form of gene therapy for treating various human diseases, including cancers, and has aided drug development. In terms of agricultural breeding, precise targeting of biological pathways via CRISPR/Cas has been key to regulating molecular biosynthesis and allowing modification of proteins, starch, oil, and other functional components for crop improvement. Adding to this, CRISPR/Cas has been shown capable of significantly enhancing both plant tolerance to environmental stresses and overall crop yield via the targeting of various agronomically important gene regulators. Looking to the future, increasing the efficiency and precision of CRISPR/Cas delivery systems and limiting off-target activity are two major challenges for wider application of the technology. This review provides an in-depth overview of current CRISPR development, including the advantages and disadvantages of the technology, recent applications, and future considerations.


Subject(s)
Humans , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Crops, Agricultural/genetics , Gene Editing/methods , Genetic Therapy , Nobel Prize , Plant Breeding
8.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349459

ABSTRACT

Introduction: the Nobel Prize is one of the highest academic honors in the world. Since its first edition, in 1901, until 2021, there have been hundreds of winners. In the Medicine or Physiology category, chosen by the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden, 112 awards have been given to 224 laureates, among them, only 12 (5.4%) women. Aims and source of data: with the aim of reviewing the biographies, characteristics, and peculiarities of each woman awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology. Data were analyzed from the following sources: the Award page, websites of the institutions to which some of them have been or are affiliated, books with biographies of Nobel laureates in Medicine or Physiology, and articles in the PubMed database. Summary of findings: the average age when receiving the award was 63.4 years. The most recurrent country of origin was the United States of America, also responsible for the largest number of institutions to which the laureates were affiliated at the time of the award. The academic training of the laureates was quite diverse, ranging among medicine, chemistry, physics, biology, pharmacy, psychology and natural sciences. Five of the 12 laureates did not have children. Comments: the origins and trajectories, although plural, have points in common, such as a fascination with science since childhood and the need to overcome additional barriers throughout their education, because of their sex. Conclusion: investments on a global scale are necessary to increase equity between sexes.


Introdução: o prêmio Nobel é uma das maiores honrarias acadêmicas do mundo. Desde a sua primeira edição, em 1901, até 2021, já foram centenas de vencedores. Na categoria Medicina ou Fisiologia, escolhido pelo Instituto Karolinska em Estocolmo, na Suécia, foram entregues 111 prêmios para 224 laureados, dentre eles, apenas 12 (5,4%) mulheres. Objetivos e métodos: com o objetivo rever as biografias, características e peculiaridades, de cada mulher laureada com o prêmio Nobel de Medicina ou Fisiologia, foram analisados dados provenientes da página do prêmio; de sites das instituições às quais algumas delas foram ou são afiliadas; em livros com biografias dos laureados com o prêmio Nobel de Medicina ou Fisiologia; e artigos na base de dados PubMed. Síntese dos dados: a média de idade ao receber o prêmio foi de 63,4 anos. O país de origem mais recorrente foi os Estados Unidos da América; também é o local que abriga o maior número de instituições às quais as laureadas estavam filiadas no momento da premiação. A formação acadêmica das laureadas foi bastante diversa, variando entre: medicina, química, física, biologia, farmácia, psicologia e ciências naturais. Cinco das 12 laureadas não tiveram filhos. Conclusão: fazem-se necessários investimentos em escala global para aumentar a equidade entre os gêneros.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Awards and Prizes , Gender Equity , Nobel Prize , Science/history , Women , Women/history , History of Medicine
13.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(5): 474-481, sep.-oct. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249949

ABSTRACT

Resumen El análisis de tres personajes correspondientes a espacios y tiempos diferentes muestra el estrecho vínculo entre la literatura y la historia de la medicina. Por un lado, don Quijote de la Mancha, quien refleja el pensamiento de los últimos años del Renacimiento y ha sido asimilado en el México contemporáneo. Por otro lado, los doctores Miguel Francisco Jiménez y Rita Levi Montalcini, quienes vivieron en los siglos XIX y XX, respectivamente. A pesar de los años que separan a los tres personaje, se advierten numerosos elementos en común que no pierden vigencia: el valor que se otorga a la salud, la ética, la tenacidad y la experiencia para obtener resultados exitosos, entre otros. Los tres personajes aluden a la medicina de su tiempo, los logros alcanzados y la promoción del humanismo, siempre inherente a la medicina.


Abstract The analysis of three characters corresponding to different spaces and times shows the close link between literature and the history of medicine. On one hand, Don Quixote of La Mancha, who reflects the thought of the last years of the Renaissance and that has been assimilated in contemporary Mexico. On the other hand, Doctors Miguel Francisco Jiménez and Rita Levi Montalcini who lived in the 19th and 20th centuries, respectively. Despite the years that separate these three personalities, many elements in common are observed that do not lose their validity: the value that is given to health, ethics, tenacity and experience to attain successful results. All three characters refer to the medicine of their time, their achievements and the promotion of humanism, always inherent to medicine.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 16th Century , History, 17th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Medicine in Literature/history , Nobel Prize , Nerve Growth Factor/history , Italy , Mexico
14.
Rev. cuba. ortop. traumatol ; 34(1): e274, ene.-jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139116

ABSTRACT

Por la presente deseo PROPONER, desde las páginas de nuestra revista, al Comité del Premio Nobel por la Paz radicado en Oslo, Noruega; que le sea concedido el Premio Nobel por la Paz 2020. Al Contingente Internacional de Médicos Especializados en Situaciones de Desastres y Graves Epidemias "Henry Reeve" de la República de Cuba


I hereby wish to PROPOSE, from the pages of our magazine, to the Committee of the Nobel Peace Prize based in Oslo, Norway; that he be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize 2020. To the International Contingent of Doctors Specialized in Situations of Disasters and Serious Epidemics "Henry Reeve" of the Republic of Cuba


Subject(s)
Emergency Brigade , International Cooperation , Nobel Prize , Cuba
15.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(2): 163-169, abr. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126103

ABSTRACT

Resumen Desde el scrapie de la oveja a la encefalopatía espongiforme bovina y desde el kuru a la enfermedad de Creutzfeldt-Jakob, tenaces investigadores buscaron los misteriosos agentes de estos desórdenes neurológicos, hasta que Stanley Prusiner descubriera y describiera las priones en los ochenta, obteniendo el Premio Nobel en 1997. Pero, este no fue el final de esta fantástica historia de la increible proteina designada prion por Prusiner, porque ahora, la investigación en neurociencia ha encontrado proteínas prion-like jugando un importante papel en la génesis de la memoria a largo plazo.


Abstract From the scrapie of the sheep to the bovine spongiform encephalitis, and from the kuru to the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, tenacious investigators searched for the mysterious agent of these neurological disorders, till Stanley Prusiner discovered and described the prion in the eighties, wining the Nobel Prize in 1997. But this was not the end of the fantastic history of the incredible protein designed prion by Prusiner, because now the investigation on neuroscience has founded prion-like proteins playing an important role in the genesis of the long-term memory.


Subject(s)
Animals , Prion Diseases , Scrapie , Prions , Cattle , Sheep , Nobel Prize
16.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 37(1): 115-121, ene.-mar. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101799

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La inmunoterapia ha significado un gran avance científico en el tratamiento del cáncer en los últimos años, siendo considerada como la piedra angular terapéutica de algunas neoplasias. Sin embargo, en algunos tipos de cáncer sólo una fracción de pacientes alcanza beneficio, planteando los desafíos y limi tantes que nos llevan a la necesidad de entender la complejidad de la biología tumoral, el microambiente tumoral y la capacidad de respuesta de cada agente. Los resultados superan actualmente lo alcanzado por la quimioterapia convencional, aunque aún no se puede precisar si estas respuestas son duraderas o representan curación. En la presente revisión, se propone un enfoque amplio sobre la inmunoterapia en cáncer, desde los conceptos básicos hasta su aplicación clínica, descubrimiento que fue galardonado con el Premio Nobel de Medicina en el 2018.


ABSTRACT Immunotherapy has meant a great scientific advance in the treatment of cancer in recent years, being considered as the therapeutic cornerstone of some neoplasms. However, in some types of cancer only a fraction of patients achieve benefit, posing the challenges and limitations that lead us to the need to understand the complexity of tumor biology, the microenvironment and the responsiveness of each agent. The results currently exceed what was achieved by conventional chemotherapy, although it is not yet possible to determine whether these responses are lasting or represent cure. In this review, a broad approach to immunotherapy in cancer is proposed, from the basics to its clinical application, a discovery that was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 2018.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunotherapy , Neoplasms , Neoplasms/therapy , Nobel Prize
17.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 38(3): 225-235, dic. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058068

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El Premio Nobel 2019 en Fisiología-Medicina se confirió a los Profesores Gregg Semenza, William Kaelin y Sir Peter Ratcliffe por sus investigaciones en la maquinaria molecular que regula la expresión de genes sensibles a los cambios en los niveles de oxígeno. La síntesis de eritropoyetina inducida por la disminución de los niveles sanguíneos de oxígeno condujo al estudio del gen de la eritropoyetina y descubrimiento de los elementos de respuesta a hipoxia (HRE) en la región promotora y posteriormente al factor transcripcional inducible por hipoxia tipo 1 (HIF-1). Este factor consta de dos subunidades: HIF-1α, sensible al oxígeno, y HIF-1β, expresada constitutivamente. HIF1 activa la transcripción de genes que codifican enzimas, transportadores y proteínas mitocondriales que disminuyen la utilización de oxígeno al cambiar el metabolismo oxidativo al metabolismo glicolítico y además aquellos involucrados en la angiogénesis y diferenciación celular. Las investigaciones paralelas en la enfermedad von Hippel-Lindau (VHL), un desorden autosómico dominante, permitieron descubrir el mecanismo de degradación de HIF1 en condiciones de normoxia y como se estabiliza bajo hipoxia. El impacto de HIF en clínica radica en el establecimiento de nuevas dianas terapéuticas para combatir la anemia y diversas enfermedades cardiovasculares. HIF promueve la angiogénesis a través de la expresión del factor de crecimiento vascular endotelial (VEGF), agente cardioprotector con potencial para tratar la isquemia/reperfusión, hipertrofia patológica e insuficiencia cardíaca.


ABSTRACT: The Nobel Prize in Physiology-Medicine was awarded to Drs. Gregg Semenza, William Kaelin and Sir Peter Ratcliffe for their research in the molecular machinery that regulates the expression of genes sensitive to the change in oxygen levels. The synthesis of erythropoietin induced by the decrease levels of oxygen in the blood led to investigate the promoter of the erythropoietin gene where the so-called hypoxia response elements (HRE) were described. Semenza et al. described a protein that binds to HREs and called it hypoxia-inducible transcriptional factor (HIF) that regulates gene expression among those involved in angiogenesis, cell differentiation and glycolytic enzymes. HIF presents two oxygen-sensitive subunits HIF-1α and HIF-1β constitutively expressed. In parallel, Kaelin et al. investigated von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL), an autosomal dominant disorder, discovering a mutation of this protein generated a behavior similar to hypoxia. The impact of HIF-1α lies in the search for new strategies such as hydrolase inhibitors to combat prevalent diseases, including anemia and cardiovascular diseases These compounds promote the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a cardioprotective agent with potential use in pre- and post-conditioning therapy, cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cardiovascular Diseases , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1/genetics , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit , Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor , Angiogenesis Inducing Agents , Heart Failure , von Hippel-Lindau Disease/genetics , Hypoxia , Nobel Prize
18.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(5): 366-368, Jun. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011336

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Austrian-born Robert Bárány was a scientist with many interests. This article highlights some of these interests and also some personal traits. He enrolled as a surgeon in World War I, was captured by the Russians in 1915 and, while still in the prison camp, was awarded the 1914 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work in otology. In 1916, he accepted an offer from Uppsala University, Sweden, and worked there for almost 20 years. He died shortly before his 60th birthday, in 1936.


RESUMO O austríaco Robert Bárány foi um cientista com muitos interesses. Este artigo destaca alguns desses interesses e também alguns traços pessoais. Bárány se inscreveu como cirurgião na Primeira Guerra Mundial, foi capturado pelos russos em 1915 e, ainda no campo de prisioneiros, recebeu o Prêmio Nobel de 1914 em Fisiologia ou Medicina por seu trabalho otológico. Em 1916 aceitou uma oferta da Universidade de Uppsala, na Suécia, onde trabalhou por quase vinte anos. Ele faleceu em 1936, pouco antes de seu sexagésimo aniversário.


Subject(s)
History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Science/history , History of Medicine , Otolaryngology/history , Nobel Prize
19.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(2): 598-608, mar.-abr. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1087545

ABSTRACT

El uso del condón es un método eficaz para prevenir enfermedades venéreas y un embarazo no deseado. Años atrás se puede apreciar cómo se debate dónde y cómo los llamados dispositivos intrauterinos fueron utilizados por primera vez. La siguiente investigación se realizó con el objetivo de explicar el surgimiento y la evolución del condón y otros métodos anticonceptivos, para ello se utilizaron un total de 15 referencias bibliográficas. Es indudable que la anticoncepción tiene que figurar como elemento básico de la atención en medicina, el conocimiento de sus orígenes, historia y evolución es fundamental...(AU)


The use of the condom is an effective method to prevent venereal diseases and an unwanted pregnancy. Years ago you can see how it is discussed where and how the so-called intrauterine devices were used for the first time. The following investigation was carried out with the objective of explaining the emergence and evolution of the condom and other contraceptive methods, for which a total of 15 bibliographical references were used. Undoubtedly, contraception must figure as a basic element of medical care, knowledge of its origins, history and evolution is fundamental...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Physicians/history , Organizations/history , History of Medicine , Nobel Prize
20.
Gac. méd. Caracas ; 127(1): 29-31, mar. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1022122

ABSTRACT

En 1968 Humberto Fernández-Morán fue nominado por dos personas para el Premio Nobel en Fisiología o Medicina por sus contribuciones al estudio de la ultraestructura celular por medio del uso del microscopio electrónico, con especial mención al desarrollo de la cuchilla de diamante. Sin embargo, en ese año no fue seleccionado para su ulterior consideración para el premio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Physiology/standards , Famous Persons , Nobel Prize , Universities , Venezuela , Committee Membership
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