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Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 283-291, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986850


OBJECTIVE@#To characterize the paraspinal muscles of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients, and to further explore its etiology.@*METHODS@#Clinical records and paraspinal muscle biopsies at the apex vertebra region during posterior scoliosis correction surgery of 18 AIS were collected from November 2018 to August 2019. Following standardized processing of fresh muscle tissue biopsy, serial sections with conventional hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and histochemical and immunohistochemical (IHC) with antibody Dystrophin-1 (R-domain), Dystrophin-2 (C-terminal), Dystrophin-3 (N-terminal), Dystrophin-total, Myosin (fast), major histocompatibility complex 1 (MHC-1), CD4, CD8, CD20, and CD68 staining were obtained. Biopsy samples were grouped according to the subjects' median Cobb angle (Cobb angle ≥ 55° as severe AIS group and Cobb angle < 55° as mild AIS group) and Nash-Moe's classification respectively, and the corresponding pathological changes were compared between the groups statistically.@*RESULTS@#Among the 18 AIS patients, 8 were in the severe AIS group (Cobb angle ≥55°) and 10 in the mild AIS group (Cobb angle < 55°). Both severe and mild AIS groups presented various of atrophy and degeneration of paraspinal muscles, varying degrees and staining patterns of immune-expression of Dystrophin-3 loss, especially Dystrophin-2 loss in severe AIS group with significant differences, as well as among the Nash-Moe classification subgroups. Besides, infiltration of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in the paraspinal muscles and tendons was observed in all the patients while CD20+ cells were null. The expression of MHC-1 on myolemma was present in some muscle fibers.@*CONCLUSION@#The histologic of paraspinal muscle biopsy in AIS had similar characteristic changes, the expression of Dystrophin protein was significantly reduced and correlated with the severity of scoliosis, suggesting that Dystrophin protein dysfunctions might contribute to the development of scoliosis. Meanwhile, the inflammatory changes of AIS were mainly manifested by T cell infiltration, and there seemed to be a certain correlation between inflammatory cell infiltration, MHC-1 expression and abnormal expression of Dystrophin. Further research along the lines of this result may open up new ideas for the diagnosis of scoliosis and the treatment of paraspinal myopathy.

Humans , Adolescent , Scoliosis/surgery , Paraspinal Muscles/pathology , Dystrophin , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Kyphosis/pathology , Biopsy
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 770-775, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986210


Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a type of metabolic stress liver injury that is closely associated with insulin resistance and genetic susceptibility. The continuum of liver injury in NAFLD can range from nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and even lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer. The pathogenesis of NAFLD is complicated. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, lipotoxicity, and gut bacterial metabolites play a key role in activating liver-resident macrophages (Kupffer cells, KCs) and recruiting circulating monocyte-derived macrophages (MoDMacs) to deposit fat in the liver. With the application of single-cell RNA-sequencing, significant heterogeneity in hepatic macrophages has been revealed, suggesting that KCs and MoDMacs located in the liver exert distinct functions in regulating liver inflammation and NASH progression. This study focuses on the role of macrophage heterogeneity in the development and occurrence of NAFLD and NASH, in view of the fact that innate immunity plays a key role in the development of NAFLD.

Humans , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Liver/pathology , Macrophages/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Disease Progression
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 765-769, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986209


Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has replaced chronic hepatitis B as the most common chronic liver disease in China and has now been renamed metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). The Brunt, the American NASH Clinical Research Network (NASH-CRN), the European Steatosis, Activity, and Fibrosis/Fatty Liver Inhibition of Progression (SAF/FLIP), and the Pediatric NAFLD are currently the four semi-quantitative grading systems for histological evaluation. This paper reviews these four scoring systems for the clinical selection of appropriate systems for diagnosis and prognosis assessment. This article is a review, and in order to coordinate the evaluation criteria of various scoring systems, the old name "NAFLD" is used.

Humans , Child , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Liver/pathology , Severity of Illness Index , Biopsy , Fibrosis
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 742-749, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986204


Objective: To detect the therapeutic efficacy of FGF21 analogues on the zebrafish model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Methods: A zebrafish model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was established by providing the normal diet fed to wild-type zebrafish three times daily. PF-05231023 was administered exogenously at a final concentration of 0.5 μmol/L. Body length, body weight, triglycerides, and other indexes were measured after 20 days. Pathological changes were evaluated in liver tissue sections by HE staining. Quantitative PCR was used to identify expressional changes in genes related to lipid metabolism, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and inflammation. Results: QPCR and immunofluorescence staining results showed that FGF21 was highly expressed in the zebrafish model group. The addition of the FGF21 analogue PF-05231023 significantly reduced the body length and body weight (P < 0.01), and the triglyceride content (P < 0.05) in the zebrafish model group. The liver HE staining results showed that PF-05231023 had alleviated the large and tiny bullae fat, lesions, and others in the zebrafish model group. The quantitative PCR results demonstrated that PF-05231023 reduced the expression of lipogenic factors (P < 0.01), inflammatory-related factors (P < 0.001), and genes related to endoplasmic reticulum stress (P < 0.05), but raised lipid-oxidation-related factors (P < 0.05) in the zebrafish model group. The addition of PF-05231023 reduced oleic acid-induced lipid and triglyceride levels in HepG2 cells. Conclusion: FGF21 analogue addition can improve indexes in the zebrafish disease model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Animals , Body Weight , Diet, High-Fat , Lipids , Liver/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Triglycerides/metabolism , Zebrafish/metabolism , Zebrafish Proteins
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 486-491, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985705


Objective: To investigate the clinical and pathologic characteristics of obese adults with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and to aid the diagnosis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Methods: A total of 262 patients eligible for inclusion who received volume reduction metabolism surgery and liver biopsy in the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from June 2018 to September 2019 were selected. HE staining, reticular fiber staining and Masson staining were performed. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 20.0. Results: The patients ranged in age from 18 to 66 years. Among the 262 cases, 65 cases (65/262, 24.8%) were male and 197 cases (197/262, 75.2%) were female. Sixty-one cases (61/262, 23.3%) were non-NAFLD, 201 cases (201/262, 76.7%) were NAFLD including 27 cases (27/201, 13.4%) of nonalcoholic fatty live (NAFL) and 174 cases (174/201, 86.6%) of NASH. The main lesions of NAFLD were in hepatic acinus zone 3. There were significant differences in age, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (AST), body mass index (BMI), fasting blood-glucose (FPG) and apolipoprotein A (APOA) levels among the non-NAFLD group, NAFL group and NASH group (P<0.05). Patients with BMI≥35 m/kg2 combined with type 2 diabetes had a higher prevalence of NASH. Multiple logistic regression showed that ALT and APOA were independent predictors of NASH (P<0.001, OR=1.05, 95%CI: 1.020-1.082; P=0.027, OR=0.916, 95%CI: 0.878-0.941). Total cholesterol (CHO) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were independent predictors of lobular inflammation (P=0.043, 95%CI: 0.010-0.634; P=0.024, 95%CI:-3.068--0.216). AST and HDL were independent predictors of fibrosis stage (P=0.029, 95%CI: 0.001-0.021; P<0.001, 95%CI:-2.670--0.645). Conclusions: Biochemical indicators of NAFLD are closely related to its pathology. The histological lesions of NAFLD are mainly present in hepatic acinar area 3. The diagnosis of NASH is supported by extensive steatosis and high levels of CHO, ALT, AST and BMI, low levels of HDL and ApoA in biochemical markers, but pathological examination is still the gold standard for it.

Adult , Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Liver/pathology , Obesity/pathology , Apolipoproteins A
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 443-446, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935964


Artificial intelligence (AI) refers to the use of computer programs to simulate and extend human intelligence, and has application prospects in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. This review focuses on the research status of the screening and diagnosis of NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis using artificial intelligence technology, electronic health record data, multi-omics prediction models, image recognition technology based on liver imaging and pathological biopsy, and new drugs research and development, with a view to provide new ideas for the diagnosis and treatment.

Humans , Artificial Intelligence , Biopsy/methods , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 81-86, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935912


Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of transient elastography, aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), and fibrosis index based on 4 factors (FIB-4) for liver fibrosis in children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 100 cases of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Hunan Children's Hospital between August 2015 to October 2020 to collect liver tissue pathological and clinical data. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve) was used to analyze the diagnostic value of liver stiffness measurement (LSM), APRI and FIB-4 in the diagnosis of different stages of liver fibrosis caused by NAFLD in children. Results: The area under the ROC curve (AUC) value of LSM, APRI and FIB-4 for diagnosing liver fibrosis (S≥1) were 0.701 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.579 ~ 0.822, P = 0.011], 0.606 (95%CI: 0.436 ~ 0.775, P = 0.182), and 0.568 (95%CI: 0.397 ~ 0.740, P = 0.387), respectively. The best cut-off values were 6.65 kPa, 21.20, and 0.18, respectively. The AUCs value of LSM, APRI, and FIB-4 for diagnosing significant liver fibrosis (S≥ 2) were 0.660 (95% CI: 0.552 ~ 0.768, P = 0.006), 0.578 (95% CI: 0.464 ~ 0.691, P = 0.182) and 0.541 (95% CI: 0.427 ~ 0.655, P = 0.482), respectively. The best cut-off values were 7.35kpa, 24.78 and 0.22, respectively. The AUCs value of LSM, APRI and FIB-4 for the diagnosis of advanced liver fibrosis (S≥ 3) were 0.639 (95% CI: 0.446 ~ 0.832, P = 0.134), 0.613 (95% CI: 0.447 ~ 0.779, P = 0.223) and 0.587 (95% CI: 0.411 ~ 0.764, P = 0.346), respectively. The best cut-off values were 8.55kpa, 26.66 and 0.27, respectively. Conclusion: The transient elastography technique has a better diagnostic value than APRI and FIB-4 for liver fibrosis in children with NAFLD.

Child , Humans , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Biomarkers , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Liver Function Tests , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 531-537, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928963


OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the effect of Shilajit, a medicine of Ayurveda, on the serum changes in cytokines and adipokines caused by non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).@*METHODS@#After establishing fatty liver models by feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks, 35 Wistar male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, including control (standard diet), Veh (HFD + vehicle), high-dose Shilajit [H-Sh, HFD + 250 mg/(kg·d) Shilajit], low-dose Shilajit [L-Sh, HFD + 150 mg/(kg·d) Shilajit], and pioglitazone [HFD + 10 mg/(kg·d) pioglitazone] groups, 7 rats in each group. After 2-week of gavage administration, serum levels of glucose, insulin, interleukin 1beta (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), adiponectin, and resistin were measured, and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) was calculated.@*RESULTS@#After NAFLD induction, the serum level of IL-10 significantly increased and serum IL-1β, TNF-α levels significantly decreased by injection of both doses of Shilajit and pioglitazone (P<0.05). Increases in serum glucose level and homeostasis model of HOMA-IR were reduced by L-Sh and H-Sh treatment in NAFLD rats (P<0.05). Both doses of Shilajit increased adiponectin and decreased serum resistin levels (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The probable protective role of Shilajit in NAFLD model rats may be via modulating the serum levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-10, adipokine and resistin, and reducing of HOMA-IR.

Animals , Male , Rats , Adiponectin , Cytokines , Diet, High-Fat , Glucose , Insulin Resistance , Interleukin-10 , Liver , Minerals , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Pioglitazone/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , Resins, Plant , Resistin/therapeutic use , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(6): 730-738, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349983


ABSTRACT Objective: Identifying significant fibrosis is crucial to evaluate the prognosis and therapeutic interventions in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We assessed the performance of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography, APRI, FIB-4, Forns, NFS and BARD scores in determining liver fibrosis in severe obesity. Subjects and methods: A prospective study included 108 patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Liver biopsy specimens were obtained intraoperatively and classified according to the NAFLD Activity Score. Patients were assessed with serological markers and shear wave velocity of the liver was measured with the Siemens S2000 ultrasound system preoperatively. Optimal cut-off values were determined using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC). Results: In the entire cohort prevalence of NAFLD was 80.6%, steatohepatitis 25.9% and significant fibrosis 19.4%. The best tests for predicting significant fibrosis were FIB-4 and Forns scores (both AUROC 0.78), followed by APRI (AUROC 0.74), NFS (AUROC 0.68), BARD (AUROC 0.64) and ARFI (AUROC 0.62). ARFI elastography was successful in 73% of the patients. Higher body mass index (BMI) correlated with invalid ARFI measurements. In patients with BMI < 42 kg/m2, ARFI showed 92.3% sensitivity and 82,6% specificity for the presence of significant fibrosis, with AUROC 0.86 and cut-off 1.32 m/s. Conclusions: FIB-4 and Forns scores were the most accurate for the prediction of significant fibrosis in bariatric patients. Applicability and accuracy of ARFI was limited in individuals with severe obesity. In patients with BMI < 42 kg/m2, ARFI elastography was capable for predicting significant fibrosis with relevant accuracy.

Humans , Obesity, Morbid/complications , Obesity, Morbid/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnostic imaging , Acoustics , Biopsy , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Liver/pathology , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnostic imaging
Int. j. morphol ; 39(3): 732-738, jun. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385401


SUMMARY: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) might progress the steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), reaching a cirrhosis state and possibly hepatocellular carcinoma. The liver of three-month-old C57BL/6J mice (wild-type, WT group, n=10) and leptin- deficient obese mice (ob/ob group, n=10) were studied, focusing on the mechanisms associated with the activation of the hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and pro-fibrogenesis. The obese ob/ob animals' liver showed steatosis, increased lipogenesis gene expressions, inflammation, increased pro-inflammatory gene expressions, inflammatory infiltrate, and potential apoptosis linked to a high Caspase 3 expression. In ob/ob mice, liver sections were labeled in the fibrotic zones by anti-alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and anti-Reelin, but not in the WT mice. Moreover, the alpha-SMA gene expression was higher in the ob/ob group's liver than the WT group. The pro-fibrogenic gene expressions were parallel to anti- alpha-SMA and anti-Reelin immunofluorescence, suggesting HSCs activation. In the ob/ob animals, there were increased gene expressions involved with lipogenesis (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, Cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector-c, Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, and Fatty acid synthase), pro-fibrogenesis (Transforming growth factor beta1, Smad proteins- 3, Yes-associated protein-1, Protein platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta), pro-inflammation (Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and Interleukin-6), and apoptosis (Caspase 3). In conclusion, the results in obese ob/ob animals provide a clue to the events in humans. In a translational view, controlling these targets can help mitigate the hepatic effects of human obesity and NAFLD progression to NASH.

RESUMEN: La enfermedad del hígado graso no alcohólico (HGNA) puede progresar de la esteatosis a esteatohepatitis no alcohólica (ENA), alcanzando un estado de cirrosis y posiblemente carcinoma hepatocelular. Se estudió el hígado de ratones C57BL / 6J de tres meses de edad (tipo salvaje, grupo WT, n = 10) y ratones obesos con deficiencia de leptina (grupo ob/ob, n = 10), centrándose en los mecanismos asociados con la activación de las células estrelladas hepáticas (HSC) y profibrogénesis. El hígado de los animales obesos ob/ob mostró esteatosis, aumento de la expresión génica de la lipogénesis, inflamación, aumento de la expresión génica proinflamatoria, infiltrado inflamatorio y posible apoptosis ligada a una alta expresión de Caspasa 3. En ratones ob/ob, las sec- ciones de hígado se marcaron en las zonas fibróticas con anti-alfa- actina de músculo liso (alfa-SMA) y anti-Reelin, pero no en los ratones WT. Además, la expresión del gen alfa-SMA fue mayor en el hígado del grupo ob/ob que en el grupo WT. Las expresiones génicas profibrogénicas fueron paralelas a la inmunofluorescencia anti-alfa-SMA y anti-Reelin, lo que sugiere la activación de las HSC. En los animales ob/ob, hubo un aumento de las expresiones génicas involucradas con la lipogénesis (receptor activado por proliferador de peroxisoma gamma, efector c similar a DFFA inductor de muerte celular, proteína de unión al elemento regulador de esterol-1c y sintasa de ácidos grasos), pro-fibrogénesis (factor de crecimiento transformante beta 1, proteínas Smad-3, proteína-1 asociada a Yes, receptor beta del factor de crecimiento derivado de plaquetas de proteínas), proinflamación (factor de necrosis tumoral alfa e interleucina-6) y apoptosis (caspasa 3). ). En conclusión, los resultados en animales obesos ob/ob proporcionan una pista de los eventos en humanos. Desde un punto de vista traslacional, el control de estos objetivos puede ayudar a mitigar los efectos hepáticos de la obesidad humana y la progresión de HGNA a ENA.

Animals , Mice , Leptin/deficiency , Fatty Liver/pathology , Photomicrography , Apoptosis , Microscopy, Confocal , Lipogenesis/genetics , Caspase 3/metabolism , Hepatic Stellate Cells/ultrastructure , Fatty Liver/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Inflammation/genetics , Liver/ultrastructure , Liver Cirrhosis/genetics , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Obesity
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 139-144, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285330


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent liver disease in the world, and its prevalence is increasing alongside obesity. In United States, NAFLD is already the second leading cause of liver transplantation. The spectrum of the disease ranges from simple steatosis, which has a benign course, to steatohepatitis, which may progress to cirrhosis and its complications. The rising of noninvasive methods for diagnosing and staging non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis decreases the need of liver biopsy, as well as the costs and the occurrence of complications related to it. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the performance of the triglyceride-glucose index to evaluate steatosis, NASH and liver fibrosis in obese patients with NAFLD. METHODS: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. Every medical record of patients who were candidates for bariatric surgery at a leading hospital in Southern Brazil were analyzed. The triglyceride-glucose index (TyG Index), a method composed only of two simple laboratory tests (serum triglycerides and fasting glucose levels), was performed prior to surgery. The TyG Index performance regarding the anatomopathological findings was evaluated, and the AUROC curve was calculated to evaluate the best cut-off point for diagnosing steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis grade. Also, the NAFLD fibrosis Score (NFS) was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 423 patients were evaluated. The TyG Index with a cut-off point of 8.76 excluded significant simple steatosis (grade 2-3) in obese patients, with 67.6% sensitivity, 65.1% specificity, 46.3% positive predictive value (PPV), 81.8% negative predictive value (NPV), 65.8% accuracy and 0.66 AUROC (P=0.005). In the evaluation of NASH, the TyG Index with a cut-off point of 8.82 excluded significant NASH (grade 2-3) with 57.3% sensitivity, 58.6% specificity, 33.7% PPV, 78.8% NPV, 58.2% accuracy and 0.58 AUROC (P=0.022). When evaluating liver fibrosis, the TyG Index with a cut-off point of 8.91 showed a sensitivity of 61.8%, a specificity of 62.5%, a PPV of 13.8 and a NPV of 94.4% for exclusion of advanced fibrosis (F3-4), with a 62.4% accuracy and 0.69 AUROC (P<0.001). When analyzing the performance of NFS in the diagnosis of advanced fibrosis, the cut-off point <-1.455 excluded advanced fibrosis with sensitivity of 59.4%, specificity of 51%, PPV of 11%, NPV of 92.4% and accuracy of 51.7%. However, the cut-off point of 0.676 to diagnose advanced fibrosis presented sensitivity of 21.9%, specificity of 83%, PPV of 11.7%, NPV of 91.2% and 77.3% accuracy. The AUROC was 0.54 (P=0.480). CONCLUSION: TyG Index did not perform well in the diagnosis of significant steatosis and NASH. However, it was able to exclude advanced fibrosis in obese patients who are candidates for bariatric surgery.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: A doença hepática gordurosa não-alcoólica (DHGNA) é a doença hepática mais prevalente no mundo. Nos Estados Unidos, a DHGNA já é a segunda causa de transplante hepático. O espectro da doença abrange desde a esteatose simples, que apresenta curso benigno, até esteato-hepatite não-alcoólica (EHNA), que pode progredir para cirrose e suas complicações. O desenvolvimento de métodos não invasivos para o diagnóstico e estadiamento da EHNA e da fibrose hepática visa diminuir a necessidade de biópsia hepática, um procedimento invasivo e não raro associado a complicações. OBJETIVO: Analisar o desempenho do índice triglicerídeo-glicose (TyG Index) para o diagnóstico e estadiamento da DHGNA em pacientes obesos. MÉTODOS: Este é um estudo transversal retrospectivo. Foram analisados todos os prontuários de pacientes candidatos a cirurgia bariátrica em um hospital de referência do Sul do Brasil e calculado o TyG Index, um escore composto por dois exames laboratoriais (triglicerídeos e glicose de jejum), realizados previamente à cirurgia. O desempenho do TyG Index em relação aos achados anatomopatológicos hepáticos foi avaliado, e calculada a curva ROC para avaliação de esteatose simples, EHNA e fibrose hepática. O NAFLD Fibrosis Score (NFS) também foi avaliado. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 423 pacientes. O melhor ponto de corte do TyG Index para a exclusão de esteatose simples significativa (grau 2-3) foi de 8,76, com sensibilidade 67,6%, especificidade 65,1%, valor preditivo positivo (VPP) 46,3%, valor preditivo negativo (VPN) 81,8%, acurácia 65,8% e AUROC 0,66 (P=0,005). Na avaliação de EHNA significativa (grau 2-3), o melhor ponto de corte foi de 8,82 com sensibilidade 57,3%, especificidade 58,6%, VPP 33,7%, VPN 78,8%, acurácia 58,8% e AUROC 0,58 (P=0,022). Em relação à fibrose avançada (grau 3-4), o melhor ponto de corte do TyG Index foi de 8,91 com sensibilidade 61,8%, especificidade 62,5%, VPP 13,8%, VPN 94,4%, acurácia 62,4% e AUROC 0,69 (P<0,001). Ao analisarmos o desempenho do NFS no diagnóstico de fibrose avançada, o ponto de corte de <-1,455 excluiu fibrose avançada com sensibilidade 59,4%, especificidade 51%, VPP 11%, VPN 92,4% e acurácia 51,7%. Entretanto, o ponto de corte de 0,676 para fibrose avançada apresentou sensibilidade de 21,9%, especificidade 83%, VPP 11,7%, VPN 91,2% e acurácia 77,3%. A AUROC foi de 0,54 (P=0,480). CONCLUSÃO: O TyG Index não apresentou bom desempenho para o diagnóstico e estadiamento da esteatose simples e da EHNA. Entretanto, foi capaz de excluir fibrose avançada em pacientes obesos candidatos a cirurgia bariátrica.

Humans , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Triglycerides , Biopsy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Glucose , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Obesity
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 178-184, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879264


Unhealthy diet, habits and drug abuse cause a variety of liver diseases, including steatohepatitis, liver fibrosis, liver cirrhosis and liver cancer, which seriously affect human health. The fabrication of highly simulated cell models in vitro is important in the treatment of liver diseases and drug development. This article summarized the common strategies for the construction of liver pathology models

Animals , Humans , Disease Models, Animal , Liver , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 48: e20202913, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287885


ABSTRACT Background and Aims: An association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has been previously suggested. This study aims at investigating this association and at identifying potential links between variables of the NAFLD spectrum and PDAC. Methods: A cross-sectional case-matched analytical and comparative study was carried out to analyze patients undergoing surgical resection of PDAC and compare them to a control group of individuals undergoing cholecystectomy at a public tertiary teaching hospital, matched by sex, age and BMI. Hepatic histopathological examinations were compared between cases and controls. Results: Of 56 individuals, 36 were male (64.3%) and the median age was 61.5 years old (interquartile range: 57.5 - 70). The participants' median BMI was 24.3 kg/m2 (interquartile range: 22.1-26.2 kg/m2). Microvesicular steatosis (p=0.04), hepatocellular ballooning (p=0.02), fibrosis (p=0.0003) and steatohepatitis (p=0.03) were significantly more frequent in the group of cases. Odds ratios for hepatocellular ballooning (6.2; 95%CI: 1.2-31.8; p=0.03), fibrosis (9.3; 95%CI: 2.5-34.1; p=0.0008) and steatohepatitis (3.9; 95%CI: 1.1-14.3; p=0.04) were statistically significant in relation to the PDAC prevalence. Conclusions: Significant associations were identified between histopathological aspects of NAFLD (microvesicular steatosis, hepatocellular ballooning, fibrosis, and steatohepatitis) and PDAC.

RESUMO Histórico e objetivos: a associação entre a doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA) e o adenocarcinoma ductal pancreático (ACDP) foi sugerida anteriormente. Este estudo visa investigar esta associação e identificar possíveis ligações entre as variáveis do espectro da DHGNA e o ACDP. Métodos: foi realizado estudo transversal caso-controle analítico e comparativo para analisar pacientes submetidos a ressecção cirúrgica de ACDP e compará-los a grupo controle de indivíduos submetidos a colecistectomia em hospital público terciário de ensino, pareados por sexo, idade e IMC. Os exames histopatológicos hepáticos foram comparados entre casos e controles. Resultados: dos 56 indivíduos, 36 eram do sexo masculino (64,3%) e a idade mediana era de 61,5 anos de idade (intervalo interquartil 57,5-70). A mediana do IMC dos participantes foi de 24,3 kg/m2 (intervalo interquartil 22,1 26,2). Esteatose microvesicular (p = 0,04), balonização hepatocelular (p = 0,02), fibrose (p = 0,0003) e esteato-hepatite (p = 0,03) foram significativamente mais frequentes no grupo de casos. As razões de chances para balonização hepatocelular (6,2; IC 95%: 1,2 - 31,8; p = 0,03), fibrose (9,3; IC 95%: 2,5 - 34,1; p = 0,0008) e esteato-hepatite (3,9; IC 95%: 1,1 - 14,3; p = 0,04) foram estatisticamente significativas em relação à prevalência de ACDP. Conclusões: houve associações significativas entre aspectos histopatológicos de DHGNA (esteatose microvesicular, balonização hepatocelular, fibrose e esteato-hepatite) e a ocorrência de ACDP.

Humans , Male , Pancreatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Biopsy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Liver , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Middle Aged
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(1): 17-24, mar. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100762


Se estima que aproximadamente 100 trillones de microorganismos (incluidos bacterias, virus y hongos) residen en el intestino humano adulto y que el total del material genético del microbioma es 100 veces superior al del genoma humano. Esta comunidad, conocida como microbioma se adquiere al momento del nacimiento a través de la flora comensal de la piel, vagina y heces de la madre y se mantiene relativamente estable a partir de los dos años desempeñando un papel crítico tanto en el estado de salud como en la enfermedad. El desarrollo de nuevas tecnologías, como los secuenciadores de próxima generación (NGS), permiten actualmente realizar un estudio mucho más preciso de ella que en décadas pasadas cuando se limitaba a su cultivo. Si bien esto ha llevado a un crecimiento exponencial en las publicaciones, los datos sobre las poblaciones Latinoamérica son casi inexistentes. La investigación traslacional en microbioma (InTraMic) es una de las líneas que se desarrollan en el Instituto de Medicina Traslacional e Ingeniería Biomédica (IMTIB). Esta se inició en 2018 con la línea de cáncer colorrectal (CCR) en una colaboración con el Colorectal Cancer Research Group del Leeds Institute of Medical Research en el proyecto Large bowel microbiome disease network: Creation of a proof of principle exemplar in colorectal cancer across three continents. A fines de 2019 se cumplió el objetivo de comprobar la factibilidad de la recolección, envío y análisis de muestras de MBF en 5 continentes, incluyendo muestras provenientes de la Argentina, Chile, India y Vietnam. Luego de haber participado de capacitaciones en Inglaterra, se ha cumplido con el objetivo de la etapa piloto, logrando efectivizar la recolección, envío y análisis metagenómico a partir de la secuenciación de la región V4 del ARNr 16S. En 2019, la línea de enfermedad de hígado graso no alcohólico se sumó a la InTraMic iniciando una caracterización piloto en el marco de una colaboración con el laboratorio Novartis. Los resultados de ese estudio, así como el de cáncer colorrectal, están siendo enviados a publicación. En 2020, con la incorporación de la línea de trasplante alogénico de células progenitoras hematopoyéticas, fue presentado un proyecto para un subsidio del CONICET que ha superado la primera etapa de evaluación. En el presente artículo se brinda una actualización sobre la caracterización taxonómica de microbioma y se describen las líneas de investigación en curso. (AU)

It is estimated that approximately 100 trillion microorganisms (including bacteria, viruses, and fungi) reside in the adult human intestine, and that the total genetic material of the microbiome is 100 times greater than that of the human genome. This community, known as the microbiome, is acquired at birth through the commensal flora of the mother's skin, vagina, and feces and remains relatively stable after two years, playing a critical role in both the state of health and in disease. The development of new technologies, such as next-generation sequencers (NGS), currently allow for a much more precise study of it than in past decades when it was limited to cultivation. Although this has led to exponential growth in publications, data on Latin American populations is almost non-existent. Translational research in microbiome (InTraMic) is one of the lines developed at the Instituto de Medicina Traslacional e Ingeniería Biomédica (IMTIB). This started in 2018 with the Colorectal Cancer Line (CRC) in a collaboration with the Colorectal Cancer Research Group of the Leeds Institute of Medical Research in the project "Large bowel microbiome disease network: Creation of a proof of principle exemplar in colorectal cancer across three continents". At the end of 2019, the objective of verifying the feasibility of collecting, sending and analyzing MBF samples on 5 continents, including samples from Argentina, Chile, India and Vietnam, was met. After having participated in training in England, the objective of the pilot stage has been met, achieving the collection, delivery and metagenomic analysis from the sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA. In 2019, the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease line joined InTraMic, initiating a pilot characterization in the framework of a collaboration with the Novartis laboratory. The results of that study, as well as that of colorectal cancer, are being published. In 2020, with the incorporation of the allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation line, a project was presented for a grant from the CONICET that has passed the first stage of evaluation. This article provides an update on the taxonomic characterization of the microbiome and describes the lines of ongoing research. (AU)

Humans , Translational Research, Biomedical/organization & administration , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , Transplantation, Homologous , Vietnam , Aztreonam/therapeutic use , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/analysis , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Colorectal Neoplasms/microbiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Classification/methods , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Metagenomics , Translational Research, Biomedical/methods , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/trends , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/genetics , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/microbiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , India , Latin America , Occult Blood
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(3): 256-260, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038712


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has been progressively diagnosed in the general population as a consequence of the increased prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, its main risk factors. It is characterized by accumulation of fat in the hepatocytes associated with lobular inflammation and balonization, which can lead to cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. Thus, a characterization and follow-up of a progression of the fibrosis level of these patients becomes important, being that the transient hepatic elastography is a reliable method for this evaluation with a measure of the kapa index. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the progression of hepatic fibrosis through elastography in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. METHODS: Patients who had previously performed hepatic biopsy and noninvasive scores for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis were included in the study. These same subjects were then submitted to current clinical evaluation, laboratory and liver elastography tests, defining the level of liver fibrosis, about 10 years after the first evaluation. RESULTS: Data were analyzed for 66 patients previously submitted to liver biopsy. Of these, 16 were not found, four could not participate because they were debilitated due to hepatic cirrhosis, two had died from an automobile accident and five from complications of cirrhosis of the liver. Therefore, of the 50 patients with a known history, 9 (18%) had died of cirrhosis or were unable to attend the examination because of their liver disease. The remaining population was predominantly female (61.5%), mean age of 63 years, being overweight, dyslipidemia (76.9%), disorders of the glycemic profile (76.9%), and metabolic syndrome (82.1%). Of the 39 cases evaluated, 35% had the same degree of fibrosis at the initial evaluation (biopsy) and at the current evaluation (elastography), 33% had an increase in the degree of fibrosis and another 30% had a decrease in the degree of fibrosis. Twenty-eight patients had NASH at baseline. Regarding these patients, it was observed in the current evaluation, that 25% remained stable in the degree of fibrosis, 39% progressed, and 35% regressed. CONCLUSION: Despite some limitations of our study, such as the small number of patients, and the use of two different methods of evaluation (biopsy and elastography), the data obtained allow us to conclude that of the 39 evaluated cases, 33% (13) presented progression of fibrosis and the total group of 50 patients, 42% had cirrhosis or died due to liver disease. The presence of NASH on hepatic biopsy did not prove to be, in our study, a predictive of the evolution of hepatic fibrosis in the patients.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: A doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica vem sendo diagnosticada com frequência progressivamente maior na população geral, como consequência do aumento da prevalência da obesidade e do diabetes mellitus tipo 2, considerados seus principais fatores de risco. Caracteriza-se por acúmulo de gordura nos hepatócitos associada à inflamação lobular e balonização, podendo levar à cirrose e hepatocarcinoma. Desta forma, torna-se importante a caracterização e acompanhamento do nível de fibrose hepática destes pacientes, sendo que a elastografia hepática transitória, tem se mostrado um método confiável para esta avaliação com a medida do índice kapa. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a progressão da fibrose hepática através de elastografia em pacientes com doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos no estudo pacientes que haviam realizado anteriormente biópsia hepática e cálculo de escores não invasivos para avaliação de esteato-hepatite não alcoólica (EHNA) e fibrose. Estes mesmos indivíduos foram então submetidos à avaliação clínica, laboratorial e exame de elastografia hepática atuais, definindo o nível de fibrose hepática, cerca de 10 anos após a primeira avaliação. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados dados relativos a 66 pacientes previamente submetidos a biópsia hepática. Destes, 16 não foram localizados, quatro não puderam participar por estarem incapacitados em função de cirrose hepática, dois haviam falecido por acidente automobilístico e cinco, por complicações de cirrose hepática. Portanto, do grupo de 50 pacientes com evolução conhecida, nove (18%) haviam falecido por cirrose ou estavam incapacitados de comparecer ao exame em função de sua doença hepática. A população restante era predominantemente do sexo feminino (61,5%), com idade média de 63 anos, apresentando sobrepeso, dislipidemia (76,9%), distúrbios do metabolismo glicêmico (76,9%) e síndrome metabólica (82,1%). Dos 39 casos avaliados, 35% tiveram o mesmo grau de fibrose na avaliação inicial (biópsia) e na avaliação atual (elastografia), 33% tiveram aumento no grau de fibrose e outros 30% tiveram diminuição no grau de fibrose. Vinte e oito pacientes apresentavam EHNA na avaliação inicial. Em relação a esses pacientes observou-se na avaliação atual que, 25% mantiveram-se estáveis no grau de fibrose, 39% progrediram e, 35% regrediram. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar de algumas limitações do nosso estudo, como o pequeno número de pacientes e o uso de dois métodos diferentes de avaliação (biópsia e elastografia), os dados obtidos nos permitem concluir que dos 39 casos avaliados, 33% apresentaram progressão da fibrose e do grupo total de 50 pacientes, 42% apresentam cirrose ou faleceram em decorrência de doença hepática. A presença de EHNA à biópsia hepática não se mostrou um dado capaz, no nosso estudo, de predizer a evolução da fibrose hepática nos pacientes.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnostic imaging , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnostic imaging , Biopsy , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Disease Progression , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Middle Aged
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(7): 821-827, jul. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058610


Background: A simple and inexpensive method is required to assess fatty infiltration of the liver non-invasively. Aim: To develop and compare different methods to quantify liver fat by magnetic resonance and compare it against ultrasound. Material and Methods: Three algorithms were implemented: region growing (RG), graph cuts (GC) and hierarchical (HR), all based on the IDEAL method to obtain water and fat images. Using these images, the proton density fat fraction (PDFF) was calculated. The three methods were tested in phantoms with known fat percentages and later on we acquired images from 20 volunteers with an ultrasound diagnosis of fatty liver disease in different stages. For everyone, the PDFF of the nine liver segments was determined. Results: In phantoms, the mean error between the real fat percentage and the value obtained through the three methods was −1,26, −1 and −0,8 for RG, GC and HR, respectively. The hierarchical method was more precise and efficient to obtain PDFF. The results in volunteers revealed that ultrasound showed errors categorizing the severity of hepatic steatosis in more than 50% of volunteers. Conclusions: We developed a tool for magnetic resonance, which allows to quantify fat in the liver. This method is less operator dependent than ultrasound and describes the heterogeneity in the fat distribution along the nine hepatic segments.

Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Adipose Tissue/diagnostic imaging , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnostic imaging , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Severity of Illness Index , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Ultrasonography , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Liver/pathology
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(3): 247-251, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973894


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the commonest hepatopathy worldwide. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlations between NAFLD histopathological features and the levels of adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, and resistin) and circulating inflammatory markers (interleukin-6 [IL-6], interleukin-8 [IL-8], tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], and C-reactive protein [CRP]). METHODS: This is an exploratory cross-sectional study, which enrolled 19 women with obesity who underwent bariatric surgery. Biochemical characteristics evaluated included the levels of adiponectin, leptin, resistin, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and CRP. NAFLD was assessed through histological examination of liver biopsies carried out during the surgical procedures. RESULTS: The mean age of the study group was 37.3±8.2 years old; mean BMI was 36.2±2.5 kg/m2. Among individuals with liver fibrosis, the levels of IL-8 were significantly higher (24.4 ± 9.7 versus 12.7 ± 6.6; P=0.016726). The intensity of fibrosis presented a significant negative correlation with the levels of adiponectin (R= -0.49379; P=0.03166); i.e. the higher the levels of adiponectin, the lower the intensity of fibrosis. The intensity of steatohepatitis presented a significant negative correlation with the levels of adiponectin (R= -0.562321; P=0.01221); this means that the higher the levels of adiponectin, the lower the intensity of steatohepatitis. CONCLUSION: Adiponectin levels were inversely correlated with the severity of fibrosis and steatohepatitis, whereas IL-8 levels were higher in individuals with liver fibrosis among individuals with obesity and NAFLD undergoing bariatric surgery. The use of these markers to assess NAFLD may bring significant information within similar populations.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: A doença hepática gordurosa não-alcoólica (DHGNA) é a hepatopatia mais comum no mundo. OBJETIVO: Investigar correlações entre as apresentações histopatológicas da DHGNA e os níveis de adipocinas (adiponectina, leptina e resistina) e marcadores sistêmicos de inflamação (interleucina-6 [IL-6], interleucina-8 [IL-8], fator de necrose tumoral alfa [TNF-α] e proteína C reativa [PCR]). MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal exploratório envolvendo 18 mulheres com obesidade submetidas à cirurgia bariátrica. As características bioquímicas avaliadas incluíram os níveis de adiponectina, leptina, resistina, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α e PCR. A DHGNA foi avaliada através de exams histológicos de biópsias hepáticas realizadas durantes as cirurgias. RESULTADOS: A idade média foi 37,3±8,2 anos; o índice de massa corporal (IMC) médio foi 36,2±2,5 kg/m2. Entre os indivíduos com fibrose hepática, os níveis de IL-8 foram significativamente mais altos (24,4±9,7 versus 12,7±6,6; P=0,016726). A intensidade da fibrose apresentou uma correlação negativa significativa com os níveis de adiponectina (R= -0,49379; P=0,03166), demonstranso que, quanto maiores os níveis de adiponectina, menor a intensidade da fibrose. A intensidade da esteato-hepatite apresentou uma correlação negativa significativa com os níveis de adiponectina (R= -0,562321; P=0,01221), demonstrando que quanto mais altos os níveis de adiponectina, menor a intensidade da esteato-hepatite. CONCLUSÃO: Os níveis de adiponectina correlacionaram-se negativamente com a severidade da fibrose e da esteato-hepatite, enquanto os níveis de IL-8 foram maiores entre os indivíduos com fibrose hepática. O uso destes marcadores pode trazer informações significativas sobre a DHGNA em populações com obesidade.

Humans , Female , Adult , Obesity, Morbid/blood , Cytokines/blood , Adipokines/blood , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/blood , Reference Values , Biopsy , Severity of Illness Index , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Bariatric Surgery , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/blood , Middle Aged
Acta cir. bras ; 33(9): 753-761, Sept. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973501


Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the oxidative stress, resulting from ischemia and hepatic reperfusion, in mice with non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis. Methods: C57BL/6 male mice were used. Part of them were ob/ob mice, and the other part was fed with standard or MCD diets - this last used to develop steatohepatitis. The animals - MCD-I/R, ob/ob-I/R and I/R groups - were submitted to 30 minutes of partial hepatic ischemia, followed by reperfusion for 24 hours. The blood was collected, for biochemical analysis of AST, and the liver removed for assessment of TBARS and nitrite, and of histology. Results: After the I/R, the animal fed with MCD diet presented higher AST levels (MCD-I/R: 967±349U/L / ob/ob-I/R: 606±18 U/L / I/R: 311±172 U/L), TBARS (MCD-I/R: 7±1 nM/mg protein / ob/ob-I/R: 3±1 nM/mg protein / I/R: 3±1 nM/mg protein) and nitrite (MCD-I/R: 614±87 µg/mL / ob/ob-I/R: 512±81 µg/mL / I/R: 459±29 µg/mL) than the ob/ob mice, when both groups were compared to animals fed with standard diet. Regarding histology, the steatosis level (azonal macrovesicular steatosis of level 3 - >66%) and hepatic fibrosis (periportal and perisinusoidal of level 2) was also more intense, but both animal models presented lobular inflammation of level 3 (>66%). Conclusions: The murine model fed with MCD diet is suitable for the assessment of oxidative stress in hepatic I/R injury associated with the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Although both murine models showed inflammatory infiltrate and macro and micro vesicular steatosis.

Animals , Male , Rats , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Nitrites/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Mice, Inbred C57BL
Int. j. morphol ; 36(1): 327-332, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893230


SUMMARY: The rapid rise in obesity, particularly among children is a major public health concern that adversely affects vital organs including the liver. We sought to investigate the effect of exercise on the healing of liver cells from damage induced by high fat diet (HFD) in a rat model of hepatic steatosis. Rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=6 in each group); control group fed on a low fat diet (LFD), LFD plus exercise group (LFD+EX), model group fed on HFD, and swim exercise treated group (HFD+EX). Training swim exercise started from the 11th week up until the end of week 15. Liver index and body mass index (BMI) were determined, and harvested liver tissues were examined using basic histological staining and visualised under light microscopy. In addition, collected blood samples were assayed for biomarkers of liver injury. Histological images from the model group showed accumulation of lipid droplets in the hepatocytes (steatosis) and damaged liver cells that were inhibited by swimming exercise. Compared to control groups, HFD caused an increase in BMI and liver weight but not in liver index. In addition, HFD significantly (p<0.05) increased liver injury biomarkers; high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) that were effectively (p<0.05) decreased by swimming exercise. Furthermore, a negative correlation between these biomarkers and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory protein adiponectin was observed. Thus, HFD-induced hepatic steatosis is treated by swim exercise.

RESUMEN: El aumento de la obesidad, especialmente entre los niños, es un problema importante en la salud pública que afecta negativamente los órganos vitales, incluyendo el hígado. En este estudio se investigó el efecto del ejercicio en la curación de las células del hígado y el daño inducido por la dieta alta en grasas (HFD) en un modelo de rata de esteatosis hepática. Las ratas se dividieron aleatoriamente en cuatro grupos (n = 6 en cada grupo); grupo control, alimentado con una dieta baja en grasas (LFD); grupo de ejercicio LFD más (LFD + EX); grupo modelo alimentado con HFD; y grupo tratado con ejercicio de natación (HFD + EX). El entrenamiento con ejercicio de natación comenzó a partir de la semana 11 hasta el final de la semana 15. Se determinaron el índice hepático y el índice de masa corporal (IMC). Los tejidos hepáticos recolectados se examinaron mediante tinción histológica básica y se visualizaron con microscopía óptica. Además, se analizaron las muestras de sangre recogidas para identificar biomarcadores de lesión hepática. Las imágenes histológicas del grupo modelo mostraron acumulación de gotitas de lípidos en los hepatocitos (esteatosis) y células hepáticas dañadas que fueron inhibidas por el ejercicio de natación. En comparación con los grupos control, HFD causó un aumento en el IMC y el peso del hígado, pero no en el índice de hígado. Además, HFD aumentó significativamente (p <0.05) los biomarcadores de lesiones hepáticas; la proteína C reactiva de alta sensibilidad (hsCRP) y la fosfatasa alcalina (ALP) disminuyeron efectivamente (p <0.05) con el ejercicio de natación. Además, se observó una correlación negativa entre estos biomarcadores y la proteína antioxidante y antiinflamatoria adiponectina. Por lo tanto, la esteatosis hepática inducida por HFD puede ser tratada mediante el ejercicio de natación.

Animals , Rats , Swimming/physiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/therapy , Exercise/physiology , Weight Gain , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Models, Animal , Adiponectin/analysis , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Liver/pathology
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(1): 7-13, Apr.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888232


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Liver biopsy is a gold standard method for hepatic steatosis assessment. However, liver biopsy is an invasive and painful procedure and can cause severe complications therefore it cannot be frequently used in case of follow-up of patients. Non-invasive assessment of steatosis and fibrosis is of growing relevance in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). To evaluate hepatic steatosis, transient elastography with controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) measurement is an option now days. OBJECTIVE: Aim of this study is to evaluate role of measurement of controlled attenuation parameter, a surrogate marker of hepatic steatosis in patients of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease on lifestyle modification. METHODS: In this study, initially 37 participants were included who were followed up after 6 months with transient elastography, blood biochemical tests and anthropometric measurements. The results were analyzed by Multivariate linear regression analysis and paired samples t-test (Dependent t-test) with 95% confidence interval. Correlation is calculated by Pearson correlation coefficients. RESULTS: Mean CAP value for assessing hepatic steatosis during 1st consultation (278.57±49.13 dB/m) was significantly improved (P=0.03) after 6 months of lifestyle modification (252.91±62.02 dB/m). Only fasting blood sugar (P=0.008), weight (P=0.000), body mass index (BMI) (P=0.000) showed significant positive correlation with CAP. Only BMI (P=0.034) and weight (P=0.035) were the independent predictor of CAP value in NAFLD patients. CONCLUSION: Lifestyle modification improves the hepatic steatosis, and CAP can be used to detect the improvement of hepatic steatosis during follow-up in patients with NAFLD on lifestyle modification. There is no relation between CAP and Fibroscan score in NAFLD patients. Only BMI and weight can predict CAP value independently.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: A biópsia hepática é o método padrão-ouro para avaliação de esteatose hepática. No entanto, é um procedimento invasivo e doloroso que pode causar complicações graves e, portanto, não pode ser usado com frequência em caso de acompanhamento dos pacientes. A avaliação não invasiva de esteatose e fibrose é de crescente relevância na doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA). Para avaliar a esteatose hepática, a elastografia transitória com parâmetro de atenuação controlada (PAC) é uma opção atual. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi de avaliar o papel da medição do PAC, um marcador substituto da esteatose hepática em pacientes da doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica, com modificação do estilo de vida. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos inicialmente neste estudo 37 participantes acompanhados por 6 meses com elastografia transitória, testes bioquímicos no sangue, e medidas antropométricas. Os resultados foram analisados por análise de regressão linear multivariada e emparelhado em amostras-teste t (teste t-dependente) com intervalo de confiança de 95%. A correlação foi calculada pelos coeficientes de correlação de Pearson. RESULTADOS: O valor do PAC para avaliar esteatose hepática durante a primeira consulta (278,57±49,13 dB/m) foi significativamente melhorado (P=0,03) após 6 meses de modificação do estilo de vida (252,91±62,02 dB/m). Somente a glicemia de jejum (P=0,008), o peso (valor de P=0,000), o índice de massa corporal (IMC) (P=0,000) mostraram correlação positiva significativa com PAC. Apenas o IMC (P=0,034) e o peso (P=0,035) foram o preditores independentes de valor de PAC em pacientes com DHGNA. CONCLUSÃO: A modificação do estilo de vida melhora a esteatose hepática, e o PAC pode ser usado para detectar a melhoria da esteatose hepática durante o seguimento em pacientes com DHGNA. Não existe relação entre o PAC e o escore do Fibroscan em pacientes com DHGNA. Só o IMC e o peso podem prever o valor do PAC independentemente.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Blood Glucose/analysis , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnostic imaging , Life Style , Biopsy , Blood Pressure , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Biomarkers , Body Mass Index , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Ultrasonography , Fasting/blood , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Fatty Liver/blood , Fatty Liver/diagnostic imaging , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/blood , Insulin/blood